“THE ORIGINAL BLACK AFRICAN ARABS OF ARABIA (PART 2) BY OGU IJI-OFO ANNU AT RASTA LIVEWIRE

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The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu
Posted in Articles, Prophet, Rastas by Don Jaide on December 9, 2006.
The Original Black Arabs of Arabia – Part 2
By
Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu

Arabia the Daughter of Kush
The classical Greek and Roman writers commonly accepted the division of Arabia into Deserta (desert), Felix (happy), and Petraea (stony). Not much is known today about the exact configuration of those divisions. Later day Islamic Arabic geographers know nothing of this division, and this is not surprising since many of those later day Arabs are actually immigrants that later acculturated and assimilated into the culture of the original Black Arabs.

Arab geographers of the Islamic period divided Arabia generally into five provinces: The first is Yemen, embracing the whole south of the peninsula and including Hadramaut, Mahra, Oman, Shehr, and Nejran. The second is Hijaz, on the west coast and including Mecca and Medina, the two famous centres of Islam. The third is Tehama, along the same coast between Yemen and Hijaz. The fourth is Nejd, which includes most of the central table-land, and the fifth is Yamama, extending all the wide way between Yemen and Nejd. This division is also inadequate, for it omits the greater part of North and East Arabia.

A more recent division of Arabia, according to politico-geographical principles, is into seven provinces: Hijaz, Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, Hasa, Irak, and Nejd. It has always been the assertion of experts that certain tribes that lived on the coast of Yemen and on the coast of Ethiopia and Eriteria were almost identical. The linkages between Ethiopia Kush and Arabia must be considered in the context of any discourse on Arab people, or more precisely stated the Black Africans of Arabia.

Ethiopia-Kush

As stated in the preceding paragraph, the key to understanding the origin and culture of the Arabs is through African Kushitic Ethiopia.
Contacts between eastern Africa and Arabia have existed since the time immemorial. Archeological evidence has demonstrated that Africans of the Caspian culture probably moved across the Strait of Bab El Mandel and implanted the same Caspian culture in Arabia on the other side of the strait. See Leaky, L.S.B., Stone Age Africa pp 38-78.
The Strait of Bab-El-Mandel, which separates Africa from Arabia, is quite narrow at some points averaging a couple of days journey on a sea raft or small canoe. Communication and travel have consequently been possible since pre-historic times.
It will thus not be a surprising claim to the well informed that East African people (being the first aboriginals of the earth) have long settled in Arabia as the original inhabitants. For instance, besides the Caspian culture, African people also founded the so-called Afro-Arabian Tihama cultural complex in the mid-2nd millennium.
In addition to the coastal site of Adulis in Eritrea and sites farther inland in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan, vestiges of the Tihama cultural complex are represented on the Saudi coastal plains and the western and southern coasts of Yemen. (Fattovich 1997).
Moreover, African settlements were further stimulated by the growth of the Egyptian state from the 4th millennium onward, with more extensive migration of African population in Arabia around the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. Semitic speaking settlers from Ethiopia-Kush settled in Arabia built complex cultures and civilizations of which the later Assyrians, Greeks, Romans and Jews would document for coming generations. See Josephus Book 1.
Long before Yemen had become a politically articulated entity, the Ethiopian-Axumites had built many powerful states along the coast of Red Sea and the hilly countries of Ethiopia such as ancient Adulis, Coloe, Yeha Tokanda, and the so called Ethio-Sabean state of Daamat (circa 800-600 B.C.) etc. Ethiopia-Axum, the ancient dominant power in the region, gradually incorporated the African-Yemenites into its political sway. By 12th century B.C. Southern Arabia fell under the complete control of the Ethiopian-Axumites through their long domination of the Red Sea trade routes. The first kingdom built by the Ethiopian-Axumites in Arabia was Saba just across the straits in Yemen in 800 B.C. See Ephraim Isaac and Cain Felder, “Reflections on the Origins of the Ethiopian Civilization”, Eight International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, November 1984. Successive civilisations of Mineans, Sabaeans and Himyarites interacted closely with their counterparts in Ethiopia.
For a while the Ethiopian-Kushitic Arabs focussed their energies on the Yemeni side of the coast in states like Saba and Daamat. Products were shipped into Yemen from Ethiopia and exported all over the world through the Red Sea.
Following the decline of Saba and Daamat, the international trade hub moved to the kingdom of Axum on the opposite side of the Red Sea coast. From its seaports such as Adulis, Ethiopian-Kushites, Axum’s trade network extended from Egypt as far as India.
Axum survived for more than 2500 years as a great state dominating the Red Sea regions although western historians would grudgingly concede 800 years. It occupied and ruled southern Arabia for part of this period. Utilitarian Aksumite pottery has been found in large quantities in deposits from the 5th and 6th centuries in the Yemen Hadramawt, suggesting that there may have been substantial immigration during that period. Axumites descended groups such as the Habashahs, still live in southern Yemen today fully cognizant of their African origins and connections.

Indeed, interaction between Yemen and Ethiopia in ancient times is sometimes compared with the historical relationship between Europe and America, with the Red Sea as substitute for the Atlantic Ocean.

