Archive for January, 2007


January 18, 2007

"Back to Africa"(from ESSENCE MAGAZINE,OCTOBER,2006,PAGE 157

"The Motherland may soon be more than an ancestral home. At an antipoverty conference last summer Black American and African leaders proposed African citizenship for U.S. descendents of slaves. The full plan will be ready for the 2008 African Union Summit."

At last we are getting some where. I think they are referring to the Louis Sullivan Summit of African-Americans and Africans in Abuja,Nigeria last year. This would encourage many Blacks to come back and live in the Motherland. A step in the right direction. Already Black americans are flooding Ghana to live and we hope soon that will find out how Nigeria is the ideal place to settle too!


January 17, 2007

Sankofa: “We Must Go Back in Order to Move Forward”


« I’ve Known RiversThe Talking Stick »

Aren’t You Proud To Be Black?
Published January 7th, 2007 africa , black history , african americans , black america
Aren’t You Proud To Be Black?
By James Clingman
NNPA Columnist

You know, sometimes it pays to take a little time to reflect on just who we are. From time to time, we should think about our relatives, and our people in general, and reflect on the contributions they have made to this world and, most especially, to this country. We should take time out to give ourselves credit for being, as Ed Robinson, author of Journey of the Songhai People, calls us, “The fittest of the fittest of the fittest” Black people on the face of the earth. Don’t you think we deserve kudos for not only surviving but thriving in this land we call America? I do. So, let’s begin.

If you had the privilege of knowing your grand and great grand parents, you were probably witness to some of their amazing talents and abilities. You also had access to their knowledge and wisdom, although many of us didn’t learn from it. We saw our relatives build houses without architectural drawings, cure diseases without doctors and prescriptions, stop bleeding with cobwebs, raise enough food for their families and two or three others, cure meat in a smokehouse, dig wells, and draw poison out of cut with a piece of fatback.

Our relatives could make a meal out what we thought was nothing; they could sew up the holes in our socks, patch our jeans, and put cardboard in our shoes to make them last just a little while longer. They could deliver babies, as my great-grandmother did for the birth of my brother and me. They helped one another with whatever they had and it was dinner time at all the neighbors’ houses anytime we wanted to stop by.

Hambone and castor oil: Remember the hambone, checkers, homemade ice cream you had to churn, a pot of beans and some cornbread all week long, and that nasty, greasy, slimy, castor oil? How about having to take cod liver oil every morning, and cold oil and sugar, goose grease, rock candy and whiskey, and that stinking little bag some of us had to wear around our necks when we were sick? Our relatives knew their stuff, didn’t they?

The music they made was unbelievable. Their voices and their mastery of musical instruments, even without the benefit of formal training, was something to behold. Our folks were some piano-playin’, guitar-pluckin’, drum-beatin’, horn-blowin’, high-steppin’, sangin’ brothers and sisters – and they still are. Doesn’t that make you proud?

And then there were the economic collectives they established to help take care of burials and other critical issues. Our people knew they had to pool their resources and they knew they had to take care of themselves. Maybe that’s why they knew how to do so many things with their hands. As I look back at my grandparents, aunts, and uncles, I am amazed at what they did during what were pretty rough times, at least socially.

Amassing wealth: They established their own business enclaves all over this country, places like Greenwood in Tulsa and Hayti in Durham, N.C. They amassed wealth beyond imagination and, comparatively speaking, far beyond what most of us have today. Prohibited from participating in the general marketplace and without the government subsidies handed out to White-owned corporations, they started businesses and eventually created A.G. Gaston Enterprises, S.B. Fuller Company, Madame C.J. Walker’s hair products, Johnson Publishing Company, and Motown Records. What strength and determination they had.

Aren’t you proud of who you are, where you came from, and what your relatives did to make sure you had food on the table, clothes on your back, and a roof over your head? We should celebrate our Blackness and always cherish our culture. As Claud Anderson teaches, we should be proud to be Black because we were placed here first—in a perfect place, on land that contained every vital mineral and natural resource necessary for growth and prosperity, and given enough wisdom to share with the world and bring others out of the darkness into the light of knowledge. We are special people.

So with all of that going for us, why wouldn’t we be proud of who we are? A lack of pride and love for ourselves would be an affront to the universe. “I don’t like what you did. Yes, you made me first, you made me special, you gave me wisdom, you gave me the richest land on earth and you made me the strongest amongst men—but you also made me Black, and I don’t want to be Black. It’s too hard being Black; it’s too stressful being Black. And if you want to know the real truth, I am ashamed of being Black.”

Can you imagine some of our people thinking that way? I know we have been through a lot in this country and the struggle continues, as they say, but truth can never be destroyed; hold on to it. We are still here, still standing after all the blood, sweat, and tears of our people. Black people have persevered, and we will continue to do so.

Take a moment to give some credit to your people, those who survived so you could be here today, “the fittest of the fittest.” Give honor to those who have passed on and be proud of what they did. Be proud of whom you are and the legacy you are obligated to uphold. Understand that you, too, must pass on a legacy, and that will only happen if you love yourself and your people, if you value your history, and if you take pride in the greatness of Black people.

James E. Clingman, an adjunct professor at the University of Cincinnati’s African-American Studies department, is former editor of the Cincinnati Herald Newspaper and founder of the Greater Cincinnati African-American Chamber of Commerce.

1 Response to “Aren’t You Proud To Be Black?”
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1 Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade
Jan 8th, 2007 at 10:15 am
This is a wonderful testimony!Black is what God made us so let us all be proud of who God made us.

Sister Yeye Akilimali Funua Olad


January 13, 2007

PBS:Garvey/Don’t Look for Him in this Whirlwind (from

Via NY Transfer News * All the News That Doesn’t Fit

source – Elombe Brath

August 2001

PBS’s American Experience Offers Marcus Garvey Special:
Don’t Look for Him in this Whirlwind

By Elombe Brath

If you were expecting to look for Marcus Garvey “in the
whirlwind” as the subtitle implied in PBS’s American
Experience 90-minute special, which originally aired in
February 2001, you may have a problem. I did. Not that the
film did not have important information, which most viewers
would recognize as why Garvey’s philosophy and opinions had
so powerful an appeal that he could develop the largest
Black worldwide organization in our history. In spite of
some gross inaccuracies, the documentary does not succeed in
diminishing Garvey’s greatness. Nor does it deny the
tremendous debt we all owe him for his contributions. But it
does kick up a storm.

It is because of all of Garvey’s accomplishments that many
people view him as the most omnipotent and omnipresent
personality in the worldwide Black liberation struggle of
the 20th century. And it is with this in mind that it is
understandable why this project to document Garvey’s life
was undertaken by Stanley Nelson and his Half Nelson
Productions company. Giving Brother Nelson the benefit of
the doubt, the question is would major media institutions
like PBS and Boston’s WGBH tolerate a production that would
not dwell on rehashing the old criticisms usually associated
with reportage on Garvey.

But Nelson’s Marcus Garvey film project goes beyond the old
charges leveled against the internationally renowned
Pan-African nationalist leader by introducing new
controversial theories to demean Garvey’s credibility than
even earlier books, psuedo-scholarly papers, and news
coverage. Although these attempts to take more away from
Garvey than finally give him his just due, it fails because
two years into the 21st century any fair observor realizes
that his work is unparalleled in history.

Never before nor since have we – as a people – been able to
achieve the organizing of our people into an international
force as did Garvey in his founding of the Universal Negro
Improvement Association and African Communities League
(UNIA/ACL). He did this without the help of white
philanthropy, support of a sophisticated telecommunications
industry, or U.S. governmental assistance. In fact, Garvey’s
achievements were done in spite of these array of forces
working in collusion to try to block his efforts. And,
begrudgingly, the film has no choice but to concede that

So don’t get me wrong, I’m certainly not trying to throw the
baby out with the bath water by critiquing the PBS
production. But PBS still sponsored this nationwide
promotion in the context of the “American Experience”, and
therein, I believe, is the problem that many Garveyites and
the Garvey family have found with “Marcus Garvey: Look for
Me in the Whirlwind.”

While many people learning about Garvey for the first time
may not be disappointed, most longtime Garveyites, although
appreciative of the fact that their leader and his work was
finally highlighted in a major presentation, will probably
not take kindly to some of the conclusions being included in
this film. We have to remember that this biodoc is being
projected as the definitive documentary on the life and work
of the great Jamaican-born Pan-African leader. But since
Garvey’s influence has been acknowledged as having dominated
the international Black community throughout 80 percent of
the last century and is poised to continue to have a similar
impact in the new millennium, there are two many
undocumented insulting assumptions included that need to be

Although this slick looking documentary has a beautiful
cinematographic presence, whether viewed on television or
the big screen, with a clever use of rare photographs and
graphics and an interesting, accompanying period music mix,
it is flawed with unnecessary misleading trivia. This is
especially true when most of the contradictions I depicted
seem to be based on the usual anti-Garvey biased opinions
and corroborating, disinformational editorial commentary,
ostensibly added for “balance.” These subjected biases take
away from the producer’s stated objective: “A film that
examines the dramatic rise and fall of the controversial
leader who created the largest black organization in

This Firelight/Half Nelson Productions Inc. film, produced
and directed by Stanley Nelson, an acknowledged talented
documentarian, seems to have slipped out of his hands and
fell into the laps of some mischief makers with a penchant
for meddling in the final product to suit their own hidden
agenda. Surely, “too many cooks spoil the broth”, and Garvey
becomes the sufferer in the melee in PBS’s kitchen.

I had first looked forward to seeing this film when it
previewed during the African Diasporic Film Festival a few
months ago. But since I was out of the country, attending a
World Conference Against Racism preparatory meeting in
Honduras of Black activists in Central America (most whose
African consciousness were initiated by Garvey’s work in
their respective countries during the early part of the last
century), I missed the earlier showing.

Not able to either preview or review “Marcus Garvey: Look
for Me in the Whirlwind” then, I was glad I had an
opportunity to see its preview at the Schomburg Center for
Research in Black Culture on Tuesday, February 6th, which
was to be followed by a discussion with Stanley Nelson, the
filmmaker. However, I’m sad to say, that all my hopes to
have an inspiring evening were curtailed soon after the film

“At the age of 34, Garvey claimed millions of followers
worldwide. His controversial goal to create an indpendent
Black nation made him one of the most powerful people in
America and one of the most hated.”

So far so good. The narrator continues.

“The federal government targeted him as a threat to national
security. Rival Black leaders denounced him as a lunatic and
as a traitor to his race. But Garvey may have been his own
worst enemy?

After a opening of plaudits about Garvey’s rise and fall, a
shot was fired above his follower’s “brows” when the
narrator warn us that “Garvey was his own worst enemy.”
Garvey is targeted by the U.S. Government as a “threat to
national security”, Negro rivals are denouncing him as a
“lunatic and a traitor to his race”, yet we are told that
the problem is Garvey himself.

Hearing this refrain, which usually comes up in most
commentaries dealing with Garvey or Garveyism, immediately
sent distress signals to alert many Black activst’s antennas
to tune in to where this program was going. Time to ask,
“Yo, whassup?”

It didn’t take long to figure out that while the producers
would be forced to conclude that Garvey had indeed “created
a lasting legacy of pride and self-respect” by the scope and
breadth of the work that his organization had dealt with,
they intended to also give him some licks under the guise
that they had to add some objectivity in their analysis.

Like I have always argued, when media moguls and their
pundits and staff start to tell us that they have to be
objective in their analysis, then we need to reserve the
right to question just what is their objective?

In the early part of the program, we see a fabricated
dramatization of Garvey’s father, a celebrated stone mason,
being portrayed as a grave digger. And not just an ordinary
grave digger but one seemingly with a sardonic sense of
fatherly consciousness. How else can one think of a father
who takes his young son out with him one night in the
countryside to dig a grave, takes him down into the newly
dug grave – so deep that a ladder is needed – and then pulls
the ladder up, leaving his offspring in the excavation to
spend the rest of the night alone in the grave to learn a
lesson in self-reliance?

As one who has studied Garvey’s life and work for over the
last 50 years, I never came across anything mentioned like
the graveyard scene. Where did this scene come from? What is
the supporting evidence to actually dramatize such a
scenario in this documentary? What is its meaning? Is it
suppose to suggest some childhood traumatic incident as an
alleged plausible basis for future attitudinal problems that
they want to attribute to Marcus Garvey during his
adulthood? It seems so to me. How come none of the immediate
members of Garvey’s family ever heard of this incident?

As far as I have been able to ascertain, neither have most
of the renowned Garvey scholars, biographers and activists
ever heard of anything resembling this in their research.
Was it to play psuedo-psychiatrist and try to plan a seed
that any idiosyncrasies they may subscribe to him in the
program would be in turn attributed to his graveyard trauma?
Again, I ask, why was it necessary to use this scene in such
a highly financed and widely publicized documentary when so
much relevant primary source historical material was excised
out of the film?

For instance, both Marcus Garvey, Jr. and Dr. Julius Garvey,
the two sons of Marcus Garvey and his wife Amy Jacques
Garvey, were individually interviewed for about two hours
apiece. Yet the documentary only feature Marcus, Jr. in
three cameos appearances for a total of one minute and 12
(00:01:12) seconds and Julius Garvey was in one snipet for
about 11 seconds – a simple blip on the screen! Not even two
minutes for Garvey’s two sons in this production? The two
most qualified repositories and sources for intimate details
on Garvey had their contributions minimized and literally

Why was so much of their interviews left on the cutting room
floor while folks like Clarence Walker, identified as an
historian, was on the screen constantly spewing forth
venomous personal incriminations against a man he obviously
doesn’t have any real regard for. Personally, I don’t
believe that Prof. Walker is even qualified to carry
Garvey’s sword or shine his boots.

Walker’s discordant negative notes, when compared with the
contributions of Prof. Theodore Kornweibel on how seriously
British and U.S. imperialists considered Garvey’s activities
in confict with their capitalist interests, reminds us that
it is not always necessarily that the color of the historian
is the only criteria to judge whom was more apt to tell the
truth. Walker, who is black and is said to be an historian,
believes that Garvey’s greatest achievements were no more
than “grandoise”, “symbolic”, charlotanny”, buffoonery” and
even “megalomanical.”

On the other hand, Kornweibel, who is white, seems to
display a profound understanding of Garvey’s importance and
why J. Edgar Hoover of the then-Bureau of Investigation (the
forerunner of the FBI) was out to destroy the UNIA/ACL
leader. (However, I don’t agree with Kornweibel’s
psuedo-psychological analysis of Garvey’s alleged loneliness
as a cause for alleged contemplating thoughts of suicide.
After all, how much credibility should Kornweibel give to a
man who while posing as Garvey’s friend actually was working
as agent P-138 for J. Edgar Hoover in his first
counterintelligence program against Black nationalists?)

