Friday, January 28, 2011
LYNCHING BLACK BOYS IN 2010-MISSISSIPPI GOD D——!-FROM EOTM.WORDPRESS.COM
Frederick Jermaine Carter hanging (Lynching) in Mississippi, NO Suicide according to the NAACP
Posted: December 15, 2010 by EOTM Press Room in Breaking News, EOTM News, EOTM Radio
Tags: Civil rights, Frederick Jermaine Carter, Greenwood Mississippi, Lynchings in 2010, Mississippi Lynching, NAACP, Racism
By: Carla Barnes
26 year old African American Frederick Jermaine Carter was found hanging in a Mississippi tree in a white suburb on Friday, December 3, 2010. The USA Today first reported it as a suicide, however, the NAACP just recently contests the findings, they feel it may actually be a lynching.
Fredrick Jermaine Carter
Carter, who lived in neighboring Sunflower County, was helping his stepfather paint a building Wednesday. The stepfather went to get tools and when he returned, Carter was nowhere to be found.
His body was later found and considering his history of mental illness and no evidence supposedly of anything other than a suicide it was labeled accordingly. Results of an autopsy are still pending.
The FBI‘s Jackson field office is monitoring the situation. “The FBI has been advised of the situation in Leflore County,” spokeswoman Deborah Madden says in a statement. “We stand by to provide whatever assistance is necessary to ensure the integrity of the investigation.”
State Rep. Willie Perkins, a Democrat from Greenwood and president of the Leflore County branch of the NAACP, says that group also “will keep a high scrutiny and watch on any investigative report regarding what was the cause of death.”
“There are a lot of concerns there, No. 1 that this individual could not have (hanged) himself without the assistance of someone, if it’s being declared a suicide,” he says. “Why would someone from Sunflower County come to North Greenwood, the predominantly white housing area of Greenwood? Why would someone that far away come and hang themselves in North Greenwood by a river? That does not pass the smell test to me.”
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Another local elected official, state Sen. David Jordan, a Democrat, says the African-American community in Greenwood is “very much concerned.”
“This is in a white wealthy area, and black people just don’t go over there,” he says. “There’s not a single black that’s talked to us who believes that he hanged himself.”
Jordan, who is African-American, suggests there is a historical underpinning for blacks being suspicious about the specter of violence against them: Greenwood is about 12 miles from Money, Miss., site of one of the most infamous lynchings in U.S. history. In August 1955, Emmett Till, a 14-year-old Chicago boy visiting relatives for the summer, was abducted and killed after he allegedly made remarks to a white woman.
“We’re not drawing any conclusions,” Jordan says. “We’re skeptical, and rightfully we should be, given our history. We can’t take this lightly. We just have to wait and see.”
Listen to the Live Broadcast in regards to this case now on EOTM Radio.
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One blogger likes this post.
December 16, 2010 at 1:39 am
Was there a suicide note? Did he show signs of giving away possessions or tidying up his affairs in the days or weeks preceding his death?
If not, then the probability of suicide is diminished. There is commonly a gesture of some kind before suicide.
Mental illness is not sufficient explanation for suicide. Churchill and many other famous names and high achievers suffer ongiong bouts of depression throughout life without actually taking their lives. And many psychotics are far more likely to kill others than themselves.
No, this is fishy.
Jo Ann says:
December 27, 2010 at 3:49 pm
I have read these stories and it take me back to the time and places in the south where I grew up in Arkansas and Mississippi. I hated the fact that we as a people had for hundred of years had to suffer at the hand of the unjust whites and nothing then was been done justice about it and nothing now is being done as much. We know that these death are not suicides and the law knows it too.We also know that the the kkk groups are in the law enforcement agencies,courts rooms, on the judges benches and we are working and serving in their businesses and buying their merchandise and marrying their sons and daughters and befriending them as though they are our friends. Now don’t misunderstand me not all whites are against blacks or others none white and many of them have spoken up, fought for the rights of blacks, lost their lives and family for standing up against these white devil enforcers, but it is very clear that justice is so unjust when it comes to the color of our skin. How many white boys, men and women do any of us hear that have committed suicides in an all black community hanging from a tree? We the black people need to rise up and speak out because it’s time. Jesus Christ and the great men and women like Martin Luther King and Rosa Park and many other gave their lives so that we may have freedom both to live free spiritually and naturally and that all men will have freedom equally. Dr. King if he was here he would still be fighting just as hard, but when they killed him, they knew Jessie Jackson was going to go to sleep and the leaders for us in today’s times are weaker than ever before. They are being bought out with these nonprofit program government money and kkk deals around the white man’s tables. I am sick of us being in their welfare system, criminal systems, and their drug selling slave systems that’s killing our youth, holding our youth on the modern day prison plantations and hanging them on trees! enough is enough! we all should not let this rest until we know that, we know righteous justice have been done to all that work together and hung Frederick Jermaine Carter. Next it could be one of us or our love ones. Prevention start now.
