Archive for August, 2007


August 22, 2007


— T h e F r e e m a n I n s t i t u t e —
A quick historical overview, introducing the…
P h o t o G a l l e r y
Huge Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery


Egypt, Tut, Rosetta Stone, pyramids, pharaoh, Africa, culture, hieroglyphics, Nile

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The Lemba:
Black Jews of Southern Africa

Badagry, Nigeria — Slave Trade History

Copyright © 2006 by Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D. All rights reserved.
Note: Reproduction of any kind, including copying and pasting, is strictly prohibited.
Courtesy of The Freeman Institute


“Truth and morning become light with time.” — Ethiopian Proverb

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For about 15 centuries, people, fascinated, gazed upon Egyptian hieroglyphics without comprehending their meaning.
In 1799, LT Pierre Bouchard discovered the Rosetta Stone (below) while building Fort Julian (see to left–now Fort Rashid) on the west bank of the Nile during Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign. the proclamation carved on it, praising Ptolemy V in 196 B.C., is of relatively little significance; what is important is that the inscription appears in three texts: Hieroglyphics, Egyptian Demotic Script and Greek. (click here to read entire text)click here to read entire text)

Jean Francois Champollion (below) was a brilliant linguist who worked from an 1808 copy of the Rosetta Stone’s inscription. He labored on it for 14 years without ever seeing the stone itself. In 1822, Champollion finally decided that “Ptolemy” might be read phonetically — patiently reconstructing the name, sound by sound from the Greek and Coptic. Twenty-three years passed before the Rosetta Stone finally surrendered its secret which began with the deciphering of “Ptolemy’s” name. (Click on the Stone below for more information.)

Historical Timeline
of Ancient Egypt
Joseph, Egypt
& The Hyksos

& Akhenaton

Ancient Egyptian Religions

Map of
Ancient Africa

Text on
Rosetta Stone

The Pyramid Puzzle

Rosetta Stone

Ancient Nubia

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Other inscriptions on artifacts like obelisks and monuments could now be read. These discovery spawned an even greater interest in Egyptian archaeology. Anthropologists and archaeologists were presented with quite a challenging conflict.

In the early 1800s, around the same time Egyptian Archaeology was maturing, the Middle Passage (slave trade) was in full swing. In order for Europeans to justify the economic drive of the slave trade, blacks had to be viewed as non-humans. Animals. Tools for building the dreams of Europeans.

In stark contrast to the picture of blacks being painted by those who favored the slave trade — anthropologists and archaeologists were discovering more statues and other artifacts which presented a different view. Black people had indeed created the many pyramids and other artifacts. What to do? The Egyptians had left behind a huge “Picture Album”.

When visiting Egypt today, this is what we see of The Sphinx of Giza.

This is what Vivant Denon saw in 1798 before the Sphinx was defaced.

“The Colchians, Ethiopians and Egyptians have thick lips,
broad nose, woolly hair and they are burnt of skin.”
— Herodotus, 450 BC

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In his book, The Destruction of Black Civilization, black scholar, Chancellor Williams informs us that history has proven that a number of tactics were employed by anthropologists to blot out black accomplishments. Here is a list of Williams’ observations about how anthropologists chose to operate:

1. “Ignore or refuse to publish any facts of African history” that would not support
their racial theories.

2. “Create a religious and ‘scientific’ doctrine” to ease the white conscience for
oppressing and enslaving African people.

3. “Flood the world with hastily thrown together African ‘histories'” that contain
European perspectives only.

4. “Start renaming people and places. Replace African names of persons, places, and
things with Arabic and European names.” This will disguise their true black identity.

5. Change the criteria for defining race. For example, one drop of Negro blood in
America makes you a Negro, no matter how light your skin. When reporting ancient
history, reverse the standard. Make one drop of white blood render someone a
Caucasian no matter how dark the skin. (Test this criteria during the
“riding-at-the-back-of the-bus” era of the South during the 1940s in the USA. Be
assured that any of the Pharaoh’s of Egypt, especially up to and including the 25th
Dynasty, would have been required to sit at the back of the bus.)

6. When black participation in civilization is so obvious your best schemes can’t
hide it, find a way to attribute the success to outside white influence.

7. When all the ancient historians contradict your theory, seek to discredit them.

My Opinion
by Dr. Joel A. Freeman

Egypt has always been a place of fascination for the ancients outside the region of Egypt. For instance, two of the seven wonders of the World were situated in Egypt.

The Rosetta Stone was discovered during the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign in 1799. In 1822 Jean Champollion was able to crack the code of hieroglyphics. Once the code of hieroglyphics had been cracked, it brought a renewed interest to that region of the world.

For the first time in thousands of years, utilizing the new-found skills of reading Egyptian hieroglyphics, people could corroborate certain historical events, people and places. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone and subsequent understanding of the esoteric hieroglyph language was the connection that brought everything to the forefront for “modern” people to wrestle with some realities.

European archaeologists, anthropologists and historians were in a catch-22 situation. On one hand they were seeing images of people with clear Afroid features as they traveled around Egypt.

On the other hand, there was the terrible history of the slave trade that had been going on for approximately 350 years prior. For Europeans to justify the economic drive of the slave trade, there had to be the denigration of people of African descent. (Also, let’s not forget the complicity of African Kings in bringing their warring neighbors to the slave traders.) Since the slave trade had been going on for some 350 years, the negative view of Black people had permeated much of Europe, South and North America and the rest of the world.

There was a crisis of conscience, especially in the mid 1800s. How are the European archaeologists going to interpret what they are seeing and understanding, to an eager outside world? In my opinion, they blew a wonderful opportunity to share the truth. Instead most went to all sorts of ends to try to present Egyptians as though they were not of African descent. The book, Black Spark, White Fire (Richard Poe) addresses the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians in a most ingenious manner.

The one-drop rule worked in the US — one drop of black blood makes one black. Let’s reverse the standards for archaeologists and anthropologists when viewing ancient history — one drop of white blood makes you white, no matter how curly the hair or thick the lips.

All of this impacted the world — brought on by a specific event. In my opinion, the re-discovery of the Rosetta Stone was the catalyst that brought about the series of events that ultimately reshaped the thinking of people around the world regarding the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians.

See for yourself. The photos you are about to view in a few moments are not so much “Afro Centric” as they are “Truth Centric”. See powerful visual images that reveal much more than words could ever communicate. Here’s a quick example:

Mummy-case of
Djedmaatesankh, a musician from the temple of Amun-re at Thebes. Egyptian, Late Period, 850 BC.
CT-scan of Djedmaatesankh
X-ray of Djedmaatesankh showing profile of mummy inside cartonnage coffin.

Read the first chapter and overview of

Return To Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man

In many sectors there seems to be some controversy about the racial make-up of the Egyptian people, i.e. whether they were White or Black. This is a simplistic approach to a much more complicated set of circumstances since Egypt’s strategic location brought people in from the south with Nubian and equatorial African influence and from the northern coast of Africa and the Middle East with Afro-Mediterranean and Semitic influences. The Biblical record places Egypt among the “Black” countries. Melanin dosage tests of mummified remains (controversial due to damage caused by the embalming process) seem to indicate a level of melanocytes consistent with a people of a semi tropical to temperate climate zone.

Egypt continues to dominate the focus of our African oriented studies. These studies have clearly demonstrated that not only were early Egypt’s origins African, but that through the whole of Egypt’s Dynastic Era (the age of the Pharaohs), and during all of her many periods of national splendor, men and women with black skin complexions, broad noses, full lips, and tightly curled hair, were dominant in both the general population and governing elite.

In the intense and unrelenting struggle to establish scientifically the African foundations of Egyptian civilization, the late Senegalese scholar Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop remains a most fierce and ardent champion. Dr. Diop (1923-1986) was without a doubt one of the world’s leading Egyptologist and held the position of Director of the Radiocarbon Laboratory at the Fundamental Institute of Black Africa in Dakar, Senegal. In stating the importance of the work, Diop noted emphatically and early on that, “The history of Black Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written correctly until African historians dare to connect it with the history of Egypt.”

The solid range of methodologies employed by Dr. Diop in the course of his extensive Afro-Egyptian labors included: examinations of the epidermis of the mummies of Egyptian kings for verification of their melanin content; precise osteological measurements and meticulous studies in the various relevant areas of anatomy and physical anthropology; careful examinations and comparisons of modern Upper Egyptian and West African blood-types; detailed Afro-Egyptian linguistic studies and the corroboration of distinct Afro-Egyptian cultural traits; documents of racial designations employed by the early Africans themselves; Biblical testimonies and references that address the ancient Egyptian’s ethnicity, race and culture; and the writings of early Greek and Roman travelers and scholars describing the physical characteristics of the ancient Egyptians.

The original Egyptians were unmixed pure black folks. When they were at the pinnacle of their glory they were not a mixed group by any means. During the middle dynasties especially (and later) when people migrated to this great land there was some intermarrying. This is natural and doesn’t need to be debated. It was even done within royalty lines at times to solidify alliances, which was a common practice between powers during that period of history. Chancellor Williams refers to this phenomenon in his book “The Destruction of Black Civilization.” And frankly, he theorizes that this mixing was part of the reason for the fall of Black Civilization. Nevertheless, there was never so much of this that at any time the ancient Egyptians could ever be classified as other than a black people.

It’s reasonable to say that Egypt was a gateway for the meeting and interchange of goods, ideas, and people; and that the Egyptians were themselves a unique expression of human strength, beauty, intelligence and diversification. Ancient Egypt was an African civilization. It is also interesting to note that the Biblical record states “Israel also came into Egypt…the land of Ham.” (Psalm 105: 23).

Plus we need to be reminded that Egypt is in Africa (not the Middle East) and that all of the Pharaohs (up to and including the 25th Dynasty) would have been required to “sit at the back of a bus” in the 1940s in Montgomery Alabama. Let’s allow the pictures to speak for themselves…Ready?

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This photo gallery, one of the most comprehensive collection of Ancient Egyptian
photos on the Internet, has come about after much travel.
Nothing may be used without written permission from Dr. Freeman.

“We have come to reclaim the house of history. We are dedicated to the revision of the role of the African in the world’s great civilizations, the contribution of Africa to the achievement of man in the arts and sciences. We shall emphasize what Africa has given to the world, not what it has lost.” — Ivan Van Sertima

By the way, do you want Dr. Freeman to make a half-day presentation
to your organization, entitled “A White Man’s Journey Into Black History”?



Return To Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man

M O R E R E S O U R C E S:
The Lemba: The Black Jews of Southern Africa
Table of Nations–Ham, Shem and Japheth
Badagry, Nigeria — Slave Trade History
Historical Timeline of Ancient Egypt
The Mitochondrial “Eve” Theory
Joseph, Egypt & The Hyksos
Tutankhamen & Akhenaton
Ancient Egyptian Religions
The Colonization of Africa
Map of Ancient Africa
Text on Rosetta Stone
The Pyramid Puzzle
Rosetta Stone
Ancient Nubia

To learn more about seminar — Diversity: The Value of Mutual Respect

The ever-expanding Freeman Institute Black History Collection has items such as:
1. Authentic, priceless slave ball, with handle (50 lb.) — #3 written on it, for “trouble-makers”, manufactured late 1600s — used on the London-based slave ship, Henrietta Marie, the oldest identifiable slave ship wreck in the world (summer, 1700) ; featured in National Geographic’s (August, 2002). By one estimate Henrietta Marie’s cargo grossed well over £3,000 (more than $400,000 today) for the ship’s investors. Most of the captives were headed for sugar plantations where they’d be worked to exhaustion, many dying within five to ten years. Sturdy and fast, The Henrietta Marie traveled the infamous triangular trade route favored by the slavers – from England to the Guinea coast, to the Americas, then home again. Accounts relating to the Henrietta Marie’s voyages were uncovered, as were the names of her investors, captains, and wills of some of her crew members. Artifacts found at the site proved particularly helpful in creating a picture of shipboard life and the practices of the slave trade.
2. Two Wedgwood jasperware black on white Anti-Slavery medallions, with the bound slave on the front, and the words “Am I Not A Man and A Brother?” around it. Also, a rare 1800s antique bronze figure of man (6″ high, weighs 18 oz.) pictured in medallion.
3. One-of-a-kind signed letters/albums/contracts/sheet music from Nat King Cole, Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, Lionel Hampton, Louis Armstrong, B. B. King, Ethel Waters, Pearl Bailey, Miles Davis, Fats Domino, Quincy Jones, Earl Hines, Ella Fitzgerald, Sammy Davis, Jr., Grover Washington, Jr., Count Basie, Mills Brothers, Ozzie Davis, Lena Horne, Four Tops, Cicely Tyson, James Brown, Charlie Pride, Bo Diddley, Bobby Blue and others…
4. A rare 1838 (third edition) copy of Phillis Wheatley’s book, “Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, A Native African and a Slave” — Includes memoir, George Washington’s letter to Wheatley, preface by John Wheatley, plus poems by another slave, George Moses Horton, with introduction and letters. And also the 1773 edition of the Gentleman’s Magazine — first published mention of Phillis Wheatley’s book, first printed in the UK, paid for by the Countess of Huntingdon.
5. Silver Civil War locket (1860s), containing two tin-type pictures of African American women, worn by an African American soldier.
6. The Rosetta Stone, a First Edition 55-page article in Archaeologia: Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume XVI, published by The Society of Antiquaries of London. 1812. Some of the first published articles about the Rosetta Stone. This is historic in light of the fact that the code to Hieroglyphics wasn’t cracked until 1822 by Jean Champollion.
7. Riggs Bank check written and signed on July 3, 1907 by Judson W. Lyons, ex-slave from Georgia and first African-American lawyer to practice in the state of Georgia. He was appointed Register of the US Treasury from 1898-1906 and as such, his signature appeared on US currency issued during those years.
8. 1820s “T Porter” slave button (from Antigua, British West Indies), used to identify the owner of a slave.
9. Click Here to view more items and images…

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“Black History — Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery — Ancient Egypt — Tut — Rosetta Stone — pyramids — pharaoh — Africa — culture


August 20, 2007




El archivo para el `JESÚS CRISTO ERA NEGRO!’ Categoría
Domingo 19 de agosto de 2007
(el periódico nacional canadiense, domingo agosto de 2007)

El erudito Poly americano de la universidad de la caloría dice que Jesús más allá de una sombra de una duda era negro

por Legrand H. Clegg II

Los dioses y los messiahs más tempranos en todos los continentes eran negros. La investigación ha rendido una cantidad impresionante de material en el sujeto… Los Messiahs, algunos de quién vivieron muchos siglos antes de Cristo, tenían vidas que fueron paralelo a tan de cerca el de Cristo eso que se parece muy probablemente que la historia del último fue adaptada de él. Por otra parte, la palabra Cristo viene del indio, del Krishna o del Chrisna, que significan “el negro.”

J.A. Rogers:

Muchos de los madonnas pintados en los siglos más tempranos del iandom de Cristo eran negros, según historiadores, y no era hasta el renacimiento que llegó a ser popular para dar a la madre de Cristo las características de un maiden florentino [mujer blanca]

Poste de Washington (religión) el 4 de mayo de 1979:

Aquí en los Estados Unidos, bien sobre el 95% 27 a 30 millones de personas de de la pendiente africana están los cristianos y ensamblaron la mayor parte de el resto del mundo cristiano en la observación del nacimiento de Jesús el 25 de diciembre, día de Navidad. Ninguna otra figura histórica ha recibido el reconocimiento, veneration y unquestioned lealtad de la gente negra en el mundo occidental que Jesús tiene. Todavía, a pesar de su respecto por y adoración extensos de Jesús, pocos personas negros en las Américas o a otra parte han planteado siempre la cuestión de si él era negro y si la doctrina que él espoused estaba de origen africano. Entrenado por los teólogos blancos o enseñado en el blanco poseído, los seminarios controlados o financiados, el ministro negro medio no sólo negarán que Jesús era un hombre negro y demandar que es sinful plantear la cuestión de su color, pero también insistirá que Jesús era descolorido y declarar que la pintura rubia eyed azul de él que asoma sobre el púlpito del ministro es justa una reflexión blanca de la universalidad de Cristo. Es absolutamente comprensible, después, que las masas de los cristianos negros, que sostienen generalmente a sus ministros en alta estima, blithely continúan al arco antes, rogar a y adorar un extranjero rubio azul-eyed a que han venido conocer como Jesús sin siempre preguntar esta imagen y su impacto en ellos, tus familias y la raza negra en su totalidad.

Reconociendo la significación histórica de la religión para ennegrecer a gente y observando su actual papel en sus naciones y comunidades el mundo encima, este escritor se siente que es el período culminante que la creencia religiosa profundo-arraigada de negros sea examinada completamente por los eruditos negros con un ojo hacia liberar la raza de las doctrinas y de las ideas falsas falsas que fueron diseñadas para perpetuar inferioridad y servility negros.

Desde la religión desempeña un papel dominante en moldear la opinión negra y el comportamiento negro de guía en África y el diaspora, el intento específico de este artículo sobre la religión, es revelar qué ciencia moderna está probando que cada día que las raíces de todas las religiones importantes son detectables a la gente negra de África antigua y ése la mayor parte de el mundo venerated a líderes religiosos eran negros. Se espera que estas revelaciones quieren el instil un sentido del orgullo en la gente negra, acelera el día en que las imágenes falsas serán quitadas de sus casas de la adoración y liberarlas de la asunción extensa – que se encaja profundamente en su subconsciente individual y colectivo que ella está maldecida y condenada a la falta porque ella no fue creada en la imagen del dios.

Profesor Locksley D.M. Geoghagen es una de las pocas autoridades negras en el origen de la religión cristiana. Un erudito de la ascendencia Africano-Jamaicana, él ha servido como el director del asociado del programa educativo de las oportunidades y profesor en el departamento de la educación en la universidad Poly de la caloría, San Luis Obispo, California. Él es especialista que aprende con maestría en fisiología del cerebro, especialmente el hemisferio cerebral, y tiene credenciales de enseñanza en el nivel de universidad de comunidad en psicología, la educación, la ciencia política, el asesoramiento y el personal de la pupila. Profesor Geoghagen es también el coordinador de los programas de la dirección en la universidad Poly de la caloría.

Un erudito pluridisciplinary raro, profesor Geoghagen ha dado una conferencia ampliamente en los temas que se extienden de melanin y de la glándula pineal a las raíces africanas de la civilización. Él ha dado una conferencia a menudo con el autor y el erudito distinguidos, el Dr. Donald Cheek, y ha viajado extensivamente, especialmente en África, con el historiador renombrado del mundo, el Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan.