With the exception of Dr. Tony Martin (author of the 1976
definitive biography of Garvey, Race First: The
Organizational and Ideological Struggle of Marcus Garvey and
the Universal Negro Improvement Association; The Pan-African
Connection: From Slavery to Garvey and Beyond; Poetic
Meditations, and a number of other spinoff books on Garvey’s
life and work which are part of his “The New Marcus Garvey
Library” book series; along with Dr. Rupert Lewis, another
Garvey biographer (Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion and
Garvey-Africa, Europe, the Americas); and Dr. Robert Hill,
who has edited several volumes of Garvey’s work, they could
have done away with most of the other professors of
histories and given more time to the Garvey brothers.

I think that the Garveyite elder members were an important
and authentic addition to the project and their naturalness
and honesty was priceless. This is especially true in
regards to Sisters Virginia Collins, Estelle James and Madam
Marianne Samad. The segue near the end of the film with Mrs.
James singing “God Bless Our President”, which turns into a
musical voice-over and bed for Mrs. Collins to continue her
monologue discribing Garvey’s deportation from New Orleans,
I found very moving. The recounts of male Garveyite elders
like Messrs. James Mills, Claude Barnes and others, some who
seemed to have been selectively edited, weighed heavily in
favor of the positive qualities of Garvey in the tarnished

I would have preferred Dr. Martin to have been used as the
executive consultant instead of Dr. Bobby Hill, who was
listed as the lead consultant. This is based on the belief
of many Garveyites agree that Martin is clearly Garvey’s
most comprehensive biographer while Hill, an outstanding
editor and anthologist of Garvey’s works, is largely
responsible for the inclusion of some of the most offensive,
bothersome, unnecessary, undocumented, demeaning triva
included in this film.

In one case, we know for sure that it was Dr. Hill who told
the story about Garvey getting his first speaking engagement
by an invitation from A. Philip Randolph, and faced with a
large crowd, became nervous, shaking and fell off the stage
– flat on his face. Humiliated because of this, according to
the PBS documentary, Garvey – who came to the U.S. as an
already well respected, polished orator in Jamaica –
wandered into a meeting held by the evangelist Billy Sunday.

Rev. Sunday, previously known as William Ashley Sunday, a
former Chicago White Sox major league baseball player who
converted to a fire and brimstone revivalist and
Presbyterian preacher), is said to have impressed Garvey so
much that the UNIA-ACL leader felt the need to adapt some
lessons for more effective speach by “refashioning his
oratory” in the manner of Rev. Sunday’s flamboyant speaking
style and antics. This was ostensibly supposed to have
jumpstarted Garvey’s career and skyrocketed his UNIA & ACL
to national and international fame. Well, that’s at least
the sum total in a nutshell, according to Dr. Bobby Hill.

No mention was made of Garvey’s early mentors like the great
Bahamian Pan-Africanist leader Dr. Robert Love who emigrated
to Jamaica and Duse Mohammed Ali, the Egyptian publisher of
the African Times and Orient Review, in England. Dr. Love,
who died in Jamaica the year that Garvey founded the
UNIA/ACL, was a major influence on the Jamaican’s racial
ideologican outlook. Garvey, who was born two years after
the European nations had gathered in Berlin to carve Africa
up among themselves, could be impressed that his mentor had
keenly observed European imperialism’s soon after they had
started to exacerbate the divide and rule chaos that the
continent is still undergoing today.

Dr. Rupert Lewis, head of the Department of Government at
the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, who reminded us
that, writing in the Jamaican Advocate of April 20, 1901,
Dr. Love opined that “Africa has been the carcass upon which
the vultures of Europe have descended and which they have
sought to partiton among themselves, without any regard
whatever for the rights of the Africans.”

And Duse Mohammed both further developed Garvey’s world view
and hired him as a fellow journalist in analysing European
imperialism and its attendant colonial rapacious rule in
Africa. Yet neither of these men who helped shape the
UNIA/ACL’s leader perspective which led to his success were
even mentioned. PBS found it preferable to include
controversial material giving credit to an alleged white
influence on Garvey while excluding uncontested empirical
data which most Garvey scholars have documented as being
more germane to his philosophy of “Africa for the Africans.”

It is the same tactic they utilized in their approach to Ken
Burn’s 10-day/19-hour chronology of the development of
“Jazz” as an American art form – with almost as much imput
in its development from white folks as Black people, the
music’s originators. (Don’t get me started on that program.)

Moreover, Amy Jacques Garvey, Garvey’s second wife and the
mother of their two sons, Marcus and Julius, was really
given short shrift in this film. In fact, one of the the
most glaring oversights in this documentary is the treatment
– or rather mistreatment – of Mrs. Amy Jacques Garvey. It
was Amy Jacques Garvey who edited her husband’s classic
autobiographical two volume work The Philosophy and Opinions
of Marcus Garvey and also authored a biography on her
husband and his work – Garvey and Garveyism – in her own
right. She also carried on the organizational work while
Garvey was imprisoned, and traveled back to Jamaica when he
was deported, struggled to maintain the UNIA/ACL in its
birthplace and even was with him when he went to England
where he subsequently died.

All of this work notwithstanding, Amy Jacques Garvey is
treated as an afterthought in “Look for Me in the
Worldwind.” More time is spent on the marriage between
Garvey and his first wife Amy Ashwood Garvey, giving the
producers an opportunity to present the wedding as an
extravagant affair that would last for only four months.
Furthermore, they use Garvey’s own words of remorse to let
him take the blame for the failure of the marriage,
lamenting his seemingly sudden – and some say selfish –
realization that the woman who once “saved his life” had now
become an “impediment to his work.”

This convenient misinterpretation of the relationship
between Garvey and Amy Ashwood serves to illustrate the
continuous point the production strives to underscore:
Garvey was his “own worst enemy” because he was impetuous,
stubborn, an introvert, squanderer of his organization’s
finances, etc. To add insult to injury, the film uses the
lone, white female historian, Barbara Bair, Dr. Hill’s
assistant, to make the commentary summing up the failed
nuptials of the preeminent Black couple, and then segue away
to Marcus Garvey, Jr., leading viewers to get an impression
that he was the son of that failed union.

When a few of us had an opportunity to talk to Amy Ashwood
Garvey in 1968, and saw that she had purged herseIf of her
bitterness against her former husband since their divorce,
an arrangement was made for her to be interviewed for a
program on Garvey that I had initiated for Like It Is, the
WABC-TV program then produced by Charles Hobson and hosted
by Gil Noble. The program was entitled “Marcus Garvey – The
Origin of Black Power”, and was the first film and/or
television program that took a truly positive view on
Garvey. During the sequence that featured Amy Ashwood she
gave a glowing retrospect of Garvey and his work, almost
confessional in contrast to her previous disparaging remarks
against him in a court appearance.

The 1960’s began the reemergence of studying Garvey, a time
when it became fashionable among Black activists to show
appreciation for the Black nationalist leader. “Black Power”
had become a popular demand a year earlier and the former
Mrs. Garvey showed that she surely understood his role in
calling upon Africans all over the world to assert their
power. And the “Like It Is” program, along with an album she
had made previous to the broadcast, helped to reconnect her
to the Garvey movement. But there was no confusion among
most Garveyites who was their former president-general’s
widow and one of the UNIA’s most faithful and activist
member: It was Amy Jacques Garvey, his second wife.

Incidently, it was this same historian, Barbara Bair, who
told the story of Amy Ashwood and her struggle with George
Tyler, the disgruntled Garvey member who tried to
assassinate the UNIA/ACL leader over an alleged $25 debt.

Although shot twice by Tyler (described as “insane” by
author Edmund David Cronon), a bleeding Garvey chased Tyler
through the streets of Harlem and into the hands of the

In the documentary, Prof. Bair provides an embellished
account of Amy Ashwood’s encounter but does not deal with
what happened to Tyler when he was arrested and taken to the
nearby Harlem police station. Tyler, whom Garvey said had
been sent by Assistant District Attorney Edwin P. Kilroe to
assassinate him, “supposedly jumped to his death from out of
a cell window while awaiting trial”, according to Dr. Martin
in his Race First, the book that replaced Edmund David
Cronon’s 1955 Black Moses – The Story of Marcus Garvey and
the Universal Negro Improvement Association as the
definitive work on the UNIA-ACL leader.

Garvey’s name was raised from relative obscurity to a newly
restored prominence during the 1960’s due to the consistent
work of Carlos Cooks, the Dominican-born administrator of
the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement (ANPM) and former
member of the UNIA/ ACL Juvenile Division, who became the
youngest officer to be knighted in the Universal African
Legion and leader of the Advanced Division of the UNIA/ACL.

Within a year after Garvey’s death on June 10, 1940, Cooks
founded the ANPM on June 23, 1941 (his 28th birthday), and
initiated a struggle to retrieve his mentor’s name from out
of the axiomatic “dustbin of history” where his enemies had
tried to place him. In this regard, most of the Garvey
conceived symbols and his substantive philosophical concepts
were resurrected largley to the work of Mr. Cooks, regarded
as the “Chief” of African nationalist leaders and Harlem

Whether we talk about the popularizing of the red, black and
green colors of the UNIA (renamed the “liberation flag” by
young Black activists in the `60’s), honored his mentor
Marcus Garvey with an annual Garvey-like parade (although on
a much more scaled down dimension) on Mr. Garvey’s mentor’s
birthday each August 17th, and maintained his own ANPM
African nationalist legion, the name of Carlos Cooks stands
above all others.

Mr. Cooks initiated the concept of “Buy Black” and
subsequent campaigns designed to make African communities
more economically viable. He held a convention in 1959 to
replace the word “Negro” with that of African as the
official universal appellation for Black people everywhere,
etc., and encouraged Black people to stop trying to emulate
every other racial or ethnic group and see the natural
beauty of themselves through his annual “Miss Standard of
Beauty Contests” held each “Garvey Day.”

As a matter of fact, the basic concept of the African
Jazz-Art Society & Studio’s (AJASS) “Naturally” series of
“Black is Beautiful” programs, which initiated the African
consciousness movement of the 1960’s, was derived from the
Miss Natural Standard of Beauty pageant where each
contestant was obligated to wearing their hair in its
natural state. In effect, it was Mr. Cooks who essentially
restored Garvey’s “African fundamentalism” as the basic
ideological, political, cultural and social order for Black
nationalists to live by.

The most evident omission in the PBS-Stanley Nelson
production is failing to establish their stated claim: They
failed to show the evidence of seriously “looking for Garvey
in the worldwind.” That statement issued by Garvey asked his
folowers to look for his presence in all manner of phenomena
that would follow in his demise which gave credence to his
ideas and helped to manifest his prophetic vision. By
abbreviating the biographer’s mission to tell a whole story,
from beginning to the end of one’s life – even beyond their
final passing and the continuation of their work, the
producers missed a splendid opportunity to making this
project indeed an definitive work.

The inclusion of controversial and suspicious material into
the production was not substantial enough to negate what
Garvey was able to achieve in his lifetime. But to have
polluted the documentary by inserting material to attempts
to denigrate Garvey with historical misinformation, was
shameful. Given so much airtime to a host of “historians”
whose knowledge of Garvey is rudimentary at most and
therefore irrelevant to an honest appraisal of the greatest
influence in African international liberation in the 20th

It is disappointing that such errors were made because it
prevents many concerned Garveyites and neo-Garveyites to
give the production its total support rather than that of
only qualified constructive criticism. But the program is
still worth viewing, especially if you have alternative
research as a program guide. This would be helpful in order
to understand why some of us feel that PBS’s attempt to
“balance” the program actually was a failed attempt to try
rein in Garvey’s almost supernatural accomplishments and
bring them down to mere human proportions.

The late El Hajj Malik el-Shabazz, more popularly known as
Malcolm X, understood this. Paying his respect to Mr. Garvey
during a trip to Jamaica in 1964, a year before his own
assassination, Malcolm reminded those assembled that:

“Every time you see another nation on the African continent
become independent, you know that Marcus Garvey is
alive…It was Marcus Garvey’s philosophy of Pan-Africanism
that initiated the entire freedom movement, which brought
about the independence of African nations. And had it not
been for Marcus Garvey, and the foundations laid by him, you
would find no independent nations in the Caribbean today.
All the freedom movements are that are taking place right
here in America were initiated by the work and teachings of
Marcus Garvey. The entire Black Muslim philosophy here in
America is feeding upon the seeds that were planted by
Marcus Garvey.”

Luckily, Malcolm understood the impact of Garvey’s
whirlwind. While we can’t say the same of PBS and Stanley
Nelson, they did kick up a storm. But they could not hold
Garvey down. No amount of attempts at character
assassination can. There is no force that can. He is still
all around us. “Look for me in the whirlwind and the song of
the storm”, he admonished us. Claude Barnes, the Garveyite
elder who closed out the documentary, understood what his
leader meant.

If you carefully scrutinize the elements swirling around
you, such as the militant demands for “Africa for the
Africans, those at home and those abroad”, “Black Power”;
the calls to reclaim Africa’s resources for the broad masses
of African people, as well as reclaiming the legacy of our
African history, Black youth and control of African
communities; and show respect for Black women – the mothers,
daughters and sisters of Africa; you will also see that
Garvey is indeed in these whirlwind of events.

It’s a shame that the PBS only felt the breeze but missed
the force driving the whirlwind.

Copyright (c) 2001 Elombe Brath. All Rights Reserved.

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January 13, 2007


Carlos A. Cooks (The ideological son of Marcus Garvey):
The African Nationalist Creed
The African Nationalist Manifesto
The Contributions of Carlos Cooks
An Appeal to Reason – Buy Black!!!
Liberation Colors: The Red, Black and Green
What is the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement?
The abrogation of the use of the word Negro from English
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Carlos A. Cooks

A True Blackman
Robert Acemendeces Harris

If, as the new saying goes, “truth is [really] on its way” then, perhaps, Black People can finally also be back on their way. Which way? The way out of all of the confusion, contradictions and cultural degeneration that has retarded the liberation of our people these last few years.

Truth is not an abstract, it refers to sincerity, honesty, conformity to fact, correctness, exactitude, et cetera. Carlos Cooks was truth personified. It is also the truth that, if one man can be singled out as, the individual personality, most responsible for the resurrection on Marcus Garvey’s philosophy and program then that man is Carlos Cooks.

