Archive for the ‘BLACK WOMEN’ Category


April 11, 2007



The Clegg Series site was established in December of 1996 to provide an opportunity for people of African descent and others to present uncensored information about Black History and culture. Our intention was to create a forum for a broad, provocative and respectful exchange of ideas.

Unfortunately, over the past month the entries into our popular guestbook have degenerated into rude, vulgar and racist name-calling. While we certainly encourage controversy, we don’t believe that personal or racial insults are appropriate. Let us continue our dialogue on a constructive level.

During the existence of our site, the major point of contention has been whether the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans. It is quite understandable that this issue would stir up heated passions. For nearly two hundred years now, White scholars have removed Black people from Egypt, Egypt from Africa and Africa from world history. They have always taught that Egypt is in the Near East, the Middle East, the Mediterranean and even the Fertile Crescent. They have never informed the world that Egypt is and always has been on the Continent of Africa.

While White publishers controlled everything written and taught about Africa – – and often published books stating that the Ancient Egyptians were White – – no one, except Black people, complained. However, since Black people began publishing their own work and using the internet to tell our story, suddenly everyone is interested in setting Black people straight by insisting that the Ancient Egyptians were neither Black nor white, but Arabs, like the Arabs of today.

We disagree. Arabs invaded Egypt in the 7th Century AD, long after Ancient Egyptian civilization had declined and faded away. Arabs have no more connection to Ancient Egypt than Europeans have to Ancient America.

Many have argued that, even if the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans, modern African Americans, who lay claim to Egyptian civilization, are not akin to them because their ancestors were West Africans. This reflects a lack of knowledge about African history. Virtually all West African people trace their ancestry to the northeast and ultimately to the Nile Valley. A number of Black scholars have revealed evidence of the ancient migratory trail from the Nile across the continent to West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, modern African Americans do indeed have a direct link to the Ancient Egyptian people.

We understand that most White people and Arabs have great difficulty imagining Black Africans to have laid the foundation of civilization. We sincerely regret that Western racist propaganda has so narrowed their worldview. But, at this site we deal with evidence – – not propaganda, not passion, not preconceived notions or white supremacy.

In our bi-monthly MA’AT newsletter, we present evidence that the main-stream media will not touch, because it would destroy racist myths that have been embraced as inviolable truths by millions around the world. If you find this site to be at variance with your sacred belief system, please avoid visiting us. After all contrary opinions prevail in most other forums. Why not express your views on those sites where you may comfortably reassure people of like mind?

In the meantime, for those of you who chose to study, evaluate and critique the Africentric perspective on the origin of the Ancient Egyptians, we invite you to visit the February, 1997 issue of MA’AT. This monumental document presents a substantial body of evidence that conventional scholars, both Arab and European, choose to ignore.

Many Black scholars have presented the Africentric view on the “race” of the Ancient Egyptians. Their research has triggered a reevaluation of certain assumptions. For example, most Black Africans do not have thick lips and broad noses. There are four distinct Black African physical types. All were part of the Ancient Egyptian population. Secondly Ancient Egyptian drawings were largely conventional. This means that they clearly had a symbolic meaning that was not true to form. For example, the traditional reddish brown color used to portray all men (no matter what their true skin tone) may have represented the African “blood of life” concept. For religious purposes, Black Africans have painted their bodies red or reddish brown from time immemorial.

Therefore, one should not reach hard and fast conclusions about Egyptian ethnicity based on the color used in the tomb and pyramid drawings. Furthermore, even if the colors are accurate depictions of the people, a number of indigenous, unmixed Africans, like the Pygmies, have reddish brown skin tone. Yet no one would deny that these are “Black” African people. In light of this, if the Ancient Egyptians were indeed of reddish brown skin color, they were of the same color as modern Pygmies.

As many writers in the guestbook have attempted to explain, the original Black Egyptians were mixed with invading Libyans, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, Arabs and Western Europeans. This explains the genetic status of the modern Egyptian, who does not resemble his Black African forebears.

To truly determine the Ancient Egyptian “race,” one must consider the full range of linguistic cultural, anatomical, archaeological and genetic evidence. One recent, nonblack scholar, Richard Poe (“Black Spark: White Fire: Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe”) (Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA), has done just that and has reached the following conclusion: “Were the Egyptians black? That is entirely up to up to you. But were they biologically African? It would seem that they were.”

We, of course, believe that the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans and the following is a synopsis of some of the evidence that supports our view:

Evidence from Physical Anthropology
The skeletons and skulls of the Ancient Egyptians clearly reflect that they were a Negroid people with features very similar to those of modern Black Nubians and other people of the Upper Nile and of East Africa.

Melanin Dosage Test
Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop invented a method for determining the level of melanin in the skin of human beings. When conducted on Egyptian mummies in the Museum of Man in Paris, this test indicated that these remains were of Black people.

Osteological Evidence
“Lepsius canon,” which distinguishes the bodily proportions of various racial groups categories the “ideal Egyptian” as “short-armed and of Negroid or Negrito physical type.”

Evidence From Blood Types
Diop notes that even after hundreds of years of inter-mixture with foreign invaders, the blood type of modern Egyptians is the “same group B as the populations of western Africa on the Atlantic seaboard and not the A2 Group characteristic of the white race prior to any crossbreeding.”