Profesor Geoghagen ha terminado los requisitos del curso para el Ph.D. en la educación en la universidad de California en Papá Noel Barbara, y él planea pronto incorporar el campo de Egyptology como understudy del Dr. ben-Jochannan, maestría de profesor Geoghagen en cristianismo temprano se ha adquirido sobre los últimos diez años, mientras tanto él ha enganchado a la investigación, dando una conferencia y escribiendo en unido sacia, el Caribe y la África.

Lo que sigue es una entrevista con profesor Geoghagen en la religión en general y la ascendencia de Jesús particularmente.

MAAT: Profesor Geoghagen, porqué no lo hago apenas comienza con la pregunta antes de nosotros: ¿Era Jesús un hombre negro?

Geoghagen: Sí, inequívoco y más allá de una sombra de la duda, Jesús era un hombre negro y hay mucha evidencia para verificar esto. Sin embargo, antes de que discuta esta evidencia, quisiera considerar en un cierto detalle que Jesús era y centrarse en la historia del cristianismo porque grado de oscuridad de Jesús el’ no será entendido ni será aceptado completamente sin este fondo.

MAAT: ¿La autorización, apenas quién era Jesús?

GEOGHAGEN: Eso es una pregunta muy difícil a contestar, porque Jesús era y sigue siendo muchas cosas a mucha gente. A los cristianos él es una parte del Godhead, el hijo del dios, el hijo del hombre, el príncipe de la paz, la palabra hecha la carne, el messiah de expectativas judías. Por lo tanto, con sus ensayos, sufrimientos, tentaciones, muerte y resurrección, él preve la remisión de los pecados, del rescate y de la vida eternos para los que sigan sus enseñanzas y lo acepten como su salvador personal. A mí, él es uno de los salvadores crucificados del mundo 16 – el último de ellos, puede ser que agregue – que vidas caben un patrón casi idéntico desde Horus en 4100 B.C. (según la creencia más antigua, él era el primer salvador crucificado) a la época de Judas Christas (de Cristo untado) en la era del pre-Cristiano. Esencialmente, la vida que Jesús presumiblemente condujo, las actividades a las cuales él enganchó, sus enseñanzas, sus ensayos y sufrimientos y la muerte y la resurrección eventual, son idénticos a los de Horus y Osiris (dos dioses egipcios antiguos) y los otros 14 salvadores crucificados. Este punto de vista o revelación, aunque potencialmente impactante a la masa de believers, es sin embargo conocimiento común a los eruditos.

Así pues, Jesús y el sistema de la creencia que él representa son así un reappearance de una de las ideas más hermosas de los africanos negros antiguos de TA-Feliz – Egipto ahora llamado – que representó a padre eterno por el hijo siempre que venía, como en el niño Horus. Éste era el niño de una madre que era la virgen eterna. Las doctrinas de la encarnación, es decir, la palabra hicieron la carne: el nacimiento virginal, la resurrección, el Padre-Dios que es idéntico a su propio hijo y otras doctrinas (creídas para ser específicamente cristiano) eran egipcios mucho antes había incluso el concepto de Adán y víspera, judaísmo, cristianismo e Islam.

MAAT: ¿Estás diciendo ese cristianismo pues una religión tenía sus orígenes en Egipto antiguo?

GEOGHAGEN: Sí. Además de lo que acabo de indicar, en el Eschatology de los egipcios se encuentra una trinidad y una unidad, y los egipcios creídos en el castigo así como felicidad eterna. No asombrosamente, entonces, la doctrina de la vida eterna y la creencia en la resurrección del “cuerpo espiritual” están, según el Dr. Albert Churchward (autor de muestras y los símbolos del hombre primordial, orígenes del Freemasonry, el origen y la evolución de la religión, el origen y la evolución de la raza humana, etc.) “las características más brillantes y más prominentes de la religión egipcia, y ésta que encontramos era su creencia antes de la época del primer rey de la primera dinastía.” Las enseñanzas generales y la opinión cosmológica del mundo los egipcios se filtraron eventual abajo y con tal que la fundación para las religiones occidentales de un `supuesto más último,’ es decir, judaísmo, cristianismo e Islam. Este punto es documentado a fondo por el erudito africano brillante y prolífico, el Dr. José ben-Jochannan, en un trabajo épico, los orígenes africanos de las religiones occidentales principales. Estas enseñanzas fueron dadas abajo al Essenes (una secta judía mítica en tiempos del pre-Cristiano) que eran responsables del desarrollo de muchas de las enseñanzas y los conceptos atribuyeron a Jesús.

MAAT: ¿Estás sugiriendo, entonces, que Jesús fuera un Essene?

GEOGHAGEN: No hay duda en mi mente que Jesús era un Essene. La doctrina de Essene es directamente detectable a sus raíces Africano-Egipcias. En fin, Jesús era uno de los salvadores crucificados del mundo 16 que creencia y enseñanzas fueron fundadas en las doctrinas y los principios del sistema africano antiguo del misterio, y los acontecimientos de su vida son paralelo a directamente los de Horus (el primer salvador crucificado), que vivió por lo menos 4100 años antes de Cristo. Por ejemplo, Horus fue llevado de una virgen (concepto inmaculado), él desapareció en la edad 12 y reapareció en 30; él murió en la edad 33 y descendió en infierno. En el tercer día, él se presentó otra vez y ascendió en cielo para sentarse en la mano derecha de su padre, etc. Horus fue cortado en 14 pedazos; Apuñalaron a Jesús catorce veces. Madre de Horus la’ podría encontrar solamente la una sola pieza de él, de su pene, y así que ella construyó los obeliscos en su memoria. Jesús hizo el mismo símbolo phallic asociar a él, es decir, él no tenía ninguna relación sexual (por lo menos después de la conferencia de Nicene en 325 A.D.). Para puedes ver, Jesús y los otros salvadores del mundo son copias de Horus. Sus hechos biográficos son iguales; solamente los nombres han cambiado.

MAAT: ¿Hay las partes vida de Jesús’ que son generalmente desconocidas al público?

GEOGHAGEN: Sí, mucho si no la mayor parte de los hechos que rodean su vida es absolutamente desconocido al público en general. Para ser específico, hay veintiuno períodos del año de su vida que sea totalmente inexplicable en el evangelio. Estos 21 años, discutiría, son de importancia crítica en entender quiénes era Jesús así como la fuente, la inspiración y el desarrollo eventual de su mensaje y ministerio. El hecho es que no sólo los sacerdotes egipcios enseñó Jesús pero también Juan el Baptizer y algo discípulos de Jesús los’, algunos de los fundamentales del sistema africano del misterio cuál más adelante, con adaptaciones y distorsiones, se convirtió en la fundación para lo que ahora se conoce como cristianismo en sus varias formas y manifestaciones.

El hecho de que Jesús era un iniciado en el sistema africano del misterio; que enseñaron y estudió Jesús en las varias casas de campo subsidiarias de la casa de campo magnífica de Luxor en África y a otra parte (es decir Tíbet, la India, etc.) el hecho de que era en África que Jesús hizo conocido con el Essenes, que era en gran parte responsable de mucha de las enseñanzas acreditó a Jesús.

Jesús era un hombre negro, y hay pinturas, estatuas y los iconos tempranos numerosos que representan gráficamente a Maria y a Jesús como gente negra. Según Godfrey Higgins (autor del documento histórico monumental Anacalypsis), que visitaron las catedrales de Europa antes del período contra-religioso de la revolución francesa, representaron todos los madonnas y a Cristo-childs como negro: “En todos los países de Romish de Europa, en Francia, Italia, Alemania, etc., el dios, Cristo, tan bien como su madre se describen en los viejos cuadros para ser negro.

El dios infantil en los brazos de su madre negra, su blanco del drapery de los ojos, es sí mismo perfectamente negro. Si el lector duda mis palabras, él puede ir a la catedral de Moulins – a la capilla famosa de la Virgen de Loretto, a la iglesia de Annunciata; la iglesia de St. Lazaro, o la iglesia de St. Stephen en Génova, a St. Francisco en Pisa; a la iglesia de Brixer en el Tyrol, y a la de Padua; a la iglesia de St. Theodore en Munich, el etc. Esto es apoyada y documentada más a fondo por el trabajo de J.A. Rogers, Albert Churchward, Yosef ben-Jochannan, el rey de C.W., J.S. Matthews, Gerald Massey y los escritores otros que den cuentas detalladas de la Maria y del Jesús negros originales.

Estaba con el advenimiento de Michaelango, que utilizó a su familia para presentarse para las pinturas que él hizo de Jesús, de Maria, de José, del etc. – juntados con racismo blanco europeo que comenzamos a ver a Jesús retratado como hombre blanco. ¿Pero cómo podría estar de otra manera?

¿Cómo podría un grupo de gente proclamar y practicar el racismo blanco y justificar esclavitud bajo modo de traer el mensaje del cristianismo a los heathens del `’ o a los salvajes negros pagan del `’ en África – y al mismo tiempo decir simultáneamente la verdad que Jesús fuera un hombre negro y que de hecho el cristianismo comenzó en África, dónde Panteus y Boteus divulgó que Jesús nació en una cueva en Etiopía? Y eso no era hasta la conferencia de Nicene que lugar de nacimiento de Jesús el’ fue cambiado a un establo en Bethlehem.

Básicamente, el sistema africano del misterio era el sistema educativo de África. Fue llamado un misterio del `’ por el E. bulle, el Egyptologist famoso, y otros eruditos egipcios; pero no era un misterio a los africanos. Abarcó muchos ramas del conocimiento, incluyendo todas las ciencias, la filosofía, la física, todos los artes liberales y, por supuesto, la religión y la metafísica.

La fundación de la que más adelante fue llamada filosofía greek viene directamente del sistema africano del misterio. Si un individuo desea la confirmación de esto, él puede consultar los libros tales como herencia robada de G.M. James’, historia de B.D. Alexander de la filosofía, historia de Alfred Weber de la filosofía, historia de Guillermo Turner de la filosofía y la historia de Zeber de la filosofía.

Tan incluida que una parte del sistema africano antiguo del misterio era la creencia principal contenida en las religiones occidentales del `supuesto’ del judaísmo, cristianismo e Islam. Para los que desean una mirada más cercana en esto, recomendaría el libro egipcio de los muertos y los misterios antiguos por C.H. Vail. Otro libro que proporciona el gran detalle es muestras de Albert Churchward y símbolos del hombre primordial. Presenta a todas las doctrinas hebreas, cristianas e hindúes que vengan directamente del sistema africano del misterio. Un libro comparable, también escrito por Churchward, es origen y evolución de la religión.

GEOGHAGEN: Había dos consejos de la iglesia cristiana sostenida en Nicea (Niza), en cuál ahora es Turquía del noroeste. El más importante fue llamado en 325 A.D. por Constantina “el grande” y 219 obispos de todas las regiones cristianas de gran alcance te atendieron. Era el intento de Constantina para cambiar cristianismo en Christiandom. Es decir la religión ahora se convirtió en el vehículo del control de gobierno sobre la gente. El logro de esta meta implicó el cambiar de algunos de los tenets del cristianismo. Cualquier persona que está interesada puede obtener una copia de los procedimientos de la conferencia de Nicene y ve la enorme lucha política que iba encendido entre los “hombres del dios.”

Uno notará que por lo menos 18 libros – incluyendo el libro de Maria que era parte de la biblia de Koin (la biblia original hasta ese punto) fueron quitados de los canon. Además, muchas de las enseñanzas africanas antiguas, incluyendo el concepto del reincarnation, fueron quitadas de cristianismo. Y era en este tiempo que pusieron en la biblia nueva el concepto africano antiguo del concepto inmaculado.

MAAT: ¿Estás diciendo literalmente que la biblia original fue cambiada en la conferencia de Nicene?

GEOGHAGEN: Sí. Pero éste no era la primera vez que los líderes de la iglesia habían debido juntos luchar sobre cuál debía ser aceptado como cristianismo. Una conferencia similar fue llevada a cabo en Jamnia en A.D. 90, en cuyo caso otros cambios fueron realizados.

MAAT: El conseguir de nuevo a las cuestiones de si Jesús fuera un hombre negro: Algunos eruditos, por supuesto, desafiarían tu posición que Jesús era un hombre negro en la tierra que él era judío y no habría podido por lo tanto ser negro.

GEOGHAGEN: Mi opinión es que ésos serían eruditos muy informados mal porque los judíos originales eran gente negra.

MAAT: Algunos científicos pudieron también plantear hoy el tema que la cubierta antigua de Turín, que touted altamente por la prensa y que demanden muchos ahora osos la imagen de Jesús, no aparece representar a un hombre negro. ¿Cuál sería tu respuesta a esto?

GEOGHAGEN: Sería de poca consecuencia si la cubierta de Turín aparece ser negra, asiático, caucásico o lo que, porque la única cosa que los científicos pueden determinarse a este punto es que ésta era de hecho probablemente una cubierta que cubrió un cuerpo humano y no aparece ser falsificación.

Pero ningún científico vivo de quién estoy enterado que – racista o nonracist, cristiano o no-Cristiano – poder en cualquier documento de la manera, de la forma, de la forma o de la manera que la cubierta de Turín es la que fue colocado sobre cuerpo de Jesús’ a la hora de su muerte.

MAAT: ¿Era Jesús el único gran líder religioso que era negro?

GEOGHAGEN: Absolutamente no. La mayor parte de representaron a los profetas y a los salvadores antiguos de la mayoría de las religiones en su forma original como negros.

MAAT: ¿Si todas estos profetas, dioses y diosas antiguos eran negros, esto sugiere una dominación negra universal en el mundo antiguo?

GEOGHAGEN: Lo más ciertamente posible, sí. Uno pudo leer Egipto de Gerald Massey: La luz del mundo, de la evidencia arqueológica y antropológica solamente, allí no es ninguna duda que la raza de la gente negra era la raza de la semilla para la humanidad. Es decir estábamos aquí antes de cualquier persona y nuestra presencia era sentida y sabida a través del mundo.

No sólo ocupamos África, pero nuestro restos se ha descubierto de las Islas Fiji A Tasmania, a Melanesia, a la India, a China, a Japón, a México e incluso a Europa. Muchos científicos han demostrado que la raza original de la gente en todas estas áreas era la raza negra.

MAAT: ¿Por qué es que los hechos que has revelado aquí son desconocidos al público en general?

Geoghagen: Se guardan intencionalmente del público. Tomas una situación donde tienes un grupo de gente – a saber la gente blanca – que ha tomado realmente la filosofía, religión, educación, ciencia, artes liberales, todo que puedes asociar a la palabra “cultura” de la gente negra. La han tomado, han torcido te, han adoptado te y han utilizado te contra la misma gente de quien lo recibieron como justificación para la esclavitud. Así pues, era conveniente esclavizar negros en África bajo modo del cristianismo que se separaba cuando él hecho la religión según lo convertido en África (había 27 obispos y siete papas de la iglesia africana del norte antes de que primera en Roma – esto se documenta en el libro Libers Pontificals, que, cuando está traducido a inglés, es libro de los papas).

Debo también precisar aquí que pocas referencias están hechas al hecho de que tres de los padres más tempranos de la iglesia cristiana eran negros. St. Augustine (llevado en Tagaste, Numida, África del norte en 354 A.S.), que fijó la doctrina moral de la iglesia cristiana; Tutillian y Cyprian. ¿Cómo podría la gente blanca decir a negros que ella no tuviera ninguna historia o cultura con excepción de ésa qué europeos las dieron y al mismo tiempo os dicen que el cristianismo no sólo fuera desarrollado por Blacks, pero que su amo, Jesús, era un negro hombre? Esto no podía ser hecha.

MAAT: ¿Por qué piensas que es importante que la gente negra sepa que Jesús era un hombre negro y que el cristianismo está de origen africano?

GEOGHAGEN: Me siento que esta información es crítica a la autoestima y al futuro de negros alrededor del globo. Nuestras contribuciones como los autores de la alta cultura o “civilización” se han guardado sistemáticamente de nosotros. Nuestras invenciones, nuestras filosofías, nuestros conceptos religiosos y los sistemas se han robado, se han cooptado, se han torcido, se han adoptado y después se han utilizado contra nosotros. Nosotros como una gente debe comenzar a afirmarse y a reclamar nuestra historia y nuestra ciencia, y llegar a estar bien informado sobre quiénes somos, de dónde vinimos, y donde vamos. Sin un conocimiento y entender cuidadosos de la historia africana (desarrollo incluyendo del cristianismo en África), nuestro futuro como gente es en el mejor de los casos triste.

Sobre el autor:

Legrand H. Clegg II es abogado, historiador y un productor de la videocinta premiada, “cuando los hombres negros gobernaron el mundo: Egipto durante la edad de oro.”


Domingo 12 de agosto de 2007

En la placa del oeste de Kanye: ¿Viaje de Usher, línea que arropa y… Jesús negro?
El artículo más último de la joyería del productor remezcla la opinión tradicional Cristo.
Por Shaheem Reid Digg Newsvine envían la impresión que nos dices

Pues uno de los líderes del movimiento de la manera del caballero, oeste de Kanye ha guardado una etiqueta del polo en su pecho como el superhombre hace con su “S.” pero cuando el oeste – quién firmado recientemente encendido para viajar con Usher este verano – comienzo que embala sus bolsos para golpear el camino, él va probablemente a tomar a menos Ralph Lauren para hacer el sitio para sus propias ropas.

El oeste está lanzando una línea de la ropa llamada Mascott, que golpeará almacenes antes de fin de año, según el representante del oeste. Rematarlo (o fondo) apagado, él también está saliendo con su propia línea de zapatillas de deporte, llamada los amaestradores de Mascott, que están actualmente en la etapa del diseño.

También están subiendo dos artículos con un tema religioso prominente. Primero, Kanye ha acabado el diseñar del pedazo siguiente en la colección de joyería religiosa-themed que él está poniendo hacia fuera con Jacob a joyero. El nuevo pedazo será llamado Jesús de Grandma y es la carta recordativa a su pedazo original de Jesús, lanzado en abril, que está de un Cristo caucásico. Jesús del Grandma es una pintura de Jesús como hombre negro.

Está en segundo lugar el primer de sus dos próximos escoge: “Caminatas de Jesús.” El vídeo para la canción fue dirigido por Chris Milk y se dice para ofrecer tres plotlines. También, en la extremidad de la remezcla, Lil Jon produjo una remezcla del “entrenamiento de Kanye” que ofrecía Lucas y Farnsworth Bentley (véase que la “riña con un Bentley destapa un cierto oeste de Kanye remezcla planes”).