Carlos Cooks was to Black Nationalism what John Coltrane was to the so-called avant-grade “jazz”, and what Aretha is to soul music; the prime progenitor among their respective peers.
The main difference was the fact that during his life time, Cooks never receive his proper recognition. This was mainly because he was denied national coverage — by white and “Black” press — and was bound by an oath (the sacri) not to seek publicity for himself.

But since programs are often personified within certain individuals, and either live beyond or die along with their respective advocates, AJASS believes that — if we are really going to re-establish truth in our Liberation Struggle, then more of our people should know about the relevance of Carlos Cooks.

Carlos A. Cooks was born on June 23, 1913 in the Dominican Republic and died May 5th, 1966 in Harlem. During his 52 years on this planet, he passed through a phenomenal experience by spending his entire lifetime dedicated to the liberation of Africa, its universal communities, and all its peoples. This fact alone puts him among the ranks of the Hon. Marcus Garvey and the grand patriarch of the, movement, Hon. Edward Wilmot Blyden.

Enter keywords…

It was Carlos Cooks who administered the Advance Division of the UNIA after Garvey’s deportation. He fought psychologically and physically — to uplift Mr. Garvey’s name from the gutters of ghetto minds. Brother Frank Rockwood of the Harlem UNIA branch can attest to this truth.

It was Carlos Cooks who coined the phrase “BUY BLACK” as an economic solvency in the various African Communities throughout America. Attorney Cora Walker, who successfully engineered the Harlem Co-op market can vouch for that.

It was Carlos Cooks who found the first so-titled African Nationalist organization. Check it out with Brothers and Sisters of the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement, they will tell you.

It was Carlos Cooks whom the late Malcolm X told many of us, that: “I respect Mr. Cooks because he is real Garveyite, a true Black Nationalist!” Since truth is supposed to be the only way, ask Sister Betty Shabazz about this.

It was Carlos Cooks who kept Garvey’s UNIA Red, Black, and Green tricolors displayed daily and nightly. Go on over to the African Market at 125th Street near Lenox Avenue, ask for Brother Frank Jones ’cause he can tell you about it.

It was Carlos Cooks who maintained an African Nationalist Legion, mentally prepared and physically ready to join the African Liberation struggle. I don’t know if the rest of the officials of the Republic of New Africa know this, but I’m sure that Brother Herman Ferguson does.

It was Cooks who continuously advocated armed retaliation against the cracker beasts who viciously murdered our Brothers and Sisters in the South. Truth is supposed to be on its way, so ask Brother Robert Williams.

It was Carlos Cooks who designated August 17th — the birthday of Marcus Garvey — as the first Black holiday, official or unofficial. And if you ask James Lawson (privately), the Brother will probably tell you the truth, too.

It was Carlos Cooks who first perfected an oratorical art of street speaking from his step-ladder, all over Harlem, but, especially on 125th Street and 7th Avenue. Brother Ed. “Porkchop” Davis and Brother Charles Kenyatta can verify that as the truth.

It was Carlos Cooks who first formed an independent school, complete with a course in Kiswahili at a time (1954) when many of our people didn’t even know where Africa was, never mind what Swahili was. Brother Al Vann, of the African-American Teachers Association, can educate you to the truth about this.

It was Carlos Cooks who first defined the difference between the terms Black and/or African as opposed to “Negro” and fought to have the latter word abrogated as a racial classification. You can even ask Richard Moore (author of The Word Negro And Its Evil Use) about this. Or you can read the documentation of this in “BLACK NATIONALISM: A Search For Identity In America” by Prof. E. U. Essien-Udom of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He printed some truth about this particular issue.

It was Carlos Cooks who organized the Universal African Relief to send tons of cloths and medical supplies to our struggling fellow Africans in South West Africa and Angola — over ten year ago. Ask Brother Hage Geingob of SWAPO or any of the other Brothers representing the liberation forces in Namibia (Southwest Africa). Their case is based on truth.

It was Carlos Cooks who first initiated the concept of natural hair as an issue of racial pride through his ANPM’s MISS NATURAL STANDARD OF BEAUTY CONTEST. But just about everyone who comes in contact with AJASS knows this because our programs are based on truth and, so, we always let everyone know just where we’re coming from. (Don’t bother to ask the folks running the “Miss America Beauty Contest.)


(The Preamble to the A.N.P.M. Constitution.)
by Carlos A. Cooks

The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement is a educational, inspirational, instructive, constructive, and expansive society.
It is composed of people desirous of bringing about the establish-ment of a progressive, dignified, cultural, fraternal and racial confraternity amongst the African people of the world.

The members pledge themselves to devote their knowledge, physical energy, private fortune, and sacred honor to ameliorate the tragic inequalities and medieval backwardness that the universal status of the race reflects.

We hold these condition to be a challenge to our manhood, and an insult to the aristocracy of our noble race.

Whereas, every sovereign state of Europe is ruled and controlled by Europeans. The land mass of Asia is governed by Asiatics. The Arabs dominate Arabia. Jewish aspirations is satisfied by the creation of the state of Israel. Africa is the only continent that is still dominated by the tyrannic yoke of European mass plunderers, with the approval of the so-called United Nations, and the active support of the Christian Churches of all denominations.


The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement realizes that the world is organized in homogenous segments, in the light of existing circumstances, the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement as a means of self defense and survival, a racial hegemony of Africans at home and abroad, that will resurrect the nobility, courage, and resourcefulness that once typified African character.

Rejecting all ideas for social improvement that do not animate from within the group. Denying all standards of beauty that does not represent the vibrant characteristics of the African Race. Heading no voice but our own on the issue of racial policy. Denouncing all religions that perpetuate the myth of white supre-macy and the fallacy of divine adjudication. We believe in the principles of self determination of all races.

We submit that the Black people of Harlem and all other Homo-geneous African communities, have the same natural and moral right to be clannish in their patronage as all other people have drama-tised that they are. We advocate as a matter of sound racial economic, the BUY BLACK CAMPAIGN.
Patronize the merchants of your own race. Build a solvent foundation for your children. Help create employment and independence for your race.


by Elombe Brath

The red, black and green flag found a new popularity during the 1960’s as the “liberation flag,” and was adopted by many neo-nationalists and disgruntled neophytes who had begun to leave the Civil Rights non-violence movement in search of a new militancy. The colors had originally been adopted as the “national colors” of the African people at the 1920 International Convention according to the Universal Negro Catechism of the African Orthodox Church.

The Catechism, which had been authorized by Rev. George Alexander McGuire, the church’s leading figure, stated clearly the symbolic meaning of the colors: “Red is the color of the blood which men must shed for their redemption and liberty; black is the color of the noble and distinguished race to which we belong; green is the color of the luxuriant vegetation of our motherland.”

To appreciate the vast scope and time span of the Garvey influence, the endurance and spread of the red, black, and green colors illustrate the point. Carlos A. Cooks contended that the colors came from an ancient African civilization known as the “Zengh Empire.” He insisted that this was one of the earliest usage of colors as a flag, standard, or pennant to represent a people as a nation.

While I have found no corroborating evidence in my research, Dr. Tony Martin has documented some other facts regarding the spread of the red, black, and green.

In his Pan-African Connection, Martin reveals that T.D. Mweli Skota, who was responsible “for [the] adoption of the ANC anthem, Nkosi Sikelel i-Africa, (Lord Bless Africa) which was later adopted by even the ANC’s rival organizations and the whole African population of South[ern] Africa,” was also largely responsible for – introducing in 1925 – the ANC’s flag of black, green, and gold, which was patterned after Garvey’s red, black, and green. Three and a half decades later, SWAPO, using the same configuration of three horizontal bars of equal size and different solid colors, followed suit in its own blue, red, and green tricolor to represent the Namibian people’s national liberation movement.

Garvey’s influence also set the standards for racial pride and material support for the liberation movements.

Just prior to the African cultural revolution of the 60’s, an event took place that actually opened the stage for the most intense period of Black consciousness since the Garvey era, on August 16, 1959, Cooks issued a call to convention by the ANPM to abrogate the term “Negro” as the official racial classification. Instead, he argued for the use of “Black” when speaking in terms of color (irrespective of complexion) and in relationship to the so-called white, yellow, brown, and red races. Likewise, and even more important, the term “African” would be used generically when speaking in relationship to land or origin (regardless of one’s own “native” birthplace), heritage, and culture.

Although the white media, including the New York Times, ostensibly the U.S. “paper of record,” was informed, they did not attempt to cover this historic meeting. The Times, however, was quick to attribute the use of the term “African American” to the Rev. Jesse Jackson in 1988 – 29 years after it became a compromise choice in the wake of Cooks’ 1959 convention. But it is more an irony that in the light of him being the seminal figure in the institutionalization of the concept of Black people in the U.S. re-identifying themselves as Africans, that the denial of being of African ancestry would develop in the Dominican Republic as practically an article of faith for those seeking political office and/or upper mobility in regards to their acceptance into the social strata –a factor that sadly caused the late Jose Francisco Pena Gomez to never achieve his quest of the presidency of that Africaribbean Latin-American nation.

While those who acquire wealth because of their exceptional skills as Major League Baseball players in the U.S. are praised and accepted in spite of their very obvious biological, historical affinity to the African continent, the question of being perceived as the representative of the national policy is still out of the question. To wit, in an unusual sense, the financial class factor seems to have been subdued to the racial contradiction. This true, however, not only in the Dominican Republic but in other non-English speaking nations as well, (i.e., including the case of Pele and other Black people in Brazil).

Nevertheless, it should be made known that the 1959 convention, in effect, established that the term African was to be used in the future as the common denominator of identification of all Black people throughout the world. African is our term of worldwide unification. It identifies our historical ties to the African blood pool. It imposes upon us a critical interest in our common plight throughout history, the need to find resolutions to our present conditions, and absolute necessity of working out our common destiny.

And if in the carrying out of this historic mandate for African liberation, there ever needed for those Africans “abroad” to be designated with at least a regional categorization, then the term African-American [hyphenated] was more apropos than “AfroAmerican,” based on the fact that, as Cuban patriot Jose Marti pointed out, we do live in the Americas (i.e., North, Central and South America). On another note, however, the term “West Indian” was considered as invalid as that of the usage of American Negro.

The ‘59 convention would also give birth to the establishment of an African standard of beauty that was to be institutionalized nationwide, thereby enhancing the appreciation of Blackness worldwide, and the acceptance of one’s Africannes personified. In this regard, AJASS (the African Jazz-Arts Society & Studios), a Black politi-cultural group which had been founded during the summer of 1956 in the South Bronx, also attended this historic convention. This group was a collective of Black artists, photographers, performers, and students (including Kwame Brathwaite, Robert Gumbs, Chris Acemandeces Hall, and this writer) who had been studying Garveyism and African nationalism on their own. The convention’s new concepts of raising Black people’s consciousness impressed AJASS immensely.

Following the resolutions and mandates of that meeting, AJASS began to intensify its study and began organizing throughout 1960 and most of ‘61. By the fall, AJASS had formed the nucleus of a group of models to explicitly promote the African standard of beauty, The Grandassa Models. This image had been long overlooked by such magazines as Ebony, Jet, Tan, etc. Thus, the Naturally series of “cultural extravaganzas designed to restore our racial pride and standards” was born.

Cull from
The Daily Challenge
“New York City’s Only Black Daily”
June 24, 1998
More Info on “The Red Black and Green.” (UNIA-ACL)


By Carlos Cooks

The time is at hand when the Black man must pause and take serious note of the rapid current of world events.
Life for the People of African stock, has been for the past three centuries, a relentless struggle for survival.
Not so much against the forces of nature, Nay!
Nature blessed the African Race with the richest of all continents, and the finest of all climates, and it has equip the Black man with the greatest and most rugged physique among men, together with a woman whose wholesome beauty, sparkling eyes, rhythmic gait, warm tender smile, cheerful and affectionate disposition, cannot be excelled or rivaled by any other female.

The Black man’s menace, has been, and still is, the white man’s diabolical and determined plan to commit GENOCIDE!
Even as they exterminated the American Indians, and the Australian Aborigines; so too, every plan, every scheme, points to their murderous intent to liquidate the African people.

As the great Bamganwato Chieftain Logumbula, asked in the late nineteenth century, when the British were barbarously exterminating the Bamganwatos: “Why do you kill my people?”

Today their method is subtler, but just as effective.

Hundreds of thousands died in Kenya, and many more are quartered in compounds on a starvation ration. Death to them will come through slow and painful agony of malnutrition. IT’S GENOCIDE!

In Cuba, under the pretense of vengeance against Batista’s Regime, Castro is wiping out the Black population.

The Black man, if he has any desire to survive, will have to embrace Black Nationalism — TOTALLY!

The greatest tools of the White Supremacist are the Flunky Vassals, the modern day Custodians of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Lackey’s that fought the doctrine of Marcus Garvey, the Stooges that advocates civil rights — social equality — and miscegenation in America.

The gang of British Toms, in the West Indies, that see themselves as a part of the British Empire, and encourages the Black man to sell his land and seek his fortunes in England, only to find upon arrival there, a hungry mob of Murder-bent Whites, waiting to bury them. IT’S GENOCIDE!

The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement, through its Executive Spokesman, Carlos A. Cooks, is calling on the world of Black men everywhere, to rally behind the doctrine of Black Nationalism.

There is no permanent future for the Black anywhere in America.

The integrationist doctrine, that have fostered so much strife, is but a death trap for the Blacks, deliberately agitated by people who do not belong to the race, does not have the interest of the race at heart, and are using the Black man as a distracting force, less what happened to them in Germany and other European Countries happen here.

The Nigger Stooges that they are using to perpetuate their cruel joke, would sell their own mothers into bondage, for the sake of being able to move around as Circus Clowns in the Circle of White Society. They may be black in Color, but they are Psychological Bastards, whose fate in the final hour of reckoning, will be the common end of a traitor.

Next to the White man, the greatest enemy of Africa and Black opportunity, ranks the integrationist, civil righters, miscegenationist, and close behind, comes the Communist, and those who would encourage the Black man to take his problem to the Lord in prayer and leave it there.

The gang in Africa who cannot understand that there cannot and will not be any Partnership between the African and the white man.
It is not in the nature of the White man to share anything.
Did he share America with the American Indian? No!
Did he share Australia with Australian Bushman? No!
Where is the American Indian and the Australian Bushman? They are both dead!
The victim of their own charity and gullibility.

They too believed that they could share the land with the white man.
Isn’t it strange that the African leaders cannot realize that the white man shares Europe with no one?

