Archive for February, 2013

white amerikkkan Agenda TO Exterminate BLACK PEOPLE!

February 27, 2013

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US government-funded groups exterminate black people: Randy Short

Wed Feb 27, 2013 4:18PM

Interview with Randy Short

So there is a total assault on us from Planned Parenthood which is a government-funded group that its mission is to exterminate our population and they are funded by the government and like I said, we have something live Depo-Provera which is killing women all over our country; remember Israel just outlawed on January 28 and yet 84 percent of the people … in the United States were black. So it is destroying us; we are being wiped out. He is just one publicized example of what is happening to us in this society.”

An American activist tells Press TV that the government-funded groups and the high rate of discrimination against black people in the United States is destroying them and wiping them out in the society.

People have taken to the streets in Sanford and New York City to mark the first anniversary of the killing of Trayvon Martin, a black teenager who was shot by a neighborhood watch volunteer. On February 26, 2012, the 17-year-old Martin was shot dead by George Zimmerman in Orlando, a suburb of the city of Sanford, Florida. People held a candlelight vigil and a moment of silence in memory of Martin in Sanford on Tuesday. In New York City’s Union Square, people also held a candlelight vigil.

Press TV has conducted an interview with Randy Short, with the Dignity, Human Rights and Peace Organization from Washington, to further discuss the issue. What follows is an approximate transcription of the interview.

Press TV: Now a year on, how far do you think the American public has come in solving its problem of racial profiling specifically ones that have been institutionalized in its law enforcement?

Short: Compare it to America’s advancement in dealing with Iran, considering the Oscar being given for the film ‘Argo’. It is analogous. Noting has changed. The power relationships that allowed this man to be killed and one killed in every 24 to 36 hours since he got shot a year ago.

So in reality, what would change the society? Certainly not the election of Obama who did not deal with it. So nothing has changed. Things are more or less the same. It has opened a season on black people and brown people and it is America. That is what we have been doing for 400 years, either killing or stealing from people of color.

Press TV: How many Trayvon Martins are we going to see before the American public as well as law enforcement injustices wake up and realize what is actually happening and what needs to be done to tackle it?

Short: I will answer it differently from how you have asked me. I am in a campaign to try to get Depo-Provera outlawed. It is a carcinogenic contraceptive that literally kills people and the government still pushes it although they have known it has been deadly since the 70s.

So they have not changed and in fact push it all over the world. So in relationship to the value of the lives of the people of African descendants in this country, I do not think we really matter. We have to make ourselves matter. The time is now for a movement, for self-determination, sovereignty and self-respect and a movement to enforce our human rights.

It will not come from the state and it certainly will not come from the police forces which are nothing but fascistic occupational gangs that terrorize our community.

Press TV: So you are saying that change needs to come from bottom up and that there is no political will per se to bring a change in reality?

Short: You have understood me. The black leadership is either bought off, corrupt, co-opted or behind bars. We need a new movement; we need a Black Spring; we need something that changes.

Our people have been on the lockdown since Martin the King’s assassination. 45 years ago, this April 4 made no substantive moves and the state have been repressing us for at least 50 years to covert actions like COINTELPRO operation marking group. We can go on and on.

So we have got over a million people in jail; drugs brought in here through intelligence agencies; we have got these crazy groups like Alec that made the Stand your Ground Law where they can shoot us all over the country and while this is happening, this gun control is really, if you ask me, a way to take weapons from us to prevent us from defending ourselves.

So there is a total assault on us from Planned Parenthood which is a government-funded group that its mission is to exterminate our population and they are funded by the government and like I said, we have something live Depo-Provera which is killing women all over our country; remember Israel just outlawed on January 28 and yet 84 percent of the people … in the United States were black.

So it is destroying us; we are being wiped out. He is just one publicized example of what is happening to us in this society

SAVE YORUBA LANGUAGE!-CHECK THIS GREAT SITE!

February 24, 2013

http://www.ceyoleng.org/Index.php

Sister Shahrazad Ali IS STILL Fighting to SAVE BLACK MEN!

February 23, 2013

http://www.osarianministries.com/channel/28/shahrazad-ali/
VIDEOS
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Shahrazad Ali

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shahrazad Ali (born April 27, 1954, in Brooklyn, New York, USA) is an African-American author, responsible for books such as The Blackman’s Guide to Understanding the Blackwoman, Are You Still a Slave? and How Not to Eat Pork (Or Life without the Pig).[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Selected bibliography

How Not to Eat Pork (Or Life without the Pig), 1985 (ISBN 0933405006)

The Blackman’s Guide to Understanding the Blackwoman, 1989 (ISBN 0933405014)

The Blackwoman’s Guide to Understanding the Blackman, 1992 (ISBN 0933405030)

Are You Still a Slave? 1994 (ISBN 0933405049)

Day by Day, 1996 (ISBN 0933405057)

References

^ WILLIAMS, LENA (2 October 1990). “Black Woman’s Book Starts a Predictable Storm”. New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2010.

^ MILLNER, DENENE (16 July 1996). “WAITING TO EXPERIENCE MARRIAGE BOOKS CHALLENGE BLACK WOMEN TO STOP TARRYING & START MARRYING”. Newyork Daily News. Retrieved 17 March 2010.

^ Smith, Elmer (28 October 1991). “Marriage of Civil Rights, Women’s movement is sore point”. The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 17 March 2010.

^ Fitten, Ronald K. (3 December 1990). “Shahrazad Ali Points Finger At Black Women — Controversial Author To Speak At Paramount Theatre Tonight”. Seattle Times. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
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The Blackman’s Guide to Understanding the Blackwoman by Shahrazad Ali (Dec 1989)

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The Blackwoman’s Guide to Understanding the Blackman by Shahrazad Ali (Apr 1992)

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How Not to Eat Pork, Or, Life Without the Pig by Shahrazad Ali (Jun 1985)

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Are You Still a Slave? by Shahrazad Ali (Mar 1994)

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Things Your Parents Should Have Told You by Shahrazad Ali (Sep 1998)

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How to Tell If Your Man Is Gay or Bisexual by Shahrazad Ali (Sep 2003)

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GABOUREY SIDIBE-OUR BLACK SKINNED BEAUTY ON BEING CONFIDENT About her weight!