The Egyptians as They Saw Themselves
“The Egyptians had only one term to designate themselves =kmt= the negroes (literally). This is the strongest term existing in the Pharaonic tongue to indicate blackness; it is accordingly written with a hieroglyph representing a length of wood charred at the end and not crocodile scales,” singular. ‘Kmt’ from the adjective =kmt= black; it therefore means strictly negroes or at the very least black men. The term is a collective noun which thus described the whole people of pharaonic Egypt as a black people.”

Divine Epithets
Diop demonstrates that “black or negro” is the divine epithet invariably used for the chief beneficent Gods of Egypt, while the evil spirits were depicted as red.

Evidence From the Bible
The Bible states that “…[t]he sons of Ham [were] Cush and Mizraim [i.e. Egypt], and Phut, and Canaan. And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah and Sabtechah.” According to Biblical tradition, Ham, of course, was the father of the Black race. “Generally speaking all semitic tradition (Jewish and Arab) class ancient Egypt with the countries of the black.”

Cultural unity of Egypt With The Rest of Africa
Through a study of circumcision and totemism, Diop gives detailed data showing cultural unity between Egypt and the rest of Africa.

Linguistic Unity With Southern and Western Africa
In a detailed study of languages, Diop clearly demonstrates that Ancient Egyptian, modern Coptic of Egypt and Walaf of West Africa are related, with the latter two having their origin in the former.

Testimony of Classical Greek and Roman Authors
Virtually all of the early Latin eyewitnesses described the Ancient Egyptians as Black skinned with wooly hair.
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Read Guestbook Archives for previous comments.


Please be advised that, since Saturday, November 6, 1999, the guestbook at The Clegg Series has not been open for comment. We are making adjustments on the site which should be completed by Thursday, November 11. Until that time, feel free to read the recent entries as well as those in the archives. We look forward to resuming receipt of your entries after our project is completed.

Legrand H. Clegg, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT newsletter
Age: r, USA – Tuesday, November 09, 1999 at 08:18:49 (EST)

the Night Prophet
Jer-USA-lem the Heavenly city of the America, CA USA – Saturday, November 06, 1999 at 05:57:54 (EST)

Dear Bryan, You and so many white people are insecure because of your genetically recessive albino mutant status. Everyone knows that in the animal kingdom albino rabbits, tigers, lions, monkeys, mice, etc. are inferior to the original stock. Just as your forefathers who lynched black men and then took their penises home with them (to eat them, I presume, so they could pretend that they were REAL men), you feel terrified by the very thought of black African majesty. “GET OVER IT!!!” As Mr. Clegg pointed out in one of the old News letters, black people are the genetically dominant parents of the human family. They laid down the foundation of civilization all over the world (for example you mentioned China, in China the earliest Shang Dynasties were black and they have found pyramids in China associated with them). Also, you claim that Chinese civilization may be the oldest in the world, but new information shows that the black Sphinx of Egypt may be 12,000 years old. Now try to beat that! White people do not represent evolution, they represent devolution. You say that black people are ape-like. Apes have thin lips, flat bottoms and hairy bodies. That sounds white to me. Also, you claim that the Egyptians referred to the people of Kush as wretched. Why don’t you study your own European history? The Greeks, Romans and other Europeans all referred to Western Europeans and Nordics (who now claim to be the ancestors of the Greeks and Romans) to have been wild, barbaric savages. Does this mean to you that since the Greeks and Romans hated Northern Europeans, that the Southern Europeans and Northern Europeans were different races. Get it through your thick skull that Africa was and always has been the land of the blacks. The Egyptians and the people of Kush may have been bitter enemies, as you say, but they were also of the same racial group. Why don’t you stop insulting black people, take your racist butt to another site, and get a life?
Ramses The Black
Age: 42, USA – Saturday, November 06, 1999 at 01:14:48 (EST)

