Archive for August 22nd, 2007


August 22, 2007


— T h e F r e e m a n I n s t i t u t e —
A quick historical overview, introducing the…
P h o t o G a l l e r y
Huge Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery


Egypt, Tut, Rosetta Stone, pyramids, pharaoh, Africa, culture, hieroglyphics, Nile

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The Lemba:
Black Jews of Southern Africa

Badagry, Nigeria — Slave Trade History

Copyright © 2006 by Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D. All rights reserved.
Note: Reproduction of any kind, including copying and pasting, is strictly prohibited.
Courtesy of The Freeman Institute


“Truth and morning become light with time.” — Ethiopian Proverb

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For about 15 centuries, people, fascinated, gazed upon Egyptian hieroglyphics without comprehending their meaning.
In 1799, LT Pierre Bouchard discovered the Rosetta Stone (below) while building Fort Julian (see to left–now Fort Rashid) on the west bank of the Nile during Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign. the proclamation carved on it, praising Ptolemy V in 196 B.C., is of relatively little significance; what is important is that the inscription appears in three texts: Hieroglyphics, Egyptian Demotic Script and Greek. (click here to read entire text)click here to read entire text)

Jean Francois Champollion (below) was a brilliant linguist who worked from an 1808 copy of the Rosetta Stone’s inscription. He labored on it for 14 years without ever seeing the stone itself. In 1822, Champollion finally decided that “Ptolemy” might be read phonetically — patiently reconstructing the name, sound by sound from the Greek and Coptic. Twenty-three years passed before the Rosetta Stone finally surrendered its secret which began with the deciphering of “Ptolemy’s” name. (Click on the Stone below for more information.)

Historical Timeline
of Ancient Egypt
Joseph, Egypt
& The Hyksos

& Akhenaton

Ancient Egyptian Religions

Map of
Ancient Africa

Text on
Rosetta Stone

The Pyramid Puzzle

Rosetta Stone

Ancient Nubia

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Other inscriptions on artifacts like obelisks and monuments could now be read. These discovery spawned an even greater interest in Egyptian archaeology. Anthropologists and archaeologists were presented with quite a challenging conflict.

In the early 1800s, around the same time Egyptian Archaeology was maturing, the Middle Passage (slave trade) was in full swing. In order for Europeans to justify the economic drive of the slave trade, blacks had to be viewed as non-humans. Animals. Tools for building the dreams of Europeans.

In stark contrast to the picture of blacks being painted by those who favored the slave trade — anthropologists and archaeologists were discovering more statues and other artifacts which presented a different view. Black people had indeed created the many pyramids and other artifacts. What to do? The Egyptians had left behind a huge “Picture Album”.

When visiting Egypt today, this is what we see of The Sphinx of Giza.

This is what Vivant Denon saw in 1798 before the Sphinx was defaced.

“The Colchians, Ethiopians and Egyptians have thick lips,
broad nose, woolly hair and they are burnt of skin.”
— Herodotus, 450 BC

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In his book, The Destruction of Black Civilization, black scholar, Chancellor Williams informs us that history has proven that a number of tactics were employed by anthropologists to blot out black accomplishments. Here is a list of Williams’ observations about how anthropologists chose to operate:

1. “Ignore or refuse to publish any facts of African history” that would not support
their racial theories.

2. “Create a religious and ‘scientific’ doctrine” to ease the white conscience for
oppressing and enslaving African people.

3. “Flood the world with hastily thrown together African ‘histories'” that contain
European perspectives only.

4. “Start renaming people and places. Replace African names of persons, places, and
things with Arabic and European names.” This will disguise their true black identity.

5. Change the criteria for defining race. For example, one drop of Negro blood in
America makes you a Negro, no matter how light your skin. When reporting ancient
history, reverse the standard. Make one drop of white blood render someone a
Caucasian no matter how dark the skin. (Test this criteria during the
“riding-at-the-back-of the-bus” era of the South during the 1940s in the USA. Be
assured that any of the Pharaoh’s of Egypt, especially up to and including the 25th
Dynasty, would have been required to sit at the back of the bus.)

6. When black participation in civilization is so obvious your best schemes can’t
hide it, find a way to attribute the success to outside white influence.

7. When all the ancient historians contradict your theory, seek to discredit them.

My Opinion
by Dr. Joel A. Freeman

Egypt has always been a place of fascination for the ancients outside the region of Egypt. For instance, two of the seven wonders of the World were situated in Egypt.

The Rosetta Stone was discovered during the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign in 1799. In 1822 Jean Champollion was able to crack the code of hieroglyphics. Once the code of hieroglyphics had been cracked, it brought a renewed interest to that region of the world.