The picture in Africa from the standpoint of leadership, narrows down to two States that are potentially capable of spearheading the drive for total redemption of continental Africa; namely, Egypt, based on the dynamic drive of that great organizer, Abdel Gamal Nasser, and the Sudan, based on its vast land area and its strategic location.
Ethiopia — under the present leadership, must be written off as futile encumbrance to the designs of a modern free Africa.
Liberia is but an extension of White Imperialism.
Ghana is a model for a new type of British Colonialism.
Guinea is much too involved in the battle for survival at this time to make it’s power felt.

The position of Blacks in the Western World, should — and must be one of militant Nationalism….
The marshalling and organizing of all Black people, and the linking up of their power, with the Patriots of Africa, Organizing Combat Brigades, Medical Units, and Pioneer Corps.
These should be organized and held in readiness, so that when the hour of decision tolls, Black men everywhere would not only be willing, but they shall be able, to answer the call.

The conflict thickens, on ye braves
Let’s charge for Africa, or the grave.
Wave Africa; let all your banners wave.
Attack — Black men, with all your ferocious rage.
Few! Few shall part — where many meet
The sacred soil of Africa shall be their winding sheet.
And every turf of ground, beneath the invader’s sacrilegious feet
Shall be a white man’s sepulchre.

By Carlos A. Cooks
The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement


Carlos Cooks and Black Nationalism from Garvey to Malcolm
Robert Harris, Nyota Harris, Grandassa Harris (Editor)
Our Price: $9.95 + $0.85 special surcharge
Paperback (March 1992)
Majority Press; ISBN:0912469285
There are no other books about this remarkable man,
This is it.

Philosophy and Opinions of
Marcus Garvey :
Or Africa for the Africans
Two Volumes in One
Amy Jacques Garvey (Editor)
(paper back)
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(Special Order)

The Poetical Works of
Marcus Garvey
(paper back)
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The African Origin of
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Cheikh Anta Diop,
Mercer Cook
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Stolen Legacy:
Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy
George G.M.James
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The Ancient Egyptian
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Raymond O.Faulkner,
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How Europe
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Walter Rodney
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The A.N.P.M. – a racial confraternity amongst the African peoples of the world. The only orthodox African Nationalist organization in the western world from 1941 to 1966.

The African Pioneering Syndicate, Inc. – whereas the merchants and business people of the African communities should be African, whose aims and objectives are to conduct a worldwide commercial and industrial intercourse for the good of the race and to promote economic self-sufficiency in all Black communities.

The African Colonization society, Inc. – to resettle those Black people living in the Americas into Africa – those who voluntarily would like to take advantage of the opportunities that Africa has to offer.

The Universal African Relief – to conduct relief work amongst the universal. African family.

The 1959 African Peoples Convention – this was the convention that did away with the term, “Negro”, being used as a racial classification for African people and caused the world to address the Black people with the same dignity and respect extended to all other racial and ethnic groups.

We demanded to be called when dealing with color, Black men and Black women; and when dealing with race, land and heritage, Africans.

The mobilization of all the material resources of the Black Race in all areas of the world binding them together into one grand racial hegemony whose only shall propose be the welfare and security of Black people very where.

The activation of the African Communities League in all communities where people of the African ethnic group are in the majority. The economy of all African communities must be marshaled, controlled and channeled in a progressive direction so that the commerce, business life and body politic of the community are controlled totally by the resident majority.

The synchronization of all organizations regardless of religious passion or sectional sentiment to. One overall aim and endeavor towards the complete freedom of Africa for the benefit of the African peoples of the world. This should include moral, physical and material support to the needy cause of the valiant Africans at home who are fighting against tremendous odds.

The Buy Black Campaign – a scientific method of productive action which will result in the commerce, business life of the Black communities being put into the hands and control of the Black people of the co-unity simply by adjusting their shopping habits, whereas they do not buy anything from an alien (non-Black person) in the community and only patronize members of the Race in the community. If a commodity cannot be purchased through Black merchants, then go out of the community and purchase it. This will scientifically force parasitical alien merchants out of the Black communities and make way for more Black people to enter the community’s business life. The Buy Black Campaign will transfer the commerce business life and body politic of the Black communities from its present alien parasites to its rightful owners – the Black majority population.

The African Nationalist Legion – the military arm of the race, to be developed into a force capable of defending and protecting the race. strategic, tactical and logistical forces of the Buy Black Campaign.

The School of African culture and Fundamentalism – an institution to develop the knowledge, skills, abilities and character of the Race. To establish universities, colleges, academies and schools for the racial education and culture of the Race.

The Nationalist Social Club dedicated to the principles and concepts of encouraging the youth of the race to fraternize and exchange their ideas on germane problem. To indulge in debates on world problems and to formulate and activate as a socioeconomic organism for the good and welfare of the community at large and the membership of the Nationalist social Club by dramatizing the ability of the African youth to engage in commercial intercourse through the initiative of the race (Self-determination).

The Marcus Garvey Memorial Building – at approximately 5:30 P.M. Friday, August 17, 1962, Carlos Cooks officiated at the ground breaking ceremony of the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building on a site located on the south side of 141st street, approximately 100 ‘ east of Eighth Avenue, Harlem, New York. Carlos Cooks outlined two main purposes for the erection of the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building. (1) It will be a stone monument that will spiritually testify to the admiration and respect that the Black people of Harlem and throughout the world have for the life, efforts, deeds, doctrine and memory of this great man; and (2) to serve as the permanent headquarters of the African Nationalist pioneer Movement. Carlos Cooks postponed launching the programs of the A.N.P.M. until the completion of the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building. He stated “The A.N.P.M. is pending its hopes on the construction of the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building.” Carlos Cooks died On May 5,1966 with the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building two-thirds complete. It was never completed and was finally demolished by the City of New York in the 1970’s. Consequently, the programs of the A.N.P.M. were never launched and remain unfinished business for the African Nationalists. The erection of the Marcus Garvey Memorial Building or its equivalent is also unfinished business for the African Nationalist.

Orthodox African Nationalist Literature – whereas the true historical, economical, political and social aspects of the race were promulgated, African Nationalism was expounded throughout the Black world through such publications as (1) the Street speaker Magazine, (2) the Black Challenge Magazine, (3) Calvacade Afrikana Magazine and other publications of the A.N.P.N.

The Marcus Garvey Day Celebration – an annual affair commemorating Marcus Garvey as the father of African Nationalism on his birthday August 17, with a parade, eulogistic mass meting, a beauty contest (Miss Natural standard of Beauty), a grand raffle, show and dance. Carlos Cooks stated that “The culture of a people is best manifested by the homage they pay to those who led with dedication and devotion to freedom and cause.” Marcus Garvey stands out like a giant over midgets to all who have led with dedication and devotion to our freedom and cause.” Marcus Garvey gives the universal Black people a common hero and natural symbol for a common cultural union simply by the universal Black people paying homage to Marcus Garvey every August 17, a universal African holiday

African Freedom Day – January let was designated as African Freedom flay which we set aside to extol the feats and accomplishments of Black people and Black nations whose efforts brought about freedom and independence for Black people throughout the world. Many Black nations and peoples throughout the world announced their freedom on January let – the various Emancipation Proclamations ending slavery in the 19th century were announced on January lit. The most celebrated African Freedom Day was January 1st, 1956 when the leaders of the Sudanese people assembled in Khartoum and proclaimed their independence.

Miss Natural Standard of Beauty Contest – this is a unique and rare contest designed to help restore pride and self-confidence in the heavily inferior-minded Black woman who falsely believes that the white woman (and all other women) is more beautiful than the Black woman. This beauty contest is also designed to break and discontinue the nearly 400 year old habit of Black people viewing the white woman as the object of feminine beauty. This beauty contest declares to the world that as far as we are concerned, if there is any physical beauty in the world, it is incarnate in the physical likeness of people and things that are of our race and heritage. Finally, we deny all standards of beauty that do not represent the vibrant characteristics of the African Race.

Memorandum and Bills of Particulars to the President of the U.S.A. – 1964 On Monday, August 3, 1964 – 9:35 P.M., the membership of the A.N.P.M. empowered the Honorable Carlos Cooks to appoint a committee whose function it was to prepare and dispatch a memorandum and bill of particulars to the president of the U.S.A. and to the various concerned officials and Agencies of the U.S. Government recommending the President of the U.S.A. to recommend to the congress and appropriate Governmental agencies that a bureau similar to the Freedman’s Bureau of 1847 be established by the U.S. Government for the purpose of mobilizing and processing all persons of African descent residing in the U.S.A. or territories, who voluntarily indicate their desire to avail themselves of the opportunities and advantages at resettling in Africa, the land of their origin.

The many articles, speeches and lectures (over 40,000) of Carlos Cooks have become the catechism and gospel of Orthodox African Nationalism and serves as the theme, plot and fundamentals of the present Orthodox African Nationalists.

The logic and evidence of Carlos Cooks’ articles, speeches and lectures are interwoven and interlocked into the articles, speeches and lectures of the present Orthodox African Nationalists.

Carlos Cooks was probably the best Black mind in the world from 1941 to 1966. Although Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X were the nationally known leaders during that time (thanks to the U.S. media), Carlos Cooks stands over King and Malcolm like a giant over midgets.

These are really the missing pages in Black History daring the above period – 1941 to 1966.

The statements, logic and positions that are generally attributed to Malcolm X by the Black youth were long part of the dialogue and lectures of Carlos Cooks before Malcolm X was a teenager and in his early elementary school days.

This is the other side of the story, which is known by a fortunate few who had the privilege to meet and know Carlos Cooks. The American historians and propagandists trace the history of the Black people in the U.S.A. through the eyes of the integrationists.

When Marcus Garvey is acknowledged as part of that history, there is no connected background to show the historical development of Marcus Garvey with the earlier advocates of racial unity, economic solvency and the “Return to Africa” philosophy.

More negligent and one-sided, if not outright false, is the connecting historical development from Marcus Garvey forward. Although the U.S. Media traces this historical development from Marcus Garvey to Elijah Mohamed, Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael and the integration movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr., however, the one true and natural outgrowth of Marcus Garvey and the U.N I .A. is Carlos Cooks and the A.M.P.M. Carlos Cooks was the ideological son of Marcus Garvey whose philosophical doctrine and program he lived and worked.


The Carlos Cooks Creed

Passionately fascinated with the excellence of our African origin.
Philosophically committed to the ideals of Marcus Garvey –
African Nationalism and self-determination.
Dedicated to the assertion of our freedom, regardless of obstacles.

One Cause
One Goal
One Destiny.


Charge of the Mighty Black Warrior
by Carlos Cooks

The conflict thickens
On ye Braves
Let’s charge for Africa
Or the grave.
Wave Africa, Let all your banners wave.
Attack Black men, with all your ferocious rage.
Few! Few shall part where many meet.
The sacred soil of Africa shall be their winding sheet
And every turf of ground beneath the invaders
Sacrilegious feet shall be a white man’s sepulcher.

Thanks to:
Robert Acemendeces Harris

Carlos Cooks and Black Nationalism from Garvey to Malcolm
by Robert Harris, Nyota Harris, Grandassa Harris (Editor)
Our Price: $9.95 + $0.85 special surcharge
Paperback (March 1992)
Majority Pr; ISBN: 0912469285 Order Now


One Cause
One god.

Mr. Cooks saw religion as a divisive force.
As was demonstrated by this flaw within the UNIA itself.
Undisputedly, African people universally were under a common yoke of oppression;
Hence having common cause – One Cause, One Goal and One Destiny
As opposed to One God, One Aim and One Destiny.
(also see)
This is the only difference between Mr. Cooks and Mr. Garvey.

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January 13, 2007

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#1 12-27-2005, 10:48 AM
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Even African Americans are considered “obruni” in Ghana


It is pleasant to see some of us embrace to learn about the land of our ancestors but is our approach any different than our white counterparts.

The locals seem to be ‘dealing’ with this matter while the Ghana government or in specific the Ministry of Tourism division is trying to smooth things over. To me, very interesting.

Ghana’s Uneasy Embrace of Slavery’s Diaspora

Published: December 27, 2005

CAPE COAST, Ghana – For centuries, Africans walked through the infamous “door of no return” at Cape Coast castle directly into slave ships, never to set foot in their homelands again. These days, the portal of this massive fort so central to one of history’s greatest crimes has a new name, hung on a sign leading back in from the roaring Atlantic Ocean: “The door of return.”

A former slave-trade fort in Cape Coast, Ghana, is a popular destination for African-American to return after Christmas; this

A tour guide describing the conditions once faced by captives before they were shipped as slaves from the Elmina Castle fort in Ghana.

Ghana, through whose ports millions of Africans passed on their way to plantations in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, wants its descendants to come back.

Taking Israel as its model, Ghana hopes to persuade the descendants of enslaved Africans to think of Africa as their homeland – to visit, invest, send their children to be educated and even retire here.

“We want Africans everywhere, no matter where they live or how they got there, to see Ghana as their gateway home,” J. Otanka Obetsebi-Lamptey, the tourism minister, said on a recent day. “We hope we can help bring the African family back together again.”

In many ways it is a quixotic goal. Ghana is doing well by West African standards – with steady economic growth, a stable, democratic government and broad support from the West, making it a favored place for wealthy countries to give aid.

But it remains a very poor, struggling country where a third of the population lives on less than a dollar a day, life expectancy tops out at 59 and basic services like electricity and water are sometimes scarce.

Nevertheless, thousands of African-Americans already live here at least part of the year, said Valerie Papaya Mann, president of the African American Association of Ghana.

To encourage still more to come, or at least visit, Ghana plans to offer a special lifetime visa for members of the diaspora and will relax citizenship requirements so that descendants of slaves can receive Ghanaian passports. The government is also starting an advertising campaign to persuade Ghanaians to treat African-Americans more like long-lost relatives than as rich tourists. That is harder than it sounds.

Many African-Americans who visit Africa are unsettled to find that Africans treat them – even refer to them – the same way as white tourists. The term “obruni,” or “white foreigner,” is applied regardless of skin color.

To African-Americans who come here seeking their roots, the term is a sign of the chasm between Africans and African-Americans. Though they share a legacy, they experience it entirely differently.

“It is a shock for any black person to be called white,” said Ms. Mann, who moved here two years ago. “But it is really tough to hear it when you come with your heart to seek your roots in Africa.”

The advertising campaign urges Ghanaians to drop “obruni” in favor of “akwaaba anyemi,” a slightly awkward phrase fashioned from two tribal languages meaning “welcome, sister or brother.” As part of the effort to reconnect with the diaspora, Ghana plans to honor the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., W. E. B. DuBois and others it calls modern-day Josephs, after the biblical figure who rose from slavery to save his people.

The government plans to hold a huge event in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the end of the trans-Atlantic trade by Britain and the 50th anniversary of Ghana’s independence. The ceremonies will include traditional African burial rituals for the millions who died as a result of slavery.