February 20, 2013

BLACK BEAUTY MEETS BLACK BEAUTY!

BLACK BEAUTY MEETS BLACK BEAUTY!

Gabourey Sidibe On Being Confident With Her Weight: ‘I get shaken a lot in this business’

WhіƖe the crіtіcs are bashіng femaƖe ceƖebrіtіes about theіr bodіes, gabourey sіdіbe іs the most recent kіck-ass femaƖe іn the spotƖіght to not Ɩet the crіtіcs wіn.

Speakіng at wіe, the women’s іnspіratіon and enterprіse [wіenetwork. Org] conference іn manhattan Ɩast weekend, sіdіbe spoke about beіng happy and body confіdent, somethіng she mastered іn her earƖy 20s:

“і dіdn’t actuaƖƖy get to grow up hearіng that і was beautіfuƖ a Ɩot, or that і was worth anythіng nor dіd і grow up seeіng myseƖf on tv. Then at some poіnt іn tіme when і was 21 or 22 і јust decіsіve that Ɩіfe wasn’t worth Ɩіvіng whether or not і wasn’t happy wіth myseƖf so і јust took aƖƖ the steps that і couƖd to estіmate how to Ɩove myseƖf and become confіdent. Truth fuƖƖy speakіng whether or not і hadn’t found thіs person before that movіe [precіous] і wouƖdn’t have even be іn that movіe”, says sіdіbe.

WhіƖe the 29-year-oƖd treasured star takes every day steps to buіƖd up her confіdence, whіch іncƖudes smaƖƖ thіngs from Ɩіstenіng to musіc that makes her happy and gettіng her naіƖs done, to gettіng advіce from oprah and countіng her bƖessіngs, she admіts that Ɩіke most peopƖe іt’s a every day exercіse and an actіve choіce to be happy.

“peopƖe see me as a confіdent person but і get shaken a Ɩot, specіaƖƖy beіng іn thіs busіness. More than one weeks ago і was on vacatіon and і went іnto a cvs [a pharmacy chaіn of shops іn the us] and as і’m payіng і see a pіcture of myseƖf on the cover of a magazіne and they’re guesstіmatіng what my weіght іs? The headƖіne was ‘gabourey sіdіbe 250 pounds’”, says the actress. In that moment she had to deaƖ wіth not onƖy the cashіer seeіng the horrіbƖe and іnaccurate artіcƖe, but as weƖƖ everyone eƖse іn the shop and іn other shops.

SadƖy, іt’s a taƖe that countƖess other women іn the іndustry face. The debate about how much a femaƖe ceƖebrіty weіghs іs wіthout varіatіon anaƖysed іn the medіa, wіth thіngs comіng to a head when Ɩady gaga strіpped to her undіes and Ɩaunched her body revoƖutіon crusade to get back at crіtіcs who sƖammed her weіght benefіt.

For sіdіbe, іt’s aƖƖ about creatіng your own ruƖes: “і have to keep goіng and Ɩіvіng my Ɩіfe, so when thіngs Ɩіke that troubƖe me і have to fіnd thіngs that buіƖd my confіdence back up”, says sіdіbe, who as weƖƖ hopes to begіn wrіtіng and workіng behіnd the camera to enhance the range of coƖours, shapes and sіzes we see on the screen, and “because і don’t want to waіt for work і want to make work”, she adds.

BLEACH AND Die!- SENEGAL FIGHTS Massive bleaching!

February 18, 2013

New campaign tells Senegal’s women ‘all black’ is beautiful

By Agence France-Presse
Monday, February 18, 2013 7:20 EST

 
Outraged by adverts urging women to bleach their skin, a spontaneous movement has emerged in Senegal arguing that black is beautiful — and to act otherwise is to risk one’s health.

The campaign sprang up in response to advertisements that appeared in the capital Dakar last year for a cosmetic cream called “Khess Petch”, or “all white” in the local Wolof language.

The posters promised “rapid action” and “results in 15 days”. They showed before and after pictures of a young woman who started out black and ended up with fair skin through depigmentation, locally known as “kheessal” or bleaching.

“We were scandalised (by a poster) suggesting that black is not beautiful because it recommends that young women should transform themselves in a fortnight,” said Aisha Deme, who runs the cultural website Agendakar.com.

“In a spontaneous response, we wanted to elevate the black woman and we launched “Nuul Kukk”, which means “all black”, the young woman added.

So the campaigners put up their own posters in the Senegalese capital, this time showing a proud black woman. The work was done for free by fashion photographer Stephane Tourne and advertising professionals.

The Nuul Kukk campaign, which is highly active online and has its own website, Twitter feed and Facebook page, features local stars, including the rapper Keyti, the stylist Dior Lo and women’s rights activist Kine Fatim Diop.

The campaign is also backed by dermatologist Fatimata Ly, who has been fighting the “kheessal” practice for 10 years as part of the International Association for Information on Artificial Depigmentation.

For Ly, skin-bleaching is a public health concern because “in the general population, 67 in every 100 women practice artificial depigmentation.”

These products reduce the body’s ability to “defend itself against (various) infections”, and they also “have broader effects on health, such as diabetes and high blood pressure,” she added.

The skin-lightening phenomenon exists in several sub-Saharan African countries and in the black diaspora. In Senegal, “it is mainly a feminine practice, even if you find it among men in some particular groups, such as performers,” Ly said.

Whitening creams, milks and gels contain substances initially intended for therapeutic purposes, such as corticosteroids and hydroquinone, and should only be prescribed by doctors, according to Ly.

“Unfortunately, you can find them all across the Senegalese market. They are products that are very accessible,” she said.

At between one euro ($1.3) and 1.5 euros ($2) per product — five or six times cheaper than in a chemist’s shop — they are also affordable, Ly said as she showed pictures on her computer of the damage caused by bleaching products, ranging from swollen legs, bruises and open wounds to blemished skin and burns.