El oeste también se dirige se retira en viaje este verano, pero este vez que él no está golpeando universidades, él está golpeando arenas como acto de la abertura en el viaje de Usher, que golpea con el pie apagado en agosto. Finalmente, Mariah Carey hollering en el natural de la Chi-Ciudad sobre crujir algunos golpes de él para su álbum siguiente.






August 19, 2007



(The Canadian National Newspaper,Sunday,August,2007)

American Cal Poly College Scholar says Jesus beyond a shadow of a doubt was black

by Legrand H. Clegg II

The earliest gods and messiahs on all the continents were black. Research has yielded an impressive amount of material on the subject… The Messiahs, some of whom lived many centuries before Christ, had lives which so closely paralleled that of Christ that it seems most likely that the story of the latter was adapted from them. Moreover, the word Christ comes from the Indian, Krishna or Chrisna, which means “The Black One.”

J.A. Rogers:

Many of the madonnas painted in the earliest centuries of Christ- iandom were black, according to historians, and it wasn’t until the Renaissance that it became popular to give the mother of Christ the features of a Florentine maiden [a white woman]

Washington Post (Religion) May 4, 1979:

Here in the United States, well over 95% of the 27 to 30 million people of African descent are Christians and they joined most of the rest of the Christian world in observing the birth of Jesus on December 25, Christmas Day. No other historical figure has received the recognition, veneration and unquestioned loyalty of Black people in the Western world that Jesus has. Yet, despite their widespread respect for and worship of Jesus, few Black people in the Americas or elsewhere ever have raised the question of whether He was Black and whether the doctrine He espoused was of African origin. Trained by white theologians or taught in White owned, controlled or financed seminaries, the average Black minister will not only deny that Jesus was a black man and claim that it is sinful to raise the question of His colour, but also will insist that Jesus was colorless and declare that the blue- eyed blond painting of him hovering over the minister’s pulpit is just a White reflection of Christ’s universality. It is quite understandable, then, that the masses of Black Christians, who generally hold their ministers in high esteem, blithely continue to bow before, pray to and worship a blue-eyed blond stranger whom they have come to know as Jesus without ever questioning this image and its impact on them, their families and the Black race as a whole.

Recognizing the historical significance of religion to Black people and observing its present role in their nations and communities the world over, this writer feels that it is high time that the deeply-rooted religious beliefs of Blacks be fully examined by Black scholars with an eye toward freeing the race of false doctrines and misconceptions that were designed to perpetuate Black inferiority and servility.

Since religion plays a key role in moulding Black opinion and guiding Black behaviour in Africa and the diaspora, the specific intent of this article on religion, is to reveal what modern science is proving each day — that the roots of all major religions are traceable to the Black people of ancient Africa and that most of the world’s venerated religious leaders were Blacks. It is hoped that these revelations will instil a sense of pride in Black people, hasten the day when false images will be removed from their houses of worship and free them of the widespread assumption – which is deeply embedded in their individual and collective subconscious – that they are cursed and doomed to failure because they were not created in God’s image.

Professor Locksley D. M. Geoghagen is one of the few black authorities on the origin of the Christian religion. A scholar of African-Jamaican ancestry, he has served as the Associate Director of the Educational Opportunities Program and a teacher in the Education Department at Cal Poly College, San Luis Obispo, California. He is a learning specialist with expertise in brain physiology, especially the cerebral hemisphere, and has teaching credentials on the community college level in psychology, education, political science, counselling and pupil personnel. Professor Geoghagen is also the coordinator of Leadership Programs at Cal Poly College.

A rare pluridisciplinary scholar, Professor Geoghagen has lectured broadly on subjects that range from melanin and the pineal gland to the African roots of civilization. He has often lectured with the distinguished author and scholar, Dr. Donald Cheek, and has traveled extensively, especially in Africa, with the world renowned historian, Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan.

Professor Geoghagen has completed the course requirements for the Ph.D. in education at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and he plans to soon enter the field of Egyptology as an understudy of Dr. ben-Jochannan, Professor Geoghagen’s expertise on early Christianity has been acquired over the past ten years, during which time he has engaged in research, lecturing and writing in the United Sates, the Caribbean and Africa.

The following is an interview with Professor Geoghagen on religion in general and the ancestry of Jesus in particular.

MAAT: Professor Geoghagen, why don’t I just start with the question before us: Was Jesus a Black man?

Geoghagen: Yes, unequivocally and beyond a shadow of doubt, Jesus was a black man and there is much evidence to substantiate this. However, before I discuss this evidence, I would like to consider in some detail who Jesus was and to focus on the history of Christianity because Jesus’ blackness will not be fully understood or accepted without this background.

MAAT: Okay, just who was Jesus?

GEOGHAGEN: That is a very difficult question to answer, for Jesus was and still is many things to many people. To Christians he is a part of the Godhead, the Son of God, the Son of Man, the Prince of Peace, the Word made flesh, the messiah of Jewish expectations. Hence, through his trials, sufferings, temptations, death and resurrection, He provides for the remission of sins, redemption and life eternal for those who follow his teachings and accept him as their personal saviour. To me, he is one of the world’s 16 crucified saviors — the last of them, I might add – whose lives fit an almost identical pattern from the time of Horus in 4100 B.C. (according to the most ancient beliefs, he was the first crucified saviour) to the time of Judas Christas (Christ the anointed) in the pre-Christian era. In essence, the life that Jesus purportedly led, the activities in which he engaged, his teachings, his trials and sufferings and eventual death and resurrection, are identical to those of Horus and Osiris (two ancient Egyptian gods) and the other 14 crucified saviours. This point of view or revelation, though potentially shocking to the mass of believers, is nevertheless common knowledge to scholars.

So, Jesus and the belief system that he represents are thus a reappearance of one of the most beautiful ideas of the ancient black Africans of Ta-Merry – now called Egypt – which represented the eternal Father by the ever- coming Son, as in the Child Horus. This was the child of a mother who was the eternal virgin. The doctrines of the Incarnation, i.e., the word made flesh: the virgin birth, the resurrection, the Father-God who is identical to his own son and other doctrines (believed to be specifically Christian) were Egyptian long before there was even the concept of Adam and Eve, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

MAAT: Are you saying that Christianity as a religion had its origins in ancient Egypt?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes. In addition to what I have just stated, in the Eschatology of the Egyptians is found a trinity and a unity, and the Egyptians believed in punishment as well as everlasting happiness. Not surprisingly, then, the doctrine of everlasting life and the belief in the resurrection of the “Spiritual Body” are, according to Dr. Albert Churchward (author of Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, Origins of Freemasonry, The Origin And Evolution of Religion, The Origin And Evolution of The Human Race, etc.) “the brightest and most prominent features of the Egyptian religion, and this we find was their belief before the time of the first king of the first dynasty.” The general teachings and cosmological world view of the Egyptians eventually filtered down and provided the foundation for later so-called ‘Western Religions,’ i.e., Judaism, Christianity and Islam. This point is thoroughly documented by the brilliant and prolific African scholar, Dr. Josef ben-Jochannan, in an epic work, African Origins of the Major Western Religions. These teachings were handed down to the Essenes (a mythical Jewish sect in pre-Christian times) who were responsible for the development of many of the teachings and concepts attributed to Jesus.

MAAT: Are you suggesting, then, that Jesus was an Essene?

GEOGHAGEN: There is no doubt in my mind that Jesus was an Essene. Essene doctrine is directly traceable to its African-Egyptian roots. In short, Jesus was one of the world’s 16 crucified saviours whose beliefs and teachings were founded on the doctrines and principles of the ancient African Mystery System, and the events of his life directly parallel those of Horus (the first crucified saviour), who lived at least 4100 years before Christ. For example, Horus was born of a virgin (immaculate conception), he disappeared at age 12 and reappeared at 30; he died at age 33 and descended into Hell. On the third day, he arose again and ascended into Heaven to sit on the right hand of his father, etc. Horus was cut into 14 pieces; Jesus was stabbed fourteen times. Horus’ mother could find only one piece of him, his penis, and so she built obelisks in his memory. Jesus had the same phallic symbol associated with him, i.e., he had no sexual relations (at least after the conference of Nicene in 325 A.D.). So as you can see, Jesus and the other world saviours are copies of Horus. Their biographical facts are the same; only the names have changed.

MAAT: Are there parts of Jesus’ life that are generally unknown to the public?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes, much if not most of the facts surrounding his life are absolutely unknown to the general public. To be specific, there is a twenty-one year period of his life that is completely unaccounted for in the Gospel. These 21 years, I would argue, are of critical importance in understanding who Jesus was as well as the source, inspiration and eventual development of his message and ministry. The fact is that not only Jesus but also John the Baptizer and some of Jesus’ disciples were taught, by Egyptian priests, some of the fundamentals of the African Mystery System which later, through adaptations and distortions, became the foundation for what is now known as Christianity in its various forms and manifestations.

The fact that Jesus was an initiate in the African Mystery System; that Jesus was taught and did study at various subsidiary lodges of the Grand Lodge of Luxor in Africa and elsewhere (i.e. Tibet, India, etc.) The fact that it was in Africa that Jesus became acquainted with the Essenes, who were largely responsible for much of the teachings credited to Jesus.

Jesus was a Black man, and there are numerous early paintings, statues and icons that graphically depict both Mary and Jesus as Black people. According to Godfrey Higgins (author of the monumental historical document Anacalypsis), who visited the cathedrals of Europe before the anti-religious period of the French Revolution, all the madonnas and Christ-childs were depicted as black: “In all the Romish countries of Europe, in France, Italy, Germany, etc., the God, Christ, as well as his mother are described in the old pictures to be black.

The infant God in the arms of his black mother, his eyes drapery white, is himself perfectly black. If the reader doubts my words, he may go to the cathedral of Moulins – to the famous chapel of the Virgin of Loretto, to the Church of Annunciata; the Church of St. Lazaro, or the Church of St. Stephen at Genoa, to St. Francisco at Pisa; to the Church of Brixer in the Tyrol, and that of Padua; to the Church of St. Theodore at Munich, etc. This is further supported and documented by the work of J.A. Rogers, Albert Churchward, Yosef ben-Jochannan, C.W. King, J.S. Matthews, Gerald Massey and various other writers who give detailed accounts of the original Black Mary and Jesus.

It was with the advent of Michaelango, who used his family to pose for the paintings that he did of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, etc. – coupled with European white racism – that we begin to see Jesus portrayed as a white man. But how could it be otherwise?

How could a group of people simultaneously proclaim and practice white racism and justify slavery under the guise of bringing the message of Christianity to the ‘heathens’ or ‘pagan black savages’ in Africa – and at the same time tell the truth that Jesus was a Black man and that in fact Christianity started in Africa, where Panteus and Boteus reported that Jesus was born in a cave in Ethiopia? And that it was not until the Nicene conference that Jesus’ birthplace was changed to a stable in Bethlehem.

Basically, the African Mystery System was the educational system of Africa. It was called a ‘mystery’ by E. Budge, the Famous Egyptologist, and other Egyptian scholars; but it was not a mystery to Africans. It encompassed many branches of knowledge, including all of the sciences, philosophy, physics, all of the liberal arts and, of course, religion and metaphysics.

The foundation of that which was later called Greek philosophy comes directly from the African Mystery System. If an individual wants confirmation of this, he can consult such books as G.M. James’ Stolen Legacy, B.D. Alexander’s History of Philosophy, Alfred Weber’s History of Philosophy, William Turner’s History of Philosophy and Zeber’s History of Philosophy.

Included as a part of the ancient African Mystery System were the major beliefs contained in the so-called ‘Western Religions’ of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For those who want a closer look at this, I would recommend the Egyptian Book of the Dead and The Ancient Mysteries by C.H. Vail. Another book which provides great detail is Albert Churchward’s Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. It lays out all of the Hebrew, Christian and Hindu doctrines that come directly from the African Mystery System. A comparable book, also written by Churchward, is Origin And Evolution of Religion.

GEOGHAGEN: There were two councils of the Christian Church held in Nicea (Nice), in what is now northwest Turkey. The most important was called in 325 A.D. by Constantine “the Great” and 219 bishops from all of the powerful Christian regions attended it. It was the intent of Constantine to change Christianity into Christiandom. In other words, religion would now become the vehicle of government control over the people. Achievement of this goal involved changing some of the tenets of Christianity. Anyone who is interested can obtain a copy of the proceedings of the Nicene Conference and see the tremendous political struggle that was going on between the “Men of God.”

One will notice that at least 18 books — including the book of Mary — that were part of the Koin Bible (the original Bible up to that point) were removed from the canons. Furthermore, many of the ancient African teachings, including the concept of reincarnation, were removed from Christianity. And it was at this time that they put into the new Bible the ancient African concept of the Immaculate Conception.

MAAT: Are you literally saying that the original Bible was changed at the Nicene Conference?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes. But this was not the first time that Church leaders had gotten together to fight over what was to be accepted as Christianity. A similar conference was held in Jamnia in A.D. 90, at which time other changes were made.

MAAT: Getting back to the questions of whether Jesus was a Black man: Some scholars, of course, would challenge your position that Jesus was a black man on the ground that he was Jewish and could not therefore have been Black.

GEOGHAGEN: My opinion is that those would be very misinformed scholars because the original Jews were Black people.

MAAT: Some scientists today might also raise the point that the ancient Shroud of Turin, which has been highly touted by the press and which many now claim bears the image of Jesus, does not appear to depict a Black man. What would be your response to this?

GEOGHAGEN: It would be of little consequence as to whether the shroud of Turin appears to be Black, Asian, Caucasian or whatever, because the only thing that scientists are able to determine at this point is that indeed this probably was a shroud that covered a human body and does not appear to be fake.

But no Scientist alive of whom I am aware — racist or nonracist, Christian or non-Christian — can in any way, shape, form or fashion document that the Shroud of Turin is the one that was placed over Jesus’ body at the time of his death.

MAAT: Was Jesus the only great religious leader who was Black?

GEOGHAGEN: Absolutely not. Most of the ancient prophets and saviors of most religions were depicted in their original form as Blacks.

MAAT: If all of these ancient prophets, gods and goddesses were Blacks, does this suggest a universal Black dominance in the ancient world?

GEOGHAGEN: Most certainly, yes. One might read Gerald Massey’s Egypt: The Light of the World, from archaeological and anthropological evidence alone, there is no doubt that the race of Black people was the seed race for humanity. In other words, we were here before anyone else and our presence was felt and known throughout the world.

We not only occupied Africa, but our remains have been discovered from the Fiji Islands to Tasmania, Melanesia, India, China, Japan, Mexico and even Europe. Many scientists have shown that the original race of people in all of these areas was the Black race.

MAAT: Why is it that the facts that you have revealed here are unknown to the general public?

Geoghagen: They are intentionally kept from the public. You take a situation where you have a group of people – namely white people – who have actually taken philosophy, religion, education, science, liberal arts, everything that you can associate with the word “culture” from Black people. They have taken it, distorted it, adopted it and used it against the very people from whom they received it as a justification for slavery. So, it was convenient to enslave Blacks in Africa under the guise of spreading Christianity when it fact the religion as developed in Africa (there were 27 bishops and seven Popes of the North African Church before the first one in Rome — this is documented in the book Libers Pontificals, which, when translated into English, is Book of the Popes).

I should also point out here that few references are made to the fact that three of the earliest fathers of the Christian church were Blacks. St. Augustine (born at Tagaste, Numida, North Africa in 354 A.S.), who set the moral doctrine of the Christian Church; Tutillian and Cyprian. How could white people tell Blacks that they had no history or culture other than that which Europeans gave them and at the same time tell them that Christianity was not only developed by Blacks, but that its master, Jesus, was a Black man? This could not be done.

MAAT: Why do you think that it is important for Black people to know that Jesus was a Black man and that Christianity is of African origin?

GEOGHAGEN: I feel that this information is critical to the self- esteem and future of Blacks around the globe. Our contributions as the originators of high culture or “civilization” have been systematically kept from us. Our inventions, our philosophies, our religious concepts and systems have been stolen, co-opted, distorted, adopted and then used against us. We as a people must begin to assert ourselves and to reclaim our history and our science, and become knowledgeable about who we are, whence we came, and where we are going. Without a thorough knowledge and understanding of African history (including the development of Christianity in Africa), our future as a people is at best bleak.

About the author:

Legrand H. Clegg II is an attorney, historian and producer of the award-winning videotape, “When Black Men Ruled The World: Egypt During The Golden Age.”


August 19, 2007


Rasta Livewire
Rastafarian Views on Life, Politics and Social Issues

The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu
Posted in Articles, Prophet, Rastas by Don Jaide on December 9, 2006.
The Original Black Arabs of Arabia – Part 2
Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu

Arabia the Daughter of Kush
The classical Greek and Roman writers commonly accepted the division of Arabia into Deserta (desert), Felix (happy), and Petraea (stony). Not much is known today about the exact configuration of those divisions. Later day Islamic Arabic geographers know nothing of this division, and this is not surprising since many of those later day Arabs are actually immigrants that later acculturated and assimilated into the culture of the original Black Arabs.

Arab geographers of the Islamic period divided Arabia generally into five provinces: The first is Yemen, embracing the whole south of the peninsula and including Hadramaut, Mahra, Oman, Shehr, and Nejran. The second is Hijaz, on the west coast and including Mecca and Medina, the two famous centres of Islam. The third is Tehama, along the same coast between Yemen and Hijaz. The fourth is Nejd, which includes most of the central table-land, and the fifth is Yamama, extending all the wide way between Yemen and Nejd. This division is also inadequate, for it omits the greater part of North and East Arabia.

A more recent division of Arabia, according to politico-geographical principles, is into seven provinces: Hijaz, Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, Hasa, Irak, and Nejd. It has always been the assertion of experts that certain tribes that lived on the coast of Yemen and on the coast of Ethiopia and Eriteria were almost identical. The linkages between Ethiopia Kush and Arabia must be considered in the context of any discourse on Arab people, or more precisely stated the Black Africans of Arabia.