Estimates of the trade vary widely. The most reliable suggest that between 12 million and 25 million people living in the vast lands between present-day Senegal and Angola were caught up, and as many as half died en route to the Americas.

Some perished on the long march from the inland villages where they were captured to seaports. Others died in the dungeons of slave castles and forts, where they were sometimes kept for months, until enough were gathered to pack the hold of a ship. Still others died in the middle passage, the longest leg of the triangular journey between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Of the estimated 11 million who crossed the sea, most went to South America and the Caribbean. About 500,000 are believed to have ended up in the United States.

The mass deportations and the divisions the slave trade wrought are wounds from which Africa still struggles to recover.

Ghana was the first sub-Saharan African nation to shake off its colonial rulers, winning its independence from Britain in 1957. Its founding father, Kwame Nkrumah, attended Lincoln University, a historically black college in Pennsylvania, and saw in African-Americans a key to developing the new nation.

“Nkrumah saw the American Negro as the vanguard of the African people,” said Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the African and African-American studies department at Harvard, who first traveled to Ghana when he was 20 and fresh out of Harvard, afire with Nkrumah’s spirit. “He wanted to be able to utilize the services and skills of African-Americans as Ghana made the transition from colonialism to independence.”

Many African-Americans, from Maya Angelou to Malcolm X, visited Ghana in the 1950’s and 60’s, and a handful stayed. To Nkrumah, the struggle for civil rights in the diaspora and the struggles for independence from colonial rule in Africa were inextricably linked, both being expressions of the desire of black people everywhere to regain their freedom.

But Nkrumah was ousted in a coup in 1966, and by then Pan-Africanism had already given way to nationalism and cold war politics, sending much of the continent down a trail of autocracy, civil war and heartbreak.

Still, African-Americans are drawn to Ghana’s rich culture, and the history of slavery.

Ghana still has dozens of slave forts, each a chilling reminder of the brutality of the trade. At Elmina Castle, built by the Portuguese in 1482 and taken over by the Dutch 150 years later, visitors are guided through a Christian chapel built adjacent to the hall where slaves were auctioned, and the balcony over the women’s dungeons from which the fort’s governor would choose a concubine from the chattel below.

The room through which slaves passed into waiting ships is the emotional climax of the tour, a suffocating dungeon dimly lit by sunlight pouring through a narrow portal leading to the churning sea.

“You feel our history here,” said Dianne Mark, an administrator at Central Michigan University who visited Elmina Castle, six miles from Cape Coast castle, in early December, tears welling in her eyes as she gazed across the massive, buttressed walls to the ocean. “This is where our people are from. That is a deep, deep experience. I look at everyone and wonder, ‘Could he have been my cousin? Could she have been my aunt?’ ”

Like any family reunion, this one is layered with joy and tears. For African-Americans and others in the African diaspora, there is lingering hostility and confusion about the role Africans played in the slave trade.

“The myth was our African ancestors were out on a walk one day and some bad white dude threw a net over them,” Mr. Gates said. “But that wasn’t the way it happened. It wouldn’t have been possible without the help of Africans.”

Many Africans, meanwhile, often fail to see any connection at all between them and African-Americans, or feel African-Americans are better off for having been taken to the United States. Many Africans strive to emigrate; for the past 15 years, the number of Africans moving to the United States has surpassed estimates of the number forced there during any of the peak years of the slave trade. The number of immigrants from Ghana in the United States is larger than that of any other African country except Nigeria, according to the 2000 census.

“So many Africans want to go to America, so they can’t understand why Americans would want to come here,” said Philip Amoa-Mensah, a guide at Elmina Castle. “Maybe Ghanaians think they are lucky to be from America, even though their ancestors went through so much pain.”

The relationship is clearly a work in progress. Ghanaians are still learning of their ancestors’ pivotal roles in the slave trade, and slave forts on the coast, long used to thousands of foreign visitors, have in recent years become sites for school field trips.

When the United States and the United Nations gave Ghana money to rehabilitate and restore Cape Coast castle, the government agency responsible for the castle repainted it white. Residents of Cape Coast were thrilled to see the moisture-blackened castle spruced up, but African-Americans living in Ghana were horrified, feeling that the history of their ancestors was being, quite literally, whitewashed.

“It didn’t go over too well,” said Kohain Nathanyah Halevi, an African-American who lives near Cape Coast.

A recent African-American visitor to Cape Coast castle took the emotionally charged step through the door of no return, only to be greeted by a pair of toddlers playing in a fishing boat on the other side, pointing and shouting, “obruni, obruni!”

William Kwaku Moses, 71, a retired security guard who sells shells to tourists on the other side of the door of no return, shushed the children.

“We are trying,” he said, with a shrug.

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#2 12-27-2005, 11:49 AM
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it looks as if there might have been a picture included in the original article? could you add a link to the article, please?

actually, “obruni” does sound about right!!

thanks for the post!

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#3 12-27-2005, 04:17 PM
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Two vacation like pictures are there. Might need to register though.

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#4 12-27-2005, 11:10 PM
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I think this is very positive by any stretch. I wonder if Ghana or any of the other west african nations would be willing to give up 100 square miles of land similar to what the brothers here advocating….

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January 13, 2007

We Are About Loving, Encouraging, Embracing, Teaching and Building With Our People. No Hate Allowed.

#1 03-01-2005, 08:07 PM
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The Honorable Marcus Garvey, Pan Africanism and The African


The Honorable Marcus Garvey, Pan Africanism and The African…x.shtml?x=90208

Posted: 01/26
From: Mathaba

By Lester Lewis (a.k.a. Prince Ntum ba Azah)

A lecture delivered to the All Around the World Museum and the Lansing Chapter of the National Black United Front (USA)

At The Sankofa Academy
4817 Bristol Road

Lansing, Michigan M1 48911,USA


“In death as in life, I shall come back to serve you as I have served you before. I life I shall be the same. In death I shall be a terror to the foes of liberty. If death has power, count on me. Be assured that I shall never desert you and make your enemies triumph over you.” (The Honourable Marcus Garvey).

I would like to offer Honour, Glory, Praises and Thanks to The Most High God, to The Lesser Gods and to The Ancestors for all the Blessings they have showered upon us over the Ages of the world. I would like to thank them for sending their son, our Brother and our Redeemer, The Honourable Marcus Garvey as our One True Liberator who has put us back on the upward path of our development within the cycles of time.

Those of you who are familiar with the evolution of time would be aware that we now live in the Age of Aquarius, the Water carrier. You are aware that at the beginning of every Age (a time period of 2155 years), The Most High God sends his son, THE EVER COMING ONE, He who comes in Peace, to bring peace on earth and in Heaven.

You are aware that in the Age of Taurus, THE COMING ONE was manifested as a calf or a bullock; that in the Age of Aires, the SON OF GOD was manifested as a The Lamb. So you have our Christian Brothers and Sisters singing about THE LAMB OF GOD.

When we look at the Age of Pisces, we see Jesus being born as Ichtus, the Fishman, as the “Bread of Isis and the Fish of Nephtys.” That is why he could walk on water and he wanted to make his disciples “Fishers of Men.” We need to get inside the symbolism, the sign language in which certain parts of the Bible are written so that we can truly come to appreciate that:”Christianity is the Glorification of African Culture.”

Some of you may be aware of the Aquarian Gospel of Jesus. This teaches us “The Love of God is manifested in flesh twelve times throughout a Great Year of the World. You know that there are twelve Ages throughout the Great Year. Well in this, the AGE OF AQUARIUS, Atum Ra, The Most High God, sent his son T.H. Marcus Garvey, to bring peace in the war being waged against the Africans. That is why Marcus Garvey waged war against all those who are waging war against the Africans. So as Disciples, Sons and daughters of T. H. Marcus Garvey, we too must wage war against all those who are waging “war against the Africans.” That is the only way we can have peace, by defeating those who are waging war against us.

It is my contention that throughout the 2155 years of the Age of Aquarius, no other human being will be born of the stature of Marcus Garvey; and that when we move from Aquarius to the Age of Capricorn in 4045, African peoples on earth will still be celebrating the birth, life and work of T. H. Marcus Garvey.

Every people in every culture determine their High Days and Holy Days. In 1998, we organized the United Kingdom Pan African Congress, in celebration of the 111th birthday of Marcus Garvey. One of the Resolutions that we adopted called on Africans everywhere to make Marcus Garvey’s birthday, the 17th day of August every year, an African Holy day. We must celebrate it as a Global African holiday.

This year in Britain, the African United Action Front has called on African peoples living in Britain, to take the day off work to celebrate Marcus Garvey’s birthday as a Pan African holiday. We are not asking anybody or any authority for a holiday. We are taking it. If you had not heard this CALL before, now that you have heard the CALL, you have to consider whether on 17 August 2005, you will be taking the day off work to celebrate Marcus Garvey’s birthday, and whether you will encourage others to do the same thing.

If we continue to do this year after year after year, more and more people will take the day off work, Parliaments will start legislating to make 17 August a public holiday and this day will become an African Holy day, a Global Pan African holiday for all Africans, where ever we live on earth.

Many of you will be familiar with the writings of Professor Tony Martin on Marcus Garvey. When Garvey came, he found us in the gutter after nearly 3,000 years of decline. We had been at the top of the mountain, the first to see the light. We gave the world civilization. You don’t have to take my word for it; you can read Count C. F. Volney’s RUINS OF EMPIRES where he tells us that while others were yet barbarians, we discovered the civil and religious systems that still govern the universe. Yes indeed, civilisation is a gift that Africans gave to the world.

Our decline began with a war that John Henrik Clarke reminded us of. That was around 700 BCE when Senecharib, the Assyrian King of Babylon was beating up on the Jews. The Kemetic Pharaoh Taharka intervened on the side of the Jews but his armies were smashed by Senecharib’s forces. This defeat is recorded in the Bible at 2 kings 24:7 which tells us, “The king of Egypt did not leave his land any more every thing he possessed, from the river of Egypt to the river of Babylon, was taken by the king of Babylon.”

Yet, Taharka has come down to us as one of the most brilliant generals in history. I beg to differ. For me Taharka was one of our biggest disasters in history. You can date the decline in African power and influence in the world from that disastrous military intervention to save the Jews. It was that defeat that opened the door to the foreign invasions of Africa; from the Persians under Cambyses the Greeks under Alexander, the Romans, the Arabs and finally the Europeans.


So when Garvey came, he met us living, indeed existing under the most terrible conditions. We had just come out of slavery. The Europeans had carved up Africa among themselves, sharing it out like a sliced cake and making it their colonies. Everywhere we lived on earth we were suffering. You remember that Garvey made a journey through Central America where he observed the miserable, inhuman conditions under which we lived in that part of the world.

He saw us suffering and dying building the Panama Canal. That was when he posed the question, “WHERE IS THE BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT?” I will return to this question later. However, since there was no BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT, Garvey set out to create one. That is why with Amy Ashwood Garvey, he built the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League.

The UNIA was built as an instrument, a vehicle for building a united African nation, for Africa for the Africans, “those at home and those abroad.” And what a magnificent job he did in building the UNIA into a Global Pan African Organisation. Its principal objective was and remains building one government for the whole of Africa that embraces Africans everywhere they live on earth. Its membership stretched across all continents including Asia.

C.L. R. James calls Garvey’s success “a propaganda miracle. Just imagine, with no TV or press coverage, no international telephones, no satellite transmissions, no Email, and yet, within a very short time, the UNIA encompassed not only North, Central and South America, but all the Islands in the Caribbean, it encompassed East, West and Southern Africa.

Who can build a similar Movement at this time? Garvey was on time. He came at the right time, just when we needed him most. I say, that of all me and women of all races and nations on earth, T. H. Marcus Garvey was the most successful human being of the twentieth century. And yet, he saw none of his magnificent victories. All the victories we have one from the 1950s right up to the present day, have their origins in the teachings and the vision of Marcus Garvey.

In his lifetime, “Men of History” such as W. E. B. Du Bois and George Padmore opposed him. But both came to embrace Pan Africanism and the vision of Garvey of building one single united African nation.

When we look at African leaders who emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, we find that they were all students of and influenced by T. H. Marcus Garvey. Look at the leading light of Pan Africanism on the continent, Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah, he was voted “African Man of the Millennium” in a poll carried out by BBC World Service. He plainly stated hat he was influenced by Marcus Garvey.

Last year, Walter Sisuli, one of the leading lights of the ANC died. He recalled that he first got into politics after he had read Marcus Garvey’s newspaper in his home village. Staying in Azania-South Africa, and we find Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe, founder of the militant Pan Africanist Congress also influenced by Marcus Garvey. Go to Nigeria and we find Nnamdi Azikiwe, who became the first President of Nigeria.

Go to Kenya and we find Jomo Kenyatta. Go to Guinea-Bissau and the Portuguese colonies, and we find Amilcar Cabral, the great Son of Africa, influenced by Marcus Garvey. So Men and Women of history come in the tradition of T. H. Marcus Garvey and they all fight for the same purpose, the total liberation and unification of Africa, for Africa for Africans. Those at home and those abroad.


The Pan African idea came out of the African Diaspora in the person of Edward Wilmot Blyden, born in St.Thomas in the Virgin Islands in 1832. He it was who said, “WE MUST HAVE AN AFRICAN NATIONALITY.” We cannot have an African nationality until we have Pan Africanism and Pan Africanism will be meaningless without an African nationality.

In our Congress in 1998, we called for Pan Africanism and the creation of an African passport that must be available to all Diasporan Africans. That includes you and me (See Resolutions of the UK Pan African Congress at

I say that Pan Africanism is a Project of Africans born in the Diaspora. Consequently, when we come here to praise Garvey and celebrate his birth, life and his wonderful achievements, we come with the knowledge and the determination that we have a duty and a responsibility to continue the struggle until Garvey’s vision is fulfilled. All of the men I have spoken about so far, they all struggled until they died. And as disciples, daughters and sons of T. H. Marcus Garvey so too, we must struggle until we die.


Now, we can come back to the question, “WHERE IS THE BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT?” I am asking you, when you look around the world today, do you see a BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT? I see only one and that is the government of Comrade President Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. Comrade Mugabe’s government stands up and fights uncompromisingly for the Black Man.

In Zimbabwe, the White man came and took the land by force. Comrade Mugabe has made reparations to the Africans in Zimbabwe. He has taken the land back and given it back to its rightful African owners.

When United States imperialism in the person of President Bill Clinton sought to capture the vast mineral wealth of the Democratic republic of Congo, He sent his Messenger Boy the Reverend Jesse Jackson to tell President Laurent Kabila what to do. Kabila rightly told Jesse Jackson to “get lost.”