——————————————————————————- OUR MISSION IS TO EDUCATE BLACK PEOPLE. Part of our education must be to free ourselves of the false paradigms and self-serving Eurocentric constraints that even we have fallen victim to. For example, most indigenous people do not view history in the linear fashion that Europeans do. The Western view is that primitive Blacks evolved in Africa, civilization emerged in the Mediterranean and finally, following the age of Enlightenment and Imperialism, we have reached the last word in human achievement with our modern bombs, toothpaste and pornography. In Africa, Asia, Australia, the New World, etc., people of color view the world as having experienced several great ages of cultural emergence, evolution, maturity and destruction. For example, according to Maya tradition, the Fourth Age or Sun was destroyed by a great flood and the current, Fifth Age, will end, perhaps by cataclysmic earthquakes, on December 23, 2012. Virtually all indigenous people insist that there was a very great Golden Age that existed on the earth thousands of years ago and that this age was destroyed, as the Maya tradition holds, by a great flood. Many also insist that this age was far more technologically advanced than the world is today. Western scholars, as a whole, reject all of this and suppress, distort or ignore any and all evidence that confirms it. We believe that the reason for their myopia is because they do not want the people of the planet to know that human beings have exceeded the current so-called pinnacle of civilization in the past. Nevertheless, there are some White authorities who have broken ranks with tradition. They include Graham Hancock, Richard Hoagland, Colin Wilson, Zecharia Sitchin, Rand and Rose Flem-Ath, Robert Schoch and others. If one studies the history of this planet and closely observes its people, you will see the widespread presence of Blacks. The Grimaldis of prehistoric Europe, the Elamites and Chaldeans of Western Asia, the Davidians of India, the Australoids of Southern China, Southeast Asia and Australia and the variety of pre-Columbia Blacks, such as the Olmecs, who occupied the New World in antiquity. We believe that there was indeed a great flood in antiquity and that the world it destroyed was a vast Black empire that had reached extraordinary technological heights worldwide. Evidence of these people, their culture and achievements may be found in the Journals of African Civilization published over the past 20 years by Professor Ivan Van Sertima at Rutger University. Another point, which is gradually gaining ground today, is the likelihood that ancient people were advanced enough to engage in extraterrestrial or space travel. This may sound fantastic, but it is not. As NASA knows, may ancient people have left records of flying machines and numerous people also have traditions of extraterrestrial origins. Our interest in this was kindled by a tradition of the Hopi Indians that during the Third World or Sun their people visited the Moon. Investigating the possibility that ancient people may have engaged in space travel, we found that Soviet Scientists take this issue very seriously and that some Western authorities have documented it. (See “We Discovered Alien Bases On The Moon,” by Fred Steckling, 1981). It appears that obelisks and other monuments have been found on the Moon and that they are mathematically synchronized with the monuments on the Gizen plateau in Egypt. The following article, which sheds light on this subject, was published in the April, 1998 issue of the MA’AT newsletter. Before you shrug your shoulders and walk away, please read this information so that you will see the lengths to which Western scientists will go to suppress BLACK HISTORY-even when such knowledge would be of immeasurable benefit to the human race. Suppression of this and other startling evidence allows racists to gather at our site and smugly prate about their alleged superiority. Our MA’AT readership is comprised of a highly educated, well read, open minded, conscious group of truth seekers. Bearing this in mind, we carefully investigate information on Black history and culture that we think will be of interest to our subscribers. We are keenly aware that the Western academic, scientific and media establishments have consciously suppressed, distorted or ignored the true history of African people and their descendants in the diaspora. So much so that revelations of today, which were widely known and acknowledged in antiquity, are often dismissed as exaggerations, tall tales and “feel good history.” In other words, the Black truths of yesteryear have been swept away by the White lies of today; and the latter are so entrenched, ubiquitous and respected that, in the modern world, TRUTH must prove itself to an often skeptical and even hostile public. Hence, to a world accustomed to viewing African people as genetically inferior, steeped in squalor, starvation and internecine warfare, and light years behind the march of civilization — the ancient Egyptians could not have been Black, Africans did not sail to the New World thousands of years before Columbus and the medieval Blackamoors, who civilized Western Europe, were “not Negroes.” Well, if the skeptics have felt that we have been brash in resurrecting the ancient tradition of the Black origin of civilization, this issue of MA’AT will give them even greater cause for astonishment and disbelief. In light of NASA’s recent effort to cover-up evidence of the African face on Mars (in spite of a barrage of calls, letters and protests from around the world challenging their conclusions) and their apparent ignoring of other monuments on the Red Planet, we believe that it is time to introduce a new dimension of Black history to our readership. Mounting geological, archaeological, astronomical, anthropological and testimonial evidence indicates that a very great civilization flourished on this planet as late as twelve thousand years ago, and was destroyed by a cataclysmic event, universally referred to as “The Flood,” between 11,000 and 9,000 B.C.3 Furthermore, compelling data suggest that this civilization was Black, centered in Upper Egypt and may indeed have been interplanetary in its scope and influence.4 The foregoing theory, in one form or another, has garnered the support of a broad cross-section of scientists, scholars and other authorities. In this issue of MA’AT, we shed further light on this view by presenting startling evidence, long suppressed in this country by NASA, of what appear to be very ancient man-made structures on the moon! In the August issue of MA’AT, we revealed that a growing number of professionals in physics, engineering, cartography, mathematics, systems science, anthropology, architecture, art, history, theology and other fields have done massive research and published thought-provoking articles and books on what appear to be pyramids, a sphinx (“the face”) and other structures on Mars. Since the August issue of MA’AT, a new book, “The Case For The Face” A compilation of papers by a number of scientists, has been published on the Martian face.5 We now know that Mars is not the only celestial body that appears to have evidence of “man-made” structures. The Moon does too. What’s more, scientists in the former Soviet Union first published this information in the 1960’s and it was a hot topic of discussion on college and university campuses in their country at the time. While the Soviets revealed the discoveries, NASA also photographed them but refused to publicize their findings. Hence, even today, over thirty years later, NASA is mute about the apparently unnatural structures on the moon. Fortunately, there are two books that provide photographs of these extraordinary structures on the Moon (See drawings at our website) and give some insight as to their discovery, location and dimensions. David H. Childless, Extraterrestrial Archaeology: Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, Stelle, Illinois, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1994. Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries, New York, Marlowe & Company, 1997. The publisher of “Psychic Discoveries” has granted MA’AT permission to reprint an excerpt from the book in this issue of the newsletter. We would highly recommend that our subscribers obtain Psychic Discoveries, which is an updated edition of Psychic Discoveries Behind The Iron Curtain, first published in 1970. This extraordinary book is promoted as “The Iron Curtain Lifted — all new revelations of long suppressed, explosive secrets and discoveries from Prague to Moscow to Siberia.” The revelations in Psychic Discoveries range from medical breakthroughs, superlearning programs and mind control techniques to “Eyeless sight,” Kirlian photography and time machines. Ostrander, Schroeder and other scholars are urging us to view history from a broader, more conventional perspective, just as our ancestors did before the rise, spread and triumph of Western thought. Author William Fix provides a succinct recapitulation of the traditional view of world history: “The legends of humanity the world over are remarkably consistent in describing the oldest peoples and nations as having what seemed godlike powers. Consistently we hear of vanished nations and gods who could travel and build at will, who lived in another age of the earth terminated by disaster, and who set cultural patterns that endured for thousands of years. Long con- sidered by western anthropologists as the fantasies of children, the substance of the ancient legends has been increasingly supported by discoveries in many fields.4” Is it possible that a very advanced, worldwide, antediluvian civilization, centered in Upper Egypt and Nubia, sent astronauts to the moon? Increasing evidence suggests that such voyages did take place in remote antiquity. The following excerpt from Psychic Discoveries lends credence to this theory. Footnotes 1 Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries, Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, New York, Marlowe & Company, 1997, Illus. 25 (caption). 2 David H. Childless, Extraterrestrial Archaeology: Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, Stelle, Illinois, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1994, p. 33. 3 D.S. Allan & J.B. Delair, Cataclysm: Compelling Evidence of a Cosmic Catastrophe in 9500 B.C., Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1997. Paul LaViolette, Earth Under Fire: Humanity’s Survival of the Apocalypse, Schenectady, New York, 1997. 4William R. Fix, Pyramid Odyssey, Urbanna, Virginia, Mercury Media, Inc. 1984. The Search For Lost Origins, edited by Atlantis Rising, Livingston, Mt. Atlantic Rising Books, 1996. (Special attention should be devoted to parts two, three and six of the book). 5 We do not yet have information regarding the publisher of this book; however, specifics regarding this may be obtained by calling 1-800-228-8381. 6 Fix, Op. cit., p. 212. ——————————————————– Excerpted From: Psychic Discoveries by Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder (Marlowe & Company: New York, 1997) http://www. WHO ELSE WENT TO THE MOON? “There’s something very odd on the moon. Russia’s Luna 9 first photographed what seemed to be artificially-made structures. America’s Orbiter 2 photographed them too. In Russia, space engineer Dr. Abramov gave us pictures and a complex mathematical analysis of these bizarre ‘ruins.’ He thought they were of startling importance. Today, new archaeological and scientific discoveries make these egnimatic? photos even more compelling. To check their authenticity we consulted our friend, Dr. Ivan Sanderson, UFO expert, former British intelligence officer, and science editor of Argosy. Sanderson’s space-agency sources confirmed the photos were genuine. (Only later did we discover that NASA had classified hundreds of lunar photos of certain locations and refuses to release them to this day.) The photos taken by Orbiter 2 on November 20, 1966, over the moon’s Sea of Tranquility show eight pointed spires shaped like the Washington Monument and Cleopatra’s needle – the ancient Egyptian obelisk now in Central Park in New York. The sun was eleven degrees above the horizon so scientists could calculate the height of the structures from their shadows. The tallest “obelisk” is the size of a fifteen story building! The smallest of the group is the height of a large fir tree. In America, William Blair of the Boeing Institute of Biotechnology analyzed the arrangement of the strange structures and concluded that they were in triangular alignments with each other. The obelisks formed six isosceles triangles. That certainly couldn’t have just happened by chance, he figured. Situated beside them, he noted a rectangular “depression” that looked like an excavation whose walls had eroded. It all looked like the work of intelligent beings. Blair called for an archaeological assessment to help unveil the mystery of what were dubbed “the Blair Cuspids.” In Russia, Alexander Ambrov already had the archaeological approach in hand. Besides being a space engineer, he was also steeped in Egyptology and the geometry of the pyramids. When he looked at the configuration of the strange objects photographed by the lunar orbiters, bells went off. He began calculating. The configurations of the pyramids at Gizeh near Cairo can be set out precisely on something called in ancient Egypt, an “abaka” – a grid or table of forty-nine squares. Pyramids are arranged on this grid in a very specific way. Abramov applied the grid to the lunar structures. And felt the flush of discovery. The obelisks on the moon are arranged on this grid in the exact same pattern as the pyramids. The distribution of these lunar objects, states Abramov, is like the plan of the Egyptian pyramids Cheops, Chephren, and Mankura at Gizeh. The tips of the obelisks in this lunar ‘abaka’ occupy precisely the same points as the tops of the three great pyramids.” This is the discovery Abramov pressed on us. Structures on the moon and the pyramids outside Cairo are built on the same precise geometric pattern! It was hard to imagine this was by chance. It was also hard to imagine what that might mean. With Sanderson, in Argosy (August 1970), we broke the news in the West. Abramov continued corresponding with Sheila for years. Then, more recently, a couple of bells went off in our heads. A few years ago, NASA consultant Richard Hoagland and his team brought wide attention to the supposed “Face On Mars.” The Face isn’t alone on Mars, Hoagland reported. There are other seemingly artificial structures. Articles and photos began circulating saying that these structures were arranged on the same pattern as monuments in ancient Egypt, and Britain. It sounded familiar. A bigger bell went off when Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert unveiled secrets about the pyramids hidden for thousands of years. In The Orion Mystery, they published results of a ten year investigation which makes a convincing case that a specific plan for the arrangement of the pyramids was created before the first was built, and was carried forward through the years by the great pharaohs. What’s the plan? With great astronomical precision, the three pyramids are arranged to form a map of the three bright stars in Orion’s belt. If they are right, and Ambrov’s right, then the mystery is cloning. The pyramids in Egypt form a map of Orion. The obelisks on the moon in the same arrangement then also form a map of Orion- from earth’s point of view. Is there a message? IS IT GETTING CROWDED ON THE MOON? Soviet probe Luna 9 landed at the Ocean of Storms on February 4, 1966. Ivan Sanderson examined the Luna photos we’d obtained. “There are two straight lines of equidistant stones that look like markers along an airport runway.” he observed. “These circular