Women are nonetheless drawn to the products because they believe they will make them more beautiful, according to researchers and doctors, and Deme says it’s an uphill battle to convince women otherwise.

“Today’s society imposes criteria for beauty on us… Everybody promotes women with fair skin: the papers, magazines, video clips,” said Deme.

“What we recommend today is just to stop depigmentation. We should stop importing these products and selling them, so that there are no more scandalous advertisements,” she added. “It will take as much time as it takes, it will be long, but we have to fight.”

[Image via Agence France-Presse]

JAMES Randall-A Righteous BLACK BROTHER Fights For OUR BLACK Rights!

February 18, 2013

http://www.blackiowa.org/education/childrens-oral-history-project/stories/james-randall/. 

 

James Randall, Stead Family Professor of English
B.S., North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University
M.A., Carnegie Mellon University

Professor Randall’s offerings include courses in African-American and African literature; he also teaches African-American history. He has been a participant in the project of establishing the African American Historical Museum and Cultural Center of Iowa (opening in Cedar Rapids in September 2003)
ames Randall

Interviewed by Living Waters History Makers
Region: Central Iowa
Category: Civil Rights

The store people also didn’t want us there sitting in either, and they would try to do things to force us away like pretend that they were spraying for flies and insects and spray on us on that occasion. Some of the rowdy people in the crowd would threaten us, threaten to fight us in some ways, too. But, we had gone through some training before we actually did that. And so it was overall a very useful experience. — James Randall

Biography

James (Samm) Randall, Professor of English and African American Studies at Coe College, taught at Coe from 1969 to 2010. He grew up in Bolton, North Carolina, working in the fields and attending segregated schools. He has studied at North Carolina A&T State University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Indiana University, Washington State University, and he has participated in summer-study programs at other universities over the years. He holds a Master’s degree from Carnegie-Mellon and is a published author. He has also taught African American literature courses at the University of Iowa. His teaching areas include African American Literature, African Literature, American Literature, English Literature, Caribbean Literature, and African American History.

Transcript

Shawndell: Hello my name is Shawndell Young and it is May 4th, 2009. And today I will be interviewing Professor Randall. So let’s get it started. So where were you born?

James Randall: I was born in North Carolina, a little town called Bolton, which is in the southeastern corner of the state of North Carolina. It’s about twenty miles up from the South Carolina border and about twenty-three miles in from the Atlantic Ocean, in an area that is known as the Green Swamp of North Carolina.

Shawndell: Where is home now?

James Randall: Home is here in Cedar Rapids.

Shawndell: How long have you lived in Cedar Rapids?

James Randall: I’ve lived in Cedar Rapids for forty years. I came here in 1969 to teach at Coe College. And I’ve been here for most of that time, although, I did take a leave at one point. I lived for a few years in Marion and now back in Cedar Rapids. Some years ago, I took a leave for three years and went out to the state of Washington, at Washington State, where I was doing some work at Washington State University.

Shawndell: So what brought you here?

James Randall: I came here to teach literature at Coe. My initial plan was to teach here for one year. So I came up here in 1969, I was going to be here for one year and it turned out that I was here just for one year on that first occasion. Then I went out and spent a year at University of Colorado working out there. And then following year I was invited to come back here to teach at Coe. So I’ve been here since that time.

Shawndell: Moving! So where did you go for school?

James Randall: Well, my school experiences have been varied. My, course my elementary school experience was in Bolton, North Carolina, which was at a sort of an ancient wooden school that had no running water and had outdoor toilets and had no central heating. But something began to happen, I am sure you and people of your generation have studied about the Brown Vs Board of Education school case which of course was finished in 1954. And around that time suddenly North Carolina began refurbishing schools for African Americans-it was a segregated system- because the idea, as I felt at the time and also felt later, was they, what they wanted to try to show that we did have separate but equal facilities. So we suddenly got a new school with central heating, with running water, built out of bricks, most of the, even a cafeteria, most of the amenities that were needed at that time. So I finished that school and then I went to high school, sort of a consolidated high school, also a segregated school for the black students. And I went to high school there and eventually I went to college at North Carolina A & E State University, which at that time was an all black school, too. All the teachers black, all the students black, all the administrators black, and I graduated from that, from that college. This was the college where the modern sit-in movement started. They started there a year before I became a student there. But when I went there, activity was still taking place.

Shawndell: So what did you do for entertainment back then?

James Randall: Well when I was very small. We did, I guess you would call it inexpensive games. We played a lot of stickball. We played softball. We played, when someone got a bicycle; we would ride the bicycle to death. In the winter we would make bows and arrows, and which we called ourselves hunting. And now it might not be considered not the nicest thing to do but our target would be birds which we would hunt and sometimes get and sometimes dress and have them prepared for eating. But, we did other kinds of things, too. One of the things that happened in that area was, we began to work at a very young age and so even small children had certain kinds of farm related jobs to do: hoeing crops, harvesting crops, chores that were assigned to us in a number of ways. So a lot of the summer activity and often after school activity was associated with work. When I was very small even attending my first grades, cotton was still grown in that area and after school we would sometimes pick cotton and turn it in and weigh it and get paid a certain amount, a certain, few cents per pound and so that took a good deal of the activity as well.

Shawndell: How was the Civil Rights Movement helped you and affected you?

James Randall: Well the Civil Rights Movement affected me a great deal. I say sometimes that people of my generation and a little bit after me, we were sort of born in the Civil Rights Movement, born in a civil rights situation. You have to remember that this was strict segregation at that time. And North Carolina was also a strict segregationist state which meant that African Americans did not have equal rights, which also meant that most of the politicians were against democracy for African Americans. So there was a lot of work to be done in order to get some things changed. Civil Rights Movement meant that I went to not equal schools, that our parents didn’t have equal job opportunities, that the state conspired to keep us poor and conspired to keep us not as well educated. We couldn’t attend University of North Carolina, nor Duke University, nor Wake Forrest University, nor North Carolina State for which our tax money supported in a lot of ways. So we were really being done in a very bad way by the authorities at the time. So the Civil Rights Movement meant a lot to me. When we began to get wind of how things were changing and needed to be changed. I mentioned the Brown versus Board of Education case. I remember when the public buses were integrated in North Carolina for the first time, for example. I remember, when of course, I remember, people my age remember, too, the presidential election of 1960, between President Kennedy and the challenger, and the other candidate for the Republicans, Richard Nixon and in the introduction of Civil Rights support becomes more common in the political sphere of things. So it meant a great deal. It meant a lot.