That was when the plot was unleashed for Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi to invade the DRC to build an American organized and protected TUTSI HEMA EMPIRE, similar to what US imperialism is doing in Iraq today. It was the armed forces of Zimbabwe, tested in the fires of the armed struggle for national Liberation, together with forces from Angola and Namibia that defeated the American proxy war fought by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.

Some of you may be aware that in this US proxy war, over 5,000,000 million Africans were killed in the DRC? I heard no voices raised on this side of the Atlantic denouncing the SILENT GENOCIDE IN THE DRC and calling for the unconditional withdrawal of Ugandan, Rwandan and Burundian troops from the DRC. I heard no North American African voices offering sympathy to their fellow Africans in the DRC who lost their loved ones.

But come 11 September 2001, less than 3,000 people are killed in the attack on the World Trade Centre in New York, and I see so many organizations that were silent on THE SILENT GENOCIDE IN THE DRC now expressing their horror that white people had been killed and offering their sympathy to those who had lost their husbands, wives, sons and daughters etc.

I replied to one piece sent to me by the Black Radical Congress, pointing out that “ALL LIVES ARE EQUAL” and questioning their silence on the DRC. Their response was to abuse me. It is this same Black radical Congress which teamed up wit a bunch of Black Collaborators and launched a bitter personal attack on Comrade Robert Mugabe BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT on 1ST June 2003.

Zimbabwe is in THE EYE OF THE STORM. The struggle between imperialism and Pan Africanism is manifested in the battle for the future control of Zimbabwe. The USA, Britain, the European Union and Australia have all imposed economic, financial and travel sanctions against Zimbabwe. Imperialism has set up and funded its own Black political party in the so-called Movement for Democratic change. We have traitors in our midst in Zimbabwe just as we had traitors in the Garvey movement and just as we had traitors who betrayed toe Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah.

Shingai Rukwata Ndoro examined THE SECRET RIGHT WING FORCES AGAINST ZIMBABWE. He found that four Jewish families are trying to control the world, and that most of the money that has gone into Zimbabwe to oppose Mugabe and oppose the Land Reform Programme, comes from Jewish sources. Many of you will have heard of the Jewish Billionaire George Soros. He has pumped Millions into Zimbabwe in the attempt to overthrow Robert Mugabe’s BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT.

Now, if you agree that Comrade Mugabe has done the right thing in taking back the land that was violently stolen from the Africans; and if you agree that Mugabe’s government is truly a BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT, then surely you must agree that this is a government that the daughters and sons of Marcus Garvey must protect and defend with all our being. We must demonstrate our practical support and solidarity with the government and the people of Zimbabwe in the confrontation with Western imperialism.


Currently, there are big campaigns for Reparations in Europe and the USA. But, as Kwame Ture said, “There can be no Reparations without Repatriation.” This means of course that those of us are born and live in the Diaspora must have an absolute right to African citizenship; we must have the right to return to our home on the continent of Africa, to any city, town, village or mountain or oasis that we choose.

Reparations mean, “repairing the damage.” In my view, the current focus of the Reparations campaigns IN Europe and Anmerica is wrong. To me, the principal focus of the Reparations campaign must be to “repair the damage” caused to the African way of life, African society and culture, by slavery, colonialism and neo-colonialism.

In other words, our focus must be on the African continent. Africans on the continent have endured untold suffering from the ravages of slavery, colonialism, neo-colonialism, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the host of International charities marauding over Africa. These international charities are fifth colomnists, agents of neo-colonialism and instruments of the new colonialism. Ngugi Wa Thiongo said it and I say it, “AFRICA DOES NOT NEED CHARITY, AFRICA NEEDS LIBERATION.”

Let me refer you to Walter Rodney’s WEST AFRICA AND THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. African society was organized in such a way that the needs of all were catered for. Edward Wilmot Blyden wrote about this in his brilliant little book. AFRICAN LIFE AND CUSTOMS. It is WRITTEN in the Holy Bible at St. Matthew 25:31-16 that those who would inherit the kingdom prepared from the foundation of the world are the ones who had fed the hungry, clothed the naked, housed the homeless and given water to the thirsty.

You will find it in Karenga’s THE HUSIA and you will find it in E. A. Wallis Budge’s EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD and Gerald Massey’s ANCIENT EGYPT THE LIGHTOF THE WORLD.If you are seeking eternal life, then you must feed the hungry, clothe the naked, house the homeless, give water to the thirsty and minister unto the sick.

These are the high principles of our African culture around which we constructed our societies. In this, the African way of life, no one was in want of the basic necessities of life for life. Everywhere we live on the earth today, we are in want of the basic necessities of life. That is why we must fight to restore African culture and return to the African way of life.

We have to campaign, both on the continent and off the continent for African leaders to repair the damage caused by slavery and colonialism. African leaders must make reparations to the hundreds and thousands of millions of Africans who are in want of food, clothing, shelter, educations and basic health care on the continent. They must break with the ways of THE WHITE MAN, reject European culture and rebuild African societies according to the High Principles of our African culture.

So when the government of Zimbabwe takes back the land and returns it to the African population of Zimbabwe, they are making the type Reparations that I am talking about. Once you begin this process, one cannot tell where it will lead. As daughters and sons of Marcus Garvey, we have a vested interest in ensuring that the process leads us back to living the African way of life in a united African nation.

I have often quoted the African historian Femi Biko. He is fond of saying, “Everything above ground comes from below the ground.” The wealth of Africa is in the ground; all our gold diamonds, precious metals and oil are in the ground. So he who controls the land exercises wealth, economic and political power. Consequently, we must support the government of Namibia where Comrade President Sam Nujoma has embarked on a process of taking back the land and returning it to its rightful African owners. At the same time, we must vehemently campaign to reverse the decision of Nelson Mandela and the ANC that allowed the Whites in South Africa to keep all the land they stole from the Africans before 1913.

I was in South Africa in 2000 up in the North in Mphumalanga. An African woman told me, “All this land belongs to the Pedi. The Whites came and took our land and we want our land back.” So we must individually and collectively call on the ANC government of South Africa to REPAIR THE DAMAGE caused by “White settler colonialism” and apartheid. Take the land back and give it back to the Pedi people to whom it rightfully belongs.

There is also a problem in Kenya where the English went and displaced the people from their land. Not long ago, one British Diplomat told the Kenyans that they must forget their history, that they must forget that the English came and stole their land. But the English do not forget any aspect of their history.

They will never forget that Blacks first came to Britain as invaders, conquerors and rulers; that we were the first Knights of Chivalry on which their aristocracy was built; that we were the first to impose a “head tax,” that was originally known as “Watch Money” or “Mail Money.” Because this was originally imposed by Blacks, it eventually became known as “Blackmail.”

That is where the term “blackmail” comes from. We were respected, loved, feared and admired. It was only after the descendants of Scotia, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh from whom Scotland got its name and who ruled Scotland or almost 500 years were defeated in 1445 that the term “black” was transformed into its opposite and given all these negative connotations.

But Kenyans will not forget their history. Just last Friday (12 August 2004); the Maasai staged a demonstration in the Kenyan capital Nairobi demanding their land back. They said, “We want the British to hand over our land as a way of addressing historical injustices that have been wrought upon the Maasai community.”

The Kenyan government has a duty and a responsibility to repair the damage caused by British land grabbing injustices in Kenya. They must take the land away from the British and return it to the rightful African owners. We, the daughters and sons of Marcus Garvey must individually and collectively, call on the Kenyan government to take the land back and give it back to its rightful African owners.

Now you can understand why Robert Mugabe is being demonized in the British, American and European media. If the land can be taken back and returned to its rightful owners in one country, then it can be taken back and returned to its rightful owners in all countries.

When we look at Namibia again, we see that Comrade President Sam Nujoma and the government of Namibia are making Reparations to the African people of Namibia and to Africans in the Diaspora. A few years ago, Namibia passed a law to set aside land for Diasporan Africans. Now, the Namibian government has embarked on the process of taking back the land that was stolen by the Germans. They have invited officials from Zimbabwe to come to Namibia to advise them about how the process should be conducted.

Some of you may be aware of the Herero people who live in Namibia. In the early part of the last century, they staged a rebellion against German settler colonialism. Over 80,000 Herero men, women and children were killed. The Germans practiced their love for killing people in the then South West Africa and in Cameroon before they visited mass slaughter on their fellow Europeans.

I was at the ASCAC conference in Chicago in 1985 when John Henrik Clarke told of one of the epic battles the Herero fought against their German settler colonizers.

In traditional Herero mythology, they walk the earth carrying the Sun. Had they not won that particular battle, as their Chief said, they would have had to “put down the Sun, the light would go out (plunging the world into darkness) and mankind would never see a flower again.” Thanks to the Most High God Atum Ra, the Hereros are still walking the earth carrying the sun, mythologically speaking.

Now, the Hereros are suing the Germans for Reparations of $4 billions. Three weeks ago, the German Ambassador in Namibia told the Herero that they must withdraw their claim and drop the lawsuit. And I say NO! The Herero must pursue their claim for reparations for the CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY that the Germans perpetuated against them. The Germans have paid out hundreds of $billions to the Jews and our Herero Sisters and Brothers are entitled to the $4 billions they are claiming in Reparations.

And I urge all of you, individually and collectively, to write to the Namibian Ambassador expressing your support for the Hereros claim for reparations from the Germans, and to encourage the government of Namibia to embrace the claim and push it forward.

It is not only on the African continent that we are having problems getting back and retaining our land. We are also having problems in Central and South America. In Colombia, the Africans who have lived on the Pacific coast for centuries are being driven off the land and right wing death squads are killing Africans in increasing numbers. In Honduras, the Africans there face similar problems. They are being driven off the land that they have lived on for centuries.

That is why we need a strong, powerful, united African nation, that can protect her children whereever they live on this planet. If Africa does not unite, begin to flex her powerful economic muscles and punch her weight in international affairs, we will always be oppressed by those who think they are stronger than us and more powerful than us. Pan Africanism, a united African nation is the solution to the problems we face everywhere.

We have problems of slavery and racial oppression continuing in Mauritania and in the Sudan. The problems in Darfur 9is a struggle for the oil wealth of that area. The oil is in the ground and the minority Arab regime that still riles Sudan is massacring and displacing Africans so that it can control the oil wealth of Darfur. Make no mistake, the minority Arab regime that oppresses Africans in Sudan is being slowly but surely defeated. We must ensure that the same fate is met by the anti-African racially oppressive regime in Mauritania.


Now you understand why Robert Mugabe is a dangerous man, dangerous to settler colonialism and imperialism. The triumph of the Third Chimurenga, the current stage of the African revolution in Zimbabwe will eventually lead to the unraveling of the imperialist settlement in Azania-South Africa and throughout our great continent. Indeed, it has been said, that the imperialist war against Zimbabwe is a pre-emptive strike against Land restoration in South Africa.

We, the Africans who live in the Diaspora, have a crucial role to play in protecting the BLACK MAN’S GOVERNMENT in Zimbabwe.

As I said, the idea of Pan Africanism came out of the African Diaspora. All the great warriors who wrote their names in history, from Edward Wilmot Blyden, Henry Sylvester Williams, T.H. Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, Kentyatta, Azikiwe, Chiek Anta Diop, Amilcar Cabral, Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah and Kwame Ture; they have all done so as warriors for Pan Africanism.

Now, we are being called upon to write our names in “The Glorious History of the African Peoples of the World.” The way in which we can do this is by making the GLOBAL PAN AFRICAN CONGRESS, being held in Zimbabwe from 13 – 17 August 2005 as a GLOBAL AFRICAN FAMILY GATHERING, into an earth shaking, epoch changing event.


In a letter to Africanias, a Spanish language magazine published in Venezuela, I observed that Africans are scattered throughout North, South and Central America. We did not choose to scatter ourselves in these regions of the globe. That is a legacy of the crime against humanity, the forced enslavement of Africans and their transportation to these regions of the world against our will. Now, we can take steps to re-unite the African family through the struggle for Pan Africanism.

The idea of a Global Pan African Congress came out of the 1998 United Kingdom Pan African Congress that was held in celebration of the 111th birthday of T. H. Marcus Garvey. Then, we called for the 17th day of August everywhere to become a Global African Holiday (see Resolutions of the UK Pan African Congress at:

This year, the African united Action Front in Britain is calling on Africans everywhere to take the day off work on August 17 as a Pan African Holiday.

If you did not hear this call before, you are hearing it now. Take the 17th day of August off work every year and make it into Pan African holiday to celebrate the birth, life and work of T. H. Marcus Garvey.

We called for the creation of an African Passport so that Africans, whether they are born on the continent or in the Diaspora, can travel freely throughout the length and breadth of Africa, with the right to live, to work and to die anywhere in Africa that we choose. You may have noted that a number of Diasporan Africans are relocating to our great continent and choosing the place where they want to die.

Kwame Ture went home to Guinea to die. Mawina Kouyate went home to Gambia to die. A survey carried out in London in 2002 found that two-thirds of all blacks living in London want to relocate to their home in Africa. So we need the African passport and for this, we need Pan Africanism, united African nation embracing the whole of Africa, and as an African family, all the countries that have a majority African population like the Caribbean Islands, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela, and Brazil.

Some of you may have read a book entitled AFRICAN GLORY. It was written by J. C. de Graft Johnson. He was one of he delegates at the 1945 Pan African Congress. In the introduction, he quotes John o’ London who, writing in 1935 said, “Africa and Asia will seize economic and military leadership from Europe.”

United States imperialism, despite all its banter and bluster is scared of China. They know that in this century, China will overtake them as an economic and military power and there is nothing they can do about it. When they went to war against Iraq, New Zealand refused to join them since it recognized that China is the coming power.

Indeed, I say, United States imperialism is a declining power. It is armed to the teeth and powerful, but it has gone over the top and the motor is heading down hill. If nothing else, Iraq proves that. The result of the referendum in Venezuela is further proof of this. Gone are the days when United States imperialism could walk into Venezuela and do what it likes.

When I look at the USA with its military forces all over the world, it reminds me of the Roman Empire. Where is the Roman Empire today? Where is the Holy Roman Empire? They are trying to recreate it in the European union. At one time, Portugal was the strongest power on earth. Where is Portugal today? It was said, “The sun never set on the British Empire. Where is the British Empire today? It is playing the role of junior Lieutenant to United States imperialism in the new colonialist wars in Yugoslavia and in Iraq.

So, having seen that empires rise up and decline over time, we see China as the coming power and we see US imperialism as a declining power. So where is our beloved Africa. No one should harbour any doubts that Africa will become the Economic and Military Power on earth.