As stated in the preceding paragraph, the key to understanding the origin and culture of the Arabs is through African Kushitic Ethiopia.
Contacts between eastern Africa and Arabia have existed since the time immemorial. Archeological evidence has demonstrated that Africans of the Caspian culture probably moved across the Strait of Bab El Mandel and implanted the same Caspian culture in Arabia on the other side of the strait. See Leaky, L.S.B., Stone Age Africa pp 38-78.
The Strait of Bab-El-Mandel, which separates Africa from Arabia, is quite narrow at some points averaging a couple of days journey on a sea raft or small canoe. Communication and travel have consequently been possible since pre-historic times.
It will thus not be a surprising claim to the well informed that East African people (being the first aboriginals of the earth) have long settled in Arabia as the original inhabitants. For instance, besides the Caspian culture, African people also founded the so-called Afro-Arabian Tihama cultural complex in the mid-2nd millennium.
In addition to the coastal site of Adulis in Eritrea and sites farther inland in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan, vestiges of the Tihama cultural complex are represented on the Saudi coastal plains and the western and southern coasts of Yemen. (Fattovich 1997).
Moreover, African settlements were further stimulated by the growth of the Egyptian state from the 4th millennium onward, with more extensive migration of African population in Arabia around the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. Semitic speaking settlers from Ethiopia-Kush settled in Arabia built complex cultures and civilizations of which the later Assyrians, Greeks, Romans and Jews would document for coming generations. See Josephus Book 1.
Long before Yemen had become a politically articulated entity, the Ethiopian-Axumites had built many powerful states along the coast of Red Sea and the hilly countries of Ethiopia such as ancient Adulis, Coloe, Yeha Tokanda, and the so called Ethio-Sabean state of Daamat (circa 800-600 B.C.) etc. Ethiopia-Axum, the ancient dominant power in the region, gradually incorporated the African-Yemenites into its political sway. By 12th century B.C. Southern Arabia fell under the complete control of the Ethiopian-Axumites through their long domination of the Red Sea trade routes. The first kingdom built by the Ethiopian-Axumites in Arabia was Saba just across the straits in Yemen in 800 B.C. See Ephraim Isaac and Cain Felder, “Reflections on the Origins of the Ethiopian Civilization”, Eight International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, November 1984. Successive civilisations of Mineans, Sabaeans and Himyarites interacted closely with their counterparts in Ethiopia.
For a while the Ethiopian-Kushitic Arabs focussed their energies on the Yemeni side of the coast in states like Saba and Daamat. Products were shipped into Yemen from Ethiopia and exported all over the world through the Red Sea.
Following the decline of Saba and Daamat, the international trade hub moved to the kingdom of Axum on the opposite side of the Red Sea coast. From its seaports such as Adulis, Ethiopian-Kushites, Axum’s trade network extended from Egypt as far as India.
Axum survived for more than 2500 years as a great state dominating the Red Sea regions although western historians would grudgingly concede 800 years. It occupied and ruled southern Arabia for part of this period. Utilitarian Aksumite pottery has been found in large quantities in deposits from the 5th and 6th centuries in the Yemen Hadramawt, suggesting that there may have been substantial immigration during that period. Axumites descended groups such as the Habashahs, still live in southern Yemen today fully cognizant of their African origins and connections.

Indeed, interaction between Yemen and Ethiopia in ancient times is sometimes compared with the historical relationship between Europe and America, with the Red Sea as substitute for the Atlantic Ocean.


Another important group of Black African groups who contributed genetically, and culturally to the formation of the Arabs are the Bejas otherwise called the Blemmyes. It appears that the Blemmyes as encountered in classical literature provided the foundation for the ethnic group known today as Bedouins.
The indigenous Beja people are nomads who have inhabited the semi-desert area in the Red Sea coast of Sudan and the hilly country behind it for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians referred to them as the people of Buka or Medju (Medjay), the Romans dubbed them Blemmyes and in the Odessa they were described as Erembes. They are a Kushitic-Khemitic people who spoke a mixed dialect of semitic and Cushitic language. They identify themselves today as the most original and ancient of the Arab tribes.
Kemitic Pharaohs called them Absha, meaning ‘the desert dwellers’ – that is, the Bedouins in Arabic language – and Ramses II called them Beja, purporting fighters’. Thus one can reasonably see the Bejas as fulfilling the Arab Bedouin archetype of the fearsome, nomadic owners of the Sahara, highly temperamental but compassionate. Throughout history, they have been regarded as very efficient fighting machines. It is important to note that besides the Nubians, it is well documented that the Beja were employed in the Egyptian army and were credited for their courage and fortitude during the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.
The Roman Historian Ammianus Marcellinus inspite of his odious ethno-centrism provides us more clues on the racial and ethnic identity of the earliest Arabs. In his book The Roman History, Book XIV.iv.1-7. (380 A.D.)) the Saracens a named that was used to describe the Arabs in both ancient and modern times (stems most likely from the Arabic Sarqiyyun, meaning ‘easterners’) were described as the Blemmys tribes who lived along the banks of the Nile beyond the cataracts. According to Ammianus Marcellinus:
“Book XIV.4:
At this time also the Saracens, a race whom it is never desirable to have either for friends or enemies, ranging up and down the country, if ever they found anything, plundered it in a moment, like rapacious hawks who, if from on high they behold any prey, carry it off with a rapid swoop, or, if they fail in their attempt, do not tarry. And although, in recounting the career of the Prince Marcus, and once or twice subsequently, I remember having discussed the manners of this people, nevertheless I will now briefly enumerate a few more particulars concerning them.
Among these tribes, whose primary origin is derived from the cataracts of the Nile and the borders of the Blemmyae, all the men are warriors of equal rank; half naked, clad in colored cloaks down to the waist, overrunning different countries, with the aid of swift and active horses and speedy camels, alike in times of peace and war. Nor does any member of their tribe ever take plow in hand or cultivate a tree, or seek food by the tillage of the land; but they are perpetually wandering over various and extensive districts, having no home, no fixed abode or laws; nor can they endure to remain long in the same climate, no one district or country pleasing them for a continuance.
Their life is one continued wandering; their wives are hired, on special covenant, for a fixed time; and that there may be some appearance of marriage in the business, the intended wife, under the name of a dowry, offers a spear and a tent to her husband, with a right to quit him after a fixed day, if she should choose to do so. And it is inconceivable with what eagerness the individuals of both sexes give themselves up to matrimonial pleasures.
But as long as they live they wander about with such extensive and perpetual migrations, that the woman is married in one place, brings forth her children in another, and rears them at a distance from either place, no opportunity of remaining quiet being ever granted to her. They all live on venison, and are further supported on a great abundance of milk, and on many kinds of herbs, and on whatever birds they can catch by fowling. And we have seen a great many of them wholly ignorant of the use of either corn or wine.”
The Black African Bejas/Saracens also called the Blemmys gave to the Arabs of today (blacks and pales) the knowledge to live in the Sahara as well as the most basic cultural elements that define the Bedouin culture including nomadic identity, marital culture and martial arts. For instance, the war-like Blemmyes (Beja) had normally fought with curiously shaped bows, and it was from them that the tribes of Hijaz and Yemen (in Arabia) – and the other Arab tribes – adopted the use of the bow. Historically, the Beja ruled the vast territory of theirs (laying between Northern Nigeria and Sudan) in five kingdoms – namely, the Naqis, Baqlin (Taflin), Bazin, Jarin and Qat’a (Qit’a, also perhaps Qas’a).
Arabia Petra
Arabia Petra spread between African Kushitic Egypt and Mesopotamia (another African kushitic area in the ancient times) (Josephus). It was originally settled by an early branch of the Cushitic Ethiopian people who spoke a proto-type semitic dialect.
The Beja’s known as the ancient Blemmyes one of the earliest known nomadic tribes to dwell in the deserts of Africa and Arabia probably provided the founding population of Arabia Petra.
Other sections of the African population from the early Caspian culture and other culture complex centered on Ethiopia Axum and Ethiopia Kush may have equally contributed to the early settlement of Arabia Petra.
Some of these early African Black Arabs crossed the Red Sea whilst others migrated overland through the Nile valley into Arabia. Arabia Petrea thus became an early blending pot of African cultures. Due to this cultural ferment many nomads soon abandoned their wandering lives to establish sophisticated towns and cities together with the more sedentary population. These melange later became known as the Nabateans and their capital was Petra. (Drussilla Houstons) See also
During the Roman period, the word Arab was a synonymy for Nabatean and vice versa. When the Romans incorporated Nabatea into their Empire, it was officially designated as the Province of Arabia. Numerous sculptures found in Arabia Petra clearly depict its population as African through their physical features. One classical example is that of Emperor Philip of Arabia one of the later Emperors of Rome, who was indigenous to Arabia Petra. His sculptures demonstrate that physically speaking, Emperor Philip of Arabia was a Black man of African descent.

Arabia Felix
Arabia Felix laid further south of Petra. Arabia Felix was bounded by the Shiraz region of the Persian Gulf, the Eritrean or Red sea (Africa) as well as the Indian Ocean. This country was rich in spices and in it was situated the famous cities of Mecca and Medina.
Here was the country of the Yemenis, the Habashas, the Sabas, the Hadramautians and the Mineans. All these were sections of the Ethiopian-Axumite tribes similar to the Amharas, the Oromos and the Tigriyeans, who had expanded the ancient lucrative spice trade to Arabia.
It should be noted that in addition to coffee, Ethiopia is the original homeland of incenses such as frankincense, myrrh, and spices like cinnamon. The traditional African planters of these cash crops and the African maritime operators of this most lucrative of ancient trades extended their operations from Ethiopia across the straits of Bab-el-Mandel to take advantage of the fertile land and the natural habours of Arabia Felix, which subsequently became export hubs of the ancient trade. (See Strabo,geography Book XVI.iv.19). Produce was shipped routinely from the highlands of Ethiopia into Ethiopian owned- Arabia Felix for exports to the rest of the world.
Given the historical, genetic, physical and geographical proximity between Ethiopia and Arabia Felix and the similarity of the cultural expression of both land, it is not a wonder why the ancient Greek writers swore that the Ethiopians ruled the whole of Arabia. It was clear to the sophisticated Greeks and the worldly Romans that Black Africans settled and developed this portion of Arabia!

Arabia Deserta
Arabia Deserta was originally people by the Bejas and kindred groups from Africa. These are the original owners of the Sahara and its extension known as the Arabia Desert. The Bejas as we have seen from preceeding paragraphs were the first to be called Bedouins due to their nomadic culture and their preference for Desert habitats.

In the beginning of Holocene period, a group of landless, barbarian, starving, pale-skinned Central Asian refugees now known as the pale-skin Arabs (i.e. the so-called Semites) began living side by side with the nomadic African Cushitic Bejas who owned the entire Sahara desert between the Nile and the Arabian peninsula. Over the course of time these two peoples have intermingled culturally and genetically that there is barely any pale skin (Arabized) Arabs alive today that does not carry extensive Africa genes in his blood. The descendants of this intermingling are the so-called modern Semitic Arabs (more precisely known as the Arabized Arabs) who trace their roots through Abraham.
The Central Asian barbarians did not develop any states, high culture or language in Arabia. They were destitues, mostly ignorant, unread and illiterate. The Koran takes great pain to dissociate this group from the high cultural attainment of ancient Arabia. It is clearly stated that until the advent of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed, these so-called Semites lived in a state of perpetual brutality, savagery, warfare and robbery. The Koran also takes pain to identify the original Black Arabs who had lived in Ad, Thamud, Imru etc, as the originators and builders of Arab civilization and culture.
These Arabized Arabs have sublimated stories of their origin in the legend of Abraham, which narrates of his journey from somewhere proximate to central Asia into the Black African territory of Arabia. He was said to have married a Black Egyptian-born wife, Hagar/Hajir, and their son was named, Ishmael/Isma’il. In this legend one immediately becomes aware of the central Asian origin of its heros and the resultant miscegenation which gave rise to the Arabised Arabs.
These so-called descendants of Abraham (actually mix breed from Black African Bejas and pale central Asian-stanis like the Turkmenistanis) settled in Mecca which was then under the overlordship of the Kushitic-Ethiopic owners of Arabia-Felix. This category of Arabs normally called themselves ‘Adnaniyun – that is, after one of their great tribal ancestors Adnan.
Despite the mythical origin of this peculiar historical source, it is clear that conscious effort has been made by Arabized Arabs to associate their tribes to African Royal pedigree. Since it is generally known that Kushitic citizenship was matrilineal, and only children born by Kemitic Kushite mothers could aspire to be Kings in Egypt and Ethiopia, it does not take a lot of imagination to understand the role of the black Egyptian (Kemitic Kushite) Hagar in the Abraham story. The Arabized Arabs actually claim a Black African historical and archetypal mother! No wonder “Aswad” (Black) is such an attractive concept in Arabic language.
December 9,2006
To be continued

5 Responses “The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu”
Dana Marniche replied:

The Blemmyes were thought to have been just one of the Bedja tribes. Bedja or Medjayu was a more general name for the Afro-Semitic Cushitic people living on the African side of the Eritraean Sea. There were also the Adiabari, Megabari and other Barbari. The Anag’il of the Bedja are now called Danakil. Abraham’s people were very likely similar to the modern dark-skinned Mash’ai of Oman known to Josephus as Mash son of Aram. The Aramaeans of ancient times were the Amorites or Ammuru. Thus, according to the Biblical book Ezekiel – Israel’s mother was a Hittite and father was an Amorite. Both were early Canaanite peoples. Ham Shem and Japhet were all the same people 3500 years ago. The Syro-Aramaeans in the tomb of king Tut and Phoenicians in the temple art of the Egyptians show that they had the same pigment as the people of the ancient Egyptians, Puntites and some of the peoples of Nubia – A dark brown color with a copper or brick red caste.
January 26th, 2007 at 5:07 pm. Permalink.
Ali Sharif Mandela replied:

If Prophet Abraham(sas)was a pale skinned Central Asian Semite
and his wife Haga/Hajir was a Black kemitic Kushite Eyptian African woman,then was Prophet Muhammad’s(sas)skin color pale or
a dark brown color with a copper or brick red caste? It appears that most Arabs was of dark hue before the advent of european invaders,conquers,colonizers,
rapist or intermarriage added to the skin color. Prophet Muhammad(sas)is described as having pale skin or white. Looking at his lineage,would it be proper to say he is white,black or of mixed heritage? Also,if there was no invasion,conquest or
colonization of Arabia,and no intermarriage or rape by Europeans(Turks or Persians),
then how could the Prophet or anyone else be born of white skin color at that period of time in Arabia? Please explain!
February 16th, 2007 at 7:31 am. Permalink.
Muhayyuddiyn ‘Ali Dhuw-Al-Fiqaar replied:

Thank you for this observation.Haajar(Hagar) was Egyptian Matron and Ibraahim(Abraham) was a Kushite Patron from Khaldaiyy Uwr of Ancient Babylon a Kushite Colony.They begat Ishmaa-El.Ishmaa-El married another Egyptian Matron woman named Fatima Ar-Ri’lah,they begat Twelve Princes the second whose name was Qeydaar(Kedar) this Arabic /Hebrew name means Powerfuly Dark Skinned man.Qeydaar(Kedar) married Fakhira a Matron Woman from The Qahtaanites(Joktan son of Kush)another African person.So in Fact Muhammad(saws) was Fully African in the North East Arabian Quarter of Afriqa.He was not white.The Arabic Term Sayyid which is the title of all of Abraaham’s and Muhammad’s Children;It means Noble.It comes from the Arabic Root word Sawwad(Black).If we were to say
“Huwa Ya-suwd min-hu”. Translated as;
“He is Blacker than him”. Literaly means;
“He is more Majestic than him”.
So here we can see that the Arabian term for “black” is a Noble Term.Today at the Kaaba, There you can see the Kiwa(cover)is Black. Hajr-I-Aswaad The Black Stone.Hadith al-Kisa the Cloak of Muhammad over his Family,Ali ,Fatima,Hasan,and Hussaiyn was Black and today a Sheiykh or a Ayaatullah Shi’ite from the descendants(sayyid=Sawwad) of Muhammad wear Black Turbans.Then we have the Term Sudan=Land of Two Blacks(East bank of the Red Sea and West Bank of The Red Sea)Africa and Arabia is one Land two different sides of the Red Sea.I know because I’am a Sayyid(Noble) who is Ya-Suwd(Majestic)who is Sawwad(Black)from the Sudan(lands of the Two Blacks=Abraham and Hagar).
March 19th, 2007 at 11:57 am. Permalink.
TEE replied:

Why isn’t this taught??
May 5th, 2007 at 3:30 pm. Permalink.
mahmoud onursemra replied:

i want yous to talk about bedja alot the information i see is not good enough to get intersted at the moment its ok but not to good
June 12th, 2007 at 8:46 pm. Permalink.
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August 17, 2007


City Press Column

An African Origin of Philosophy: Myth or Reality?
By Molefi Kete Asante
(First Published in City Press, July, 2004)

There is a common belief among whites that philosophy originates with the Greeks. The idea is so common that almost all of the books on philosophy start with the Greeks as if the Greeks pre-dated all other people when it came to discussion of concepts of beauty, art, numbers, sculpture, medicine of social organization. In fact, this dogma occupies the principal position in the academies of the Western world, including the universities and academies of Africa. It goes something like this:

Philosophy is the highest discipline.
All other disciplines are derived from philosophy.
Philosophy is the creation of the Greeks.
The Greeks are white,
Therefore, whites are the creators of philosophy.

In the view of this dogma, other people and cultures may contribute thoughts, like the Chinese, Confucius, but thoughts are not philosophy; only the Greeks can contribute philosophy. The African people may have religion and myths, but not philosophy, according to this reasoning. Thus, this notion privileges the Greeks as the originators of philosophy, the highest of the sciences.

There is a serious problem with this line of reasoning. The information is false. As far as scholarship can reveal the origin of the word philosophy is not in the Greek language, although it comes into English from the Greek. According to dictionaries on Greek etymology the origin of the word is unknown. But that is if you are looking for the origin in Europe. Most Europeans who write books on etymology do not consider Zulu, Xhosa, Yoruba, or Amharic, when coming to a conclusion about what is known or unknown. They never think that a term used by a European language may have come from Africa.
There are two parts to the word philosophy as it comes to us from the Greek, “Philo” meaning brother or lover and “Sophia” meaning wisdom or wise. Thus, a philosopher is called a “lover of wisdom.”

The origin of “Sophia” is clearly in the African language, Mdu Ntr, the language of ancient Egypt, where the word “Seba,” meaning “the wise” appears first in 2052 BC in the tomb of Antef I, long before the existence of Greece or Greek. The word became “Sebo” in Coptic and “Sophia” in Greek. As to the philosopher, the lover of wisdom, that is precisely what is meant by “Seba,” the Wise, in ancient tomb writings of the Egyptians.

Diodorus Siculus, the Greek writer, in his On Egypt, written in the first century before Christ, says that many who are “celebrated among the Greeks for intelligence and learning, ventured to Egypt in olden times, that they might partake of the customs, and sample the teachings there. For the priests of Egypt cite from their records in the holy books that in the former times they were visited by Orpheus and Musaeus, Melampos, Daedalos, besides the poet Homer, Lycurgus the Spartan, Solon the Athenian, and Plato the philosopher, Pythagoras of Samos and the mathematician Eudoxos, as well as Democritus of Abdera and Oenopides of Chios, also came there.”