THE BEJA PEOPLE: HABITAT AND HISTORY

Another important group of Black African groups who contributed genetically, and culturally to the formation of the Arabs are the Bejas otherwise called the Blemmyes. It appears that the Blemmyes as encountered in classical literature provided the foundation for the ethnic group known today as Bedouins.
The indigenous Beja people are nomads who have inhabited the semi-desert area in the Red Sea coast of Sudan and the hilly country behind it for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians referred to them as the people of Buka or Medju (Medjay), the Romans dubbed them Blemmyes and in the Odessa they were described as Erembes. They are a Kushitic-Khemitic people who spoke a mixed dialect of semitic and Cushitic language. They identify themselves today as the most original and ancient of the Arab tribes.
Kemitic Pharaohs called them Absha, meaning ‘the desert dwellers’ – that is, the Bedouins in Arabic language – and Ramses II called them Beja, purporting fighters’. Thus one can reasonably see the Bejas as fulfilling the Arab Bedouin archetype of the fearsome, nomadic owners of the Sahara, highly temperamental but compassionate. Throughout history, they have been regarded as very efficient fighting machines. It is important to note that besides the Nubians, it is well documented that the Beja were employed in the Egyptian army and were credited for their courage and fortitude during the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.
The Roman Historian Ammianus Marcellinus inspite of his odious ethno-centrism provides us more clues on the racial and ethnic identity of the earliest Arabs. In his book The Roman History, Book XIV.iv.1-7. (380 A.D.)) the Saracens a named that was used to describe the Arabs in both ancient and modern times (stems most likely from the Arabic Sarqiyyun, meaning ‘easterners’) were described as the Blemmys tribes who lived along the banks of the Nile beyond the cataracts. According to Ammianus Marcellinus:
“Book XIV.4:
At this time also the Saracens, a race whom it is never desirable to have either for friends or enemies, ranging up and down the country, if ever they found anything, plundered it in a moment, like rapacious hawks who, if from on high they behold any prey, carry it off with a rapid swoop, or, if they fail in their attempt, do not tarry. And although, in recounting the career of the Prince Marcus, and once or twice subsequently, I remember having discussed the manners of this people, nevertheless I will now briefly enumerate a few more particulars concerning them.
Among these tribes, whose primary origin is derived from the cataracts of the Nile and the borders of the Blemmyae, all the men are warriors of equal rank; half naked, clad in colored cloaks down to the waist, overrunning different countries, with the aid of swift and active horses and speedy camels, alike in times of peace and war. Nor does any member of their tribe ever take plow in hand or cultivate a tree, or seek food by the tillage of the land; but they are perpetually wandering over various and extensive districts, having no home, no fixed abode or laws; nor can they endure to remain long in the same climate, no one district or country pleasing them for a continuance.
Their life is one continued wandering; their wives are hired, on special covenant, for a fixed time; and that there may be some appearance of marriage in the business, the intended wife, under the name of a dowry, offers a spear and a tent to her husband, with a right to quit him after a fixed day, if she should choose to do so. And it is inconceivable with what eagerness the individuals of both sexes give themselves up to matrimonial pleasures.
But as long as they live they wander about with such extensive and perpetual migrations, that the woman is married in one place, brings forth her children in another, and rears them at a distance from either place, no opportunity of remaining quiet being ever granted to her. They all live on venison, and are further supported on a great abundance of milk, and on many kinds of herbs, and on whatever birds they can catch by fowling. And we have seen a great many of them wholly ignorant of the use of either corn or wine.”
The Black African Bejas/Saracens also called the Blemmys gave to the Arabs of today (blacks and pales) the knowledge to live in the Sahara as well as the most basic cultural elements that define the Bedouin culture including nomadic identity, marital culture and martial arts. For instance, the war-like Blemmyes (Beja) had normally fought with curiously shaped bows, and it was from them that the tribes of Hijaz and Yemen (in Arabia) – and the other Arab tribes – adopted the use of the bow. Historically, the Beja ruled the vast territory of theirs (laying between Northern Nigeria and Sudan) in five kingdoms – namely, the Naqis, Baqlin (Taflin), Bazin, Jarin and Qat’a (Qit’a, also perhaps Qas’a).
Arabia Petra
Arabia Petra spread between African Kushitic Egypt and Mesopotamia (another African kushitic area in the ancient times) (Josephus). It was originally settled by an early branch of the Cushitic Ethiopian people who spoke a proto-type semitic dialect.
The Beja’s known as the ancient Blemmyes one of the earliest known nomadic tribes to dwell in the deserts of Africa and Arabia probably provided the founding population of Arabia Petra.
Other sections of the African population from the early Caspian culture and other culture complex centered on Ethiopia Axum and Ethiopia Kush may have equally contributed to the early settlement of Arabia Petra.
Some of these early African Black Arabs crossed the Red Sea whilst others migrated overland through the Nile valley into Arabia. Arabia Petrea thus became an early blending pot of African cultures. Due to this cultural ferment many nomads soon abandoned their wandering lives to establish sophisticated towns and cities together with the more sedentary population. These melange later became known as the Nabateans and their capital was Petra. (Drussilla Houstons) See also http://nabataea.net/arabia.html.
During the Roman period, the word Arab was a synonymy for Nabatean and vice versa. When the Romans incorporated Nabatea into their Empire, it was officially designated as the Province of Arabia. Numerous sculptures found in Arabia Petra clearly depict its population as African through their physical features. One classical example is that of Emperor Philip of Arabia one of the later Emperors of Rome, who was indigenous to Arabia Petra. His sculptures demonstrate that physically speaking, Emperor Philip of Arabia was a Black man of African descent.

Arabia Felix
Arabia Felix laid further south of Petra. Arabia Felix was bounded by the Shiraz region of the Persian Gulf, the Eritrean or Red sea (Africa) as well as the Indian Ocean. This country was rich in spices and in it was situated the famous cities of Mecca and Medina.
Here was the country of the Yemenis, the Habashas, the Sabas, the Hadramautians and the Mineans. All these were sections of the Ethiopian-Axumite tribes similar to the Amharas, the Oromos and the Tigriyeans, who had expanded the ancient lucrative spice trade to Arabia.
It should be noted that in addition to coffee, Ethiopia is the original homeland of incenses such as frankincense, myrrh, and spices like cinnamon. The traditional African planters of these cash crops and the African maritime operators of this most lucrative of ancient trades extended their operations from Ethiopia across the straits of Bab-el-Mandel to take advantage of the fertile land and the natural habours of Arabia Felix, which subsequently became export hubs of the ancient trade. (See Strabo,geography Book XVI.iv.19). Produce was shipped routinely from the highlands of Ethiopia into Ethiopian owned- Arabia Felix for exports to the rest of the world.
Given the historical, genetic, physical and geographical proximity between Ethiopia and Arabia Felix and the similarity of the cultural expression of both land, it is not a wonder why the ancient Greek writers swore that the Ethiopians ruled the whole of Arabia. It was clear to the sophisticated Greeks and the worldly Romans that Black Africans settled and developed this portion of Arabia!

Arabia Deserta
Arabia Deserta was originally people by the Bejas and kindred groups from Africa. These are the original owners of the Sahara and its extension known as the Arabia Desert. The Bejas as we have seen from preceeding paragraphs were the first to be called Bedouins due to their nomadic culture and their preference for Desert habitats.

In the beginning of Holocene period, a group of landless, barbarian, starving, pale-skinned Central Asian refugees now known as the pale-skin Arabs (i.e. the so-called Semites) began living side by side with the nomadic African Cushitic Bejas who owned the entire Sahara desert between the Nile and the Arabian peninsula. Over the course of time these two peoples have intermingled culturally and genetically that there is barely any pale skin (Arabized) Arabs alive today that does not carry extensive Africa genes in his blood. The descendants of this intermingling are the so-called modern Semitic Arabs (more precisely known as the Arabized Arabs) who trace their roots through Abraham.
The Central Asian barbarians did not develop any states, high culture or language in Arabia. They were destitues, mostly ignorant, unread and illiterate. The Koran takes great pain to dissociate this group from the high cultural attainment of ancient Arabia. It is clearly stated that until the advent of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed, these so-called Semites lived in a state of perpetual brutality, savagery, warfare and robbery. The Koran also takes pain to identify the original Black Arabs who had lived in Ad, Thamud, Imru etc, as the originators and builders of Arab civilization and culture.
These Arabized Arabs have sublimated stories of their origin in the legend of Abraham, which narrates of his journey from somewhere proximate to central Asia into the Black African territory of Arabia. He was said to have married a Black Egyptian-born wife, Hagar/Hajir, and their son was named, Ishmael/Isma’il. In this legend one immediately becomes aware of the central Asian origin of its heros and the resultant miscegenation which gave rise to the Arabised Arabs.
These so-called descendants of Abraham (actually mix breed from Black African Bejas and pale central Asian-stanis like the Turkmenistanis) settled in Mecca which was then under the overlordship of the Kushitic-Ethiopic owners of Arabia-Felix. This category of Arabs normally called themselves ‘Adnaniyun – that is, after one of their great tribal ancestors Adnan.
Despite the mythical origin of this peculiar historical source, it is clear that conscious effort has been made by Arabized Arabs to associate their tribes to African Royal pedigree. Since it is generally known that Kushitic citizenship was matrilineal, and only children born by Kemitic Kushite mothers could aspire to be Kings in Egypt and Ethiopia, it does not take a lot of imagination to understand the role of the black Egyptian (Kemitic Kushite) Hagar in the Abraham story. The Arabized Arabs actually claim a Black African historical and archetypal mother! No wonder “Aswad” (Black) is such an attractive concept in Arabic language.
December 9,2006
To be continued