Shawndell: Can you explain what was segregation for the African American person back then?

James Randall: Well, the situation was really based on a Supreme Court case that took place much earlier, in 1896, the so-called Plessy vs Ferguson case, which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was OK as long as there were equal facilities for African Americans-the so-called separate but equal doctrine. And we saw very quickly that things were separate, but they never were equal. Equal facilities were not really provided for and it meant that by law, African Americans got a raw deal from the state government and also from the national government because the national government supported the state governments in their discrimination against us in many ways. And again, education-didn’t have equal education opportunity, for jobs- couldn’t have equal jobs opportunity. In my home county, I couldn’t even go to the county library because it was only for whites. Blacks could not go the county library. And so that’s a blatant example of this discrimination in that way as well, which meant that we couldn’t get certain kinds of jobs, even state jobs we could not get. There were some more menial jobs that were designated for African Americans, but top flight jobs were out of the question at that time. And it meant that therefore, more people were waiting for these changes to occur and we were increasingly aware of them, and that made us more determined to become active, too. And for example the students, the college students who lead and who began the sit-in movement, they were also fed up with a good deal of this activity and they were motivated to do something about it and other students in other places and an increasing number of adults also began to participate directly as well.

Shawndell: So can you describe the role of the African American church back in your day?

James Randell: When I was small, I was involved in church activity especially. My parents were active in the church, especially my father, who was a very active churchman in the AME Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, in my hometown. My hometown was very small, about 600 people. But as I think about it there were a lot of churches in that town a lot of African American Churches, maybe seven or eight African American Churches in a very small town. So I participated in Sunday School. When I was very young I became Sunday School secretary, state Sunday School secretary, I guess until I finished high school and went away to college. I remember attending Sunday School conventions that took place yearly. One of my cousins was the pianist. She had a talent for playing piano. And she became the director of the junior choir. So naturally I was a member of junior choir for a number of years as well. There were some other activities that took place, too, some special holiday activities that occurred in the church as well. I remember also some Vacation Bible School experiences began and it was a new idea at the time for our area of the country. But nevertheless, that took place as well.

Shawndell: Have you been involved in any Civil Rights organizations or any like of the NAACP stuff or anything like that?

James Randall: Yes again, because of the area of the country where I lived, practically it couldn’t be avoided just out of natural behavior. But when the sit-in movements began, I was still in high school. And so we decided that, some people in my town decided, that we should participate directly in some of these activates. Well, maybe I was a junior in high school at that time. Our town was so small, that we didn’t have any real facilities to integrate because we just had a little regular General Store. But we did most of our shopping in a town about twenty-five miles away, the town of Wilmington, North Carolina. Most of our big shopping occurred there. So we decided to organize and to join the demonstrations that were taking place in Wilmington. So we organized and we decided that we needed a formal organization. So it was formal organized and I was elected president of the group. So before dinner time each Saturday we would go to Wilmington and we would join in the sit-ins that were taking place in Wilmington. We had some varied experiences there, some not so nice experiences, of course some people in the crowd didn’t want us there. The store people also didn’t want us there sitting in either and they would try to do things to force us away like pretend that they were spraying for flies and insects and spray on us on that occasion. Some of the rowdy people in the crowd would threaten us, threaten to fight us in some ways, too. But, we had gone through some training before we actually did that. And so it was overall a very useful experience. Later in college, I also participated in some civil rights demonstrations. And even after I finished my undergraduate work at North Carolina A&T, I moved to Pittsburgh to attend a college there. And activity was taking place in that city. Even in that northern industrial city, some things needed to be changed there as well. And James King had even later, for example when I went to another university, ____University, and later to Washington State University, one organization that I became involved with was the organization concerned with liberation in South Africa, so in effect, civil rights for South Africa on more of a global scale. And so I think that part of that interest and activity generated in my case early from participating in the sit-ins back in North Carolina.

Shawndell: What would you say is one of your best…like your best accomplishments?

James Randall: Well I think working in education for forty years. I think that, to endure that and still fill enthused about it. And I’ve had some good students who have come through the process. And so I think very, very, very positively on that. Sometimes I hear from former students and they are doing progressive things. And so I count that as one of the best things.

Shawndell: What has been one of your happiest time, memories?

James Randall: Happiest memories. I guess there are some standard ones, such as some of my memories with my wife, with my family, with my North Carolina relatives, with visiting some other places. Living in Colorado was nice for a year. Visiting the West Indies was also good. Taking a trip to Africa was good. And so those are fond memories.

Shawndell: What would you change about the outcome of your life right now?

James Randall: That’s a big question. I’m not sure what I would change about the outcome of my life. I think that in so many ways, of course, life is still being engaged. And so we go through it, and try to do positive things that we can. But sometimes in finagling with the past a little bit it would change so many other things as well. In some ways, I think I would, I would have liked to have been more productive, more steadily at some times. I think I have been relatively productive over time. But maybe if I had gotten, maybe even started earlier, maybe if I had been able to, I don’t know, get though college a couple of years earlier then so much more might have been done. But this is, you know, fantasy. I would like to have traveled in more places than I have. I‘ve done a lot of travel across the states. I would like to have done more world travel.

Shawndell: I also have one more question. You’ve talked about one of your happiest times. Which would be one of your worst times of your life?

James Randall: A very painful time would have been the year 1972. In that year my father died in February; my grandmother died in May; my mother died in September. So within a relatively short period of time, these are the people who have sort of molded me, and that was naturally a painful time not just for me, but for my brothers and sisters as well. So that stands out.

Shawndell: So do you have any questions that you think I have not answered that you think we should know?