Obviously many Greeks who learned philosophy ventured to Africa to study. They came for many intellectual reasons. One can see that the Greeks appreciated the fact that in Egypt were men and women of great skill and knowledge just as the Egyptians appreciated the fact that there were men and women of greater knowledge in Ethiopia.

According to Herodotus, writing in the 5th Century BC in Book II of History, the Ethiopians said that the Egyptians were nothing but a colony of Ethiopians. Of course, today there remains an entire system of disbelief about the history, experiences, and knowledge of the people of Africa, created during the past five hundred years of European conquest. A rhetoric of denial of Africa’s capability was developed to accompany the dispossession of Africa. This was done to go along with the European conquest of Africa, Asia, and America. Colonization was not just a land issue, it was an issue of colonizing information about the land. Yet I am of the opinion that the ancients knew better than the contemporary pundits about the importance of non-Africans studying in Africa.

There was no Germany, France, England, Italy, United States, or Spain to speak of when the Greeks started to travel to Africa for their studies. Indeed, they went to Africa and after they went back to Greece created the Greek Golden Era. It was not before, but after they had studied in Egypt that these people got some advanced training. What I am saying is that they had to come to Africa and study with the wise men of ancient Egypt, who were black, in order to be able to learn medicine, mathematics, geometry, art, and so forth. This was long before there was any European civilization.

Why did the Greek philosophers study in Africa? Thales, the first Greek philosopher and the first who is recorded to have studied in Africa, says that he learned philosophy from the Egyptians. They studied in Egypt because it was the educational capital of the ancient world. Pythagoras is known to have spent at least twenty two years in Africa. One could get a fairly good education in twenty two years, perhaps even earn a Ph.D.! The Greeks were seeking the philosophical information that the Africans possessed. When Isocrates wrote of his studies in the book Busirus, he said that “I studied philosophy and medicine in Egypt.” He did not study these subjects in Greece in Europe, but in Egypt in Africa.

Not only is the word philosophy not Greek, the practice of philosophy existed long before the Greeks. Imhotep, Ptahhotep, Amenemhat, Merikare, Duauf, Amenhotep, son of Hapu, Akhenaten, and the sage of Khunanup, are just a few of the African philosophers who lived long before there was a Greece or a Greek philosopher.

When the Africans finished building the pyramids in 2500 BC it would be one thousand seven hundred years before Homer, the first Greek writer, appears!

And when he appears and begins to write The Iliad he does not spend much time before he is writing about what happened in Africa or what was happening in Africa. The Greek gods were meeting in Ethiopia. Homer is said to have spent seven years in Africa. What could he have learned in those classes with those wise teachers? He could have learned Law, philosophy, religion, astronomy, literature, politics, and medicine.

Africans did not wait for the Greeks to figure out how to construct the pyramids. Can you see the Egyptians standing around at the stone quarries or on the banks of the Nile in 2500 BC speculating on when some European would come alone and help them measure the earth, calculate width, breadth, and depth, determine the exact helical rising of Serpet (Sirius) and the inundation of the Nile, or diagnose the diseases of the human body.

According to Herodotus, in Histories, Book II, the Colchians were Egyptians “because like the Egyptians they had black skin and wooly hair.” Aristotle says in Physiognomonica that “the Egyptians and Ethiopians are very black.”

Led by the Pharaoh of African History, Cheikh Anta Diop, a new cadre of scholars has emerged to challenge all of the lies that were told about Africa and about Africans. They are the ones who, as the poet Haki Madhubuti says, walk toward fear, not away from it. They are the real standards for courage and commitment.

At a major 1974 conference sponsored by UNESCO on the “Peopling of Egypt” in Cairo, two blacks, Diop and Theophile Obenga, walked toward fear and when they had finished presenting their papers they had shattered all of the lies that were told about Africans. Using science, linguistics, anthropology, and history, these two intellectual giants demonstrated that the ancient Egyptians were black They used a melanin test on the skin of a mummy, art from the walls of tombs, correspondences to other African languages, and the testimonies of the ancients.

It is so interesting to me that the ancient Greeks knew much better than the current crop of Europeans who pontificate on the subject that the ancient Egyptians, long before the coming of the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Turks to Egypt, were Africans, indeed, black-skinned Africans.

Aristotle, the philosopher, wrote in his book, Physiognomonica, that “the Ethiopians an Egyptians are very black.” Herodotus adds that the ancient Egyptian had “black skin and wooly hair.”

The color of the ancient Egyptians should not matter; it only comes up because one always finds some white person who is dedicated to the proposition that Africans could not have built the pyramids, and especially not black Africans. Of course, everyone should know that the Egyptians were Africans, but the fact is that they were not just Africans, these particular Egyptians were black skinned with woolly hair.

Philosophy begins first with the black skinned people of the Nile Valley around 2800 BC, that is, 2200 years before the appearance of Thales of Miletus, considered the first Western philosophy. 30,000 years ago our ancestors were separating red ochre from iron in a Swaziland cave. They had to have some idea about what they were doing. There had to be some reflection, some process by which the elders determined what was to be used for what and on what occasion. Thus, even before writing, we have evidence that Africans were engaging in meaningful discussions about the nature of their environment.

Molefi Kete Asante is one of the most published contemporary scholars, having written more than sixty books and three hundred articles.

Scholarly Papers | Book/Film Reviews | Newspaper/Magazine Articles

Copyright © 2005 by Asante & Associates


August 16, 2007


Yoruba Religion: 2005 Schedule* of Festivals

By Remi-Niyi Alaran
Yoruba religion (Irunmole) is a monotheistic religion with one almighty god. It is based on reverence of African ancestors who are celebrated as a heirarchy of about 401 chief and minor dieties. OLORUN or OLODUMARE, the only Supreme Diety, is not worshipped directly. Irunmole is an instrumental set of rituals by which critical individuals may resolve existential dilemnas in consultation with a distant God. It does not define a specific moralising code or have any sacred texts. Individuals can converse directly with their orisha and can effect changes in their own destiny. Irunmole is not concerned about a compiled and interpreted system of beliefs for group worship of an omnipresent God, as are other world religions such as Islam, Christianity or Buddhism.

February 26 – 27
OLOKUN festival:
Orisha of the deep sea [Nature] and protector of the African soul

March 21
ODUDUWA festival.
Celebrations of the Orisha of the Earth. Onset of the Yoruba NEW YEAR (2005 is the 10,047th year of Yoruba culture?)

March 26 – 27
OSHOSI festival.
Veneration of the Orisha of Adventure, patron of hunters
Also annual rites of passage for men

April 4
OGUN festival.
Veneration of the Orisha of War, patron of metal crafts [Engineering / Military]

Last Saturday of April, for 5 days (April 30 – May 4)
OSHUN festival. Celebrations of the Orisha of love [Biology]. Onset of Spring and the wet season.

Last Saturday of May, for seven days (May 28 – June 4)
EGUNGUN festivals. Celebrations of the Ancestral Spirits (Life forces), including royal sacrifices

June 21
SHOPONA and OSANHIN festivals.
Veneration of the Orishas of Disease and Medicine respecitvely.

June 25 – 26
YEMOJA festival.
Celebrations and fertility paegents of the Matron Orisha of the Yorubas
Also annual rites of passage for woman.

July 2 – 3
ORUNMILA / IFA festival.
Celebrations and recitations of the Orisha of Destiny / Divination [Science]. Also mass gathering of the Yorubas

First weekend in July, for three weeks (July 4 – 24)
OKO and ELEGBA / ESHU festivals.
Celeberations of the Orisha of Farming [Agriculture] and Sex [Power / Communications], respecitvely. Also feasting on new harvests of the Yam tuber crop.

July 24 – 25
SHANGO festival.
Veneration and celebrations of the 8th century Alaafin of ancient Oyo nation, who became diefied as the Orisha of Thunder and Lightening [Energy]

August 27 – 28
OBATALA festival.
Celebrations of the Orisha of Heaven [Creation / Culture]

October 22 – 23
OYA festival.
Celebrations of the Orisha of the Wind. Patron of flooding of the Oya river and guardian of the gateway between life and death. Onset of Autumn and the dry season.

October 31
SHIGIDI festival.
Veneration of the Orisha of Nightmares and the unknown dead of the AFRICAN people. Solemn parade by candlelight for unsettled spirits and ghosts. World Slavery Day?

December 17
OBALUAIYE festival.
Celebrations of the Orisha of Work [Business] and of the winter solstice.
Information adapted from various sources including: and A current discourse of Yoruba perspectives on religions may be found at

*This information is subject to change. Actual dates of celebrations may differ from indicated in accordance with religious practises in location and family.

Remi-Niyi Alaran writes on enterprise and social capital.
You may copy, transmit, or otherwise use this document provided the copyright notice is attached

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The Kalabari


OGUN FESTIVALOgun the god of smithy and lord of Iron is celebrated annually in almost every town and villages in the state. The celebration is an annual remembrance and worship of the god of Iron who was believed to be a hunter who migrated from Ile-lfe to Ire-Ekiti on game search, but he ended up living permanently at Ire-Ekiti and disappeared into the ground when some people of the town deceived him with an empty keg of palm wine. He beheaded all of them with his cutlass according to oral history and disappeared into the ground. In Ire-Ekiti, the main festival in remembrance of the deity comes biennially and usually during the month of August.

Ogun is believed to be the god of all those using Iron in their professional work therefore; the deity must be worshipped in order to receive his favour. Ondo Town equally worships Ogun deity. In fact Ekimogun festival is fast assuming the status of a key festival of national interest. And in many towns and villages in the State, ogun festival is usually accorded with masquerades of different designs. During the festival the people also worship their ancestors and with the believe that the ancestors are on earth again to greet, inspect and bless their siblings. These masquerades are regarded as imitations of the ancestors. Dogs, Palm oil, Roasted yam, Palm wine, Cold water and cola nuts are the materials used by Ogun devotees to worship the deity.

OBITUNObitun is a bridal dance in Ondo Town. This dancing ceremony is supposed to be performed for every maiden in the town before she gets married. The people believe that if the ceremony is not performed for any particular girl, she might end up being childless. However, these days, very few families do perform these ceremonies for their daughters.

OROSUN FESTIVAL, IDANREAccording to oral tradition, Orosun was a woman and that she was one of the wives of Olofin Aremitan. When Olofin left Ife and got to Ipetu Ijesha where he stayed briefly, he met Orosun who was said to be very beautiful. Aremitan married her at Ipetu. After some years Aremitan left for Oke-Idanre which he founded.

Because of the strong tie between Olofin and Orosun she came to Idanre where she was welcomed to the palace. She stayed in the palace for many years but unfortunately, her marriage was not blessed with any issue. Her position in the palace was enviable. She was held in high esteem by the King to the annoyance of other wives. This developed into a domestic intrigue and Orosun fled the palace and entered into a cave near the present Orosun Hill.

The people of Idanre decided thereafter to appease her in exchange for fertility, peace, progress and health. She is worshipped every year. The festival is performed on 15th May of every year.

Picture showing the Olowo of Owo in his traditional regalia.
IGOGO FESTIVAL, OWOThis is an annual festival in Owo which lasts a total of 17 days featuring a number of ceremonies including the blessing and release of new yams. During the period of celebration, drumming is banned in Owo and instead, metal gongs (Agogo) are used. This was where the name ‘IGOGO’ was coined.

The Olowo, who during the festival usually dresses in Coral Beaded Crown, plaits his hair like a woman with Olowo’s dressing. It could be seen here that Owo has some traditional linkage with Benin.

The Olowo leads his people including the Chief Priest and the male youths from Iloro quarters to dance round the whole town it comes up in September annually.

OLOKUN, IGBOKODAThis is an annual worship of the Olokun deity who is the goddess of river and seas. The goddess is held in high esteem among the people of riverine areas of the state. This is because the deity has jurisdiction over nearly every important aspect of power to give children to barren women. She is also believed to be in control of ocean waves and could capsize, at will, boats of riches; she is believed to have the power to enrich her devotees.


August 12, 2007


On Kanye West’s Plate: Usher Tour, Clothing Line And … Black Jesus?
Producer’s latest jewelry item remixes traditional view of Christ.
By Shaheem Reid Digg Newsvine Send Print You Tell Us

As one of the leaders of the gentleman’s fashion movement, Kanye West has kept a Polo label on his chest like Superman does with his “S.” But when West — who recently signed on to tour with Usher this summer — starts packing his bags to hit the road, he’s probably going to be taking less Ralph Lauren to make room for his own clothes.

West is launching a clothing line called Mascott, which will hit stores before the end of the year, according to West’s rep. To top (or bottom) it off, he’s also coming out with his own line of sneakers, called Mascott Trainers, which are currently in the design stage.

Also coming up are two items with a prominent religious theme. First, Kanye has finished designing the next piece in the collection of religious-themed jewelry that he’s putting out with Jacob the Jeweler. The new piece will be called Grandma’s Jesus and is the follow-up to his original Jesus piece, released in April, which is of a Caucasian Christ. Grandma’s Jesus is a depiction of Jesus as a black man.

Second is the first of his two forthcoming singles: “Jesus Walks.” The video for the song was directed by Chris Milk and is said to feature three plotlines. Also, on the remix tip, Lil Jon produced a remix of “Kanye’s Workout” featuring Luke and Farnsworth Bentley (see “Run-In With A Bentley Uncovers Some Kanye West Remix Plans”).

West is also headed back out on tour this summer, but this time he’s not hitting colleges, he’s hitting arenas as an opening act on the Usher tour, which kicks off in August. Finally, Mariah Carey has been hollering at the Chi-Town native about rustling some beats from him for her next album.





August 12, 2007

FROM google.translate


L’origine africana di civilizzazione: Mito o realtà

dal Dott. Cheikh Anta Diop

Egyptology si è sviluppato nell’accordo con lo sviluppo del commercio slave e del sistema coloniale. Era durante questo periodo che l’Egitto è stato preso letteralmente dall’Africa, academically ed ha fatto un’estensione di Europa. In molti sensi l’Egitto è la chiave a storia africana antica. La storia africana è da kilter fino a considerare l’Egitto antico come nazione africana distinta. Il fiume del Nilo ha svolto un ruolo importante nel rapporto nell’Egitto alle nazioni in Africa sudorientale. Durante la storia remota dell’Africa, il Nilo era una strada principale culturale grande su cui gli elementi di civilizzazione sono entrato in e dall’Africa interna. Nel capitolo ha denominato, “nascita del mito del Negro,„ esposizioni del Dott. Diop come la gente africana, di cui le civilizzazioni erano vecchie prima che Europa fosse sopportata, è stata letta sistematicamente dal commento rispettoso di storia umana. Questo esame è continuato nel capitolo denominato, “falsificazione moderna di storia.„ Qui, il Dott. Cheikh Anta Diop si occupa di come gli storici occidentali, dato che i cinquecento anni ultimi hanno scritto o riscritto la storia che glorifica la gente dell’estrazione europea ed hanno storto la storia del resto del mondo. Coloro che legge seriamente questo libro sono dentro per una scossa e un’esperienza ricompensante di imparare. Ciò è un lavoro importante da uno storico africano importante. Infine, la rinascita della storiografia africana da un punto di vista africano ha cominciato e nessun troppo presto.

Girandosi verso la falsificazione principale della storia dell’umanità, come la mette, i underlines di Cheikh Anta Diop che il tempo è venuto portare a giustizia alla corsa del Negro, danno a gente nera il loro accreditamento del debito per condurre il procedere ed ardere una traccia affinchè l’umanità seguano.
L’Egitto rivisitato: Giornale delle civilizzazioni africane

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)

Una compilazione di molti eruditi grandi che ripartiscono la loro perizia. Questo libro ha molte foto antiche.


Corsa ed origine degli Egiziani antichi, i Dynasties neri ed i righelli, la filosofia e scienza degli Egiziani, i saggi vari ed il più.

Gli autori includono: Ivan Van Sertima, Chiekh Anta Diop, basilico Davidson, James Brunson, Bruce Williams, Runoko Rashidi, Chandler del Wayne B., asa G. Hilliard III, Legrand Clegg II, Phaon Goldman (Tarharka), Habib Sy, Theophile Obenga, fringillide del Charles S., Maulana Karenga, Larry Williams, Beatrice Lumpkin ed altri.
Scintilla nera, fuoco bianco: Gli esploratori africani hanno civilizzato Europa antica?

da Richard Poe

In scintilla nera, il fuoco bianco, Richard Poe cerca di oltrepassare le passioni e la politica che circondano questo oggetto. Esamina obiettivamente le edizioni e raggiunge le conclusioni che alcuni possono trovare startling.

Basato su sette anni di ricerca, compreso le interviste approfondite con gli eruditi e gli scienziati principali, la scintilla di nero, fuoco bianco è stata elogiata dagli esperti vari quanto il professor Molefi Kete Asante dell’università del tempiale, lo storico Martin Bernal dell’università de Cornell e l’esploratore norvegese Thor Heyerdahl. Con tutto il suspense di un racconto eccitante di mistero, la scintilla di nero segue una traccia snella degli indizii che conduce dagli altopiani dell’Etiopia alle carriole delle steppe russe. Raduna la storia dimenticata di un’età di esplorazione che si è conclusa quasi 3.000 anni prima di Columbus – un periodo quando l’Egitto ha regolato le onde, l’Africa era la sede imparare e di alimentazione ed Europa una frontiera selvaggia.
Contribuire prego a mantenere i regni neri dell’Africa antica in linea dai libri di acquisto da questa pagina, o potete comprare altri prodotti da Amazon scattandoti su c’è ne dei libri qui sotto. Amazon ha i prezzi eccellenti e servizio veloce.

Compro tutti i miei libri da Amazon, nuovo ed usato.

Wysinger-Redattore del Myra

Gli S.U.A.

Grazie per il vostro supporto.
Prima del pregiudizio di colore: La vista antica dei neri

dal M. franco Snowden

Secondo il Jr. del professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden, (ab, Ph.D.) la Reparto-lettura di Classicist dell’università del Howard delle fonti, la religione “pionieristica a„ dei Ethiopians ed era chiave all’origine ed alla propagazione di molte delle abitudini che hanno esistito nell’Egitto. Gli Egiziani, è stato discusso, era discendenti dei Ethiopians. Snowden dichiara che il termine Kushites, Nubians, o Ethiopians è all’usato a più o meno allo stesso modo come il termine moderno “ha colorato„, “nero, o Negro„. “Le esperienze negli Africani che hanno raggiunto i puntelli stranieri della Grecia e l’Italia ha costituito un capitolo importante nella storia dell’antichità classica,„ scrive. “Usando la prova dalle figure di cotta di terra, pitture e le fonti classiche gradiscono Herodotus e Pliny il Elder, Snowden risulta, al contrario ai nostri presupposti moderni, che Greco-Romans non ha osservato gli Africani con contempt razziale. Molti Africani hanno lavorato nell’impero romano i musicisti, gli artigianale, gli eruditi ed i General come pure gli schiavi e sono stati notati tanto per la loro virtù quanto per la loro apparenza di avere “una faccia bruciata„ (da quale è venuto il Ethiopian nome greco)„.