stones are all identical, and are positioned at an angle that produces a strong reflection from the sun.” Even stranger, each stone is incised with two perfect circles, one on each side. Luna shifted as it photographed so the Society had a double set of photos at different angles, allowing investigators to set up a 3-D stereoscopic view of the long “stone runway.” One of the U.S.S.R.’s most prestigious scientists, Dr. S. Ivanov, inventor of stereo movies in the U.S.S.R. and winner of the Laureate State Prize (the Soviet equivalent of the Nobel Prize), and engineer A. Brukonenko published a startling analysis of these photos along with Abramov’s data on the mysterious moon monuments in the Soviet magazine Technology for Youth (November 5, 1969). To their surprise the stone markers were spaced at precise, regular intervals. “The objects as seen in 3-D seem to be arranged according to definite geometric laws.” Ivanov concluded. They were unquestionably “planned structures,” and the pointed spires (obelisks), he said, were not natural formations but “Artificial structures of alien origin.” “The moon’s stones shout a message to mankind!” declared the Soviet analysts. The discoveries attracted serious attention in Russian universities, our professor friends told us. Sanderson speculated: “Is the origin of the obelisks on the earth and those on the moon the same?” What is the purpose of an obelisk anyway, and why did the ancients go to all the trouble of making them? We added our own wonderings. Could obelisks be some form of psychotronic generator related to flight? Recently translated Sanskrit astronautics texts reveal ancient humans had developed saucerlike flying craft call “vimanas.” Could the ancients have reached the moon? Or did ancient astronauts travel to both moon and earth, leaving their unique signature and even guide maps on both locations? In his many years of correspondence with us, Dr. Abramov repeatedly emphasized, “The solutions to the mysteries of the moon, UFOs, and the early monuments of Britain like Stonehenge, can all be found in ancient Egypt.” “This discovery [of alien moon structures] must be heralded as among the most important discoveries made by either the American or Soviet space program!” says David Hatcher Childless of the Russian analysis of these moon photos in his book Extra-terrestrial Archaeology. “But strangely enough . . . they have been ignored.” Or have they? The enigma deepens. Childless’s 1994 book makes public hundreds more Soviet and American space-agency and astronomical photos of the moon that reveal dozens of strange artifacts: Seeming pyramids, tunnels, bridges, moving objects that appear and disappear. And there’s more — official NASA photos of large cigar-shaped and saucer-shaped, glowing UFO’s traveling near the moon in and out of its craters. Soviet cosmonauts are not the only ones seeing UFO’s. American astronauts took many of these photos and films during Apollo missions. The first Apollo mission landed at the Sea of Tranquillity where the mysterious moon obelisks are located. Based on Russian space sources, Dr. Vladimir Azhazha claims, “Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large, mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module. But this message was never heard by the public – because NASA censored it.” Armstrong denies ever seeing UFO’s. Maurice Chatelain, former Chief of NASA Communications Systems, who has appeared in numerous UFO documentaries, was quoted in Nexus Magazine — “Armstong saw two UFO’s on the rim of a crater.” He added,” . . . all Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes quite closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin . . . The astronauts informed Mission Control, who then ordered absolute silence.” Nexus reports that Chatelain, in April, 1996, dropped the “bombshell revelation” that the Apollo Moon Mission found “several mysterious geometric structures of unnatural origin on the moon.” It’s hard to unravel the claims and counterclaims about UFO’s. Some American astronauts speak readily to sighting UFO’s as jet pilots. But they deny seeing them in space. All except one, perhaps. Former astronaut, Dr. Brian O’Leary, speaking at the International Forum on New Science in Fort Collins, Colorado, September 18, 1994, declared flatly, “We have contact with alien cultures . . .” He believes the suppression of fifty years of data was orchestrated by the secrecy apparatus of interlocking intelligence and security agencies. “The Cosmic Watergate” he said, “of UFO, alien, mind-control, genetic engineering, free-energy, antigravity-propulsion, and other secrets will make Watergate and Irangate appear to be kindergarten exercises. But,” he asserts, “the truth will and must be known eventually.” Is the moon a UFO base for earth reconnaissance? Were Apollo astronauts, while collecting moon rocks, actually extraterrestrial archaeologists examining “ruins?” Is this the most explosive secret of all — half a century of suppressed evidence of alien encounters and activities? Could the big Soviet-American push into psi research have another facet-motivated not only by the Cold War, but also by the urgent need to cope with ETs? In 1966, Dr. Courtney Brown claimed in his book Cosmic Voyage that for years, U.S. intelligence and defense agencies have been using remote-viewing clairvoyants to try to track UFOs visiting earth. Could the costly Soviet Tesla projects and the U.S.’s HAARP– which use the ionosphere for surveillance of space around the planet and deep inside the earth and oceans – have another, more covert defense purpose? With the Cold War over and many missiles dismantled, could these tracking systems also be monitoring UFOs? Could the hypersecret Soviet development of psychotronic weapons have been not only for defense against Westerners, but against the superior technology of ETs? On March 21, 1996, a briefing was held at Washington’s National Press Club, about thirty-year old “suppressed evidence” of manufactured artifacts on the moon. Richard Hoagland and a panel of scientists revealed that photos and film of lunar artifacts have undergone four years of sophisticated analysis and enhancement by the latest scientific and computer technologies — methods that did not exist thirty years ago when the photos were taken. “These official mission films provide compelling scientific evidence for the presence of ancient artificial structures on the moon,” says Hoagland. Computer-enhanced photos of Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean on the moon supposedly show he’s actually standing in front of a huge domed tier — a “ruin” towering above and behind the lunar module Intrepid. NASA has been airbrushing photos, according to Hoagland. The basic purpose of the Apollo program, he claims, “was to send Americans directly to these ruins, to record them on film and to bring back physical evidence (including manufactured artifacts) for analysis on earth.” If that’s true, why was there such a massive cover-up? Hoagland believes thirty years ago people weren’t ready to digest the news about the moon’s surface- “Hard physical ruins left by a race of obviously superior beings,” he says, would have “collapsed civilization.” As we speed toward the millennium, there’s a growing consensus from a host of sources that humanity is heading for a rendezvous with destiny – heading toward acknowledging the wondrous and terrifying news. “We are not alone” – heading towards the shift to “galactic consciousness.” Recent archaeological discoveries, revelations of Native American spiritual leaders, chronicles of many ancient cultures from India to South America – all point to centuries-old visitations by extraterrestrials. And the prediction that the time has come for them to return here again. Humanity’s own origins are shrouded in mystery….”
Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news
USA – Friday, November 05, 1999 at 00:47:40 (EST)