Solomon C. Osborne says:
December 17, 2010 at 4:04 pm
The list of young blacks found hanging in Mississippi, whose deaths have been hastily declared as suicides, seems to grow perpetually. In 2004, Roy Veal a black man who was fighting to keep whites from taking his family’s land in Wilkerson County was found hanging from a tree in Woodville, Mississippi. His death was ruled a suicide. In 2000, Raynard Johnson, a 17 year old black high school student, rumored to have been involved in an interracial dating relationship was found hanging from a tree in Kokomo, Mississippi. His death was ruled a suicide. Between 1987 and 1993, twenty two (22) black men were found hanging in Mississippi jails. All of their deaths were declared to be suicides. All of us are aware of the history of blacks being lynched in Mississippi. Between 1882 and 1968 there were 539 blacks lynched in Mississippi. Their murders were not solved because law enforcement officials made no effort to bring their murderers to justice. In many cases law enforcements were complicit in the murders. Finally, on September 18, 2010, a young Hispanic woman was found hanging from a tree near Philadelphia, Mississippi. Her death was declared a suicide. All of these death by hanging involving blacks and non-white should surely caused rational thinking people to ask questions. Insisting on a thorough and comprehensive investigation is the least any rational thinking person should do. The investigation of the recent hanging in Leflore County seems to be a rush to judgment, and the investigation seemed to be concerned with something other than uncovering the truth.
Solomon C. Osborne
December 18, 2010 at 5:29 pm
thanks posting. i have reposted solomon’s comment with a link to your blog. kzs
December 21, 2010 at 7:04 pm
ALL I CAN SAY IS WOW!!!!!
I’m sure we all know racism still exist but the Leflore County Lynching is over the top. It has to be a lynching for so many reasons:
Frederick was mentally challenged so my first concern is whether or not he had the mental capacity to kill himself. Why would he go to a predominant white town to do this? How did he get there?
It is too close to where previous lnychings were.
It is so sad to know that there is so much hatred towards non whites for no other reason then their skin color and cultural beliefs. Who is to say that someone deserves to live over another group of people. So much frustration and dissapointment is boiling inside of me right now. I need to turn this negative energy into something positive. Any one have any ideas?
I would like to coordinate a walk in the town of North Greenwood. Lets force this bubble of hatred to come to its head.
Its funny to hear people say ” Non whites need to get over racism because it was a thing of the past and people need to stop dwelling on it.
Hopefully they see now that it still exist in its purest form so there is no way we can let go of the past.
ITS NOT PAST. IT STILL OCCURS IN THIS PRESENT DAY.
The younger generations need to quit focusing on materlistic things and sexulaity and get back in the fight. We are such a moving force when we fight for our rights or put our mind to accomplishing something. Our Civil Rights Movement leaders want us to be so more far ahead then we are and they are turning over in their graves to know that our freedoms are not concerns of ous. If we don’t care the people full of hate will definitely not care.
Wake up people.
WE NEED TO STAND FOR SOMETHING OR FALL FOR ANYTHING.
I will do my part and tell everyone I know this story so we spread the word.
Jo Ann says:
December 27, 2010 at 4:47 pm
Solomon, I agree with you it’s time our people stop compromising and get busy doing our part in our cities, towns, communities and states to make sure our future generation will value their freedom and continue to work to keep it. Martin Luther King encourage us to rise up and take a stand for those things that was right and should be justice for all no matter what color your skin.We only have the subject of black history taught,honored and celebrated once a year in the schools of course we too can teach our children to value the history made by blacks but I believe black history should be taught daily and made an all school season subject because it would help remain us all where we came from and how we must maintain our freedom. The freedom we have today no the hip hop didn’t paste the path for freedom, no the rap music didn’t rap the slaves cross the lands, railroad tracts and rivers to find freedom,our freedom today was paid by much suffering and much blood battles.We must remember not one law written and enforced was to be justice that a black person should or would receive the law was not written for us but it was written against us. But the great blacks and some whites helped and fought for justice to be equal for all people. And still in the law system for people of color it is still an unjust system. Only we can change and make a different and keep in memory those who have past the torch down to us that we make keep running a race that represent how much we value and thank those who make it possible for us to have better jobs, education, housing and some to the best and finer things life have to offer in these days and time.
December 29, 2010 at 5:35 am
my heart goes out to this young man’s family. this is just disgusting beyond words!!!!
December 31, 2010 at 1:54 pm
Typical cowards. The white man always mess with small black men. Emmit Till, now Frederick Jermaine Carter. COWARDS!!! Why the white men are afraid to harass the big black men. I know why: we don’t play that crazy mess.