Il professor Snowden ha ricevuto la medaglia nazionale di studi umanistici in 2003, che honors gli individui o i gruppi di cui il lavoro ha approfondito la comprensione della nazione degli studi umanistici, cittadini estesi’ aggancio con gli studi umanistici, o aiutato la conserva ed espande accesso degli Americani’ alle risorse importanti negli studi umanistici.
Neri nell’antichità: Ethiopians nell’esperienza Greco-Romana

dal M. franco Snowden

Ulteriore sviluppando i temi così eloquente profili nei neri nell’antichità, Jr. franco del M. Snowden continua le sue ricerche sugli atteggiamenti nei confronti degli Africani nelle civilizzazioni classiche di Roma e della Grecia. Snowden identifica i neri africani dall’Egitto, da Nubia (Sudan moderno), dall’Etiopia e da Carthage (Tunisia), discutere loro interazione-compreso intermarriage-con il Greco-Romans. (Inoltre nota che molte delle rappresentazioni artistiche di questa gente assomigliano agli Americani africani attuali.) dalle missioni commerciali dei dynasties egiziani alla loro conquista della rovina mediterranea ed ultima alle mani del Romans, Snowden unravels una storia complessa degli scambi culturali che hanno acceso per parecchi millenni in où il pregiudizio razziale non era un fattore. “Ci era un rispetto definito fra la gente mediterranea per i Ethiopians ed il loro modo di vivere,„ lui scrive, “e soprattutto, i ancients non hanno stereotipato i neri come primitivi difettosi nella religione e nella coltura.„ – Jr. del Eugene Holley.
Donne nere nell’antichità (giornale delle civilizzazioni africane; V. 6)

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)

Rassegna del cliente:

Ciò è un libro ricercato e molto da studioso del pozzo. Ivan Van Sertima così come i contributori a questo lavoro ha prodotto molta comprensione sulle donne africane nella storia del mondo come la regina Nzinga, le regine del candace, Makeda (regina di Sheba) Hatshepsut e molti altri. Ritengo che questo lavoro è di importanza grande e dovrebbe essere letto da tutti che siano interessati nel ruolo delle donne africane nella storia del mondo.
La civilizzazione africana ha rivisitato: Da antichità ai periodi moderni

da Basil Davidson

Dal giornale delle biblioteche:

Questo libro, da uno degli storici di primo ministro dell’Africa, è un’edizione un po’modificata ed ampliata di suo l’Africano oltre. Come prima, consiste degli snippets delle materie grezze storiche dall’Africa occidentale, orientale e del sud, dante risalto ai tempi di secolo di pre-19th. Lo studio su storia dell’Africano nero era relativamente nuovo quando questo libro originalmente è stato pubblicato, in modo da era utile come dimostrazione che l’Africa effettivamente ha avuta una storia. Ora, oltre 25 anni più successivamente, si si domanda se il punto deve essere fatto ancora una volta. Eppure, il relativo uso più grande può essere di precisare agli allievi la varietà di fonti disponibili per lo studio su storia africana. Ciò è suggerita per le collezioni che non hanno l’edizione originale.

Paul H. Thomas, Lib dell’installazione del Hoover., Stanford, caloria.
I Pharaohs neri: Righelli di Nubian dell’Egitto

da Robert G. Morkot

Descrizione del libro:

Un’indagine completa sul regno di Kushite, Sudan del Nord attuale, che brevemente ha controllato BC l’Egitto durante l’ottavo secolo ed ha influenzato gli affari egiziani per le centinaia degli anni. Morkot esamina le percezioni antiche ed antiquarian delle terre esotiche di Nubia e dell’Etiopia e tenta di legare le città di Kush al remains archaeological. Una grande parte dei concentrati del libro sul ruolo del Nubians durante i conflitti dell’Egitto con la Libia ed i Assyrians.
Kush – il gioiello di Nubia: Ricollegamento del sistema della radice di civilizzazione africana

da Miriam Ma’ -Ka-Re Monges

Rassegne editoriali

Dalla copertura posteriore

Il Cheikh grande Anta Diop ha identificato le radici di coltura africana da cui una può seguire i rami. Nessun ricercatore africano poiché, tuttavia, ha fornito un’analisi completa che collega le civilizzazioni antiche della valle del Nilo con l’universo africano. Dalle piramidi dell’Egitto alle pareti grandi dello Zimbabwe, gli eruditi occidentali hanno attribuito i successi di queste civilizzazioni africane indigene prodigious alla gente culturalmente e geograficamente straniero in Africa. Tuttavia, nel caso dell’impero antico di Nubian di Kush, che ha occupato la parte del sud di Kemet (Egitto antico) e tutto il Sudan attuale, si invitare gli eruditi ragionevoli ad attribuire questa coltura africana ad una gente africana. Il lavoro tanto necessario attuale segue le comunanze “culturali„ africane del Diop grandi del matriarchy, del totemism, del kinship divine e del cosmology al nucleo stesso della coltura di Kushite. Questo libro è sul filo di lama di nuova generazione della borsa di Afrocentric di cui mandato è fornire un’immagine più libera della natura allineare dell’Africa, esso genius di s e del relativo contributo genuino alle civilizzazioni del mondo.
Il luogo ha modificato 2007

Gli S.U.A.

Distruzione di civilizzazione nera: Emissioni grandi di una corsa da

4500 B.C – 2000 A.D.

da Chancellor Williams

Questo libro senza dubbio è uno dei libri che il più con attenzione ricercati ho letto mai.

Amo il senso che il sig. Williams con attenzione suddivide la storia dell’africano iniziale e le segue durante la loro storia. Fornisce i particolari competenti circa le realizzazioni ed i guasti della gente africana in anticipo. Ci è un tema di riproduzione in questo libro. Gli Africani indigeni guadagnano l’alimentazione e gli Africani indigeni perdono l’alimentazione. Quella dichiarazione riassume questo libro brevemente. Il sig. Williams entra nel particolare spiegare come l’Egitto nero potrebbe essere osservato dal mondo come essendo bianco. Le risposte a questo problema possono essere trovate cominciando dal capitolo due intitolato figlia più anziana dell’Etiopia: L’Egitto. In questo capitolo, propone “il problema del mulatto„ che ritengo sono chiave nel capire come la faccia dell’Africa in anticipo è stata cambiata. Quando altri gruppi di persone sono entrato dall’est gli Africani li hanno permessi di assimilare nella loro coltura. Ci erano molti sindacati interracial, che hanno tenuto conto una miscela delle parentele. Questa miscela delle parentele è che cosa conducono al demise dell’Africano nero totale dichiarano. Periodo ed il periodo di ancora popolano chi non ha fatto una destra naturale di nascita dichiarare affatto all’Africano si è conceduto fare in modo da è stato basato sull’unione o sul kinship. Ecco perchè lo studio del sig. Williams mostra come controllo africano indigeno di flip-flop di alimentazione così frequentemente. Ogni volta che l’Africano indigeno ha preso il controllo dell’Egitto l’alimentazione era cede dovuto i sindacati interracial o il kinship non accennare la violenza e gli atti della guerra. Di nuovo, in molti sensi questo piano d’azione è una riproduzione loro durante questo libro. L’incapacità africana iniziale di tenere sopra a che cosa era naturale suo ha causa altre da dubitare che dovrebbe essere dato dell’accreditamento affatto. Il sig. Williams segue che cosa accadono e fornisce i particolari eccellenti.
Ethiopians meravigliosi dell’impero antico di Cushite, libro 1

da Drusilla Dunjee Houston

I Ethiopians meravigliosi dell’impero antico di Cushite rappresenta il successo crowning della ms Drusilla Dunjee Houston. Il lavoro originalmente è stato pubblicato nella città di Oklahoma in 1926. È il tentativo in primo luogo conosciuto da una donna nera e forse da chiunque, di produrre un lavoro multi-volume su storia africana detta a da una prospettiva africana.

La ms Houston lei stessa era un educatore, un giornalista e uno storico. Ha speso la maggior parte della sua vita Oklahoma ed in Arizona ed ha soccombuto alla tubercolosi a Phoenix, Arizona in 1941.

Il suo lavoro è vasto e completo ed era abbastanza avanzato per il relativo tempo. Il relativo pubblico non è stato limitato agli eruditi ma al layperson, specialmente gente nera, che era necessitante un tonico esatto per amplificare il self-esteem nero. Mantiene persino oggi un valore potente, più di settanta anni dalla relativa pubblicazione iniziale. – Runoko Rashidi
Athena nero: Le radici Afroasiatic di civilizzazione classica

(Il montaggio della Grecia antica 1785-1985)

da Martin Bernal

Diverso di la maggior parte dei detrattori del Martin Bernal, ho letto tutti e tre le dei suoi libri: Athena nero I, Athena nero II e Martin Bernal risponde ai suoi critici. Bernal è miglia davanti al suo peso leggero, critici male colti e reactionary, che non hanno letto ovviamente suo libri là altamente documentati nell’interezza. I suoi detrattori stanno rispondendo ai loro atteggiamenti razzisti, inculcati in loro attraverso la loro coltura, in questi ultimi cinquecento anni (dato che il commercio europeo dello schiavo quando albini tentati per disumanizzare melanics). Se l’arresto degli albini che nega la verità dell’origine di cosiddetta civilizzazione “occidentale„ (tutta la civilizzazione ha uscito dal cuore dell’Africa) ed ha letto la bibliografia di Bernals, lo vedrà che documenta tutto scrive. Alcuni altri albini del non-razzista tutto dovrebbero leggere chi dicono alla verità sono: Gerald Massey, conteggio Volney, Godfrey Higgins, Schwaller de Lubicz per chiamare alcuni. Un certo melanics dovrebbero leggere chi dicono alla verità sono: Indus Khamit Kush, cancelliere Williams, John G. Jackson, Herodotus (Herodotus era asiatico; e così era Thales, il cosiddetto padre di filosofia “europea„. La filosofia provenuta in Africa era Thales imparato la sua filosofia), George G.M. James, Cheikh Anta Diop e John Henrik Clarke. Ci sono molti altri sia melanic che storici albinic quale Martin Bernal che scrivono la verità. Melanics dovrebbe comprare loro e leggere loro automaticamente tutto il libro che è attacato dagli albini. Non credere che qualche cosa gli storici e gli antropologi razzisti dell’albino scrivano circa il melanics. – George Lawrence da Decatur, GA Stati Uniti
I filosofi egiziani: Voci africane antiche da Imhotep a Akhenaten

da Molefi Kete Asante

Filosofi egiziani antichi di Molefi Asante: Da Imhotep a Akhenaten proviene una riparazione attuale di un’omissione seria nella storia umana – i contributi antiquarian dei filosofi africani alla medicina, alla filosofia, alla scienza ed alla nascita di civilizzazione in se. Cominciando con una cronologia dei filosofi antichi del mondo, questa indagine da studioso e superbly messa copre Imhotep e “l’emersione di motivo„, Ptahhotep e “l’ordine morale„, Merikare “sul buonsenso„, così come i contributi e le comprensioni di Akhenaten, Amenemope ed altri di cui il lavoro sia stato ignorato, soppresso, o semplicemente sconosciuto all’accademia basata sulle fonti Greco-Romane e sui dati storici. Filosofi egiziani antichi: Da Imhotep a Akhenaten proviene altamente la lettura suggerita per gli allievi degli studi neri, della filosofia e della storia della scienza. – Rassegna di libro del Midwest
Volume 1 di Metu Neter: Oracle grande di Tehuti e del sistema egiziano

di coltura spiritosa

da Ra Un Nefer Amen

Ciò è conosciuta come il libro. Ciò è il libro che mette la scienza nello spirituality Africano-centrato. Rivelando l’essenza di più vecchia religione nel mondo, il Ra l’ONU Nefer Amen fornisce le chiavi pratiche a sbloccare “i segreti„ dell’universo. Naturalmente, molto sarà mancato dai lettori, perché leggeranno soltanto il libro, ma non applicare i relativi insegnamenti.

La lettura del libro su spirituality non solleva la sua coscienza. L’applicazione degli insegnamenti in Metu Neter.
Eredità rubata

da George G.M. James

Osservazioni dei lettori:

George James dovrebbe essere lodato per il suo brave e lavoro di chiarimento. L’eredità rubata li sfida a riconsiderare molte delle teorie e le ideologie che sono state impressionate su noi attraverso il sistema educativo americano. Ci diciamo a costantemente che i Greci antichi siano stati i creatori di filosofia, della scienza e di molte teorie matematiche, ma non siamo dati una spiegazione sufficiente di come hanno sviluppato queste idee. Infatti, James offre una spiegazione completamente differente per le origini di filosofia. Sostiene che che cosa è stato passato come di filosofia greca, è realmente filosofia rubata dell’Egitto ed è stato passato giù attraverso il sistema egiziano di mistero. Piccolo si è detto a circa le prove egiziane del sistema, ma del James di mistero per spiegare i principi fondamentali di questo sistema e come si è sparso durante il mondo mediterraneo.

Ciò è a deve leggere. Dà un’altra prospettiva all’idea che i Greci hanno generato la filosofia. L’autore analizza parecchi Greci conosciuti compresi Pythagoras, Aristotle e Platone e le loro dottrine per mostrare come sono realmente egiziani in natura. Persino va per quanto a fare alcune raccomandazioni vive su come mentre la gente di umanità, neri in particolare, può contribuire a cambiare l’idea sbagliata di accreditarle a Greci per le realizzazioni abbiamo imparato dagli Africani. (L’Egitto è stato sempre e sempre sarà una nazione africana.)
Egiziani Exiled: Il cuore dell’Africa

da Moustafa Gadalla

Osservazioni dei lettori:

Ho trovato questo libro per essere molto informativo ed apprezzo particolarmente il fatto che l’autore proviene dall’Egitto. Ho comprato tutti i libri offerte di questo fondamento e tutti vivono fino ad un massimo di questa. Inoltre ho trovato la sua testimonianza per essere uno dei la più corrette ed oneste trattando le origini di civilizzazione egiziana.

Leggere un cliente storico conciso e completo dell’Egitto per i 3.000 anni ultimi. Leggere sugli Egiziani antichi dimenticati, che hanno fuggito le invasioni straniere ed i oppressors religiosi. Leggere come hanno ricostruito il sistema di modello degli Egiziani antichi in Africa, quando l’Egitto in se ha stato bene ad una colonia araba. Leggere sugli Egiziani antichi’ sociali, sistemi economici e e politici e la loro applicazione estesa in secondario-Sahara Africa. Scoprire come i jihads islamici hanno spezzettato e disperso il continente africano in miseria ed in caos infiniti. Scoprire le cause ed il dynamics allineare di slavery africano.
Gli Africani che hanno scritto la bibbia

dal Dott. Nana Banchie Darkwah


Qui sono le parti di puzzle

Ciò è un libro grande ma ci sono cose che dovete conoscere. Questo libro è scritto basato sulle somiglianze africane di lingua con quelle dell’Africa attuale, dell’Africa antica e delle parole trovate all’interno della bibbia. Con quello detto, ci sono sitings celebri dalle varie nazioni africane durante l’Africa ad ovest.

La cosa che dovrebbe essere notata è che l’autore dichiara chiaramente che la gente ebrea non è gli ebrei originali. L’autore è sotto l’opinione che la gente ebrea originale era gente africana che a sinistra probabilmente durante il cosiddetto Exodus. La gente oggi ebrea come dichiarata all’interno del libro ancora trasporta i nomi africani. Se leggo questo correctl, quello proviene dalla copertura alla copertura senza pagine di salto, questa è che cosa l’autore ha dichiarato all’interno del libro. Ciò è un lavoro letterario eccellente per tutti i discendenti africani perché fa che cosa tante hanno temuto; collega l’Africa attuale e tradizionale agli Africani antichi ed agli Africani che hanno scritto la bibbia.
Nessun venditore 1 più importante su questo Web site!
Scelta del redattore
Da Babylon a Timbuktu: Una storia delle corse nere antiche compreso gli Ebrei neri

da Rudolph R. Windsor (introduzione), EL Hagahn (Illustrator)

Un Documentary impressionante di storia Africano-Ebraica antica


La scoperta quasi delle informazioni di nonexistence sulle corse africane antiche era un piacere. Essendo quello ho intervistato gli ebrei africani io stesso che so che il sig. Windsor ritrae un cliente esatto di Hebrewisms sparso ai quattro angoli della terra. Inoltre riferisce parecchio il verse della bibbia che sostiene la sua idea. Questo libro legge più come un documentary. Dopo che leggendo il cliente biblico delle circostanze che gli Ebrei prophesied per vivere in uno sappia che non ci è senso che gli ebrei nell’Israele oggi potrebbero venire a contatto della guida di riferimento di prophecy dei periodi antichi. Windsor inoltre precisa l’origine delle corse bianche. Comprarlo questi libro e colloqui della prime terra e gente per esercitarsi nel monotheism. Questo libro awesomely riassume la storia dei Israelites neri ed il loro dio straniero nero.
Origini africane importanti “delle religioni occidentali„

da Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan, Yosef B. Jochannan

Descrizione del libro:

Le origini africane “delle religioni occidentali„ principali in primo luogo pubblicate in 1970, continua ad essere uno degli impianti diprovocazione del Dott. Ben. Questo esame critico della storia, della credenza e dei miti, remains istruttivo e fresco. Evidenziando le influenze dell’Africano e le radici di queste religioni, il Dott. Ben rivela una storia del untold che molti preferirebbero dimenticare.
Futuro antico: Gli insegnamenti e la saggezza Prophetic delle sette leggi ermetiche dell’Egitto antico

da Wayne Chandler

Commento del lettore:

Ho fatto la mia trasformare vita dalle informazioni informative in questo libro. Questo libro è pieno delle perle illuminanti di conoscenza che possono azionare ones anima e spirito attraverso l’universo della realtà ad un livello di consapevolezza e dello sconosciuto spiritosi di chiarimento agli uomini moderni. con questo futuro antico del libro, il chandler del professore ha posto la stampa blu di giorno moderno per la gente di tutte le origini etniche per rinviare ad una coscienza spiritosa che accerterà la loro sopravvivenza dal venire impulso spiritoso ed elettromagnetico di energia che sta circa per essere liberata sugli abitanti della terra. Parla del oltrepassare la negazione e della ricezione dell’impulso positivo di energia elettromagnetica che sparerà con la nostri mente, corpo, anima e spirito. Se non siamo nel giusto telaio della mente queste energia ed attrazione gravitazionale elettromagnetica indurranno l’umanità a perdere il suo destruct di auto e di mente.