For the first time in thousands of years, utilizing the new-found skills of reading Egyptian hieroglyphics, people could corroborate certain historical events, people and places. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone and subsequent understanding of the esoteric hieroglyph language was the connection that brought everything to the forefront for “modern” people to wrestle with some realities.

European archaeologists, anthropologists and historians were in a catch-22 situation. On one hand they were seeing images of people with clear Afroid features as they traveled around Egypt.

On the other hand, there was the terrible history of the slave trade that had been going on for approximately 350 years prior. For Europeans to justify the economic drive of the slave trade, there had to be the denigration of people of African descent. (Also, let’s not forget the complicity of African Kings in bringing their warring neighbors to the slave traders.) Since the slave trade had been going on for some 350 years, the negative view of Black people had permeated much of Europe, South and North America and the rest of the world.

There was a crisis of conscience, especially in the mid 1800s. How are the European archaeologists going to interpret what they are seeing and understanding, to an eager outside world? In my opinion, they blew a wonderful opportunity to share the truth. Instead most went to all sorts of ends to try to present Egyptians as though they were not of African descent. The book, Black Spark, White Fire (Richard Poe) addresses the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians in a most ingenious manner.

The one-drop rule worked in the US — one drop of black blood makes one black. Let’s reverse the standards for archaeologists and anthropologists when viewing ancient history — one drop of white blood makes you white, no matter how curly the hair or thick the lips.

All of this impacted the world — brought on by a specific event. In my opinion, the re-discovery of the Rosetta Stone was the catalyst that brought about the series of events that ultimately reshaped the thinking of people around the world regarding the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians.

See for yourself. The photos you are about to view in a few moments are not so much “Afro Centric” as they are “Truth Centric”. See powerful visual images that reveal much more than words could ever communicate. Here’s a quick example:

Mummy-case of
Djedmaatesankh, a musician from the temple of Amun-re at Thebes. Egyptian, Late Period, 850 BC.
CT-scan of Djedmaatesankh
X-ray of Djedmaatesankh showing profile of mummy inside cartonnage coffin.

Read the first chapter and overview of

Return To Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man

In many sectors there seems to be some controversy about the racial make-up of the Egyptian people, i.e. whether they were White or Black. This is a simplistic approach to a much more complicated set of circumstances since Egypt’s strategic location brought people in from the south with Nubian and equatorial African influence and from the northern coast of Africa and the Middle East with Afro-Mediterranean and Semitic influences. The Biblical record places Egypt among the “Black” countries. Melanin dosage tests of mummified remains (controversial due to damage caused by the embalming process) seem to indicate a level of melanocytes consistent with a people of a semi tropical to temperate climate zone.

Egypt continues to dominate the focus of our African oriented studies. These studies have clearly demonstrated that not only were early Egypt’s origins African, but that through the whole of Egypt’s Dynastic Era (the age of the Pharaohs), and during all of her many periods of national splendor, men and women with black skin complexions, broad noses, full lips, and tightly curled hair, were dominant in both the general population and governing elite.

In the intense and unrelenting struggle to establish scientifically the African foundations of Egyptian civilization, the late Senegalese scholar Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop remains a most fierce and ardent champion. Dr. Diop (1923-1986) was without a doubt one of the world’s leading Egyptologist and held the position of Director of the Radiocarbon Laboratory at the Fundamental Institute of Black Africa in Dakar, Senegal. In stating the importance of the work, Diop noted emphatically and early on that, “The history of Black Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written correctly until African historians dare to connect it with the history of Egypt.”

The solid range of methodologies employed by Dr. Diop in the course of his extensive Afro-Egyptian labors included: examinations of the epidermis of the mummies of Egyptian kings for verification of their melanin content; precise osteological measurements and meticulous studies in the various relevant areas of anatomy and physical anthropology; careful examinations and comparisons of modern Upper Egyptian and West African blood-types; detailed Afro-Egyptian linguistic studies and the corroboration of distinct Afro-Egyptian cultural traits; documents of racial designations employed by the early Africans themselves; Biblical testimonies and references that address the ancient Egyptian’s ethnicity, race and culture; and the writings of early Greek and Roman travelers and scholars describing the physical characteristics of the ancient Egyptians.

The original Egyptians were unmixed pure black folks. When they were at the pinnacle of their glory they were not a mixed group by any means. During the middle dynasties especially (and later) when people migrated to this great land there was some intermarrying. This is natural and doesn’t need to be debated. It was even done within royalty lines at times to solidify alliances, which was a common practice between powers during that period of history. Chancellor Williams refers to this phenomenon in his book “The Destruction of Black Civilization.” And frankly, he theorizes that this mixing was part of the reason for the fall of Black Civilization. Nevertheless, there was never so much of this that at any time the ancient Egyptians could ever be classified as other than a black people.