January 1, 2011 at 5:57 am
This is very horrible; this man did not have to die at all. Racism is still strong and Mississippi and this needs to change. Many black people have been found hanging from trees there and nothing has been done. How can a person take a person life because of the color of their skin? I wish that this would stop and the people who are killing their will be held responsible for what they have done. Black people also need to stop killing one another and being so hateful towards their own race. Please just love one another. The crime needs to stop now. Shame on Mississippi.
EOTM Press Room says:
January 1, 2011 at 8:05 pm
We will be having a show on the subject January 9th at 8pm PST – 11pm EST, you all are welcomed to call in and share your opinions. http://www.blogtalkradio.com/entrepreneursonthemove/2011/01/10/frederick-jermaine-carter-hanginglynchingin-mississippino-suicide-according-to-the-naacp
The studio line is 718-664-6543 or call in via skype at “eotmradio”
Theadora Davitt-Cornyn says:
January 3, 2011 at 3:56 am
Tragically ~ it’s all too likely that this was another lynching… the evil of racism is too deep among some in the US South that it’s not yet really gone away. And even all over our nation, there are people who continue to act out irrationally because we now have a biracial president. We “whites” have a LOT of work to do to help this country of ours get real about racism.
It will be interesting to see how Governor Haley Barbour, who just got hisself in a pile o’ trouble for exploiting the two sisters he’s got in prison there (for what might be yet another grievous example of too much punishment that doesn’t fit the crime)… interesting to see how he reacts to this appalling event in his state. We will be watching.
Margaret Gonzalez says:
January 3, 2011 at 6:49 am
Well of course it HAS to be a suicide! after all, Haley~ our Governor, has Presidential aspirations for 2012 and he just went on record saying it was SO bad here in Mississippi in the 50s and 60s!
chris lee says:
January 3, 2011 at 7:03 am
It’s very plausible that this is homicide but to follow it up with the leap that it is of anything more than an isolated horrific incident is absurd. To put it in crude statistical terms, TODAY’S young black males are overwhelmingly more likely to be victims of other black males than some boogeyman Klan rebirth.
EOTM Press Room says:
January 10, 2011 at 2:42 am
Reminder for anyone that wants to chime in we are airing a show on the topic at 11pm EST on http://www.eotmradio.com – call in at 718-664-6543
kelly gancarz says:
January 10, 2011 at 11:02 am
this definately dont sound like a suicide to me. from lookin at the pics or have nothin surrounding him to help him get to the tree to tie himself up n the let himself fall its impossible he acted alone but more than likely itll be a cover up as we had one here in the berkshires bout ten yrs ago where a i cop shot n killed a 16 yr ol black kid cuz he ran n the cop thought he was amed n the cop got awat wh t n still works on the force today. do i belive he should have been charged for a wrgful death absolutely. this poor kid had someone do this to him n honestly if it was a hangin n he died from tha where does the inestagation go then back to suicide I HOPE N PRAY THEY FIND JUSTICE FOR THIS YOUNG MAN N HIS FAMILY OUTSIDE THE COUNTY FOR JUSTICE IF THEY FIND TH ASSILANT!!!!!!!
Stacy Cade says:
January 13, 2011 at 10:40 pm
These type of incidents are directly associated to the media, not only by what is being said but also by what is not being said by the media. Two examples that immediately come to mind are;
1. The resent shooting of twenty people in Arizona, and
2. Dr. Gobles treatment of the Jews in WWII
If this garbage continues there will be many deaths other than that of Blacks. And these deaths can easily be avoided if only the media would show some journalistic responsibility.
I am personally asking all of the evil Whites to stop killing and mistreating Blacks and for all of the good and righteous Whites to insist that the evil Whites discontinue their horrible acts of cowardliness, they dishonor themselves.
jataun valentine says:
January 26, 2011 at 4:54 am
This should be looked into and not forgotten. It doesn’t seem like, he came to work and decided to kill himself.. In this day and age, if you are not whie, watch out.
January 26, 2011 at 6:30 am
Why wasn’t this on the news nationally?
January 26, 2011 at 3:02 pm
Gia, I agree. This was not heard of in Texas, as far as I know, but this should have been on every network. This is suspect and does not make sense,there is a need for an additional investigation. Who will speak for those who have suffered a GREAT and HORRIBLE injustice?
ReplyThe afterlife of lynching: exhibitions and the re-composition of human suffering.(‘Witness: Photographs of Lynchings from the Collection of Frames Allen … An article from: The Mississippi Quarterly
Official Photographs of Lynching of San Jose Kidnapers
“Here is a strange and bitter cry!”
black woman: head and shoulders in profile
Lyrics of the famed song: “Strange Fruit”.
(Recorded by the Late Billie Holiday)
As the dust of the Civil war settled, many Blacks saw an era of prosperity and hope. This dream was cut drastically as a concerted effort was begun by whites to destroy any advances which Blacks had made for themselves. This effort was extremely successful in removing Blacks from the many state and federal offices which Reconstruction had allowed them to hold. But this was not enough.