5 Responses “The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu”
Dana Marniche replied:

The Blemmyes were thought to have been just one of the Bedja tribes. Bedja or Medjayu was a more general name for the Afro-Semitic Cushitic people living on the African side of the Eritraean Sea. There were also the Adiabari, Megabari and other Barbari. The Anag’il of the Bedja are now called Danakil. Abraham’s people were very likely similar to the modern dark-skinned Mash’ai of Oman known to Josephus as Mash son of Aram. The Aramaeans of ancient times were the Amorites or Ammuru. Thus, according to the Biblical book Ezekiel – Israel’s mother was a Hittite and father was an Amorite. Both were early Canaanite peoples. Ham Shem and Japhet were all the same people 3500 years ago. The Syro-Aramaeans in the tomb of king Tut and Phoenicians in the temple art of the Egyptians show that they had the same pigment as the people of the ancient Egyptians, Puntites and some of the peoples of Nubia – A dark brown color with a copper or brick red caste.
January 26th, 2007 at 5:07 pm. Permalink.
Ali Sharif Mandela replied:

If Prophet Abraham(sas)was a pale skinned Central Asian Semite
and his wife Haga/Hajir was a Black kemitic Kushite Eyptian African woman,then was Prophet Muhammad’s(sas)skin color pale or
a dark brown color with a copper or brick red caste? It appears that most Arabs was of dark hue before the advent of european invaders,conquers,colonizers,
rapist or intermarriage added to the skin color. Prophet Muhammad(sas)is described as having pale skin or white. Looking at his lineage,would it be proper to say he is white,black or of mixed heritage? Also,if there was no invasion,conquest or
colonization of Arabia,and no intermarriage or rape by Europeans(Turks or Persians),
then how could the Prophet or anyone else be born of white skin color at that period of time in Arabia? Please explain!
February 16th, 2007 at 7:31 am. Permalink.
Muhayyuddiyn ‘Ali Dhuw-Al-Fiqaar replied:

Thank you for this observation.Haajar(Hagar) was Egyptian Matron and Ibraahim(Abraham) was a Kushite Patron from Khaldaiyy Uwr of Ancient Babylon a Kushite Colony.They begat Ishmaa-El.Ishmaa-El married another Egyptian Matron woman named Fatima Ar-Ri’lah,they begat Twelve Princes the second whose name was Qeydaar(Kedar) this Arabic /Hebrew name means Powerfuly Dark Skinned man.Qeydaar(Kedar) married Fakhira a Matron Woman from The Qahtaanites(Joktan son of Kush)another African person.So in Fact Muhammad(saws) was Fully African in the North East Arabian Quarter of Afriqa.He was not white.The Arabic Term Sayyid which is the title of all of Abraaham’s and Muhammad’s Children;It means Noble.It comes from the Arabic Root word Sawwad(Black).If we were to say
“Huwa Ya-suwd min-hu”. Translated as;
“He is Blacker than him”. Literaly means;
“He is more Majestic than him”.
So here we can see that the Arabian term for “black” is a Noble Term.Today at the Kaaba, There you can see the Kiwa(cover)is Black. Hajr-I-Aswaad The Black Stone.Hadith al-Kisa the Cloak of Muhammad over his Family,Ali ,Fatima,Hasan,and Hussaiyn was Black and today a Sheiykh or a Ayaatullah Shi’ite from the descendants(sayyid=Sawwad) of Muhammad wear Black Turbans.Then we have the Term Sudan=Land of Two Blacks(East bank of the Red Sea and West Bank of The Red Sea)Africa and Arabia is one Land two different sides of the Red Sea.I know because I’am a Sayyid(Noble) who is Ya-Suwd(Majestic)who is Sawwad(Black)from the Sudan(lands of the Two Blacks=Abraham and Hagar).
Salawat
March 19th, 2007 at 11:57 am. Permalink.
TEE replied:

Why isn’t this taught??
May 5th, 2007 at 3:30 pm. Permalink.
mahmoud onursemra replied:

i want yous to talk about bedja alot the information i see is not good enough to get intersted at the moment its ok but not to good
June 12th, 2007 at 8:46 pm. Permalink.
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24 Responses to ““THE ORIGINAL BLACK AFRICAN ARABS OF ARABIA (PART 2) BY OGU IJI-OFO ANNU AT RASTA LIVEWIRE”

  1. Terry Says:

    I want to buy your book about the prophet muhammad being black. Please send me your address and cost. Thank You

  2. darin (slave name) Says:

    I have been searching this information out to fill in gaps in history which my former slave owners have tried to bury please e-mail me with other links that you think will be helpfull in explaining my peoples lagacy.

    Thank you

    Elrahiim

  3. khalif Says:

    Thank you or the information you gave me you have started me on my qest for true history

  4. mustafa ramadan Says:

    Corrections to the main Article
    19 Sep 2008

    Paragraph 4, lineas 7 & 10 Bab El Mandel should be Bab El Mandab.

    (kiwa) should be (kiswa) from Arabic (kasa = clothed).
    So, (kiswa) means the thing that clothes or covers. The Kiswa at the Holy Mosque in Makkah covers the Kaaba, which is a box-shaped building or big room which Muslim circulates at Hajj (pilgrimage) or Omra.

    (aswad) means (black) m. & (soada) means (black) f. Al Hajar Al Aswad means (the black stone) which is situated on the southern or south eastern side of the kaaba.

    (sayyed) means (master) n., from the verb saada = mastered/ dominated …
    It has nothing to do with (aswad = black)

    I am a Muslim Arab and a teacher of Arabic and English.

    Genuine Arabs are not black. Prophet Muhamad was not black, nor was Jesus. All black Arabs came originally from Africa or came from intermarriages with black Africans. I’m not belittling blacks. In Islam, we don’t have racism. The first Muslim who called for prayers on the Kaaba, upon the request of Prophet Muhammad was Bilal Al Habashi (the Ehiopian). He was one of his beloved companions.

    Mustafa

  5. mustafa ramadan Says:

    Corrections to comment above

    Paragraph 1. line 4: (Muslim) should be (a Muslim).
    last paragraph: (Ethopian) should be (Ethiopian).

  6. AbdulBasit Says:

    Allah says:
    (And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then — behold you are human beings scattered!) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Musa said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

    «إِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْضَةٍ قَبَضَهَا مِنْ جَمِيع الْأَرْضِ، فَجَاءَ بَنُو آدَمَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الْأَرْضِ، جَاءَ مِنْهُمُ الْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَحْمَرُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ، وَالْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ، وَالسَّهْلُ وَالْحَزْنُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِك»

    (Allah created Adam from a handful taken from throughout the earth. Hence the sons of Adam vary as the earth varies, so they are white and red and black and colors in between, evil and good, easy-going or tough — or something in between.)” This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who authenticated it.

    Peace to ya’ll.

  7. jamaal Says:

    As-salaamu-a’laikum:

    Mustafa Ramadhan,

    I was wondering if you ever read Glory of the Black Over The White by Al-Jahiz? On another post, I saw someone calling Jahiz a fool and other names. According to Al-Jahiz, Arabs are counted among the Black races.

    It is recorded in the Hadith that the Prophet Muhammad, SAW, said he was sent to the Red and Black. Do you say the Arabs called themselves Red?

    Also, what is different from the climate of the Arabian Peninsula that would make the original inhabitants there “White” but the inhabitants of lands in Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, all directly across from the Arabian Peninsula, Black?

    Also, are you familiar with Lane’s Lexicon?

    And, as a teacher of Arabic, would you deny that sayyid and aswad both come from the same Arabic root words?

  8. Bilal Says:

    The Black Arab

    Copyright © 2003 The American Society of Human Genetics Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Report
    Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations

    Martin Richards1, , , Chiara Rengo2, 3, Fulvio Cruciani2, Fiona Gratrix4, James F. Wilson5, Rosaria Scozzari2, Vincent Macaulay6 and Antonio Torroni7

    1Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom;

    2Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,”

    3Istituto di Medicina Legale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome;

    4Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College,

    5Department of Biology, University College London, London;

    6Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;

    7Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy

    Received 2 December 2002; accepted 21 January 2003. Available online 24 October 2007.