A few weeks ago, Alpha Omar Konarie, Head of the Commission of the African Union told a Conference in Addis Abba that Africa can become a world power by utilizing its economic power.

Mr. Konarie is a very interesting man. He is a former president of Mali and a dedicated Pan Africanist. I was at a Conference in Libya in August 200. He told the audience, “The problem facing Africa is either Africanisation or globalisation.” He, he said, “is for Africanisation.” He is the right man in the right job at the right time. Some of us may have problems with the African Union, calling it the OAU mark 2.

I see the African union as a stepping-stone on the road to Pan Africanism. That is why I say, “Africa is on the road to victory over her enemies.” T. H. Marcus Garvey put us on this road, and no force on earth can take us off this road. When Garvey came, he found us in the gutter. He took us out of the gutter and put us at the foot of the mountain. He told us, “you see the top of this mountain, that is where you belong and that is where we must go.” And, we are slowly and surely climbing back to the top of the mountain.

Grace walker, an African woman living in Chicago, has shown how the structures created by the African Union can be utilized to transform Africa scientifically and economically within a relatively short period of time. So the Global pan African Congress in Zimbabwe has as one of its tasks, working out the politics, strategies and tactics of how to achieve Pan Africanism and then implementing them.

When we set out on the road to GPAC 2005 Zimbabwe, one of the tings that we set out to do is to involve the African family in Central and South America in all stages of organizing the GPAC. We have made some successes on this. ONECA, the Central America Black Organization will be participating in the GPAC. We expect some of the major black organizations in Colombia to participate. We expect Africans in Mexico to be involved from the beginning. I have no doubt that Africans in Brazil, Venezuela and other countries in Central and South America will be involved in organizing and participating in the GPAC.

A representative of ONECA said that they will participate but their organizations are poor. So I want to make an appeal to all of you here today and to others who will read this presentation, to make a financial donation tom the GPAC, to allow us to help with the traveling costs of representatives from Central and South America to travel to Zimbabwe in September for a PLANNING MEETING of the International organizing Committee for the GPAC. We are appealing to all individuals and organizations who can do so to sponsor the GPAC. Your sponsorship will be recognized.

During the armed struggle for National Liberation, one of the slogans of the Zimbabwe African national union was, “WE ARE OUR OWN LIBERATORS.” In organizing this GPAC, WE MUST BE OUR OWN FINANCIERS.

We have said that each country with a significant African population must set up a GPAC National Organising Committee. The Pan African Movement in Spain has said that they will do so. We received a letter from the Pan Africaniste Youth Organization of Senegal saying that they would help to set up such national Organising Committees in Senegal, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Benin, Togo, Cote de Ivoire, Burkina Fasso, Niger, Mali, Rwanda and Guinea Conakry.

So this GPAC is alive, breathing, kicking and gaining momentum. So I am inviting all of you to get involved in organizing and mobilizing for this GPAC and to come to Zimbabwe in August 2005 to participate with the Global African family and celebrate the 118th birthday with the Global African family in Zimbabwe.

The Africans in North America have always participated in Pan African Congresses. You have played an outstanding role in building and sustaining Pan Africanism and the ideal of Africa for Africans. As sons and daughters of Marcus Garvey you have to continue to play that invaluable role.

Collectively, Global Africans must become doers so that the vision and ideals of T. H. Marcus Garvey and the tasks he left bus can be accomplished. As we celebrate T. H. Marcus Garvey’s 117th birthday today, we must rededicate ourselves to carry out the tasks that he left for us in order to accomplish his noble mission.

As Kwame Nkrumah said, “Our philosophy must find its weapon in the environment and living conditions of African people. It is from those conditions that the intellectual content of our ideology must be created. The emancipation of the African continent is the emancipation of man. This requires two aims: first, the recognition of the egalitarianism of human society, and second, the logistic mobilization of all our resources toward the attainment of that restitution.”

And so, as I close, I offer Honour, I offer Glory, I offer Praises and thanks to The Most High God, to The Lesser Gods and to the Ancestors

Pharaoh Jahil
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#2 04-05-2005, 08:17 PM
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Sister Nisa, this should help you on Pan-Afrikanism.


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#3 04-05-2005, 08:19 PM
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Originally Posted by Pharaoh Jahil
Sister Nisa, this should help you on Pan-Afrikanism.


Ok thanks brother…bout to read this post…i scrolled through it..thanks again
04-05-2005, 09:11 PM
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That was incredible…thank you Brutha Pharaoh Jahil !

In your opinion, how does ( or will ) Pan Africanism benefit Diasporans living in the U.S. ?


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#5 04-05-2005, 09:35 PM
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Originally Posted by Akilah
That was incredible…thank you Brutha Pharaoh Jahil !

In your opinion, how does ( or will ) Pan Africanism benefit Diasporans living in the U.S. ?


Pan-Afrikanism requires that all people threwout the world who are of Afrikan descent to work together as a global Afrikan community.

This very idea benefits not just us here in the states but Afrikans around the world. If we as a global Afrikan community put together our economic resources, Afrikans in America wouldn’t be at the bottom of the barrel in today’s American economy. It will also benfit us culturally because we would be interacting more with our people from Afrika. Just my opinion.


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#6 04-05-2005, 09:54 PM
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Originally Posted by Akilah
how does Pan Africanism benefit Diasporans living in the U.S. ?

PanAfricanism has the potential to benefit African Americans socially, economically, and politically. I for one believe that the social/economic state of black people worldwide will not improve until the social/economic/political state of Africa improves. Every people has a native country, and the respect that people get worldwide is tied to the respect/power of the homeland. A British person can travel anywhere in the world, because England has the respect of the world. The same can be said of a Greek, a French person, even a Japanese. However, when you look at Africa and how it is perceived throughout the world, the treatment of black people is obvious.

PanAfricanism would stabilize warfare in Africa, thus making it possible for more people to invest in the continent. There are unprecidented business opportunities that exist in Africa, for people with the right skills. Africa is a continent with rich resources, but poor infastructure. Plumbing, phone lines, roads, bridges, hospitals, farming, are all badly needed in the country. White business typically ignore these needs, because it is not in their interest to fill them. Many Africans don’t have the expertise to fill these needs either. Although there are many African engineers, architects, and doctors…most live outside their native countries. This leave a gap which would make the person/people/companies that fill it very wealthy. African Americans have the knowledge to step into this area. By doing so, not only would they be helping to people of Africa, they would also make themselves a lot of money.

In America the black population has been decreasing with an increasing influx of Latino Immigrants (mostly Mexican), Asian Immigrants, and European Immigrants. With a decrease in population comes a decrease in political power. Fortunatley for us, the black community has gotten some increase with an influx of African & Caribbean Immigrants coming to the US as well (in NYC there are more “foreign” blacks than African Americans. PanAfricanism can bridge the gaps between these various groups, and have us working together.

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#7 04-06-2005, 02:07 PM
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Originally Posted by panafrica
PanAfricanism has the potential to benefit African Americans socially, economically, and politically. I for one believe that the social/economic state of black people worldwide will not improve until the social/economic/political state of Africa improves. Every people has a native country, and the respect that people get worldwide is tied to the respect/power of the homeland. A British person can travel anywhere in the world, because England has the respect of the world. The same can be said of a Greek, a French person, even a Japanese. However, when you look at Africa and how it is perceived throughout the world, the treatment of black people is obvious.

PanAfricanism would stabilize warfare in Africa, thus making it possible for more people to invest in the continent. There are unprecidented business opportunities that exist in Africa, for people with the right skills. Africa is a continent with rich resources, but poor infastructure. Plumbing, phone lines, roads, bridges, hospitals, farming, are all badly needed in the country. White business typically ignore these needs, because it is not in their interest to fill them. Many Africans don’t have the expertise to fill these needs either. Although there are many African engineers, architects, and doctors…most live outside their native countries. This leave a gap which would make the person/people/companies that fill it very wealthy. African Americans have the knowledge to step into this area. By doing so, not only would they be helping to people of Africa, they would also make themselves a lot of money.

In America the black population has been decreasing with an increasing influx of Latino Immigrants (mostly Mexican), Asian Immigrants, and European Immigrants. With a decrease in population comes a decrease in political power. Fortunatley for us, the black community has gotten some increase with an influx of African & Caribbean Immigrants coming to the US as well (in NYC there are more “foreign” blacks than African Americans. PanAfricanism can bridge the gaps between these various groups, and have us working together.

Said it much better than I did brother.


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#8 04-06-2005, 02:51 PM
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Brutha’s Pharaoh Jahil & PanAfrica
for your insightful responses to my question…

Much Appreciated
as usual

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#9 04-13-2005, 06:38 PM
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“Pan Africanism not a nationality but a life style….You better believe it.”

Thanks for educating us with this information.

Be an innovator not a duplicator!

Be sure to stop in and share your receipe today!

Learn to copyright your poetry or writings today!

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#10 02-26-2006, 02:18 AM
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Originally Posted by panafrica
PanAfricanism has the potential to benefit African Americans socially, economically, and politically. I for one believe that the social/economic state of black people worldwide will not improve until the social/economic/political state of Africa improves. Every people has a native country, and the respect that people get worldwide is tied to the respect/power of the homeland. A British person can travel anywhere in the world, because England has the respect of the world. The same can be said of a Greek, a French person, even a Japanese. However, when you look at Africa and how it is perceived throughout the world, the treatment of black people is obvious.

PanAfricanism would stabilize warfare in Africa, thus making it possible for more people to invest in the continent. There are unprecidented business opportunities that exist in Africa, for people with the right skills. Africa is a continent with rich resources, but poor infastructure. Plumbing, phone lines, roads, bridges, hospitals, farming, are all badly needed in the country. White business typically ignore these needs, because it is not in their interest to fill them. Many Africans don’t have the expertise to fill these needs either. Although there are many African engineers, architects, and doctors…most live outside their native countries. This leave a gap which would make the person/people/companies that fill it very wealthy. African Americans have the knowledge to step into this area. By doing so, not only would they be helping to people of Africa, they would also make themselves a lot of money.

In America the black population has been decreasing with an increasing influx of Latino Immigrants (mostly Mexican), Asian Immigrants, and European Immigrants. With a decrease in population comes a decrease in political power. Fortunatley for us, the black community has gotten some increase with an influx of African & Caribbean Immigrants coming to the US as well (in NYC there are more “foreign” blacks than African Americans. PanAfricanism can bridge the gaps between these various groups, and have us working together.

Great post PanAfrica.

IMO we need to identify the practical tasks we can do to make the sentiment in your post reality.

Have you identified any African contacts that AA with specific expertise can link up with to begin this process?

What other specific things should an AA do to get started building these relationships?

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January 13, 2007


by The Champion of Darkness

The U.S. Constitution,
“Article 33” says I am 3/5 human being,
but that’s because I am 2/5 God.


Amen is the most holy word ever used in prayer. It salutes a Black ancient King, Amenhotep, Pharoah of Egypt, creator of our monotheistic religious beliefs.

My genetic heritage connects me to the original and most ancient Gods of man.

“The face of the Sphinx is my face.”

My presence on this planet is essential because I am representative of those original Godly ancestors who started the process of human development and parented all civilizations. Their blood continues to run in my veins and my brain cells contain the genetic memory of their incredible creative and supernatural powers.

They are the original creators of:

the wheel and flying machines
cross breeding
selective breeding
genetic engineering of other humans in their image.
They also created new breeds of animals and plants.
The only reason I am 3/5 human
is because I am 2/5 God.

I represent the original man.
All other humans came from me.
I am an essential part of nature.

The rays of the sun do not make me ill.

My hair is the most original among all living organisms and grows like the spiral movement of the heavenly bodies and other natural forces.

It represents the spinning of our planet, the curling of ocean waves, the spiral movement of sea shells, the spiral movement of climbing vines, and everybody knows the tornado moves like my hair grows.

Samson’s strength was not in the length, but in its originality. An unscrupulous someone rearranged this information in an effort to confuse me.

Samson grew weak because someone tampered with his hair. His hair was his strength.

My hair is my strength.

My hair is knotty.
I cut it not,
I straighten it not,
I color it not,
I chemicalize it not.

Look upon all other creatures with hair
and see how I stand out amongst them.

My broad nose,
large lips,
black skin
and original hair
are the essence of my being.

These are just a few of the heavenly things
which makes me 3/5 human, 2/5 God.

And a God does not tamper with its essence.

Victor A. Brady, The Champion of Darkness
Copyright © 1985 Victor A. Brady
All Rights Reserved Locally and Internationally

This posting is provided to the individual members of the HAIR!!!! discussion forums, without permission from the copyright owner, for purposes of criticism, comment, scholarship and research under the “fair use” provisions of the Federal copyright laws and it may not be distributed further without permission of the copyright owner, except for “fair use.”


HAIR!!!! Poetry

Gwendolyn Brooks
To those of my sisters who kept their naturals

Champion of Darkness
I am Afrikan I am Black

Etosha Harvey
Setting Me Free

Marcus Garvey
The Black Woman

Ya Strugglin’

I’m Tangled…

Sharon Harvey Rosenberg

Coil vs Comb

For Brown-Skin Girls

The Creamy Lye

The Hot Comb

Styling My Hair in the Mirror


About Sharon Harvey Rosenberg

HAIR!!!! Discussion Forums:
More HAIR!!!!
HAIR!!!! Matters
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Quotations I
Quotations II

I find, in being Black,
a thing of “Beauty”;
like a joy; a strength;
a secret cup of gladness …
a native land in neither time nor place …
a native land in every Black face!
Be loyal to yourselves;
your skin;
your hair;
your lips;
your speech;
your laughing kinds
are Black kingdoms,
vast as any other.

— Ossie Davis

.. Copyright © 1998-2006 Prema




January 13, 2007


Malcolm X
(El-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz)
On the Subject of
Our HAIR!!!!
The Black Man in America has been colonized mentally, his mind has been destroyed. And today, even though he goes to college, he comes out and still doesn’t even know he is a Black Man; he is ashamed of what he is because his culture has been destroyed; he has been made to hate his skin; he has been made to hate the texture of his hair, he has been made to hate the features that God gave him.

“Malcolm and James Farmer Separation & Integration Dialogue”, May 1962


Not just an American problem, but a world problem.

Excerpted from a Speech by Malcolm X
New York, 1965

The press whips up hysteria in the white public. Then it shifts gears and starts working trying to get the sympathy of the white public. And then it shifts gears and gets the white public to support whatever criminal action they’re getting ready to involve the United States in.