READ THIS: Se alafia ne? One thing I have seen is the incessant barage of characters on this website posting nothing more than mere opinion…White Supremacist opinions at that. I can tell by the words of such Anti-Black Egyptian proponents that they either exist in a state of ignorance or in a realm of biased denial and conscious neglect. To present credible information to support a theory is one thing, but to engage one’s self in a child’s play game of immature insults, name-callings and character assasinations is a horse of a different nature. As my beloved brothers Shekem aka Menes and X-Dude have pointed out, when one runs dry on supporting evidence…one seeks to support bullshxt. This is what this guestbook has been cluttered with lately. Some time ago, I, like others here, defended the Black Egyptian stance with supportable evidence from OUTSIDE of Kemet, notably from the rest of African. However, those only bent on bravado and “bashing illerate negroids” have conveniently overlooked such claims and statements like an elephant would the world and reality of bro. ant. Eventhough, I believe outside evidence is valuable to concluding as to what realm and plane Kemet and the Kamau (Egyptians) fall in. Africa provides us with substantial material to connect Kemet with the African world and reality; so much proof does Africa hands that proposing a cultural diffusion theory would seem too elementary and simple to resolve the issue. This bulk of evidence is usually spoken by Euro-centric “scholars” in a casual, roundabout and tongue-in-the-cheek way, I guess either they are aware of the potential of such a linkage and are afraid of recognizing it or they are so biased in thought that Africa seems like the least likely place to look. Yet, the fact remains, as I was talking to an elder of mine, that there is a “new blood” of African researchers, scientists and scholars whom, in the next millenium, will become more aggressive and creative in expressing the true African experience. This vanguard of ancestor-inspired warrior/scholars will redefine our scientific theories and methods, in accordance with the senses of their forebearers, and initiate a renaissance in thought, study and most importantly, RECLAMATION. Aware of these young and brash upstarts, the Western academia is launching a new initiative to nip at the bud the productive flowering which is inevitable. Yes, “Ivy League” and company, knowing their backs are ever more forced against the wall and that they are being put into a unknown defensive posture, figure that a new offensive move is the most feasible tactic, which is what we are witnessing here with this un-educated group of propogandists invading African sanctity. Have you ever wondered why Skip Gates is now all of a sudden motivated to produce a “tourist guide” of Africa, which in content attempts to separate Kemet, Nubia (Kush) and Ethiopia from Africa, while at the same time, tries to demonize and scrutinize those Africans you can not put a “white-face” on? What was Mr. Gates trying to prove, and much subtly, trying to imply? Is this not a Euro-centric ruse of using a Negro to stop the rise of Black Reclamation intellectuals? The new millenium is approaching and interest in African is increasing as the Western world shifts into high gear its Globalization plans. Young Black minds like those who visit this website are dramatically becoming a serious threat to these Western globalized hegemony plans and they MUST not be afforded the luxury to proliferate! This is what the invaders in here are saying. To further the cause of our Liberation, we must stop being “rote” learners and become radical poineers listening to the ancestral drums that beat in our hearts and minds as we search for more innovative ways to our Redemption. It is up to us! We need more effective Black renegade archeologists (who will explore West Africa and other places), tenacious anthropologists ( who research the world’s end to tell humanity story in a true light), intuitive historians (who can present the facts in a TIMELINE fashion), brilliant mathematicians (who can redefine the concept of time and document the mathematical genius of Africa), skilled metaphysicians (who are capable of telling African cosmologies and hero-stories) and we need ad infinitum. Understand these needed people can not perform effectively, efficiently and progressively without the Proper Funding for their endeavors, so therefore, we need ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT on a collective level to address the affairs relevant to African survival and resurrection. What do Europeans have to lose in remaining adamant to a subconsciously professed African (Negro) inferiority, that is preached symbolically. You didn’t catch it. If these Negroes began to band together and channel their research and resources collective into a coherent fusion, all plans of our imposed hierarchy is null and void. Blacks will began to bring the yoke of Euro-centric orientation such as the Mercator map with its special emphasis of placing Europe in centralized location as the sun is in this helio-centric “SOLAR” system. The Negroes will not call next year the year 2000, in agreement with our Euro-centric structuring of time, but it will be for Diasporan Africans…the next year 441 M.P. (Maafa Period). They overthrow us like the Visigoths did Rome with the rest of the northern “dumb blond” barbarians. Our standards of civilization, our method of name things into existence, our process of paper ordained codes, our priviledge status in this global apartheid caste system, our rape of natural resources to further our aims, our institutionalized concept of progress of Third World countries, our ideas of literacy, our explanation of the world and our very life blood will all be forever a nasty memory. This what Europeans would lose, but it is impossible for Europeans to overstand this fact since the world is nice and “right” as it now is. Odabo! My people be strong and continue to hear the ancestors.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 20:49:28 (EST)