    We have analyzed and compared mitochondrial DNA variation of populations from the Near East and Africa and found a very high frequency of African lineages present in the Yemen Hadramawt: more than a third were of clear sub-Saharan origin. Other Arab populations carried 10% lineages of sub-Saharan origin, whereas non-Arab Near Eastern populations, by contrast, carried few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow has been preferentially into Arab populations. Several lines of evidence suggest that most of this gene flow probably occurred within the past 2,500 years. In contrast, there is little evidence for male-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa in Y-chromosome haplotypes in Arab populations, including the Hadramawt. Taken together, these results are consistent with substantial migration from eastern Africa into Arabia, at least in part as a result of the Arab slave trade, and mainly female assimilation into the Arabian population as a result of miscegenation and manumission.

    Article Outline
    Acknowledgements
    References
    Contacts between eastern Africa and Arabia have existed since the establishment of obsidian exchange networks as early as the 7th millennium b.c. They were stimulated by the growth of the Egyptian state from the 4th millennium onward, with possible settlements of people from Arabia in the Horn of Africa as early as the 3rd and 2nd millennia b.c. The Afro-Arabian Tihama cultural complex, for which an African origin seems most likely, arose in the mid-2nd millennium. In addition to the coastal site of Adulis in Eritrea and sites farther inland in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan, it is represented on the Saudi coastal plains and the western and southern coasts of Yemen. Other traditions appear to have spread in the opposite direction (Fattovich 1997).

    Southern Arabs gained control of the Red Sea trade routes in the 12th century b.c., and the first kingdom, Saba, arose in Yemen in 800 b.c. As a result, Eritrea and Ethiopia were gradually incorporated into the area of Arab influence. These contacts crystallized in the formation of the Ethio-Sabean state of Daamat on the Tigrean plateau in 600 b.c. The archaeological evidence suggests that this is likely to have been the result of small-scale colonization by several Arabian groups (including Sabeans) and acculturation of the indigenous population (Fattovich 1997). This was succeeded, following the decline of Saba and Daamat and several centuries of isolation, by the kingdom of Aksum in a.d. 100, which formed as part of the Roman exchange network extending from Egypt as far as India, trading via the Red Sea port of Adulis. Aksum survived for 800 years and occupied southern Arabia for part of this period. Utilitarian Aksumite pottery has been found in large quantities in deposits from the 5th and 6th centuries in the Yemen Hadramawt, suggesting that there may have been substantial immigration during that period. From the 7th century onward, with the rise of Islam, Muslim communities became established along the coast of Eritrea and Somalia, spreading inland from the late 1st millennium onward (Fattovich 1997). Concomitantly, the Arab slave trade, operating from pre-Islamic times but at its height between a.d. 650 and 1900, carried millions of men and women from the Nile Valley, the Horn of Africa, and the eastern African coast across the Red Sea to Arabia and many more millions across the Sahara (Segal 2001).

    To evaluate the extent and nature of gene flow between Africa and the Near East, we have examined mtDNA variation in numerous populations from the two geographic areas and compared it with that observed in the Y chromosome. These genetic systems are uniparentally transmitted and trace out the female and male genealogies. Moreover, their sequence variation has been subdivided into a number of clades, termed “haplogroups,” each of which has originated at one time and place and been subsequently dispersed by the movement of people. Thus, haplogroups tend to be geographically restricted and are particularly informative for detecting gene flow between continents. The haplogroup profiles of Africans and Eurasians are sufficiently distinct to allow us to address the question of historical gene flow between eastern Africa and Arabia and whether the same patterns are seen in both female and male lines of descent.

    We studied the variation in the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of the mtDNA control region (encompassing at minimum nps 16090–16365 but as much as nps 16017–16497 in many cases; numbering as per Anderson et al. [1981]) in 533 subjects from Arabic-speaking communities and 960 from non-Arabic–speaking communities in the Near East, including 344 Near Eastern Jews (table 1). (An additional set of 38 Yemeni Jews [Richards et al. 2000] was also included but was kept distinct, since some members may be from the same sample as those reported by Thomas et al. [2002].) We compared these with 74 Ethiopians and 46 Ethiopian Jews, 246 additional East Africans, 447 West Africans, 132 Central Africans, and 98 Khoisan and 416 Mozambican Bantu speakers from southern Africa (table 1). Haplogroup affiliation was defined primarily on the basis of the observed HVS-I motif, with some additional testing of diagnostic RFLP markers to ensure that misassignments were avoided. These were: haplogroups H (−7025 AluI), HV (−14766 MseI), V (−4577 NlaIII), U (+12308 HinfI), K (−9052 HaeII), JT (+4216 NlaIII), T (+15606 AluI), F1 (−12406 HincII), R (+12703 MboII), M (+10397 AluI, +10394 DdeI), D (−5176 AluI), N (+10871 MnlI), X (+14465 AccI), W (+8249 AvaII, –8994 HaeIII), A (+663 HaeIII), L3b (+10084 TaqI), L3d (−8616 MboI), L3e (+2349 MboI), and paragroup L1, along with haplogroup L2 (+3592 HpaI).

    Table 1.

    Percentages of mtDNA Haplogroups L1–L3A, U6, M1, and (pre-HV)1 in Near Eastern and African Populations

    Haplogroup Frequencies (%)
    Group and Population/Region N L1–L3A U6 M1 (pre-HV)1
    Arab Near East:
    Iraqisa 116 9 1 1 4
    Bedouinb 29 10 7 7 17
    Palestiniansa 117 15 1 2 3
    Syriansa 69 9 4 0 6
    Jordaniansa 146 14 0 2 0
    Yemen Hadramawtb 56 34 0 4 7
    Non-Arab Near East:
    Georgiansc 105 0 0 0 2
    Armeniansa 192 0 0 0 1
    Azerbaijanisa 48 0 0 0 0
    Turksa 218 1 0 0 1
    Kurdsa 53 4 0 0 2
    Near Eastern Jews:
    Iraqi Jewsc 56 0 0 7 0
    Iranian Jewsc 75 0 0 1 1
    Ashkenazi Jewsc 78 0 3 0 3
    Georgian Jewsc 70 0 0 0 0
    Yemen Jewsc 65 11 0 0 17
    Yemen Jewsa 38 5 0 0 26
    East Africa:
    Ethiopiansc 74 55 3 10 8
    Ethiopian Jewsc 46 52 0 15 15
    Somaliansd 27 70 0 11 11
    Nubianse 80 58 0 10 9
    Southern Sudanesee 76 92 0 4 0
    Kenyansd 63 95 3 2 0
    West Africa:
    Overalld,f,g,h 447 89 3 0 0
    Central Africa:
    Mbuti and Biakaf 37 100 0 0 0
    Equatorial Guineansi 95 99 1 0 0
    Southern Africa:
    Kung and Khwef,j 98 100 0 0 0
    Mozambicansk,l 416 100 0 0 0

    Full-size table
    a Richards et al. (2000).
    b Di Rienzo and Wilson (1991).
    c Thomas et al. (2002).
    d Watson et al. (1997).
    e Krings et al. (1999).
    f Vigilant et al. (1991).
    g Graven et al. (1995).
    h Rando et al. (1998).
    i Mateu et al. (1997).
    j Chen et al. (2000).
    k Pereira et al. (2001).
    l Salas et al. (2002).

    View Within Article

    We also analyzed Y-chromosome variation in 323 subjects from Arabic-speaking communities and 1,525 from non-Arabic–speaking communities in the Near East. For comparison, we also included 214 Ethiopians, 530 West Africans, 36 Central Africans, 53 southern African Bantu speakers, and 129 southern African Khoisan speakers (table 2).