Ciò è a deve leggere il libro per tutte le corse del mondo e dovrebbe essere tradotta in tutte le lingue del mondo. Per il tempo è attuale per noi è circa fornire l’età del Aquarius. Questo futuro antico del libro dal sig. Wayne B. Chandler è allineare un libro prophetic di saggezza e la relativa rivelazione attuale non è coincidente da nessuna stirata dell’immaginazione, ma divinely ispirato entro tutto il (o forza creativa dell’universo) questo futuro antico del libro cambierà per sempre il senso che osservate le civilizzazioni antiche e passate. Inoltre li aiuterà a capire il mindset e lo psyche di altre corse mentre appartiene i loro processi pensanti e le loro reazioni causa ed effetto ed anche i loro profili ancestral storici.
L’Egitto in Africa

da Theodore Celenko (redattore)

Un lettore da Oklahoma:

L’Egitto in Africa è un libro grande basato su un’esposizione grande del museo ed è buono da vederla diretto disponibile. Il libro evita i due estremi popolari di rifiutare a tutto l’Africano le radici e di regolazione della civilizzazione egiziana e di sostenere che qualche cosa e tutto utili nella civilizzazione occidentale erano africani in origine. (Questo libro indica chiaramente che l’Africa ha contribuito così tanto che è insensata screditare i relativi reclami validi dall’esagerazione.) preferibilmente il libro è una calma, un obiettivo e un incentivo così come lo sguardo readible e libero all’Egitto nel relativo contesto africano. Se desiderate capire “l’immagine grande„ quando viene nell’Egitto antico, realmente avete bisogno di questo libro. Un professore di storia di arte.
Immagine di HereThe di scatto del nero nell’arte occidentale, volume uno: Dai Pharaohs

alla caduta dell’impero romano

dal Jr. franco, ecc. del M. Snowden.

Durante il quindicesimo secolo BC, i pharaohs del diciottesimo Dynasty hanno stabilito un impero che si estende dal Euphrates fino la cataratta di quarto (Nubia). Le conquiste del sud hanno messo gli Egiziani in contatto diretto con le popolazioni di colore che hanno continuato a resistere a e controbattere. Nel nero precedente di millennio i guerrieri ed i prigionieri erano comparso occasionalmente nell’arte dell’Egitto, di Crete e della Cipro. L’immagine del nero nell’arte occidentale li mostra, dal metà di-quindicesimo secolo alla scatola verniciata del Tutankhamun che descrive i neri in Negroes realistichi di arte ed inequivocabili sempre più ritratti egiziani.
L’Africa: La storia di un continente programma 01-02 (1986)


Basilico Davidson del presentatore

Basato in gran parte sulle immagini dalle caverne, piramidi e tombe, differenti ma uguali, nel volume 1 della serie Africa del quattro-video: La storia di un continente, presenti una descrizione delle colture africane in anticipo, con un’introduzione nell’Egitto classico e uno studio più dettagliato di Meroë. Una delle tesi principali del Davidson del basilico del presentatore, sostenuto dalle fonti di periodo sia dall’Africa che da Europa, è che il razzismo non era ordinario nelle interazioni classiche o medioevali fra Europa e l’Africa. episodio eccezionale in serie’ secondo, acquistante padronanza dei fuochi del Davidson, del continente su tre società africane contemporanee e dei sensi che differenti si sono adattati per prosperare nei loro ambienti. Caratterizza la siderurgia ed avanzamenti di azienda agricola della gente di Nok in Nigeria e del sistema elaborato di credenza religiosa del Dogon nel Mali. La discussione sulla gente di Pokat di allevamento del bestiame del Kenia del Nord è allineare eccezionale. Davidson fa un lavoro spettacolare di dimostrazione della complessità elaborata di che cosa può da alcuno erroneamente essere considerato una società primitiva. Le interviste personali affascinanti con una donna di Pokat circa il lavoro delle donne e degli uomini e con un uomo di Pokat circa ché uomo ha bisogno di prima che possa sposarsi sono il punto culminante di questo studio antropologico ben cotto. – Cesalpina Chace


Per i secoli, l’Africa aveva luogo ravished tramite il commercio dello schiavo, che ha storto nostro parere sulla relativa gente. Nel programma uno, Davidson indica che l’Africa ha provocato alcune delle civilizzazioni più grandi del mondo. Nel programma due, Davidson mette a fuoco su tre Comunità differenti per vedere come la gente africana intaglia fuori un’esistenza in un ambiente spesso ostile.
Aprendosi allo spirito: Mettendosi in contatto con l’alimentazione Healing del Chakras e di Honouring Spirituality africano

da Caroline Shola Arewa

Una guida spiritosa dotata e un padrone di yoga illustra la radice comune di molte delle nostre tradizioni spiritose con la mitologia e lo spirituality dell’Egitto antico, dell’India in anticipo e dell’Africa ad ovest. 8 piastre di colore. 40 disegni a tratteggio.

Descrizione del libro:

I chakras sono rotelle di energia all’interno del corpo. Questo sistema antico è spesso thougth emergere dalle tradizioni yogic dell’India, ma nell’apertura allo spirito, Caroline Shola Arewa esplora l’importanza dei chakras agli Africani ed agli Egiziani antichi. Illustra la radice comune di molte delle nostre tradizioni spiritose con la mitologia e lo spirituality dell’Egitto antico, dell’India in anticipo e dell’Africa ad ovest.
Di acqua e dello spirito: Rituale, magia ed inizio nella durata di uno Shaman africano

da Malidoma Patrice alcuni

Durante gli anni recenti ci è stato un impulso di interesse nella vita e nelle pratiche tribali indigene, poichè la gente occidentale comincia ritenere gli stirrings delle loro proprie anime tribali indigene ed andare cercare le risposte a coloro che ancora possiede il collegamento con la terra e lo spirito. Mentre mólto è stato pubblicato circa l’americano natale (sia nord che verso il sud), il tibetano, Altaic, ecc. celtico, la vita tribale, piuttosto piccola è conosciuto circa l’Africa. Malidoma un certo libro quindi fornisce un contributo di ispirazione altamente e di benvenuto.

Tutto il westerner che ha ha desiderato mai sapere un Africano pensa dovrebbe leggere questo libro.
Introduzione alle civilizzazioni africane

da John G. Jackson, Runoko Rashidi, John Henrik Clarke (introduzione)

Osservazioni del cliente:

Ciò è un libro eccellente, esso spiega la storia allineare della gente africana. Si occupa del gran numero di distorsione e come la gente africana è stata scritta di storia. Causa di slavery, di razzismo e di propaganda bianca di supremist. Si occupa dell’Etiopia e dell’origine di civilizzazione, mostrante come il primo umano eretto dall’Africa. Se l’Africa desse alla luce all’umanità allora è logico accettare il fatto che l’Africa ha dato alla luce a civilizzazione. Parla dell’Etiopia, l’Egitto antico e Nubia, il Ghana, il Mali, Songhay, ecc. Lui esposizioni sistematiche come gli Africani persino agganciati in mare voyages con prova e prova ampie. Ciò è un eccellente, un obiettivo e un libro bene arrotondato.

Il sig. Jackson non era giusto un erudito in grado, ma era un produttore notevole. Questo libro, come sono i suoi altri (le ho lette tutte), è molto facile da leggere, mai non superando le teste di quelli appena informati delle molte funzioni di storia africana di cui si occupa. I suoi capitoli “sull’Egitto e sullo sviluppo di civilizzazione„ e “l’Africa e la civilizzazione di Europa„ valgono l’intero prezzo del libro. L’introduzione, dal Dott. ritardato John Henrick Clarke, è una dei la cosa migliore che abbia letto. L’introduzione alle civilizzazioni africane è ben documentata ed è, nel mio parere, un classico scritto da un gigante accademico.
Corsa: Realtà delle differenze umane

dal professor Vincent Sarich & Miele franco

Sarich, un’università di California, antropologo emeritus del Berkeley e Miele, un redattore dello scomparto scettico, non possono resistere a denominare la vista corrente che “la corsa non esiste„ a “dogma del pc.„ Rendono valido, se non convincendo, discussioni del loro caso in tre zone. Corsa come concetto, discutono, considerevolmente antedates Europa coloniale, presentante tali esempi come “tomba egiziana con quattro corse„ (poichè un titolo denomina una pittura della tomba) che può indicare “su consapevolezza„ della differenza, ma se quella consapevolezza correla ai concetti “della corsa„ mentre remains attualmente definito indimostrato. Parecchi capitoli sono continuare pesante DNA-hanno basato la ricerca sull’origine e la differenziazione dei sapiens di Homo, qui interpretata come ramificandosi fuori dagli altri hominids abbastanza recentemente per fare le differenze fra il minore della gente molto ma, punto di vista negli autori’, significativo. Si muovono dal progetto umano del Genome nella loro sezione finale, in cui le differenze nell’intelligenza si dicono per correlare ad un concetto della corsa (ma non si dicono essere una giustificazione per distinzione). Questa ultima discussione è affermata su che cosa sembrerà a molti lettori ch’una fede eccessiva nel quoziente d’intelligenza esamina.

Gli autori accetta la teoria dell’Fuori-de-Africa delle origini umane basate su DNA, mtDNA e

Dati del cromosoma di Y. Mostrano come quei dati sostengono la teoria dell’Fuori-de-Africa.
Scattar qui
Religioni & filosofia africane

da John S. Mbiti

Le religioni e la filosofia africane è uno studio sistematico sugli atteggiamenti della mente e della credenza che si sono evoluti nelle molte società dell’Africa. In questa seconda edizione, il Dott Mbiti ha aggiornato il suo materiale per includere la partecipazione delle donne nella religione e l’unità potenziale da trovare in che cosa si è pensato una volta per essere una massa di religioni abbastanza separate.

Mbiti aggiunge una nuova dimensione alla comprensione della storia, pensare e della vita durante il continente africano. La religione si avvicina a da un punto di vista africano ma è accessibile ai lettori che appartengono alle società non-Africane come sono a coloro che si è sviluppato in su nelle nazioni africane.

Dalla relativa prima pubblicazione, questo libro è stato riconosciuto poichè il lavoro standard nel campo dello studio ed esso è lettura essenziale per chiunque interessato della religione africana, della storia, della filosofia, dell’antropologia o degli studi africani generali.
Concezioni del dio nell’Egitto antico: Quello ed i molti

da Erik Hornung, John Baines (traduttore)

Il libro di Egyptologist Joseph Erik il Hornung suggerito Yurco franco ritardato, concezioni del dio nell’Egitto antico: Quello ed i molti, tradotto da John Baines (Ithaca: Pressa dell’università de Cornell, 1982). Ha spiegato, gli Egiziani antichi hanno creduto che il dio potrebbe rivelarsi o lei stessa in tutta la funzione che hanno scelto. Quindi, il dio, il Re, ha fatto 76 illustrare forme differenti, nelle tombe di Ramesside, ma potrebbe anche essere osservato come il disc solare, con lo scarab e la forma ram-diretta dentro; per un’espressione di Trinitarian del dio del sole, con riferimento, di giorno, Khepri a di mattina; Aten al mezzogiorno; e Re-Harakhti nella sera. Altri deities importanti inoltre hanno avuti forme multiple, per esempio Hathor, che potrebbero essere una mucca piena nella forma, o una donna con gli orecchi della mucca, o una donna completamente umana, o una donna in un albero che offre l’acqua fredda ai defunti. In una storia compare ad un herdsman, con un cappotto furry che lo spaventa dai suoi spiriti, ma il seguente giorno, compare come donna bella, con capelli lunghi.

È questo senso di identificare i deities che hanno dato agli Egiziani la capacità di interscambiare le immagini, tuttavia le vede come uno o più deities, o unisce i deities differenti in uno, per esempio Amun-Re, unendo Amun con i Re. Così ugualmente i goddesses hanno avuti l’alimentazione esprimersi nelle forme differenti. Ecco perché Mut può avere testa del lioness’, o una testa umana, porta la doppia parte superiore, o un disc solare quando nella forma di leonine. Il libro del Hornung pone questo fuori in dettaglio bello.

Un altro libro che il Dott. Yurco ha suggerito quando ha insegnato i corsi sulla religione egiziana antica è Siegfried Morenz, religione egiziana, tradotta da Ann Keep (Ithaca: Pressa dell’università de Cornell, 1976).
Civilizzazioni antiche dell’Africa

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 2)

dal G. Mokhtar

Pubblicato: 1990

Il volume II riguarda il periodo che comincia alla fine dell’era Neolithic, intorno all’ottavo millennio prima della nostra era. Questo periodo di circa nove mila anni di storia si è suddiviso in quattro zone geograophical importanti, dopo il modello di ricerca storica africana. Capitoli 1 – copertura 12 il corridoio del Nilo, dell’Egitto e del Nubia. I capitoli 13 – 16 si riferiscono agli altopiani etiopici. I capitoli 17 – 20 descrivono la zona dell’Africa più successivamente denominata il Maghrib e la relativa retroterra di Saharan ed i capitoli 21 – 20, il resto dell’Africa così come alcune delle isole nell’Oceano Indiano.

La proporzione di volume di gran lunga più grande II è dedicata alla civilizzazione antica dell’Egitto a causa del relativo posto preponderante nella storia remota dell’Africa.
Città perse dell’Africa

da Basil Davidson (autore)

Descrizione del libro:

Unendo la prova archeological e la ricerca da studioso, Davidson illustra lo sviluppo emozionante dei regni ricchi delle città perse dell’Africa, quindici cento anni prima che le navi europee in primo luogo siano venuto ai puntelli africani.

Inganno storico: La storia di Untold dell’Egitto antico

da Moustafa Gadalla

Inganno storico: La storia di Untold dell’Egitto antico fornisce uno studio fresco, emozionante e lettore-amichevole su storia egiziana antica – una storia che ha sofferto dai pregiudizi ingrained degli eruditi religiosi (cristiano, ebreo, musulmani) che negano che l’Egitto è la fonte delle loro dottrine religiose (particolarmente monotheism); ed eruditi rationalist che negano l’esistenza di scienza e di filosofia prima dei Greci. L’inganno storico è una correzione tanto necessaria a moltissime distorsione, soppressione e smentita storiche. L’inganno storico è un vivace, un aggancio, una stimolazione, una lettura provocatoria, lle facili da leggere e difficile posare.

Commento dei lettori:

Questo testo presenta le informazioni storiche bene basate che bene-sono ricercate e chiaramente comprensibile concernente la cronologia degli eventi biblici e dei partecipanti. Citando le fonti quali il Koran, il Torah, il Talmud, il testo ebraico di Massoretic di vecchio testamento ed il testo greco di Septuagint di vecchio testamento, con un gran numero di riferimenti agli impianti storici più moderni, l’autore fornisce una spiegazione realistica e ragionevole per molti puzzle biblici e contraddizioni apparenti.
L’età dorata di attracco (giornale delle civilizzazioni africane,

Volume 11, caduta 1991)

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)


Chi sono questi attraccano? Attracca sono gente nera indigena in Mauritania. “Il sig. Chandler ci dice che di una corsa differente di attracchi chi sono stati conosciuti come Garamantes/Caucasians, intermarried con il nero attracca, così si è trasformato in nel tawny del `attracca’ o il bianco del `attracca’.„

Secondo l’antropologo, Dana Reynolds, il Berbers nero originale, che è stato denominato attracca, era gli antenati africani del nord della gente oggi scuro-marrone e scuro-nera del Sahara e del Sahel, pricipalmente quelli ha denominato Fulani, il Tuareg, Zenagha del Marocco del sud, Kunta e Tebbu dei paesi del Sahel così come altri arabi neri ora che vivono in Mauritania e durante il Sahel, includono Trarza della Mauritania e del Senegal, il Mogharba così come le dozzine di altre tribù sudanesi, il Chaamba del Ritaglio e dell’Algeria. Oltre al suo studio molto dettagliato sulle origini e sulle affiliazioni di varie tribù, precisa che gli Africani coinvolgere nell’occupazione Moorish di Iberia non hanno sviluppato appena le cose notevoli in Europa ma anche nelle loro terre natali. Hanno fondato e costruito molte città industrious e prosperose dappertutto il nord dell’Africa e come estremo verso il sud come Timbuktu. Le rovine dei loro molti castelli possono essere viste tanto in Africa del Nord quanto in Andalusia.

Il Westerners ha scelto concentrarsi sul mondo più recente dell’arabo e della gente Berber-parlante e presentarlo come se fosse un mondo che è stato sempre. “È come paragonare il Aztecs di cinquecento anni fa alla miscela etnica dell’America oggi,„ ha scritto Reynolds. “La storia di quando l’Africa del nord era Moorish e l’Arabia, la terra di Saracens, ha ancora dirsi a.„
Oromia: Un’introduzione alla storia della gente di Oromo

da Gadaa Melbaa

Descrizione del libro:

Un cliente della lotta della gente di Oromo per affermare il loro posto nella storia. Il Oromo compone una parte significativa del corno della popolazione dell’Africa. Oromia è un titolo usato per riferirsi al Oromo come entità politica, culturale e sociale. Vivendo nelle nazioni africane orientali, la gente di Oromo è in gran parte sconosciuta a la maggior parte del mondo; questo lavoro alza in su la gente, la loro coltura e le loro lotte.

All’interno del libro di Petrie, una storia dell’Egitto (1896) accennano un gruppo di persone nell’Egitto antico dal nome del Galla Oromo anche denominato. Petrie ha scritto: “Lungamente è stato fa rilevato che gli sphinxes neri, più successivamente appropriati dal Hyksos, avvicinato al tipo del Galla di Abyssinia„.