Remember how they referred to the hostages as “white hostages.” Not “hostages.” They said these “cannibals” in the Congo had “white hostages.” Oh, and this got you all shook up. White nuns, white priests, white missionaries. What’s the difference between a white hostage and a Black hostage? What’s the difference between a white life and a Black life?

You must think there’s a difference, because your press specifies whiteness. “Nineteen white hostages” cause you to grieve in your heart.

During the months when bombs were being dropped on Black people by the hundreds and the thousands, you said nothing. And you did nothing. But as soon as their lives became involved, you got concerned.

I was in Africa during the summer when they — the mercenaries and the pilots were shooting down Black people in the Congo like flies. It wouldn’t even get mentioned in the Western press. It wasn’t mentioned. If it was mentioned, it was mentioned in the classified section of the newspaper. Someplace where you’d need a microscope to find it.

And at that time the African brothers, at first, they weren’t taking hostages. They only began to take hostages when they found that these pilots were bombing their villages. And then they took hostages, moved them into the village, and warned the pilots that if you drop bombs on the village, you’ll hit your own people. It was a war maneuver. They were at war. They only held a hostage in a village to keep the mercenaries from murdering on a mass scale the people of those villages.

They weren’t keeping them as hostages because they were cannibals. Or because they thought their flesh was tasty. Some of those missionaries had been over there for forty years and didn’t get eaten up. If they were going to eat them they would have eaten them when they were young and tender. Why you can’t even digest that old white meat on an old chicken.

It’s imagery. They use their ability to create images and then they use these images that they’ve created to mislead the people. To confuse the people and make the people accept wrong as right and reject right as wrong. Make the people actually think that the criminal is the victim and the victim is the criminal.

Even as I point this out, you may say, “What does this all have to do with the Black man in America? And what does it have to do with the Black and white relations here in Rochester?

You have to understand it. Until 1959, the image of the African continent was created by the enemies of Africa. Africa was a land dominated by outside powers. A land dominated by Europeans. And as these Europeans dominated the continent of Africa, it was they who created the image of Africa that was projected abroad. And they projected Africa and the people of Africa in a negative image, a hateful image.

They made us think that Africa was a land of jungles, a land of animals, a land of cannibals and savages. It was a hateful image.

And because they were so successful in projecting this negative image of Africa, those of us here in the West of African ancestry, the Afro-American, we looked upon Africa as a hateful place. We looked upon the African as the hateful person. And if you referred to us as an African it was like putting us as a servant, or playing house, or talking about us in the way we didn’t want to be talked.

Why? Because those who oppress know that you can’t make a person hate the root without making them hate the tree. You can’t hate your own and not end up hating yourself. And since we all originated in Africa, you can’t make us hate Africa without making us hate ourselves. And they did this very skillfully.

And what was the result? They ended up with 22 million Black people here in America who hated everything about us that was African.

We hated the African characteristics.

We hated our hair…

We hated our nose, the shape of our nose, and the shape of our lips, the color of our skin. Yes we did. And it was you who taught us to hate ourselves simply by shrewdly maneuvering us into hating the land of our forefathers and the people on that continent.

As long as we hated those people, we hated ourselves. As long as we hated what we thought they looked like, we hated what we actually looked like. And you call me a hate teacher. Why, you taught us to hate ourselves. You taught the world to hate a whole race of people and have the audacity now to blame us for hating you simply because we don’t like the rope that you put around our necks.

When you teach a man to hate his lips, the lips that God gave him, the shape of the nose that God gave him, the texture of the hair that God gave him, the color of the skin that God gave him, you’ve committed the worst crime that a race of people can commit. And this is the crime that you’ve committed.

Our color became a chain, a psychological chain. Our blood — African blood — became a psychological chain, a prison, because we were ashamed of it. We believe — they would tell it to your face, and say they weren’t; they were! We felt trapped because our skin was black. We felt trapped because we had African blood in our veins.

This is how you imprisoned us. Not just bringing us over here and making us slaves. But the image that you created of our motherland and the image that you created of our people on that continent was a trap, was a prison, was a chain, was the worst form of slavery that has ever been invented by a so-called civilized race and a civilized nation since the beginning of the world.

You still see the result of it among our people in this country today. Because we hated our African blood, we felt inadequate, we felt inferior, we felt helpless. And in our state of helplessness, we wouldn’t work for ourselves. We turned to you for help, and then you wouldn’t help us. We didn’t feel adequate. We turned to your for advice and you gave us the wrong advice. Turned to you for direction and you kept us going in circles.

But a change has come about. In us. And what from?

Back in ’55 in Indonesia, at Bandung, they had a conference of dark-skinned people. The people of Africa and Asia came together for the first time in centuries. They had no nuclear weapons, they had no air fleets, no navy. But they discussed their plight and they found that there was one thing that all of us had in common — oppression, exploitation, suffering. And we had a common oppressor, a common exploiter.

If a brother came from Kenya and called his oppressor an Englishman; and another came from the Congo, he called his oppressor a Belgian; another came from Guinea, he called his oppressor French. But when you brought the oppressors together there’s one thing they all had in common, they were all from Europe. And this European was oppressing the people of Africa and Asia.

And since we could see that we had oppression in common and exploitation in common, sorrow and sadness and grief in common, our people began to get together and determined at the Bandung Conference that it was time for us to forget our differences. We had differences. Some were Buddhists, some were Hindus, some were Christian, some were Muslim some didn’t have any religion at all. Some were socialists, some were capitalists, some were communist, and some didn’t have any economy at all.

But with all of the differences that existed, they agreed on one thing, the spirit of Bandung was, from there on in, to de-emphasize the areas of difference and emphasize the areas that we had in common.

And it was the spirit of Bandung that fed the flames of nationalism and freedom not only in Asia, but especially on the African continent. From ’55 to ’60 the flames of nationalism, independence on the African continent, became so bright and so furious, they were able to burn and sting anything that got in its path. And that same spirit didn’t stay on the African continent. It somehow or other — it slipped into the Western Hemisphere who supposedly had been separate from the African continent for almost 400 years.

But the same desire for freedom that moved the Black man on the African continent began to burn in the heart and the mind and the soul of the Black man here, in South America, Central America, and North America, showing us we were not separated. Though there was an ocean between us, we were still moved by the same heartbeat.

The spirit of nationalism on the African continent — It began to collapse; the powers, the colonial powers, they couldn’t stay there. The British got in trouble in Kenya, Nigeria, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, and other areas of the continent. The French got in trouble in the entire French Equatorial North Africa, including Algeria. Became a trouble spot for France. The Congo wouldn’t any longer permit the Belgians to stay there. The entire African continent became explosive from ’54-’55 on up to 1959. By 1959 they couldn’t stay there any longer.

It wasn’t that they wanted to go. It wasn’t that all of a sudden they had become benevolent. It wasn’t that all of a sudden they had ceased wanting to exploit the Black man of his natural resources. But it was the spirit of independence that was burning in the heart and mind of the Black man. He no longer would allow himself to be colonized, oppressed, and exploited. He was willing to lay down his life and take the lives of those who tried to take his, which was a new spirit.

The colonial powers didn’t leave. But what did they do? Whenever a person is playing basketball, if –you watch him — the players on the opposing team trap him and he doesn’t want to get rid of, to throw the ball away, he has to pass it to someone who’s in the clear, who’s on the same team as he.

And since Belgium and France and Britain and these other colonial powers were trapped — they were exposed as colonial powers — they had to find someone who was still in the clear, and the only one in the clear so far as the Africans were concerned was the United States. So they passed the ball to the United States. And this administration picked up and ran like mad ever since.

This posting is provided to the individual members of this group without permission from the copyright owner for purposes of criticism, comment, scholarship and research under the “fair use” provisions of the Federal copyright laws and it may not be distributed further without permission of the copyright owner, except for “fair use.”

Related Links:

The Official Malcolm X Website
Malcolm X Museum
Malcolm X Project
Malcolm X
Brother Malcolm


HAIR!!!! Essays:

Do not worship hair
by Neely Fuller Jr.
Oppressed Hair
by Alice Walker
Black People Will Not Be Free Until…
by F. Leon Wilson
A Natural Success
by Jenga Mwendo
The Black Woman
by Marcus Garvey
Attempting to Look White as a Survival Strategy
by Hobody
The Mammy and Amos & Andy Perception
by Edward Williams
The Great Black Hair Obsession
Earl Ofari Hutchinson
Hair & Interracial Relationships
by Brother DG
I am Afrikan I am Black
Champion of Darkness
Not Just An American Problem
by Malcolm X
by Prema
Skin Bleaching

“Don’t remove the kinks
from your HAIR.

Remove them
from your BRAIN.”

— The Honorable
Marcus Mosiah Garvey

HAIR!!!! Discussion Forums:
More HAIR!!!!
HAIR!!!! Matters
HAIR!!!! Essays
HAIR!!!! Poetry
Quotations I
Quotations II

.. Copyright © 1998-2006 Prema



January 13, 2007

The Black Woman

by Marcus Mosiah Garvey

Black queen of beauty, thou hast given color to the world!
Among other women thou art royal and the fairest!
Like the brightest of jewels in the regal diadem,
Shin’st thou, Goddess of Africa, Nature’s purest emblem!

Black men worship at thy virginal shrine of truest love,
Because in thine eyes are virtue’s steady and holy mark,
As we see in no other, clothed in silk or fine linen,
From ancient Venus, the Goddess, to mythical Helen.

When Africa stood at the head of the elder nations,
The Gods used to travel from foreign lands to look at thee
On couch of costly Eastern materials, all perfumed,
Reclined thee, as in thy path flow’rs were strewn-sweetest that bloomed.

Thy transcendent marvelous beauty made the whole world mad,
Bringing Solomon to tears as he viewed thy comeliness;
Anthony and the elder Ceasars wept at thy royal feet,
Preferring death than to leave thy presence, their foes to meet.

You, in all ages, have attracted the adoring world,
And caused many a bloody banner to be unfurled
You have sat upon exalted and lofty eminence,
To see a world fight in your ancient African defense.

Today you have been dethroned, through the weakness of your men,
While, in frenzy, those who of yore craved your smiles and your hand-
Those who were all monsters and could not with love approach you-
Have insulted your pride and now attack your good virtue.

Because of disunion you became mother of the world,
Giving tinge of robust color to five continents,
Making a greater world of millions of colored races,
Whose claim to beauty is reflected through our black faces.

From the handsome Indian to European brunette,
There is a claim for that credit of their sunny beauty
That no one can e’er to take from thee, 0 Queen of all women
Who have borne trials and troubles and racial burden.

Once more we shall, in Africa, fight and conquer for you,
Restoring the pearly crown that proud Queen Sheba did wear
Yea, it may mean blood, it may mean death; but still we shall fight,
Bearing our banners to Vict’ry, men of Africa’s might.

Superior Angels look like you in Heaven above,
For thou art fairest, queen of the seasons, queen of our love
No condition shall make us ever in life desert thee,
Sweet Goddess of the ever green land and placid blue sea.

— Marcus Mosiah Garvey
February 28, 1927


HAIR!!!! Essays:

Do not worship hair
by Neely Fuller Jr.
Oppressed Hair
by Alice Walker
Black People Will Not Be Free Until…
by F. Leon Wilson
A Natural Success
by Jenga Mwendo
The Black Woman
by Marcus Garvey
Attempting to Look White as a Survival Strategy
by Hobody
The Mammy and Amos & Andy Perception
by Edward Williams
The Great Black Hair Obsession
Earl Ofari Hutchinson
Hair & Interracial Relationships
by Brother DG
I am Afrikan I am Black
Champion of Darkness
Not Just An American Problem
by Malcolm X
by Prema
Skin Bleaching

“Don’t remove the kinks
from your HAIR.

Remove them
from your BRAIN.”

— The Honorable
Marcus Mosiah Garvey

HAIR!!!! Discussion Forums:
More HAIR!!!!
HAIR!!!! Matters
HAIR!!!! Essays
HAIR!!!! Poetry
Quotations I
Quotations II

.. Copyright © 1998-2006 Prema



January 13, 2007


On Saturday, 22 January 2000, Indigo Black wrote:
Brothers, do you care if your woman straightens her hair?

F. Leon replied:

Yes, very much so.

On Saturday, 22 January 2000, Indigo Black wrote:
Would you date/marry a Black female who presses, perms, relaxes, texturizes or otherwise straightens her hair?

F. Leon replied:

I personally prefer Black women with their hair

No weaves.
No perms.
No dreadlocks.

I do not like extensions or braids.
(especially if it is not their own/natural hair) or texturized hair.

I prefer short hair to long hair.

I believe how a woman wears her hair, says a lot about her inner self. Her thought processes, her pride, her vanity and knowledge about her race, culture and heritage. All of which is very important to me.

Women are the first and subsequently primary transference of culture/preference and many of the things, which shape our (male) preferences in life.

The more I think about it, if a Black women wears her hair similar to that of a white women, the less likely I am to approach/deal with her on a meaningful (e.g. personal/romantic) level.

Although, what I have written is a bit superficial, meaning that I would not want to solely judge a Black woman on the way she wears her hair, it is impossible for me to *ever* deal with a white woman .

I will not give *any* “personal” attention to a Black female with blonde hair, that bright red dyed hair or bleached hair. I don’t even like looking at them.

In all directness, I consider them “girl toys” simply by the way they color their hair.

On the other hand, I seriously love a middle-aged sister with graying hair. Not the type of gray hair where it is broken off and appears as if the sister has been worrying all her life, but a simplistically natural gray (even streaked) . . . sophisticated — classy, just naturally “beautiful.”

“We as a people,
will not be free,
until our Black women
STOP processing their natural hair.”

F. Leon Wilson, National Director, The Black Agenda


HAIR!!!! Essays:

Do not worship hair
by Neely Fuller Jr.
Oppressed Hair
by Alice Walker
Black People Will Not Be Free Until…
by F. Leon Wilson
A Natural Success
by Jenga Mwendo
The Black Woman
by Marcus Garvey
Attempting to Look White as a Survival Strategy
by Hobody
The Mammy and Amos & Andy Perception
by Edward Williams
The Great Black Hair Obsession
Earl Ofari Hutchinson
Hair & Interracial Relationships
by Brother DG
I am Afrikan I am Black
Champion of Darkness
Not Just An American Problem
by Malcolm X
by Prema
Skin Bleaching

“Don’t remove the kinks
from your HAIR.

Remove them
from your BRAIN.”

— The Honorable
Marcus Mosiah Garvey

HAIR!!!! Discussion Forums:
More HAIR!!!!
HAIR!!!! Matters
HAIR!!!! Essays
HAIR!!!! Poetry
Quotations I
Quotations II

.. Copyright © 1998-2006 Prema