    ——————————————————————————–

    Table 2.

    Percentages of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups A, E, and E3a in Near Eastern and African Populations

    Haplogroup Frequencies (%)
    Group and Population/Region N Aa E E3a
    Arab Near East:
    Yemen Hadramawtb 49 NA 10 4
    Yemen Senab 27 NA 0 0
    Bedouinc 32 0 19 0
    Palestiniansc 143 1 20 0
    Syriansd 72 1 23 1
    Non-Arab Near East:
    Georgianse 68 0 1 0
    Armenianse 734 0 5 0
    Kurdsc 95 0 7 0
    Azerise 29 0 7 0
    Turkse 173 0 10 0
    Greekse 132 0 27 0
    Kurdish Jewsc 99 0 12 0
    Sephardi Jewsc 78 0 19 0
    Ashkenazi Jewsc 79 0 23 0
    Africa:
    Ethiopiansf,g 214 13 68 1
    West Africansf,g,h 530 1 81 69
    Central Africansf 36 0 67 58
    Southern African Bantuf 53 6 81 62
    Southern African Khoisanf,h 129 33 54 36

    Full-size table
    Note.—

    Y-chromosome nomenclature is that established by the Y Chromosome Consortium (2002).

    a NA = not available.
    b Thomas et al. (2000).
    c Nebel et al. (2001).
    d Wilson et al. (2001).
    e Weale et al. (2001).
    f Underhill et al. (2000).
    g Semino et al. (2002).
    h Cruciani et al. (2002).

    View Within Article

    Human mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation was interpreted within the following phylogeographic framework. Human mtDNA falls into clades L1a–f, L2, L3b, L3d, and L3e, and a paraphyletic cluster L3*, which characterize sub-Saharan Africans (Chen et al. 1995; Watson et al. 1997; Alves-Silva et al. 2000; Salas et al. 2002); and two further clades within L3, namely N and M, which are largely pan-Eurasian and East/South Asian, respectively (Torroni et al. 1994; Kivisild et al. 1999; Quintana-Murci et al. 1999; Richards and Macaulay 2000, 2001; Richards et al. 2000). For convenience, we refer to African L3 lineages (which do not form a clade) as “L3A” (Rando et al. 1998) and to the entire set of sub-Saharan haplogroups as “L1–L3A.” Approximately 85% of Near Eastern lineages fall into a set of haplogroups within haplogroup N that are characteristic of west Eurasians: H, (pre-HV)1, HV1, U1–U7, K, J, T, I, W, X, and N1b, most of which probably originated in the Near Eastern/Caucasus region (Torroni et al. 1996; Macaulay et al. 1999; Richards et al. 2000). Among these is the African haplogroup U6, which is of ancient Eurasian ancestry (since haplogroup U probably evolved in the Near East), but diverged in North Africa over the past 20,000–40,000 years and can therefore be regarded as characteristic of indigenous North Africans (Rando et al. 1998; Macaulay et al. 1999). Its presence in the Near East, therefore, implies gene flow from North Africa.

    Two haplogroups, (pre-HV)1 and M1, have a distribution that spans the Red Sea. Haplogroup (pre-HV)1 occurs widely throughout the Near East, reaching highest frequency in Arabia, but is also common in Ethiopia and Somalia (Watson et al. 1997; Richards et al. 2000). Given its close phylogenetic relationship with other Eurasian clusters, this haplogroup probably originated in the Near East and spread later into eastern Africa. Haplogroup M1, however, has been assigned an African origin, despite the facts that (i) all other basal branches of haplogroup M are restricted to South Asia, East Asia, and Australasia, and (ii) the diversity of M in Asia is greater than in Africa (Quintana-Murci et al. 1999). It is restricted to the Near East and north and eastern Africa, concentrated in Somalia and Ethiopia (Watson et al. 1997). It is therefore unclear whether any particular M1 sequence type in the Near East arrived recently from Africa; an Asian origin with back-migration to Africa is possible.

    Our estimates of sub-Saharan African ancestry in the Near East are, therefore, based on haplogroup L1–L3A lineages, but we show also the distribution of these other clusters present both in the Near East and East Africa.

    Our Y-chromosome nomenclature follows the phylogenetic scheme established by the Y Chromosome Consortium (2002). The principal diagnostic haplogroups for sub-Saharan Africa are the ancient haplogroups A (defined by the derived form of the M91 marker) and B (derived at M60 and M181) and a derived form of haplogroup E, E3a (derived at M2), which occurs in Bantu-speaking populations at high frequency. The remainder of haplogroup E (with the YAP+ M1 marker and derived at M96) is also present throughout Africa and in the Near East (Hammer et al. 1998, 2001; Scozzari et al. 1999, 2001; Rosser et al. 2000; Semino et al. 2000; Thomas et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2000, 2001; Cruciani et al. 2002). It is unfortunate that haplogroup B was not distinguished from some Eurasian haplogroups before the introduction of high-resolution binary markers (Underhill et al. 2000) and cannot, therefore, be used to identify gene flow between eastern Africa and Eurasia in most published data sets. However, haplogroup B occurs only at low frequencies in eastern Africa and has not been detected outside Africa in global surveys (Underhill et al. 2000, 2001; Hammer et al. 2001), so this is unlikely to lead to serious bias. Indeed, Y-chromosome variation is often characterized by very steep frequency gradients, which, in some respects, may make phylogeographic inferences more straightforward than for other markers.

    The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in the Near East and Africa is shown in table 1. Haplogroups L1–L3A have so far been found at highest frequencies in Central Africans and southern African Khoisan speakers, where they comprise 100% of extant lineages. For example, the sampled Pygmies include only L1 and L2 lineages. L1–L3A make up 89% of mtDNAs in West Africa, >90% in southern East Africa, 70% in Somalia, and 55% in Ethiopia.

    The reason for the lower frequency of haplogroups L1–L3A in Ethiopia is the presence both of haplogroups (pre-HV)1 and M1 (at high frequencies) and of the west Eurasian haplogroups T, J, U, and HV, which are indicative of substantial gene flow from the Near East. West Eurasian mtDNAs are elsewhere very rare in sub-Saharan Africa, the main previously discovered examples having entered Nubia from Egypt (Krings et al. 1999) and into the western Sahara from northwest Africa (Rando et al. 1998). In the case of Ethiopia, the west Eurasian types mostly match types in Arabia, with only a couple of exceptions of rare derived types not previously seen elsewhere. Haplogroups (pre-HV)1 and M1 are found primarily both in eastern Africa and the Near East. In Ethiopia, by contrast with the other west Eurasian types, instances of both (pre-HV)1 and M1 types tended to be unique types or to match others found only in eastern Africa. These patterns—as well as the rather higher frequencies of (pre-HV)1 and M1 in Ethiopia—suggest that the (pre-HV)1 and M1 lineages in Ethiopia may be the result of fairly ancient interactions between East Africa and Eurasia, whereas the other west Eurasian types may be the result of more recent historical gene flow. Our estimate of recent Near Eastern mtDNA input (22%) amounts to considerably more than the 5% of Passarino et al. (1998). Contra Passarino et al. (1998), this does not seem to differ from the recent Y-chromosome input from the Near East signaled by Y-chromosome haplogroup J, which they estimate at 25% but which has been subsequently shown to vary substantially in different Ethiopian populations (Semino et al. 2002).