James Randall: I suppose we could ramble a long time about a lot of different things. I think that over my years, I’ve seen a lot of positive changes occur in society in general. And now which gives me some, more than just hope, but some belief that things are likely to continue to improve in some positive ways. As a world and as a society we have dirtied our hands with a lot of things. I’m glad to see now that we seem to be more determined to clean up behind ourselves more than we have done in the past, more accountably, than we have done the past. So, I hope that that trend will continue.

Shawndell: Alright, well, thank you for letting me interview you.

James Randall: Alright, thank you.

BLACK TOWNS IN KANSAS AND OKLAHOMA- THESE BLACKS KNEW THAT WHITES WOULD NOT ALLOW THEM FREEDOM IN THE NORTH SO SET OUT TO BE INDEPENDENT OF WHITES AFTER SLAVERY!-MY ANCESTORS WERE AMONG THEM AND HERE I AM MAKING THE BEST DESTINATION-BACK TO AFRICA THESE LAST 37 YEARS!

February 11, 2013

1870_1880exodust

Big-TownSM

NICODEUS

Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries [Frank Phillips Collection, #975]
Black Indian Woman

By 1900, African Americans outnumbered the Native American population in areas that had been set aside as Indian Territory by the federal government. One Native American newspaper commented on the irony of whites stealing “land from the Indians only to have negroes take it from them.” African Americans and American Indians often intermarried and formed a mixed population.
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The Western Migration
Overview
The Early Black West
The Far West
To Kansas
Migration to Oklahoma
Moving Further West
To the Cities
The Golden State
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Kansas, which had been a sanctuary for runaways during the Civil War, continued to loom large in the minds of many African-American Southerners. Between 1870 and 1890, some thirty thousand migrants settled in the state. Kansas was the closest western state to the Old South that allowed blacks to homestead in the 1870s, and it became a magnet for land-hungry newcomers from Missouri, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, as well as such Deep South states as Louisiana and Mississippi.
The New Man: Twenty-nine Years a Slave, Twenty-nine Years a Free Man The New Man: Twenty-nine Years a Slave, Twenty-nine Years a Free Man by Henry Clay Bruce
Law, Politics and Leavenworth: A Beginning , Chapter TwoA Black Odyssey: John Lewis Waller and the Promise of American Life, 1878-1900 Law, Politics and Leavenworth: A Beginning , Chapter Two from A Black Odyssey: John Lewis Waller and the Promise of American Life, 1878-1900 by Randall Bennett Woods
Migration to Kansas Preceding the Exodus , Chapter 12Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction Migration to Kansas Preceding the Exodus , Chapter 12 from Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction by Nell Irvin Painter

The 1862 Homestead Act applied to Kansas and other western states and territories: settlers – regardless of their race or gender – could pay a small filing fee and receive 160 acres from the federal government. In return, they agreed to reside on the land, and improve it over a five-year period. After six months, they could purchase the property for $1.25 an acre.

Another factor pulling black migrants to Kansas was the state’s powerful abolitionist tradition. Here, John Brown had first battled to free slaves, and here the first black soldiers joined the Union Army. Kansas had welcomed the Emancipation Proclamation and was among the first to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. “I am anxious to reach your state,” wrote a black Louisianian to the governor of Kansas in 1879, “not because of the great race [for land] now made for it but because of the sacredness of her soil washed by the blood of humanitarians for the cause of black freedom.”

After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans relocated to areas free of racial restrictions and violence.
Interview with Bill SimsKansas Narratives, Volume 6 Interview with Bill Sims from Kansas Narratives, Volume 6
The Eldorado of their Foolish Dreams , Chapter 6In Search of Canaan: Black Migration to Kansas, 1879-80 The Eldorado of their Foolish Dreams , Chapter 6 from In Search of Canaan: Black Migration to Kansas, 1879-80 by Robert G. Athearn

The first of these “political migrations” was a mid-1870s exodus from Tennessee. It was led by Benjamin “Pap” Singleton, who recognized the limitations of Reconstruction-era political reform in the South.
United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of Benjamin Singleton,” Report and testimony of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States: in three parts. United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of Benjamin Singleton,” Report and testimony of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States: in three parts.

Singleton had escaped a dozen times during his years of enslavement, finally reaching Canada as a passenger on the Underground Railroad. In 1874, while working as a carpenter in Nashville, he distributed a circular, The Advantage of Living in a Free State, encouraging migration to Kansas. At least ten thousand African Americans journeyed to the Sunflower State between 1874 and 1890, partly in response to his call.
United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of J.W. Wheeler,” Report and testimony of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States: in three parts. United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of J.W. Wheeler,” Report and testimony of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States: in three parts.

In 1877, a white developer, together with six prospective black homesteaders from the South, founded the town of Nicodemus. They envisioned a self-sustaining, self-governing black agricultural community on the Kansas frontier. Named after a legendary African prince who purchased his freedom from bondage, the new town quickly captured the nation’s attention. In July, the first thirty colonists arrived from Kentucky. They were joined the following spring by an additional 150 men and women from Tennessee, Missouri, and Mississippi.

Nothing in their experiences had prepared the migrants for life on the Kansas frontier. The flat, barren, windswept High Plains, known for blazing summer heat and bitter winter cold, were better suited to growing cactus than corn and wheat. One of the settlers, Williana Hickman, was dismayed to discover that the townsfolk lived not in houses, but in dugouts. “We landed and struck tents,” she recalled. “The scenery was not at all inviting and I began to cry.”

Despite their initial misgivings, Hickman and most of the early colonists stayed on. By 1880, 258 blacks and 58 whites resided in the town and the surrounding area. For African Americans across the country, Nicodemus became an important symbol of self-governance and economic enterprise.
Nicodemus, Kansas , Chapter 1Black Towns and Profit: Promotion and Development in the Trans-Appalachian West, 1877-1915 Nicodemus, Kansas , Chapter 1 from Black Towns and Profit: Promotion and Development in the Trans-Appalachian West, 1877-1915 by Kenneth Marvin Hamilton

But the town’s prospects were always precarious and, in the 1880s, it underwent a steady decline. The winter blizzards of 1885 destroyed 40 percent of the wheat crop, and settlers began to leave. Two years later, the Missouri Pacific Railroad bypassed the town and, as was the case for hundreds of other communities cut off from the railway, Nicodemus’s fate was sealed. After 1888, local boosters ceased trying to attract new settlers, and prominent citizens left the area.