They just don’t get it! The trailer trash just don’t get it! We know you are afraid! You are a tiny minority that is in “psychological control” through the use of terror and systems of oppression. This makes you extremely vulnerable! We know you are afraid of the FACT that your system of racism white supremacy is coming to an end. That is why they come here absolutely paranoid about “WHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES AND OUR OWN ANCESTORS”. I do not hate all white people, and anybody that does is making a mistake. I do hate the white system of oppression, exploitation, and all those that support it (Black Uncle Tom SAMBOs and white alike). My comments are directed to them and them alone (regardless of their numbers). The main thing these white supremist “SLIMEING” this site and the Earth don’t understand is that WE DON”T CARE WHAT THEY THINK. This site is for us to discuss our people alone. There is nothing these savages can do to effect how we think of ourselves once we have been exposed to the truth. I am a witness to this for I can say the I was an unconscious uncle tom at one time. Now, I will give my life for my Black people. Now, enough with the blonde hair blue eye mummy….we have laughed enough! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 16:01:46 (EST)

Correction in the third sentence: And it is fear of the end of their vicious system of exploitation that keeps them from admitting that the Egyptians were BLACK.
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 14:40:02 (EST)

Devil’s Advocate: First of all Sherry claimed that the Egyptians were Nordics with Blonde Hair and Blue eyes. Secondly, Arabs are considered “dark whites”. And it is fear of the end of their vicious system of exploitation that keeps them from admitting that the Egyptians were white. As long as they can say that the Egyptians were “dark whites” they will always maintain the false idea of racial superiority with which they have fooled so many people. And yes they have fooled many people. The evidence that was presented clearly indicates that the Egyptians were black. Had this not been a racist world, and we were truly interested in classifying the differences in humans, we would have to reach the conclusion that the Egyptians were Black. By white people owns standards they are Black. Why is it that the white “scholars” are now changing the criteria for racial identification when they realize that it could mean that we started civilization. Lastly, ever heard of the saying that says you must love yourself before you can love someone else. Well, we (I know I) don’t teach hate, I teach love for self. If this world were not turned into a world filled with racism where a group of people are forcefully subjugated socially and worse psychologically, for the the economic benefit of another, we could just go on and focus on the betterment of human kind. Right now it is one step at a time. Had this not been a racist world everyone would acknowledge their debt to their ancestors and the original people of this earth. This is where we are going. Believe me the process has begun and it won’t be long now. All the efforts of the racist are doing nothing but prolonging the inevitable!
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 14:36:46 (EST)