    Haplogroups L1–L3A in the Near East reach their highest frequency in the Yemen Hadramawt (35%). Other Arab populations—Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, and Bedouin—have 10%–15% of lineages of sub-Saharan African origin. These types are rarely shared between different Arab populations. By contrast, non-Arab Near Eastern populations—Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians—have few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow from Africa has been specifically into Arab populations. For comparison, southern European mtDNAs include only 2% of these lineages, and northern Europeans <1% (Richards et al. 2000). The only European region to stand out is Iberia, where 4% of mtDNAs belong to these clusters, probably a trace of the medieval Moorish conquests (Côrte-Real et al. 1996; Richards et al. 2000). There is also evidence from one sample (Semino et al. 1989) that in parts of Sicily, which was held by the Arabs between 825–1091 a.d., haplogroups L1 and L2 amount to 4%.

    We compared the frequency of haplogroups L1–L3A in Jewish communities from the Near East with that in non-Jewish communities residing historically in the same area (table 1). Near Eastern Jewish groups almost entirely lack haplogroups L1–L3A (as, indeed, do Ashkenazi Jews [Thomas et al. 2002]). The only exception is in Jews from Yemen, but, even here, these lineages amount only to a quarter of their frequency in the non-Jewish sample from the Hadramawt. (L1 and L2 types are completely absent.)

    These observations enable us to put a tentative time frame on the widespread appearance of sub-Saharan lineages in the Near East. The eastern Jewish communities probably emerged no earlier than 586 b.c., at the time of the destruction of the First Temple (Mourant et al. 1978). The mtDNAs in these communities show evidence of strong founder effects involving distinct sequence types in each case, in some cases matching types found locally. Therefore, it seems likely that substantial conversion of indigenous women took place at the time of the founding of these communities, followed by subsequent isolation (Thomas et al. 2002). In the case of the Yemeni Jews, this scenario is supported by blood-group evidence and the historical record. Indeed, in the case of the Yemeni Jews, it is likely that the main conversions took place between 70 a.d. and 132 a.d. (Mourant et al. 1978).

    This being the case, the lack of haplogroups L1–L3A in these communities implies that these haplogroups were probably absent at the time at which the Jewish communities were founded. This suggests that much of the African gene flow into the neighboring Arab populations most likely postdates the 5th century b.c., in the case of the northern Arab populations, and perhaps even the 2nd century a.d., in the case of the Yemen.

    It is conceivable that haplogroups L1–L3A have been lost from the Jewish communities as a result of genetic drift, although the independent loss of both L1 and L2 from all Jewish groups seems unlikely. However, several other lines of evidence also support recent introgression. More than half of the Yemen L1–L3A lineages occur at the tips of the mtDNA tree (cf. Salas et al. 2002), indicating that they have been generated by mutation relatively recently. Furthermore, a majority of the L1–L3A lineages in the Hadramawt—such as members of L2a, L2d, L3b, and L3d—trace back ultimately to West Africa, so that it is likely that they were delivered to East Africa by the Bantu dispersals. Supporting this suggestion, all of the L2a types in the Hadramawt occur at elevated frequency in the Bantu speakers of Mozambique (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002). Moreover, the chief L1a type in the Hadramawt also occurs at elevated frequency in Bantu speakers and is implicated in the Bantu dispersals, albeit having been picked up in East Africa en route (Salas et al. 2002). Bantu speakers are thought to have become first established to the east of the Great Lakes region somewhat <2,000 years ago (Phillipson 1993). Assuming that the sub-Saharan African input into Arabia is indeed directly from east Africa (rather than including a component from west or southeastern Africa), as is most likely on historical and geographical grounds (Segal 2001), this again limits the main spread into Arabia to within the last 2,000 years.

    In addition to lineages of west Eurasian and sub-Saharan African origin, the Yemen Hadramawt sample also includes several haplogroup M lineages, some originating in south Asia and some in southeast Asia. These connections may testify to female gene flow along the trading networks established eastward from the Red Sea, along the Indian Ocean, and as far as southeast Asia.

    Ethiopian Y-chromosome variation has been characterized in some detail (Passarino et al. 1998; Underhill et al. 2000; Semino et al. 2002). These data show that, as in their mtDNA, Ethiopians differ from other sub-Saharan African populations in their haplogroup profiles. They show 68% haplogroup E (including only 1% the derived haplogroup E3, which characterizes sub-Saharan Africans), 13% haplogroup A, 5% the African haplogroup B, and 3% the Eurasian haplogroup K*. The remainder is mainly haplogroup J, which occurs at high frequency in most Near Eastern populations.

    By contrast, throughout the Near East, haplogroup A is virtually absent, for example, in Bedouin, Palestinians, and Syrians, as well as in Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians and several Jewish groups (table 2). Haplogroup E is present in both Arab and Jewish populations throughout the Near East, as well as at high frequencies throughout most of Africa (Scozzari et al. 1999, 2001; Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002). However, its distribution in the Near East suggests an ancient presence in the region, rather than indicating recent gene flow: it is present not only in Near Eastern Arab populations, but also in several groups of Jews (12%–23%) and Turks (10%), declining to <5% as one moves toward the Caucasus and Europe. Further supporting the suggestion of an ancient presence rather than recent gene flow from East Africa, haplogroup E occurs at only 10% in the Yemen Hadramawt, substantially lower than most other Arab and Jewish groups in the Near East. Yet this is precisely the region in which female-mediated gene flow from Eastern Africa reaches its highest levels. Only 4% of the Hadramawt sample is the derived sub-Saharan African form, E3a, which indicates recent gene flow from Africa. This subclade is virtually absent from all other Near Eastern populations sampled. Moreover, haplogroup E is entirely absent from a second Yemen sample from Sena (Thomas et al. 2000).

    Taken together, these results indicate that historical male-mediated gene flow from Ethiopia to Yemen has been low, in striking contrast to the results from mtDNA. This seems likely to be true for other parts of the Near East, too, again in contrast to the pattern from mtDNA.

    The mtDNAs of sub-Saharan origin that are present in Near Eastern populations show a striking phylogeographic pattern. They are virtually restricted to Arab populations, occurring at 35% in the Yemen Hadramawt and 10%–15% in other Arab populations. They are absent or almost so from Turks, Armenians, Azeris, Georgians, and Near Eastern Jews and present at lower levels in Turkish Kurds. In Europe, they are detected at appreciable levels only in regions which experienced Arab rule during the medieval period. This pattern suggests that most female gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa into the Near East probably took place relatively recently, within the last 2,500 years. Y-chromosome data indicate that recent male gene flow was substantially less. This appears to be the case even for the Yemen, where more than a third of mtDNAs derive from Africa.

    In summary, these results are consistent with mainly female migration from eastern Africa into Arab communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many opportunities for such migrations between eastern Africa and southern Arabia during this period. However, the most likely explanation for the presence of predominantly female lineages of African origin in other parts of the Arab world is that these may trace back to women brought from Africa as part of the Arab slave trade, assimilated into the Arabian population as a result of miscegenation and manumission. Indeed, unlike the situation in the Americas, there are no substantial communities of African descent in the Near East today. This is thought to be because relatively few men—mainly employed in manual labor and military service or castrated and employed as eunuchs—left descendants. Women, by contrast, were imported specifically for the sexual gratification of élite males and for their reproductive potential. The practice of manumission meant that their offspring were born free. Female slaves were, therefore, readily integrated into Islamic society (Lewis 1992; Segal 2001).

    A number of recent studies have compared Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation and drawn conclusions about sex-specific migration (Underhill et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002). Some of these have been associated with patrilocality versus matrilocality (Oota et al. 2001) and others with ethnic-specific long-range dispersal patterns (Thomas et al. 2002). By contrast, this study indicates the long-term effects of a particular socioeconomic system, based on slavery, on the gene pool of an entire region.