In the summer of 1879, a few hundred people settled in Morris and Graham counties – the vanguard of some six thousand Southern African Americans who would join the exodus to Kansas.
The Negro Exodus from the Gulf States The Negro Exodus from the Gulf States by Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895

Although the so-called Kansas Fever conjured up images of a leaderless movement of impoverished freed men and women, driven by blind faith toward a better place, it was a rational response to conditions in the South. When a St. Louis Globe reporter asked a woman with a child at her breast if she would return to her former home, she replied, “What, go back! . . . I’d sooner starve here.”
The Exodus of 1879The Journal of Negro History, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 1936) The Exodus of 1879 from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 1936) by John G. Van Dusen
Benjamin, or ‘Pap,’ Singleton and His FollowersThe Journal of Negro History, vol 33. no. 1 (January 1948) Benjamin, or ‘Pap,’ Singleton and His Followers from The Journal of Negro History, vol 33. no. 1 (January 1948) by Roy Garvin
Negro Exodus: Report of Col. Frank H. Fletcher, Agent Appointed by the St. Louis Commission to Visit Kansas for the Purpose of Obtaining Information in Regard to Colored Emigration Negro Exodus: Report of Col. Frank H. Fletcher, Agent Appointed by the St. Louis Commission to Visit Kansas for the Purp… by Frank H. Fletcher

But Topeka Mayor Michael C. Case spoke for many of his city’s white residents when he refused to spend municipal funds to aid the Exodusters, as they were called, suggesting the money would be better used to return them to the South. The Topeka Colored Citizen, on the other hand, celebrated the migration: “Our advice . . . to the people of the South, Come West, Come to Kansas . . . it is better to starve to death in Kansas than be shot and killed in the South.”

The Kansas exodus ended almost as suddenly as it had begun. Its demise was the result of neither white opposition, nor of the advice of leaders such as Frederick Douglass that African Americans remain in the South, nor of the machinations of swindlers who preyed on the people’s gullibility. Rather, word filtered back that little free land remained and that many Exodusters were still destitute a year after their arrival. Southern blacks realized that Kansas was not the “promised land.” Although migration from Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana continued after 1880, it never reached the level of the spring and summer of 1879.
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Reverend Daniel Hickman

African Americans tended to migrate to the West in a predictable pattern. Sometimes, entire towns relocated together, encouraged to move by homestead associations or promoters. Of the six African Americans who organized the Nicodemus Town Company, five were natives of Kentucky. President W.H. Smith hailed from Tennessee. Reverend Daniel Hickman led one of the first groups of settlers from Kentucky to Nicodemus.
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Benjamin “Pap” Singleton

Benjamin “Pap” Singleton (1809-92) was born a slave in Nashville, Tennessee and lived as a fugitive in Detroit. After the Civil War, he returned to Tennessee to establish an independent black society. However, racist laws and practices inhibited African Americans from purchasing land within the state. Therefore, working with W. A. Sizemore, Columbus Johnson, and several other former slaves, Singleton promoted the migration of African Americans to Kansas. From 1877 to 1879, he and his associates led several hundred migrants.
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David City Colony

African Americans were attracted to Kansas because of its abolitionist roots, and they were eligible to settle there under the terms of the 1862 Homestead Act. The largest number of black settlers came to Kansas from Kentucky and Tennessee between 1877 and 1880. They became known as Exodusters. Several black settlements sprang up in Kansas. Among them were Singleton – from the name of the Exodusters’ leader – in Cherokee County, Morton City in Edwards County, Hodgeman Colony and David City Colony in Hodgeman County, and Dunlap in Morris County.
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David City Colony

African Americans were attracted to Kansas because of its abolitionist roots, and they were eligible to settle there under the terms of the 1862 Homestead Act. The largest number of black settlers came to Kansas from Kentucky and Tennessee between 1877 and 1880. They became known as Exodusters. Several black settlements sprang up in Kansas. Among them were Singleton – from the name of the Exodusters’ leader – in Cherokee County, Morton City in Edwards County, Hodgeman Colony and David City Colony in Hodgeman County, and Dunlap in Morris County.
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Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division [HABS, KANS,33-NICO,1-6]
Early Homestead in Nicodemus

During the Civil War, the African-American population of Kansas increased from just 627 in 1861 to over 12,000 in 1865. Some white Kansans expressed concern. Richard Cordley, a white abolitionist, dismissed their fears: “The negroes are not coming. They are here. They will stay here. They are American born. They have been here for more than two hundred and fifty years…. It is not for us to say whether they will be our neighbors or not…. It is only for us to say what sort of neighbors they shall be, and whether we will fulfill our neighborly obligations” Richard Cordley, Pioneer Days in Kansas (New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1903).
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Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division [HABS, KANS,33-NICO,1-7]
Washington Street, Nicodemus

The first thirty settlers arrived in Nicodemus in July 1877. The following spring, another 150 joined them. The First Baptist Church, erected in 1879 under the auspices of Reverend Daniel Hickman, was a sod and dugout structure. By 1880, a one-room stone sanctuary had been added to the site. That year, 258 African Americans lived in Nicodemus, and most settlers had succeeded in planting 10 to 15 acres of wheat and corn. One resident, R.B. Scruggs, supplemented his income by driving a freight wagon and working on the railroad. His hard work enabled him to expand his original 120-acre homestead into a 720-acre farm. The first two-story building was Williams General Store, erected in 1879. It is on the right in this 1885 photograph. By 1886, the town boasted three churches, three hotels, a livery, a blacksmith, a newspaper, and a schoolhouse.

BLEACH AND DIE!- NIGERIA IS LEADING AFRICA IN THIS ANTI-BLACK PRACTICE AND YORUBAS NO DOUBT OUR THE TOP BLEACHERS IN NIGERIA!-STOP THIS RACIAL SUICIDE!- BE PROUD OF THE BLACK SKIN GOD PUT YOU IN!-FROM THE TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER,NIGERIA!