The architects of the revived South needed something more to further the cause of white supremacy and Black oppression. Out of this need, the era of Jim Crow was born with its “separate but equal” claims. And with it came a wave of violence against America’s newest citizens. The social atmosphere of white supremacy which Jim Crow had managed to create soon became a tide of hatred. Bolstered by the idea of the inferiority of Blacks and the protection of “white womanhood,” whites saw it as nothing to trample Blacks in a storm of violence.
These attacks included lynchings, burnings, and race riots. And though the majority of this violence took place in the South, the North was by no means immune. For more than a century, angry whites made the life of Black America a continuous nightmare.
Black man hung and burnt
Burnings and Lynchings
Lynching is the practice whereby a mob–usually several dozen or several hundred persons–takes the law into its own hands in order to injure and kill a person accused of some wrongdoing. The alleged offense can range from a serious crime like theft or murder to a mere violation of local customs and sensibilities. The issue of the victim’s guilt is usually secondary, since the mob serves as prosecutor, judge, jury, and executioner. Due process yields to momentary passions and expedient objectives.
Men ve över den ogudaktige! Honom skall det gå illa, han skall vedergällas efter sina gärningar. Jesaja 3:11
Burnings of Blacks were commonplace in America following Reconstruction. Primarily the victims were Black males who were often mutilated, shot and beaten… before being burned on pyres. This Black man was beaten, stoned, dragged through the street and then burned alive by onlookers.
His body parts were later sold: as souvenirs, which was often the custom.
Mob lynchings were a common form of death for young Black men. The idea that most of these men were charged with the rape of white women is a false one. Their alleged crimes were numerous: using offensive language; bad reputation; refusal to give up a farm; throwing stones; unpopularity; slapping a white child; and stealing hogs to name a few.
In East Texas a black man and his three sons were lynched for the grand crime of “harvesting the first cotton of the season”. Only 19% of those lynched were ever charged with rape. Fewer were ever proven.
It should be remembered that it was not only Black men who were killed during this era. The lynching of Mary Turner best illustrates this. Turner, a pregnant Black woman, was lynched in Valdosta, Georgia in 1918. Turner was tied to a tree, doused with gasoline and motor oil and burned.
As she dangled from the rope, a man stepped forward with a pocketknife and ripped open her abdomen in a crude Cesarean operation. A news reporter who witnessed the killing wrote, “Out tumbled the prematurely born child. Two feeble cries it gave—and received for the answer the heel of a stalwart man, as life was ground out of the tiny form”. There was a Silent Protest March of 1917 against lynching which featured the famous banner, “Mother, do lynchers go to heaven?”
Voi jumalatonta! Hänen käy pahoin, sillä hänen kättensä teot maksetaan hänelle. Jesaja 3:11
Ida B. Wells was one of the most outspoken crusaders against lynchings, burnings, and other acts of white on Black violence. For forty years she rallied her cause in both America and Europe. A radical for her times, Wells worked feverishly to dispel the myth of the sex-starved, white skin lusting, black rapist. This was an act which put her life in danger time and time again. No pacifist, she stated defiantly that the greatest deterrent against lynching was for every Black man to keep a Winchester rifle at his window. Ida B. Wells wrote several long and detailed studies on lynchings which are still regarded as some of the best works on the subject even today.
Often the word ‘riot’ conveys in one’s head the idea of Black urban residents rebelling as seen since the 1960s. But riots were a part of America long before Blacks decided to take part. Throughout the United States, riots erupted as angry white citizenry of all classes took to the streets to terrorize and attack Blacks.
They took place in Memphis, Chicago, Wilmington, and elsewhere. Entire prosperous Black districts were destroyed in Oklahoma, Texas and Florida by jealous whites. These white riots were numerous both in the North and South and were often helped along by the local police or militia.
blackman being burnt
Many lynchings of course were never reported beyond the community involved. Furthermore, mobs used especially sadistic tactics when blacks were the prime targets. By the 1890s lynchers increasingly employed burning, torture, and dismemberment to: prolong suffering and excite a: ‘festive atmosphere’ among the killers and onlookers.
Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him: for the reward of his hands shall be given him. Isaiah 3:11
Here is another little known Black History Fact. This information is in the African American Archives at the Smithsonian Institute. Although not taught in American learning institutions and literature, it is in most Black history professional circles and literature that the origin of the term: ‘picnic’ derives from the acts of lynching African-Americans.
The word: ‘picnic’ is rooted from the whole theme of: ‘Pick A Nigger’.
This is where individuals would: ‘pic’ a Black person to lynch… and make this into: a family gathering…. There would be music and a: ‘picnic’. (‘Nic’ being the white acronym for: ‘nigger’). Scenes of this were in the movie Rosewood. The black producers and writers should have chosen to use the word ‘barbecue’ or ‘outing’ instead of the word ‘picnic’.