It’s reasonable to say that Egypt was a gateway for the meeting and interchange of goods, ideas, and people; and that the Egyptians were themselves a unique expression of human strength, beauty, intelligence and diversification. Ancient Egypt was an African civilization. It is also interesting to note that the Biblical record states “Israel also came into Egypt…the land of Ham.” (Psalm 105: 23).

Plus we need to be reminded that Egypt is in Africa (not the Middle East) and that all of the Pharaohs (up to and including the 25th Dynasty) would have been required to “sit at the back of a bus” in the 1940s in Montgomery Alabama. Let’s allow the pictures to speak for themselves…Ready?

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This photo gallery, one of the most comprehensive collection of Ancient Egyptian
photos on the Internet, has come about after much travel.
Nothing may be used without written permission from Dr. Freeman.

“We have come to reclaim the house of history. We are dedicated to the revision of the role of the African in the world’s great civilizations, the contribution of Africa to the achievement of man in the arts and sciences. We shall emphasize what Africa has given to the world, not what it has lost.” — Ivan Van Sertima

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Return To Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man

M O R E R E S O U R C E S:
The Lemba: The Black Jews of Southern Africa
Table of Nations–Ham, Shem and Japheth
Badagry, Nigeria — Slave Trade History
Historical Timeline of Ancient Egypt
The Mitochondrial “Eve” Theory
Joseph, Egypt & The Hyksos
Tutankhamen & Akhenaton
Ancient Egyptian Religions
The Colonization of Africa
Map of Ancient Africa
Text on Rosetta Stone
The Pyramid Puzzle
Rosetta Stone
Ancient Nubia

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The ever-expanding Freeman Institute Black History Collection has items such as:
1. Authentic, priceless slave ball, with handle (50 lb.) — #3 written on it, for “trouble-makers”, manufactured late 1600s — used on the London-based slave ship, Henrietta Marie, the oldest identifiable slave ship wreck in the world (summer, 1700) ; featured in National Geographic’s (August, 2002). By one estimate Henrietta Marie’s cargo grossed well over £3,000 (more than $400,000 today) for the ship’s investors. Most of the captives were headed for sugar plantations where they’d be worked to exhaustion, many dying within five to ten years. Sturdy and fast, The Henrietta Marie traveled the infamous triangular trade route favored by the slavers – from England to the Guinea coast, to the Americas, then home again. Accounts relating to the Henrietta Marie’s voyages were uncovered, as were the names of her investors, captains, and wills of some of her crew members. Artifacts found at the site proved particularly helpful in creating a picture of shipboard life and the practices of the slave trade.
2. Two Wedgwood jasperware black on white Anti-Slavery medallions, with the bound slave on the front, and the words “Am I Not A Man and A Brother?” around it. Also, a rare 1800s antique bronze figure of man (6″ high, weighs 18 oz.) pictured in medallion.
3. One-of-a-kind signed letters/albums/contracts/sheet music from Nat King Cole, Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, Lionel Hampton, Louis Armstrong, B. B. King, Ethel Waters, Pearl Bailey, Miles Davis, Fats Domino, Quincy Jones, Earl Hines, Ella Fitzgerald, Sammy Davis, Jr., Grover Washington, Jr., Count Basie, Mills Brothers, Ozzie Davis, Lena Horne, Four Tops, Cicely Tyson, James Brown, Charlie Pride, Bo Diddley, Bobby Blue and others…
4. A rare 1838 (third edition) copy of Phillis Wheatley’s book, “Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, A Native African and a Slave” — Includes memoir, George Washington’s letter to Wheatley, preface by John Wheatley, plus poems by another slave, George Moses Horton, with introduction and letters. And also the 1773 edition of the Gentleman’s Magazine — first published mention of Phillis Wheatley’s book, first printed in the UK, paid for by the Countess of Huntingdon.
5. Silver Civil War locket (1860s), containing two tin-type pictures of African American women, worn by an African American soldier.
6. The Rosetta Stone, a First Edition 55-page article in Archaeologia: Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume XVI, published by The Society of Antiquaries of London. 1812. Some of the first published articles about the Rosetta Stone. This is historic in light of the fact that the code to Hieroglyphics wasn’t cracked until 1822 by Jean Champollion.
7. Riggs Bank check written and signed on July 3, 1907 by Judson W. Lyons, ex-slave from Georgia and first African-American lawyer to practice in the state of Georgia. He was appointed Register of the US Treasury from 1898-1906 and as such, his signature appeared on US currency issued during those years.
8. 1820s “T Porter” slave button (from Antigua, British West Indies), used to identify the owner of a slave.
9. Click Here to view more items and images…

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“Black History — Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery — Ancient Egypt — Tut — Rosetta Stone — pyramids — pharaoh — Africa — culture

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