    Acknowledgments
    We thank Mike Weale, Mark Thomas, and Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, for critical advice, and David Goldstein and Neil Bradman, for support. This research also received support from the Italian Ministry of the University, Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale 2002 (to A.T. and R.S.), Progetto MIUR-CNR Genomica Funzionale (to A.T.), Fondo d’Ateneo per la Ricerca 2002 dell’Università di Pavia (to A.T.), the Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” (to R.S.), Grandi Progetti di Ateneo, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” (to R.S.), and a Research Career Development Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust (to V.M.).

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    Address for correspondence and reprints: Dr. Martin Richards, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.

  9. dana marniche Says:

    This article is interesting since judging from the early Islamic description of Arabians , Eurasian types in significant numbers only began entering the Yemen during the Christian period and others after the Islamic period.
    It suggests the acquisition of Eurasian genes in the Horn is rather recent within the last 2000 years. This would expain why Arab speaking historians like Ibn Mandhour and Ibn Rabbu 9th c., Cordoba, Al Dhahab a Syrian 13th, Jahiz of Iraq 800s AD etc. said “most Arabs” are “dark brown” and “kinky hair” although Jahiz said northern Arabs of the Harrah were “black” like lava and animals of the area.

  10. TRUTHMAN Says:

    There were many blacks in Arabia at the time of Muhmmad which Islamic history shows. In fact not only were they in arabia, some were actually seen as THE deitys untill muhmmad had them murdered. It is accounts like this that provide PROFF that islam has been a disaster for Africans/black people from the very begining;

    • “The nearest to Mecca of the three most eminent shrines of paganism was the temple of al-‘Uzza at Nakhlah. The Prophet now sent Khalid to destroy this centre of idolatry. At the news of his approach the warden of the temple hung his sword on the statue of the goddess and called upon her to defend herself and slay Khalid or to become a monotheist. Khalid demolished the temple and its idol, and returned to Mecca. ‘Didst thou see nothing?’ said the Prophet. ‘Nothing,’ said Khalid. ‘Then thou has not destroyed her,’ said the Prophet. ‘Return and destroy her.’ So Khalid went again to Nakhlah, and out of the ruins of the temple there came a black woman, entirely naked, with long and wildly flowing hair. ‘My spine was seized with shivering,’ said Khalid afterwards. But he shouted ”Uzza, denial is for thee, not worship,’ and drawing his sword he cut her down..” (Lings, Muhammad His Life Based On the Earliest Sources [Inner Traditions, International, Ltd.; Rocheter Vermont, 1983], pp. 301-302)

    Then the apostle sent Khalid to al-`Uzza which was in Nakhla. It was a temple which this tribe of Quraysh and Kinana and all Mudar used to venerate. … When Khalid arrived he destroyed her and returned to the apostle. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 565)

  11. ben Says:

    The real Arabs are……… and still are Black!

  12. Ahmed Says:

    I firstly wanna thank both El and Nature for a interesting adult debate on such a controversial complex topic, without once drifting into abusive language to each other, also the other 2 persons who posted brief but informative comments. You all have both inspired me to enrole in a 3yr undergraduate course Ba Hons in Anthropology at London University. So again thank you all. I am not as clued up yet on haplogroups/markers so my input is limited, but I have picked up many many contridictions in Naturescorners beliefs. And with my limited abilitys I will contribute this.
    1. Nature you discribe the early egyptians as arab white semitic, where did you find this racial classification for for a pure arab race?
    Now I found this laughable, any race group who meets another from the same race but different countrys or culture, they never refer to each other by there race, but by there country or culture i.e lets say a scots person met an english man, the scot wouldn’t say oh here is a white englishman, because to be a englishman or a scottish man you would both have to be from the same racial group.
    2. Do white people or any other race on earth see arabs as white, if not why?
    3. If arab white semetics were the Ancient egyptians, why did it take for the discovery of the rosetta stone for them to lol, re-discover there own language and decipher there own writings?
    I mean you claim arabs were in egypt for 5000 years, did not 1 person amongst the arab indigenous people know how to speak or read there own writings until an englishman in the 19th century stumbled on it, then deciphered it for them.
    4. Why is no studies being carried out on the modern day egyptians in regards to gathering more secrets from them, like how they built the pyramids, the real date of the spinx, the secret of eternal life, the unique practises and customs only found in that civalisation?
    These so called arab white semetics in egypt have so little knowledge of themselves and they’re customs and has to be updated on a weekly basis, as and when new finds are un earthed, so basically I learn about the Ancients the same time as you.
    5. As you stated the arabs wearn’t the first people of egypt but they were the ones responsible for the rise of the greatest civalisation on earth. Why did it take you to leave your indigenous homeland for you to build monumental projects and none in the ancestral typical arab home lands?
    Sorry Nature your argument is so weak its laughable, lol why would the first Ancient Egyptian writings be found in kush lands? where are the pyramids in Arabia? is it because all the other arabs were nomadic tribes people, who never lived in cities, but tents. Why when Ancient Egypt fell, you the white arab semites, never re built the place? lol this gets funnier by the second. Why does no other Ancient ethnic group or peoples recognise these mordern white arabs as the original Ancients and all there oral history and written history discribes black africans as the rulers of Egypt. Why do all Ancient Greek, Roman and other cultured peoples in there history discribe and draw pictures of BLACKS as the Ancient Egyptians. Why did all the Ancient Egyptians who were invited back to europe to live and teach science and knowledge to the Greeks were discribe as black. why do you fail to mention the ARAB/ISLAM invasions of Egypt in the 7th and 11th AD, who did they invade there own people? why did the Ancients use slaves to build there monuments and not camels? Do arabs reveer the camels, why didn’t the Ancients? Did the Ancients eat camal meat like modern day arab white semetics? Did the Ancients wear the long white robes that modern white arab semetics wear in Ancient times? Why do most of the Ancient Egyptians in nearly all the pictures and paintings of themselves are bare chested. Why do all the Ancient Egyptians mummies have the same melanin levels as Black african apart from the late mummies of Greek roman ancestry. When and why did most of the Ancient Black looking Egyptians have woefully, intentionally disfigured and features and why weren’t they repaired since the original desendants of the artist live in the same place today? I could go on and on. Nature you arabs will never be able to pull this off because of the vast amount of material already out of Egypt and in the hands of others. Why wont no country of the world return Egypts antiquitys to the arab whites semetics of egypt? is it because they all know that arab egypt has no claim on them? Why is egypt the most appeassing arab nation, willing to act as broker even in harsh Pres Bush times. I’ve heard that governments of the west has allowed Arabs to keep Egypt as long as they co operate with the west. When most of the arab world is up in arms against the west, why is Egypt the only arab nation still prepared or should I say, have to be freindly with the West and its allies including Isreal with the full permission of all arab countrys so as they can keep the secret. Egyptian white arabs semetic very rarely refuse lending out there exhibits even to countries refusing to return there so called legacy. Why is this? Now this gets really good from here. Why are all studies being so closely monitored and no studies can be performed without the guidance and supervision of Dr Zahi Hawaas and Cairo University. They have even started kicking out people of Egypt for even asking questions they have no answers to. If they are the true peoples what are they hiding or are they pre selecting places for people to study because they know that this fallacy cant continue for much longer and they’re trying to learn as much as they can now, so when the day of judgement comes, they’ll try to convince people that they are the original peoples. Dr Zahi was recently on tv claiming that all modern day arabs are the original peoples and with him was a young female genetisis to verify his claims, but she couldn’t instead she said that the dna came from all the peoples of the Nile Delta. Why wont Dr Zahi allow leading black Anthropologist to fully investigate his claims, even when the 2 mummies were found with weird looking gold/red 6 ether looking hair types, nobody was allowed to investigate he’s crazy claims, plus the hair colour of the gold headed mummy was a colour not found in nature. Is Dr Zahi the worlds leading Egyptologist? When Dr Cheikh anta Diop confronted Dr Zahi and other so called white lying anthroplogist at the unesco symposium of 1978 on the bequest of the united nations, who wanted definitive evidence of the origins of Ancient Egypt to be carried out on the mummies in their possesion, Dr Zahi was left speechless when told that melanin experiments had been carried out and all the mummies were found to be of black african origins, Dr Zahi’s only answer was that he never knew these experiments were being carried out. All those records are kept by the united nations. Nature you also seem to make the case that arab white semetics have no genetic links to africans. lol. funny though how all the 6 types of modern man is only found in sub sahara africa, no where else in the world, all the rest died out leaving homo sapien. Europe has 3 types. China recently tried to claim that because of there strikingly different physical appearence that somehow they have evolved from a different strand of humans. lol. after extensive studies this was debunked and they had to admit that they all walked out of sub sahara like the rest you. you use the word semetic when discribing arabs like it is a race and not a language group, is this because you believe africans to be desendants from the cursed son of ham, meaning the blacks of the world are hamites? If so why did moses marry a cush? Now the cursed son of Ham was called Canaan, where is the biblical and still modern land of Canaan? is it in sub sahara considering that is where you believe the static race of africans are or is it PALESTINE/ISREAL.. lol. yes its palestine. Wouldn’t you say both the Palestinian and even the European Jews of Isreal are a cursed and persecuted peoples and in recent history have been slaves to others. Now in which religious text does it say black people are the desendants of Ham, I have not seen no such thing in the Bible (Genisis 9) the Torah or the Quran or in any religious text, why because it does not exist. It was only a Justification for the whiteman to have and sell black slaves. 1 last question, before the Islam 1800 years ago what religion were the arab white semetics? were they all Egyptians. Were arabs ever slaves to the Ancient Egyptians?