To attempt to tie lynchings to family outings, where food was served, is to misunderstand the real nature of these events. Rather, they were outbreaks of mass white hysteria, and attempts by groups of Whites to terrorize and brutalize the entire Black communities where they occurred.
Often, they were motivated by alleged acts of violence by Blacks against Whites, alleged disrespect and other breaches of Southern racial ‘etiquette’, and on many occasions, victims were chosen at random. Although women and children were frequently present, it is more accurate to view these events as collective psychotic behavior, rather than family outings. Lynching had become a ritual of interracial social control and recreation rather than simply a punishment for crime.
“If it is necessary, every Negro in the state will be lynched”, declared James Vardaman while he was governor of Mississippi (1904-1908). “It will be done to maintain white supremacy.”
Malheur au méchant! Il est sur la mauvaise (voie). Car il lui sera fait ce que ses mains aruont préparé. Êsaîe 3.11
Christian-Charles de Plicque, Evangelist/Journalist
Angel House International Missions Ministries Karleby Finland
Article available in: Also in French & Swedish
Strange Fruit: Lyrics & Music by: Abel Meeropol 1939 (A Jewish School teacher)
Angel House International Missions Ministries Finland wishes to express much gratitude to the African American Holocost Society for the use of the photos in this article.
African American Holocaust
Lynchings in America
A History Not Known By Many
When I was a boy growing up in New Orleans, Louisiana, the word lynching was hardly ever mentioned. My parents only said these “mean” acts happened in the country (rural areas) with white men in white gowns (the KKK). In all my schooling, through high school and on to college, lynching was never part of a lecture or connected with American history. I knew of the word, lynching, but never, never the scope of this violent, hateful act.
On Thursday, January 13, 2000, an article entitled, “An Ugly Legacy Lives on, Its Glare Unsoftened by Age,” by Robert Smith was published in the New York Times. This excellent article revealed a world not known by many Americans living today and especially by me. Without my explaining here, it should be read by all persons, especially as it pertains to race and hate. Without understanding this past evil history, we cannot understand why hate is on the rise today in this year of 2000.
After reading the New York Times article, I wanted to know more about lynching and what could possibly be presented on this squeamish subject. It turned out that an exhibit of rare collected photo postcards were on display featuring lynchings as they took place in America from 1883-1960. I saw this exhibit. It was on view at the Roth Horowitz Gallery in New York City until February 12, 2000. This small gallery took in only about fifteen people at a time, and the line was long. Watching the viewers as they exited revealed what was inside: people with tears, some with anguish, some looked surprised with the horror they had seen.
This New York exhibition presented the collected photocards of Mr. James Allen, a white Atlanta resident who, for fifteen years, sought out these images of racial horror and self-righteous vigilante acts as rare finds. Since most of these photocards were kept as “keepsakes” by some families, Mr. Allen had to solicit ads for purchase. He paid from fifteen dollars to as much as thirty thousand dollars for individual cards. The sixty photo postcards and other material were temporarily housed in the library at Emory University to allow scholars to have access to it, but are now being held by their owner at withoutsanctuary.org.
Melvin Sylvester, Feb. 2000
1930 lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith in Marion, Indiana
Photo from the official 1977 Citadel yearbook
1919 lynching William Brown in Douglas County, Nebraska
1935 lynching of Rubin Stacy in Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Lynching In America
A Book on the Subject
This book, Without Sanctuary: Lynching photography in America (by James Allen, Hilton Als, Leon F. Litwack, with a forward by Congressman John Lewis; Twin Palms Publishers, 2000), is a new, startling book on this shocking topic of lynching in America. This book is an extension of the exhibit held at the Roth Horowitz Gallery and the collected photo postcards of Mr. James Allen of Atlanta, Georgia. Pages of actual real life lynchings are captured with photos and dates with explanatory texts about where these dastardly acts occurred. Mr. Allen says, “Without Sanctuary is a grim reminder that a part of the American past we would prefer for various reasons to forget we need very much to remember.” The book is a vivid account of the existence of lynching on American soil. On view in the book are ninety-eight plates of lynchings and the victims and the people surrounding the actual executions. A few were white; a few were women; but most were African-American men used as prime targets for lynch mobs. To see this book is to try and understand, but it is not for the squeamish viewer or persons not able to transcend reasons why these acts should never have happened.
1936 lynching of Lint Shaw in Royston, Georgia
For Further Reading
About Lynching / Robert L. Zangrando, John F. Callahan, and Dickson D. Bruce, Jr. Modern American Poetry : An Online Journal and Multimedia Companion to Anthology of Modern American Poetry. Urbana, IL : Department of English of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2002.
The aesthetics and politics of the crowd in American literature / Mary. Esteve. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003. PS169.C75E88 2003
Covers lynching in literature
American lynching : a documenatry feature / Gode Davis and James M. Fortier. Herndon, VA : Bitter Fruit Productions, 2005.