“Questo inizia un’inchiesta come il collegamento del Galla potrebbe comparire così sui monumenti. Nella distanza e nella progettazione delle tombe della roccia a Qau, Antaeopolis, il programma particolare di quelle tombe, con i corridoi grandi e piccoli gli alloggiamenti annessi, sono stati osservati per essere molto attentamente paralleli a quello delle tempie successive di Nubian. In sia tomba che tempiale il lavoro principale è nella roccia compatta, mentre il forecourt è della massoneria costruita davanti esso. Un’altra caratteristica era martello-funziona uno scavo di una tomba, che evidentemente era stato fatto con le sfere di pietra, come nel funzionamento del granito di Aswan e questa implica un collegamento del sud. Questa gente non compare in alcune annotazioni e tutti i loro monumenti sono stati reappropriated. Hanno andato, tuttavia, uno stile il più notevole della scultura, negli sphinxes che più successivamente sono stati rimossi a Tanis, ma sembra originalmente venire dal EL Kab, dove una parte di un tal sphinx è stata trovata. Il tipo è molto attentamente come quello del Galla. La prova che tutte le sculture più in anticipo di Tanis sono state raccolte là da Ramessu II sembra chiara; e che questi sphinxes sono più in anticipo di il Hyksos è determinato da quei re che li appropriano. Nessun periodo sembra così probabile per loro come il settimo – i decimi dynasties. Il tipo era pesante barbuto, con capelli folti„. Petrie, 1896
L’Africa dal settimo all’undicesimo secolo

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 3)

dal I. Hrbek

Pubblicato: 1992

Il periodo coperto nel volume III è dominato da due movimenti del maggiore e da importanza lating nella storia dell’Africa. L’influenza di Islam stava aumentando di nord e di ovest; stava interagendo con coltura africana tradizionale. Nel sud ci era l’espansione Bantù.

Il libro primo dispone l’Africa nel contesto di storia del mondo all’apertura del settimo secolo, prima di esaminare l’effetto generale della penetrazione islamica, l’espansione continua della gente Bantù-parlante e lo sviluppo delle civilizzazioni nelle zone di Sudanic dell’Africa ad ovest.

Capitoli dettagliati che discutono i dynasties islamici successivi dell’Africa del nord e dei loro contatti più larghi, Nubia cristiano, le civilizzazioni dei savannas, delle foreste e del litorale dell’Africa ad ovest, il corno dell’Africa e dello sviluppo interno e dei contatti internazionali del Madagascar.

Tre capitoli concludenti seguono il diaspora africano in Asia, esaminano i rapporti internazionali e la diffusione di tecnologia e delle idee in Africa e valutano l’effetto generale del periodo su storia africana.
Il congresso generale dell’organizzazione educativa, scientifica e culturale di Nazioni Unite (Unesco) alla relativa sedicesima sessione ha insegnato al Direttore Generale ad intraprendere la progettazione di una storia generale dell’Africa. L’operazione enorme di effettuare il progetto è stata affidata a ad un comitato scientifico internazionale che è stato istituito dal bordo esecutivo in 1970. Il comitato ha deciso presentare il covering del lavoro in tre milione anni di storia africana in otto volumi, ciascuno che contengono circa quattrocento pagine di testo con le illustrazioni, le fotografie, i programmi ed i disegni a tratteggio. La storia generale dell’Africa inoltre mette chiaramente in evidenza i rapporti dell’Africa con l’Asia del sud attraverso l’Oceano Indiano ed i contributi africani ad altre civilizzazioni con gli scambi reciproci.

La storia generale dell’Africa è, in una larga misura, una riflessione fedele del senso in cui gli autori africani osservano la loro propria civilizzazione. Con la nomina del comitato scientifico internazionale dei 39 membri, due terzi africano ed un terzo non-Africano, che assume la responsabilità intellettuale della storia generale dell’Africa.
“Uno dei progetti accademici più ambiziosi da intraprendere in questo secolo.„
L’Africa nel diciannovesimo secolo fino al 1880s

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 4)

dal J.F. Ade Ajayi

Pubblicato: 1998

Coperture del volume VI la storia dell’Africa dall’inizio del diciannovesimo secolo all’inizio “dello scramble„ europeo per il territorio coloniale nel 1880s.

Nonostante un commerciale europeo crescente, la presenza religiosa e politica durante il secolo, influenze esterne è stata ritenuta indirettamente dalla maggior parte delle società africane ed hanno fatto una varietà dei tentativi culturalmente distintivi di modernizzare, espandersi e svilupparsi. Due serie di eventi influenti – il Mfecane in Africa del sud con le relative ramificazioni centrale ed in Africa orientale ed i movimenti dei reformers musulmani in Africa ad ovest – dovuti piccolo o niente ad influenza ed alle figure straniere prominente in otto dei capitoli.

The book opens with four thematic chapters examining the major forces at work in African society at the beginning of the century; Africa’s changing role in the world-economy; new trends and processes; and the effects of the abolition of the slave trade. These are followed by twenty-three chapters detailing developments in the various regions. Two concluding chapters trace the African diaspora and assess the state of the Continent’s political, economic and cultural development on the eve of the European conquest.
Daily Life of the Nubians

by Robert Steven Bianchi

Published: 2004


Until recently little was known about ancient Nubia and day-to-day lives of the Nubian people aside from knowing it was a civilization contemporary with, distinct from, and living under the shadow of Ancient Egypt. Nubia existed from about 3500-300 BCE, close to 3,000 years. Thanks to recent massive archeological surveys, we now have a much clearer picture of Nubian civilization, what they ate, how they dressed, how they cared for their dead, their military triumphs and defeats, where their cities were built, and what they looked like. Of course they underwent dramatic changes over time, and these are noted where appropriate. Though often confused with the Ethiopians of Greek lore, little doubt remains that Nubians were in fact black African peoples, and their civilization has been claimed by many as proof of a sophisticated and ancient black African society.

For ease of use by students, the work is organized chronologically. Each chapter is divided into convenient subheads that detail military and warfare, government, language, relations with neighboring civilizations; work and the economy, engineering and architecture, housing, transportation, family life, life cycle events, women’s roles, art, music and dance, literature, science, and religion. It includes a historical timeline of Nubian history, a glossary of Nubian terms, and a bibliography for further reading. Throughout the work, Bianchi, an expert on the Nubians, shows how the modern world has little by little come to discover and recognize the distinctiveness and importance of Nubia in ancient history. This work will replace all earlier resources on Nubian life and will provide school and public librarians with the most up-to-date and historically correct information on the Nubians.
Greater Ethiopia : The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society

by Donald N. Levine

Published: 2000

Editorial Reviews:

Greater Ethiopia combines history, anthropology, and sociology to answer two major questions. Why did Ethiopia remain independent under the onslaught of European expansionism while other African political entities were colonized? And why must Ethiopia be considered a single cultural region despite its political, religious, and linguistic diversity?

Donald Levine’s interdisciplinary study makes a substantial contribution both to Ethiopian interpretive history and to sociological analysis. In his new preface, Levine examines Ethiopia since the overthrow of the monarchy in the 1970s.

“Ethiopian scholarship is in Professor Levine’s debt. . . . He has performed an important task with panache, urbanity, and learning.”–Edward Ullendorff, Times Literary Supplement

“Upon rereading this book, it strikes the reader how broad in scope, how innovative in approach, and how stimulating in arguments this book was when it came out. . . . In the past twenty years it has inspired anthropological and historical research, stimulated theoretical debate about Ethiopia’s cultural and historical development, and given the impetus to modern political thinking about the complexities and challenges of Ethiopia as a country. The text thus easily remains an absolute must for any Ethiopianist scholar to read and digest.”-J. Abbink, Journal of Modern African Studies

Culture and Customs of Egypt (Culture and Customs of Africa)

by Molefi K. Asante

Book Description:

Modern Egypt blends African history and geography with Arab culture and religion. With its position at the crossroads of Africa, its status as a major Islamic nation, and continuing interest in its ancient monuments, Egypt makes for fascinating study. This volume provides an accessible, up-to-date overview of a society that greatly evolved, yet retains traces of attitudes and behaviors from the days of the Pharaohs.

About the Author:

Molefi Kete Asante is Professor, Department of African American Studies, Temple University. He is the author of more than 50 books, including The Egyptian Philosophers (2000).

Upper Egypt: Life Along the Nile

by Nicholas S. Hopkins (Editor)

Book Description:

Upper Egypt. Life along the Nile describes life in the southern part of Egypt in the twentieth century. The book represents some of the most recent social and cultural research in the area, and it focuses on aspects of Egypt that tend to disappear in the background of the attractions that tourists see. The authors have done field research in Upper Egypt. This is one of the few recent books contributing to our understanding of this neglected region, which is based on first hand knowledge of local conditions. The book contains articles on agriculture and irrigation, language, religious life among Muslims and Christians, Sufism, customary law, crafts and craftsmen, and tribalism.

Book has lots of photos of modern Egyptians.
Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

Excellent coffee table book: 12.5 x 9.4 x 1.4 inches; Sudan possesses, among other things,

223 pyramids. This book has 400 pages of color photos of Nubian Kings & Queens, and their artifacts and treasures. Nubian photos you will not find on the internet.

Contents: The Prehistory of Sudan; 6,000 years ago; A-Group and Pre-Kerma; The First Kingdoms;

C-Group; The Kingdom of Kerma; Egypt in Sudan; The Image of the Nubian in Egyptian Art; Napata and the Kushite Dynasty; Kings of the Sacred Mountain; Napata and the Kushite Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt; The Kingdom of Napata and Meroe; The Kingdom of Meroe; Meroitic Writing and Language; The Meroitic Pantheon; Meroitic Treasure; Meroitic Ceramics; Meroe and Hellenism;

Late Meroitic Culture; Meroitic Architecture

Authors: Salah Mohamed Ahmed; Charles Bonnet; Fredrich Hinkel; Hassan Hussein Idris; Timothy Kendall; Lech Krzyzaniak; Jean Leclant; Karl-Heinz Priese; Jacques Reinold; Dietrich Wildung
Early Art and Architecture of Africa (Oxford History of Art)

by Peter Garlake

“There is nothing else like it. A sure guide to the Africa of ancient marvels and scenes of confrontation in times and places long forgotten or unknown.” Basil Davidson

This new history of over 5000 years of African art reveals its true diversity for the first time. Challenging centuries of misconceptions that have obscured the sophisticated nature of African art, Peter Garlake uses the latest research and archaeological findings to offer exciting new insights into the period between 20,000 BC and 1500 AD. All the main regions are covered: southern Africa, Nubia, Aksum, the Niger River, West Africa, Great Zimbabwe, and the East African coast.

Acknowledging the universal allure of the African art object, this book restores it to its original social and historical context, helping us to understand more about the ways in which this art was produced, used, and received.

• 112 illustrations with 64 in full colour

• Invaluable guides to museums, galleries, and websites
The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan

by David N. Edwards

348 pages

Routledge (October 30, 2004)

In this book David Edwards, a distinguished specialist in Sudanese archaeology, provides the readers with a very useful and exhaustive outline of the history of the Sudan during the Holocene (from c. 10,000 BC to the present), mainly on the basis of the archaeological evidence which has been brought to light in the last thirty years.

The book is divided into nine chapters about the following topics: Nubia, the Sudan and

Sudanic Africa; Hunters, fishers and gatherers (c. 10,000–5000 BC); The Neolithic (c. 5000–3000 BC);

Kerma and Bronze Age Kush; The Kushite Revival (XXV Dynasty and kingdom of Napata);

Meroitic Kush (c. 300 BC–AD 350); Post-Meroitic transitions (c. AD 350–550); Medieval Nubia

(c. AD 500–1500); and Post-medieval Sudan and Islam (c. AD 1500–1900).

The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance Between Hebrews

and Africans in 701 B.C.

(Paperback – 444 pages – Soho Press (April 1, 2003)

by Henry T. Aubin

From Library Journal:

Aubin argues that the Kushite rescue of Jerusalem from certain annihilation in 701 B.C.E. instigated the Jewish concept of being God’s “elect” and was therefore a seminal event in the development of Zionism. Dealing competently with the biblical and historical sources despite what some might see as a lack of formal training in this area (he is a journalist instead of a historian, though he did do graduate work in history at the University of Strasbourg), Aubin asserts that the Kushites black Africans who ruled Egypt at this time saved the city from destruction by the Assyrians. According to Aubin, historians accepted this view until the late 19th century, when colonialism impinged on the European perception of these events; suddenly, the theory that an epidemic weakened the Assyrian army rose to prominence. Aubin asserts that this was one of the most important battles in history; had the Assyrians wiped out Jerusalem, there would have been no Christianity or Islam. Whether or not one accepts his conclusions, this work is a wonderful exercise in historiography. Recommended for all academic libraries. Clay Williams, Hunter College Library, City University New York
The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile

by Dominique Valbelle & Charles Bonnet

Product Details:

Hardcover; 216 pages

Published: February 2007


In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tanoutamon, the last two pharaohs of the ‘Nubian’ Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile.

The seven statues, with their exquisite workmanship, transform our understanding of the art of this period. In particular, the colossal statue of Taharqa–almost certainly done by an Egyptian sculptor–is a masterpiece of stone artwork. Beautifully illustrated with over 170 color photographs, The Nubian Pharaohs illuminates the epic history of this little-known historical era, when the pharaohs of Egypt came from Sudan. In this major new book, which combines the latest archaeological research with stunning photography, Charles Bonnet and Dominique Valbelle narrate the incredible story of their discovery–one that will change our understanding of Egypt and Africa in the ancient world.
Genesis of the Pharaohs

by Toby Wilkinson

Product Details: 208 pages; (2003)

Peer Review Excerpt:

Genesis of the Pharaohs: Genesis of the ‘Ka’ and Crowns?

by Timothy Kendall, Archaeologist

In his Genesis of the Pharaohs, Toby Wilkinson shines new light on the Predynastic by demonstrating that the majority of rock drawings in the Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt date to Naqada I (c. 4000–3500 BC). Since the petroglyphs depict wild African fauna, hunters with bows and dogs, and men herding cattle, it is clear that the now nearly lifeless region up to 100 km east of the Nile between Quft and Hierakonpolis was at this time a well-watered, well-populated, game-rich savanna. That the rock artists were not mere isolated pastoralists but also part-time Nile dwellers is evident because their works commonly include boats. This implies that the artists probably moved from river to range in seasonal cycles. Because of this, and the fact that so many of the drawings echo subjects in later Egyptian art, Wilkinson makes a compelling case that the rock artists were the ancestors of the dynastic Egyptians. His conclusion: “the heavy reliance of these people on herding and hunting rather than agriculture suggests that their roots — and indeed the roots of Egyptian civilization — lay not so much along the Nile but in the pre-arid Sahara.”
Learn to read hieroglyphics

Egyptian Language Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics

by E. A. Wallis Budge (The father of Egyptology)

This remains the classic introductory volumn for beginners.

also purchase:

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Vols 1 & 2 by E. A. Wallis Budge

This should be on every students shelf.

King Solomon & the Queen of Sheba

by Blu Greenberg, Linda Tarry, Avi Katz (Illustrator)

Reading level: Ages 4-8


I picked up this book at the library as reading material for my 17-month-old son. He (and I) loved the illustrations. I appreciated it being a real Bible story, and a history lesson–marvelously illustrated in 48 pages; but this books goes where most authors and illustrators don’t. You won’t see this version of the story in movie theatres. I did additional research to verify the accuracy of its’ contents and I discoverd everything to be valid. This book should be read by all African-American children (and adults). They won’t read about their kings and queens in textbooks as others are portrayed–which is a dis-service to their culture. I purchased three copies for myself and will be purchasing more as gifts.

Sudan Ancient Treasures: An Exhibition Of Recent Discoveries

From The Sudan National Museum

by Derek A. Welsby (Editor), Julie R. Anderson (Editor)

Published: 2004

Hardcover: 336 pages; Over 300 color photos of artifacts


A comprehensive survey of Sudanese ancient cultures, the history of archaeology in Sudan, current work and recent trends. The Sudan is the largest country in Africa. For millennia it has been the zone of contact between the peoples of Central Africa and those emanating from the Mediterranean world. The National Museum in Khartoum houses one of the finest collections of antiquities from the Nile Valley and is of international importance; however, the vast quantity of material is in store and has rarely if ever been seen by the public. This exhibition will seek to display some of the finest objects produced during all phases of human settlement from the Palaeolithic through to the Islamic period.
Ancient African Metallurgy: The Sociocultural Context

by Michael S. Bisson, S. Terry Childs, Philip De Barros, Augustin F. C. Holl, and

Joseph O. Vogel (Foreword, Editor)

Book Description:

Gold. Copper. Iron. Metal working in Africa has been the subject of both public lore and extensive archaeological investigation. In this volume, four leading archaeologists attempt to provide a complete synthesis of current debates and understandings: Where how and when was metal first introduced to the continent? How were iron and copper tools, implements, and objects used in everyday life, in trade, in political and cultural contexts? What role did metal objects play in the ideological systems of precolonial African peoples? Substantive chapters address the origins of metal working and the technology and the various uses and meanings of copper and iron. An ethnoarchaeological account in the words of a contemporary iron worker enriches the archaeological explanations. This book provides a comprehensive, timely summary of our current knowledge. This volume will be of great value to scholars and students of archaeology, African history, and the history of technology.


Mary Ann Says:

July 5th, 2007 at 3:10 pm
I am wanting to purchase the book: Melanin: The Chemical Key To Black Greatness The Series

Please respond to this email address if you know where copies can be purchased:



August 12, 2007


“It’s beautiful to be black.”
It is the color of strength and pride.
I will say it out loud. I don’t have to hide.

I love me, and the color that I represent.
Look at me, there is nothing like it.
What you see is not an illusion.
It’s a gift from GOD, don’t ever confuse it.

“It’s beautiful to be black.”
It is the color of fame and envy.
If I wasn’t black, I wouldn’t be me.

Black is the color of power and authority.
It is so outstanding, thank you LORD for blessing me.
I’ll shout it to the world, I’m proud of what I am.
Those who are in vain will never understand.

“It’s beautiful to be black”
It is the color of confidence and style.
I have been blessed, by my ancestor from the Nile.

I am scenic from the inside out.
These verses are true, I don’t have any doubt.
There is no one who can change my mind.
Black has been beautiful since the begging of time.

“It’s beautiful to be black.”
It is the color of honor and grace.
This is one thing that cannot be taken away.

By Chara NyAshia Sanjo


August 9, 2007

brotherpeacemaker Says:

August 1st, 2007 at 7:57 pm edit

Why can’t a woman have more than one husband?


Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade Says:

August 4th, 2007 at 9:42 am edit

Brother, a woman doesn’t need more than one! In fact one is too much to take of,it takes all your time and energy and with the children,in fact the nature of woman makes them satisfied with one! It’s the physical nature of the man that makes him polygamous-anything can turn him on. Not so the woman-she takes in ,not sprays like the man and she must not take in rubbish and make herself polluted so she naturally would like to know who is the father of her children,etc. She is content with just one man

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