February 11, 2013
GOD MADE YOU A BLACK SKINNED BEAUTY! O BORA KO DA! DON'TBLEACH AND DIE!

GOD MADE YOU A BLACK SKINNED BEAUTY! O BORA KO DA! DON’TBLEACH AND DIE!

Bleaching and communicable diseases

Written by Dr. Abiodun Adeoye
Saturday, 09 February 2013 12:04

If there is anything that has given me concern of late, it is the rate at which young and old, poor and rich people of African descent, especially Nigerians, engage in skin bleaching.

I once attended a church service where there was visible move of the Holy Spirit with powerful sermon and many souls I would say were won into the kingdom of God. But I was quite astonished to see the telltale signs of skin bleaching on the man of God. I want to believe he is not aware of the side effects of bleaching creams and soap. Or how else would we explain even some of our ‘respected fathers’ in high places who grossly engage in skin bleaching?

If they can be pardoned for lack of awareness of its side effect, can the same hold for actors and actresses in Nollywood? These are people that are supposed to be role models for young generation. After much thought, I feel we should all join hands to tackle this menace. I have never seen a white man who wants to change to dark skin. Is it inferiority complex or lack of adequate information? Yes, in certain communities light skin is associated with success, prestige and envy as women commonly turn to skin lightening products to achieve and maintain their desired complexion.

For example in India, the appeal of fair skin is deeply rooted in the nation’s culture and the caste system. Higher caste members traditionally had lighter skin and were less likely to be involved in manual work. This was shown to account for high rate of skin bleaching among the low caste especially the women. This is not the case in Nigeria, yet World Heart Organisation (WHO) ranked Nigeria first among nations endangering their lives with mercury-containing bleaching cream and soap. They have revealed that over 77 per cent of Nigerians use such products on a regular basis. We are followed by Togo with 59 per cent; South Africa, 35 per cent; and Mali, 25 per cent.

I encourage people in this category to please stop this habit. Skin bleaching contributes immensely to the burden of non-communicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases and cancers, just to mention a few. Worldwide, non-communicable diseases account for more than 70 per cent of deaths.

While the infectious or communicable diseases are being wiped out in developed and some developing countries, same is not true in Nigeria. This is a double burden on our economy. The fight against polio and HIV is enough headache; don’t add more to it by using bleaching cream and soap. The dangers of bleaching creams and soap are many.

Dangers of bleaching agents
The side effect depends on the ingredients contained in the cream or soap. Unfortunately, most of the manufacturers don’t give accurate information about the percentages of these dangerous ingredients. Hydroquinone is the commonly used active ingredient in many of these bleaching creams. This chemical works by stopping the production of melanin, which is responsible for the darkening of a person’s skin tone. Hydroquinone, when used in right proportion for limited time frame, may not be harmful. According to the US Food and Drug Agency, only two per cent content is allowed but most products have up to four per cent or even more. When used on long term basis, side effects set in. Exogenous ochronosis is a well known effect of prolong use. There is a paradoxical darkening of the skin which follows an initial skin lightening. Wherever I see people in this category, I appreciate absolute ignorance in them. Who will want to get a temporary light skin and later lapse into terrible scaly and thick dark skin with bumps thatare worse than his or her initial black and shine? Instead of allowing ridicule by the community, kindly stop the use of hydroquinone today.

Steroids are another culprit in the bleaching creams and other formulations. Bleaching creams like Dermovate, Movate, Top Gel, and Nuvotone have been found to contain the extremely potent steroids betamethasone and clobetasol propionate. Again, these are extremely cheap and available in all corners over the counter.

A researcher states that “with high-potency topical steroids used for a long time, you can get suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. And with that suppression, you can get these endocrine problems like Cushing’s disease and diabetes.”

Black men and women have an increased risk of developing diabetes, and topical steroids would heighten their risk dramatically. With Cushing’s disease, there is excessive weight gain; rounded moon shape faces with reduced immunity. All sorts of infections are reported. Hypertension, stroke or depressions can occur. In case of accidents, there is poor wound healing and under stress, they bleed into the skin and brain.

Another ingredient is inorganic mercury which is injurious to the whole body system. According to WHO, once the chemicals get absorbed into the skin and enter the blood stream, the complications are worse. The effects include kidney damage, reduction in the skin resistance to bacterial and fungal infections, anxiety, depression, psychosis and peripheral neuropathy. Others are skin rashes, swelling of the skin, irritation, seizures, numbness, pain tremors and memory loss.

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BLEACH 2

BLEACH 1

GOMINA AREGBESOLA IS UPLIFTING YOUTH IN THE STATE OF OSUN,NIGERIA-HE IS TRULY A PEOPL’S GOMINA!-FROM THE GUARDIAN Newspaper,NIGERIA

February 3, 2013

FRESH VISAS for youth empowerment, entrepreneurship

Thursday, 31 January 2013 00:00 By 

.

SIREN blaring ambulances, skip eaters in the toe while a state chief executive is sealed!

The natural thing is to do a panoramic view of such a place, look for a possible exit route and possibly beat it. Not even at this time of adverse security challenge in the country.

Just when you are trying to get out of the flux, behold, amid a hail of dust ambulances and compactors came to a halt. One after the other, to the surprise of onlookers, women drivers started alighting from the vehicle and heading straight to the dais to salute Osun State Governor, Rauf Aregbesola.

Indeed, Bimbo Olasoji, a female driver of one of the ambulances started out with the ambition of securing white-collar job in the state having graduated at the Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, with lower credit in Business Administration.

Having sat at home waiting for the elusive job, with hope almost fading, she reluctantly opted to join the then newly created Osun Youth Empowerment Scheme (OYES), at least, according to her, “to give a semblance of dignity.”

Today, Bimbo, like the others who joined this scheme, has been transformed to a paramedic with a full-time job as driver and caregivers in case of emergency.

When asked what motivated her to venture into a job usually meant for men folks, Bimbo said: “I joined O-ambulance because I have passion for driving and saving lives. Though I did not study health-related course, I have been trained to attend to emergencies.”