“This documentary explores racist events and attitudes indigenous to the Northern and Southern states that either condoned or condemned lynching as a practice.”
American Negro short stories / John Henrik Clarke. New York : Hill and Wang, 1966. PS647.A35C55 1966x
Includes “The lynching of Jube Benson” by Paul Laurence Dunbar
Anatomy of a lynching : the killing of Claude Neal / James R. McGovern. Baton Rouge : Louisiana State University Press, 1982. HV6465.F6M35 1982
And the dead shall rise : the murder of Mary Phagan and the lynching of Leo Frank / Steve Oney. New York : Pantheon Books, 2003. HV6534.A7O54 2003
Anti-lynching crusaders helped free our country / Philip Dray. Newsday, A39 (741 words), June 15, 2005.
An apology for old form of terror : Senate expected to vote tomorrow on resolution regarding its failure to help end practice of lynching / Martin C. Evans. Newsday, A34 (600 words), June 12, 2005.
At the hands of persons unknown : the lynching of Black America / Philip Dray. New York : Random House, 2002. HV6464.D73 2002
The awful truth: a photography exhibition unearths the painful history of lynching in America / Danny Postel. Chronicle of Higher Education, 48(44):A14 (3 pages), July 12, 2002.
Black manhood on the silent screen / Gerald R. Butters. Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, 2002. PN1995.9.N4B88 2002
Includes “Oscar Micheaux: From Homestead to Lynch Mob”
Call for reconciliation : Minister attacked by Klansmen seeks understanding as alleged mastermind in triple killing faces trial / John Moreno Gonzales. Newsday, A07 (733 words), June 13, 2005.
Crime, but no punishment : Georgia town is still divided over the murders of four blacks nearly 60 years ago / Tina Susman. Newsday, A30 (1633 words), March 30, 2005.
Dangerous liaisons : gender, nation, and postcolonial perspectives / Anne McClintock, Aamir Mufti, and Ella Shohat. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1997. JC312.D36 1997
Includes “On the threshold of woman’s era : lynching, empire, and sexuality in Black feminist theory” by Hazel V. Carby
The Duluth Lynchings Online Resource : a collection of historical documents relating to the tragic events of June 15, 1920. Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, MN : The Society, 2003.
“This web site facilitates access to over 2,000 pages of scanned documents to provide an in-depth and scholarly resource of primary source materials on the subject, designed also for those unfamiliar with this tragic event.”
The Duluth Lynchings Online Resource: historical documents relating to the tragic events of June 15, 1920 / Scott Ellsworth. Journal of American History, 91(1):349-350, June 2004.
Discusses the website: http://collections.mnhs.org/duluthlynchings/
Ebony rising : short fiction of the greater Harlem Renaissance era / Craig Gable. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2004. PS647.A35E24 2004
Includes “Lynching for profit” by George S. Schuyler
Elite Georgia’s dark secret / Linda Kulman. U.S. News & World Report, 135(13):49, (800 words), Oct 20, 2003.
1915 lynching of Leo Frank
Etiquette, lynching, and racial boundaries in southern history: a Mississippi example / J. William Harris. American Historical Review, 100(2):387 (24 pages), April 1995.
Exorcising blackness : historical and literary lynching and burning rituals / Trudier Harris. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1984. PS153.N5H28 1984
F.B.I. discovers trial transcript in Emmett Till case / Shaila Dewan and Ariel Hart. New York Times, A14 (917 words), May 18, 2005.
A festival of violence : an analysis of Southern lynchings, 1882-1930 / Stewart Emory Tolnay and E. M., Beck. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1995. HV6464.T65 1995
The first Waco horror : the lynching of Jesse Washington and the rise of the NAAC / Patricia Bernstein. Houston, TX : Patriciabernstein.com, 2005.
Website to accompany the book.
Fresh outrage in Waco at grisly lynching of 1916 / Ralph Blumenthal. New York Times, A26 (1598 words), May 1, 2005.
Gender, class, race, and reform in the progressive era / Noralee Frankel and Nancy Schrom Dye. Lexington, KY : University Press of Kentucky, 1991. HQ1419.G46 1991
Includes “African-American women’s networks in the anti-lynching crusade” by Rosalyn Terborg-Penn
Go down, Moses : the miscegenation of time / Arthur F. Kinney. New York : Twayne Publishers ; London : Prentice HallInternational, 1996. PS3511.A86G6349 1996
Treatment of lynching in the William Faulkner work
Jasper, Tex., and the ghosts of lynchings past. New York Times, A26 (576 words), Feb 25, 1999.
Revulsion at the death of James Byrd Jr. demonstrates a sea change in public sentiment toward lynchings
Judge Lynch: his first hundred years / Frank Shay and Arthur Franklin Raper. Montclair, NJ : Patterson Smith, 1969. HV6457.S5 1969b
The killing season: a history of lynching in America / Philip Dray. The New Crisis, 109(1):41 (3 pages), January-February 2002.