  13. Ahmed Says:

    excuse the spelling and grammer its early morning. my comments are not meant to offend, just inform. peace

  14. Richard Says:

    To keep it simple?
    1 When the highly educated race of scientists, alchemist, and astronomists’ priestly aristocrats of the Inca, Maya, Aztec of south America left, the high civilization collapsed.
    2 When the highly educated race of scientists, alchemists, and astronomists’ priestly aristocrats of Egypt left, the high civilization collapsed.
    3. When the highly educated race of scientists, alchemists, and astronomists’ priestly aristocrats of south Asia left, the high civilization collapsed.
    4. When the highly educated race of scientists, alchemists, and astronomists’ priestly aristocrats of provinces in Europe left, the high civilization collapsed.
    5 When the highly educated race of scientists, alchemists, and astronomists’ priestly aristocrats of Israel left, the high civilization collapsed.
    6 This highly educated race can be found to be of the “N”s’ haplogroup “J” that mixed with the large white race of the Homo-neanderthal type “H” and later with the “1R” DNA haplogroup. They became the 1Rb of the Celtic- Cimbri race of the newly formed Aurignacian Culture of the Cro-Magnon around 32000 years ago down to the Samara Culture in Chaldea. Their Samara Shi`ite Temple still exists there! The Basque history calls them the Atlantiques and the ancient history of Briton called them ‘Atilan’ and the recient Ocean Archaeologists around the Americas found writing that calls them ‘Atlan’.

    To follow Bilal Says: January 4, 2009 at 9:01 pm | Reply
    I have found the same results with my DNA migrations backed up by historical studies and found a few things I would like to share with all concerned.
    Your DNA charts correlate with ancient history. I believe you have left out that the 1Ra migrations of the Adamic peoples are predomenently located from Iran to India -that includes the ancient (Adamic) Mede Empire of Baluchistan (now down sized as Afghanistan). The Ashkenazi jews are also of this Adamic type haplogroup of Japheth. The Sephardic Sumerian is of the “J” haplogroup including the “1Rb”.
    Adam means white that can become red skinned as the Irishman can only do. The Hebrew/Chaldean word for “adam” also means BLOOD and RED. The English word for adam in the Bible is “man”.

    The “U” DNA came later than the “N”, “H” and the “L” of Black Africa. The history shows the Adamic race had mixed with the Black and other “H’ white skinned very large Neanderthal type DNA haplogroups from the central and northern Eur-Asian continent. These so called giants were also the Nephilim of the Bible and Niflheim in the Nordic sagas. These mixed races in the Middle-East’s Iraq were then known as the Acadians/Akkadians. The movie Scorpion King shows this mix but also shows the ruling gods were known as the Chaldean-Sumerians. They worshipped the Serpent god also called nagal from the Sumerian named ‘Nergal’. These Chaldean (Kurds, Picts, Vans, Basque) Sphardim of Sumeria were known as the Serpent Worshippers called “naga” in Spanish Iberia contenant, Asian’s Naga, and American Naga Indians.

    Serpent represents The Knowledgeable Ones as also seen on the headdress of many Pharohs and used at one point, as a powerful god even by Moses himself. The short, black haired Egyptian priests were of a different race than the Adamic or Aryan/Scythian aristocratic Kingships of Egypt. The mummies show a blondish red haired King and were later to be related to the white skinned Ptolemies’ family of Greece/Thracia (Aryans?).

    The Adamic names from Ham’s son Canaan were Egypt renamed as Mizraim, Canaan’s Philistinians/Palestinians, Jebu-salem, Cush of Etheopia and Hindu-Cush of Afghanistan, etc. -see Bible, Torah’s chapter 10 genealogy. The so called Muslims are also of the Christian, Judahism, Aryan, and other religious denominations -not as the English Dictionary says as being only of Islamic faith. Muslim means followers of Elah(God).

    I must praise the Black African L1 haplogroup of Africa for not submitting to the Burgher System’s civilization. The many other species of mankind, including the Aryan has currupted themselves in cooberating with the Burgher civilizations and are now becomming extinct. The 1Ra mountain shepards of Abraham (with mixtures of “U”, “L1”, etc. and other haplogroups) will also prevail against the 1Rb haplogroup of the U.N.s’ NATO! History shows these Mountain Shepards of Abraham never have been completely conquered by Alexander, the Romans, British, nor Russia.
    Today, Israel is governed by the Cohen “J” Sumerian Orthodoxy and “1Rb” haplogroups of the U.N. but the Israeli “1Ra”, “L3” and “U” haplogroups have protested against their government’s actions ever since Israel became a nation before 3000 yrs ago and now since 1948.

  15. fax software Says:

    Very interesting idea

  16. Michael Stacio Says:

    It was Arabs who sold the captured Blacks to the slave ships, it was other blacks who captured other blacks and sold them to the Arabs who then sold them to the slave ships. Slavery was horrible but keep in mind blacks were also responsible for slavery.

  17. husayn Says:

    largest amount of l1 is found in india the straight haired dark dravidians who were the sumerians who mixed with the akkadians and also indo aryan types

  18. husayn Says:

    the people of kish are looking like dark indians

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  22. Abba Lord Says:

    There is no such thing as black people. An true Arab is one with dark skin and woolly hair. Time for us to open our eyes.

  23. Anon Says:

    That might explain the mix of Ydna J and E in the Arab lands .. But one flaw is that J is not from Central Asia .. It is from Either Anatolia or the Caucasus .. Also how do you explain the high presence of Mtdna J in Arabia ? Which is not African or Central Asian .

  24. Anon Says:

    You might find this paper interesting . http://www.merchantnetworks.com.au/guides/larrywest.pdf

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