“Bimbo is not the only OYES cadet that has been transformed. Abdul-Azeez Yusuf from Egbedore Local Government, hitherto unemployed is today by all standards, an entrepreneur.

Indeed, watch closely the jungle boot when you see a military, paramilitary and voluntary organisations, you are likely to see one made by Yusuf among varieties he is producing.  Also, if you see Aregbesola kitted in football jersey for a novelty match, his soccer boot is made in Nigeria, courtesy Yusuf. Reason: He actually presented a customized pair to the governor at the OYES parade on Tuesday.

A part from being an entrepreneur, Yusuf is today training about 20 apprentices and, according to him, if the resources are available, he hopes to accommodate up to 80 or 100 more.

What could be more fulfilling than seeing your baby nurtured to adulthood? This captures the mood of the governor at the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), Orientation Camp, Ede, when he set aside protocol, sang and danced to the admiration of the cadets dignitaries and other well wishers.

A programme written off by Cynics at inception is today the toast of other governors and even the World Bank could not but commend its replication in other states as antidote to poverty and employment.

The big question, however, is if other state governors could let go N200 million on monthly basis from their security votes to support such programme, what will become of unemployment in Nigeria?

But that has been the forte of Aregbesola in the last two years and he is not relenting, as according to the Chairman, OYES Implementation Committee, Femi Ifaturoti, said another batch of 20, 000 will take their turn in February.

While Governor Aregbesola presided over a colourful programme to mark their engagement, the state government disclosed that no fewer than 18,000 of them had found one form of job or the other to keep them out of the unemployment market.

The Governor, who spoke before a crowd of stakeholders and visitors from the Federal Capital Territory, members of the Course 35 of Command and Staff College, Jaji, and others, observed that the OYES has become the foundation of the development and revolution started two years ago in the state.

Aregbesola said that the scheme has in a short period of time become an astounding success, saying the government has the evidence of its success when the World Bank recommended the scheme for study and adoption by other states for public sector mass job creation and youth engagement.

In an address he titled “We are Simply Unstoppable,” Aregbesola said “We are happy to announce that this effort is already yielding positives fruits in numerous areas where about 18,000 of the cadets passing out today have found permanent job placements.

“At the newly established Oloba Farm, OYES volunteers are engaged in cattle and ram fattening and in the broiler out-grower scheme.”

He disclosed that OYES is a programme like no other, which instead of being a white-collar or blue-collar job scheme, was uniquely conceived and designed to take the youths in the state off the streets, give them an orientation about public service and the need to contribute to the development of their society.

According to him, skill trainings for the cadets were also incorporated which involves partnerships and collaborations with the private sector and academic institutions, such as Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State University, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Fountain University, Adeleke University and some other private training and development organisations.

The governor said this is why the scheme is a stop-gap scheme to train the youth and imbue them with positive work orientation and ethics such as self-sustenance, resourcefulness, character and competence, and to give them the self-confidence to forge ahead and overcome life’s numerous challenges after they must have spent two years and be ready for disengagement.

Aregbesola continued: “Two years after, we can now proudly say that our dream has been realised. After the orientation and passing out, the cadets were deployed into various areas of public needs such as public works, sanitation monitoring, paramedics, sheriff corps and traffic marshals.

“Along the line, they were also trained in entrepreneurship and in different vocations of their choices so as to give them what it takes to be on their own and be the masters of their own destiny.

“I must also let you know that OYES is not about youth employment alone. It is also about re-inflating the economy of the State.

“Every month, the N200 million allowances paid to the cadets sink into the economy of the State. Our backward integration policy requires that all the uniform, kits and equipment used by OYES be obtained from the markets spread round all the local governments in the State.

“This has created value chain, improved the economy of the State, empowered families and created wealth.”

He described the passing-out parade as a defining moment towards development and progress as the first batch of OYES volunteer cadets disengaged.

He noted that his administration is certain that the cadets are marching onto greatness, self-fulfillment and self-actualisation, adding that they are another testimony to the fact that the march of progress the state embarked upon last two years is unstoppable because it is backed up by vision, passion and action.

At the event on Tuesday were the Governor’s wife, Alhaja Sherifat Aregbesola; Secretary to the State Government, Alhaji Moshood Adeoti; Chief of Staff, Alhaji Gboyega Oyetola; members of the Executive Council, traditional rulers, religious leaders, leaders and members of various trade organisations and others.

Ifaturoti added that 200 of the cadets had been selected to travel to Germany for a two-year intensive training on agriculture and soil management adding that three others have been trained and participating in the manufacture of the first locally manufactured hydro turbine for generation of electricity under a partnership by UNIDO /NASENI/the state government.

He also said that 74 are currently in Leventis Foundation School for training in modern Agricultural practices while 610 are in OREAP Agriculture training facilities for training in modern agriculture, cultivating farms under a profit- sharing scheme.

He said,“500 are in Odua farmers’ academy for training in modern agricultural practices and 2100 were trained under OYES-TECH public private partnership with RLG to manufacture mobile telephones and laptop computers at their factory currently being set –up and to provide after sales support and services.

“OYES cadets are currently engaged on the largest apiary farm for honeybee production in Africa. 600 are currently engaged in red bricks production under the O- brick partnership and tannery of O’LEADS. 100 are engaged in fish farming through a PPP fish farm at Okuku and other fish farmers.

“182 OYES trained paramedics, 173 are deployed to O-Ambulance scheme and 2 are call-tracking personnel in the Min of Health. 1501 with teaching qualifications are about to be engaged by SUBEB and being posted to primary schools while more than 600 OYES are to be trained and engaged through the state’s Emergency Call Service operations as call operators, emergency service providers and system engineers.

“More than 300 are being supported under a Public Private Partnership driven Farmers Input Supply Shops and 5000 are being supported to provide mobile money, e-payment and allied services through various Schemes adding that more than 10,000 entrepreneurs are undergoing incubation.

Ifaturoti noted that more opportunities abound for the volunteers, who apply diligently adding that successful service in OYES is a demonstration of readiness for greater calling.


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