Excerpt from “At the Hands of Persons Unknown: the Lynching of of Black America”
Kin disagree on exhumation of Emmett Till / Gretchen Ruethling. New York Times, A3 (357 words), May 6, 2005.
The legacy of a lynching / Robert F. Worth. American Scholar, 67(2):65 (13 pages), Spring 1998.
“Like a violin for the wind to play”: lyrical approaches to lynching by Hughes, Du Bois, and Toomer / Kimberly Banks. African American Review, 38(3):451 (15 pages), Fall 2004.
Local sequential patterns: the structure of lynching in the deep South, 1882-1930 / Karherine Stovel. Social Forces, 79(3):843 (14134 words), March 2001.
Lynch-law; an investigation into the history of lynching in the United States / James Elbert Cutler. New York : Negro Universities Press, 1969. HV6457.C8 1969b
Lynch Street : the May 1970 slayings at Jackson State College / Tim Spofford. Kent, OH : Kent State University Press, 1988. F349.J13S66 1988
The lyncher in me : a search for redemption in the face of history / Warren Read. St. Paul, MN : Borealis Books, 2008.
Chronicles the author’s experiences with having discovered his great-grandfather’s role in the Duluth lynchings of 1920 and his subsequent search for the descendants of the victims.
Lynching / John Simkin. Spartcus Educational.
Lynching in America : carnival of death / Mark Gado. TrueTV Crime Library : Criminal Minds and Methods. New York : Turner Broadcasting System, [2005?].
A lynching in the heartland : race and memory in America / James H. Madison. New York : Palgrave, 2001. F534.M34M33 2001
The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent in the United States, 1848 to 1928 / William D. Carrigan. Journal of Social History, 37(2):411 (29 pages), Winter 2003.
Lynching victim is cleared of rape, 100 years later / Emily Yellin. New York Times, Section 1, 24 (912 words), Feb 27, 2000.
Ed Johnson from Chattanooga, Tennessee
Masculinity : bodies, movies, culture / Peter Lehman. New York : Routledge, 2001. PN1995.9.M46M34 2001
Includes “Lynching photography and the ‘black beast rapist’ in the southern white masculine imagination” by Amy Louise Wood
Media, process, and the social construction of crime : studies in newsmaking criminology / Gregg Barak. New York : Garland Pub., 1994. P96.C74M43 1994
Includes “Communal violence and the media : lynchings and their news coverage by The New York Times between 1882 and 1930” by Ira M. Wasserman and Steven Stack
Minstrel show; or, The lynching of William Brown (The Plays of Max Sparber) / Max Sparber. Minneapolis, MN : Sparberfans.Blogspot.Com, 1998.
“Retells the story of the real-life murder of an African-American man in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1919, through the narration of two fictional African-American blackface performers.”
The murder of Emmett Louis Till, revisited. / Brent Staples. The New York Times, A16 (912 words), Nov 11, 2002.
New documetary film may cause the 1955 Mississipi case to be reopened
The NAACP crusade against lynching, 1909-1950 / Robert L. Zangrando. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1980. HV6457.Z36
The Negro holocaust: lynching and race riots in the United States, 1880-1950 / Robert A. Gibson. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. New Haven : Yale University, 1979 ; posted 2005.
The old religion / David Mamet. New York : Free Press, 1997. PS3563.A4345O39 1997
Play about a lynching in Georgia
On looking: lynching photographs and legacies of Lynching after 9/11 / Dora Apel. American Quarterly, 55(3):457-478, Sept 2003.
On lynchings: Southern horrors, A red record, Mob rule in New Orleans / Ida B. Wells-Barnett. New York : Arno Press, 1969. HV6457.B37
Plays of Negro life; a source-book of native American drama / Alain LeRoy Locke and Montgomery Gregory. Westport, CT : Negro Universities Press, 1970. PS627.N4L6 1970
Includes “Judge Lynch” by J. W. Rogers, Jr.
Race, rape, and lynching : the red record of American literature, 1890-1912 / Sandra Gunning. New York : Oxford University Press, 1996. PS173.N4G86 1996
Racial violence and representation: performance strategies in lynching dramas of the 1920s / Judith L. Stephens. African American Review, 33(4):655 (10281 words), Winter 1999.
Racial violence on trial : a handbook with cases, laws, and documents / Christopher Waldrep. Santa Barbara, CA : ABC-CLIO, 2001. KF221.M8W35 2001
Reading rape : the rhetoric of sexual violence in American literature and culture, 1790-1990 / Sabine Sielke. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2002. PS374.R35S54 2002
Includes “‘The one crime’ and ‘the real ‘one crime” : rape, lynching, and mimicry in Sutton E. Griggs’s ‘The Hindered hand'”
Remember, and learn : the lessons of racism’s ugly history. Newsday, A38 (223 words), June 15, 2005.
Revolt against chivalry : Jessie Daniel Ames and the women’s campaign against lynching / Jacquelyn Dowd Hall. New York : Columbia University Press, 1979. HV6457.H34
Rope and faggot / Walter Francis White. New York : Arno Press, 1969. HV6457.W45 1969
Rough justice : lynching and American society, 1874-1947 / Michael J. Pfeifer. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2004. HV6457.P44 2004
Selected works of Ida B. Wells-Barnett / Ida B.Wells-Barnett ; Trudier Harris, editor. New York : Oxford University Press, 1991. E185.97.W55A2 1991
Includes: “Southern horrors : lynch law in all its phases” ; “A red record : tabulated statistics and alleged causes of lynching in the United States, 1892-1893-1894” ; “Mob rule in New Orleans : Robert Charles and his fight to the death”
Senate issues apology over failure on antilynching law / Sheryl Gay Stolberg. New York Times, A15 (739 words), June 14, 2005.
Senate remorse over lynchings / India Autry. Newsday, A27 (232 words), June 14, 2005.
Senators introduce lynching apology. New York Times, A13 (176 words), February 2, 2005.
The shadow of hate a film / Charles Guggenheim and Julian Bond. Washington, D.C. : Guggenheim Productions, Inc., 1995. IMC Video E184.A1S564 1995bx
Includes the Leo Frank lynching in Georgia in 1913
Strange fruit : plays on lynching by American women / Kathy A. Perkins and Judith L. Stephens. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1998. PS627.L95S73 1998
Their majesties, the mob / John Walton Caughey. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1960. HV6791.C38
Over 50 documents republished from various sources
Thirty years of lynching in the United States, 1889-1918 / National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. New York : Negro Universities Press, 1969. HV6457.N3 1969
The tragedy of lynching / Arthur Franklin Raper and the Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching New York : Negro Universities Press, 1969. HV6464.R3 1969b
An ugly legacy lives on, its glare unsoftened by age : critic’s notebook / Roberta Smith. New York Times, E1 (1445 words), January 13, 2000.
Discusses an exhibit of lynching photographs at the Roth Horowitz Gallery.
Under sentence of death : lynching in the South / W. Fitzhugh Brundage. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1997. HV6464.U49 1997
Unnatural selections : eugenics in American modernism and the Harlem Renaissance / Daylanne K. English. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 2004. PS228.E84E54 2004
Includes “Blessed are the barren : lynching, reproduction, and the drama of new Negro womanhood, 1916-1930”
War of words: the controversy over the definition of lynching, 1899-1940 / Christopher Waldrep. Journal of Southern History, 66(1):75 (2 pages), February 2000.
We are coming : the persuasive discourse of nineteenth-century Black women / Shirley W. Logan. Carbondale, IL : Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. E185.86.L57 1999
“‘Out of their own mouths’ : Ida Wells and the presence of lynching”
We charge genocide : the historic petition to the United Nations for relief from a crime of the United States Government against the Negro people / Civil Rights Congress (U.S.). New York : Civil Rights Congress, 1952. E185.61.C592 1952x
Whispered consolations : law and narrative in African American life / Jon Christian Suggs. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, 2000. KF4757.S84 2000
Includes “Lynchings and passing”
“With the past let these be buried”: the 1873 mob massacre of the Hill family in Springtown, Texas / Helen McLure. Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 105(2):293 (29 pages), October 2001.
Without sanctuary : lynching photography in America / James Allen. Santa Fe, NM : Twin Palms, 2000. HV6459.W57 2000
Official website: http://withoutsanctuary.org/
Without sanctuary: lynching photography in America / Grace Elizabeth Hale. Journal of American History, 89(3):989-994, December 2002.
Witnessing lynching : American writers respond / Anne P. Rice. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 2003. PS509.L94W58 2003
Wounds not scars: lynching, the national conscience and the American historian / Joel Williamson. Journal of American History, 83(4):1221 (33 pages), March 1997.
African Americans in the Twentieth Century
HTML, Design, & Bibliography
by Robert Delaney
Long Island University
C.W. Post Campus
LYNCHING: BY YEAR AND RACE
Year Whites Blacks Total
1882 64 49 113
1883 77 53 130
1884 160 51 211
1885 110 74 184
1886 64 74 138
1887 50 70 120
1888 68 69 137
1889 76 94 170
1890 11 85 96
1891 71 113 184
1892 69 161 230
1893 34 118 152
1894 58 134 192
1895 66 113 179
1896 45 78 123
1897 35 123 158
1898 19 101 120
1899 21 85 106
1900 9 106 115
1901 25 105 130
1902 7 85 92
1903 15 84 99
1904 7 76 83
Total 1,297 3,445 4,742
*Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.