Raping the earth, polluting the air, destroying animal species not because it was needed but because it was wanted. You call that civilized. Isn’t circumcision sexual mutalation? Would you call the legal murder of thousands of people on death row every year civilized? How about the fact that you kill thousands through second hand smoke? You think you’re more civilized because you don’t have to see the people you kill? How about the sanctions on Iraq that kills millions of man, women and children. Death by starvation of millions to appease your unlimited want. Are you great because you stole land and had others build the nation you now benefit from? Are you great because you build weapons of mass destruction? Or maybe because you’ve caused diseases that are unknown to many.All those who wrote derogatory remarks about the original people, I know you are AFRAID. This is why you are here. This is why you want to put in words to discourage our efforts. Your numbers are dwindling to nothing, you have effectively ensured your death by depleting the ozone. The End of Western Civilization is near and you can see it. Babylon will fall. If you think about it, spiritualy, you are the equivalent of the devil. According to the Bible, who is now in charge of the world? But not for long. The devil has done a lot of things that blind ones see as being great. But you see the TRUTH has returned. You are like a virus that has infected the earth, we are the here with the medication that will purge you from this earth. For almost 200,000 years we had peace. You see, building monuments doesn’t define the greatness of humans. Civilization is living harmoniously, working with nature, ensuring balance, being spiritually entuned. As for Advocate, Sherry, Iskander, Brian, PRO TRUTH, and whoever else wrote anything against us, I make you a promise. I guarantee your children will one day regret that their ancestors so evil and they will honor, respect, and love the original people to whom their debt is immeasurable!!! We can put a wager on it that our children’s children will have to pay. We both know your downfall is inevitable!!!
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 01:07:26 (EST)

USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 20:35:47 (EST)



To Sherry: SHAME ON YOU!!! While you are so busy trying to respond to the barrage of Black intellectuals’ comments, you have failed in English 101. Your statement “you will never get no where” is grammatically incorrect, in that you use a double negative. I thought you White folk learned that as early as the 11th grade. SHAME ON YOU!!!
The Englishman
USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 12:32:28 (EST)

The Sherry thing is BACK! Or should we call it Harman, Advocate, white trash, etc. The Sherry thing (is back from its Neo Nazi sh-t kicking Aryan white supremist hate site). Back with more stories about blonde hair blue eyed mummies. Funny how all these people sound the very same. More white supremist minority strategies of making themselves bigger and more together than they are. Sounds like a “B” horror movie. Blond hari blue eyes …..these mummies must have been neo nazi white supremist mummies! Back to the caves of the Caucausus mountains where you were sexually abusing animals. Neo nazi mummies! I needed a good laugh this morning Sherrie thing…..thank you. You are the joke of the internet! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 10:42:07 (EST)


To: white Harmon and white Advocate person: In case you can’t read, I would like to inform you that the moderator (brother Clegg) has just given you both another “LEGENDARY” kick in the ass! You have made fools of yourself with your blonde mummy antics. I think this would be an appropriate time and opportunity for the both of you white boys to repent and appologize. You have disgraced yourselves and your white race! PATHETIC!!!!!!! OH by the way Mr. white Harman person, brother Cheikh Anta Diop did not just have some sort of degree in physics as you attempted to distort the truth (typically). Brother Diop was a Physicist, a Linguist, a Carbon Dater, Anthropologist, etc. This man is renouned by Black and white scholars worldwide. You should lick the boots of every Black person you pass for this folly. When you come here, come in honesty not slander. We will meet you on any level you want to play. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 02:12:12 (EST)

TO: Bryan Harmon: This is a brief response to your comments. First in his book “Black Spark: White fire, Fire: Did ancient Black navigators civilize Europe?” White journalist Richard Poe devotes several chapters to the work of bioanthropologist Dr. Shomarka Keita. Dr. Keita’s conclusion regarding the ancient Egyptians was that the indigenous Egyptians, who laid the foundation of civilization, were blacks. Poe also does an excellent critique on Frank Snowden and his distorted views. For years Whites refused to publish Snowden’s work, so he finally decided to compromise himself. Yes the Egyptians were lighter than the Nubians, just as the Toucouleur are lighter than the Nigerians, but they are both of the same racial stock. Why is it that White people can accept dark Sicilians and Nordics as extremes of the White race, but they can’t apply this reasoning to Africans. The bust of Nefertiti has no insignia on it whatsoever. There is no evidence as to whom it belongs. On the other hand, scores of temple carvings of her and her husband in the City of Akhetaton show them both to have been very Negroid. Some carvings even show her wearing her hair in cornrows. As for the physical types of the ancient Egyptians, I recommend that you read an article, “The Biological Relationship of The Ancient Egyptians to Other Populations,” by Dr. Keith Crawford of Howard University. It appears in the new Journal of Pan African Studies that can be obtained by calling: (818) 677-3311. After presenting a diversity of data, the author concludes: “Studies of linkage disequilibrium and allelic variation at a mini-satellite locus suggests that Hamitic Africoids are descended from sub-Saharan Africans, the differences in trait probably due to genetic drift and environmental selection. Ancient Egyptian populations with ‘non-Negroid” facial features are most similar to these modern Hamitic (Elongated Africoid) populations of Northeast Africa. Preliminary studies with Mitochondrial DNA also suggest affiliations with sub-Sharan Africans for ancient Egyptians and some modern Egyptian groups. Within an evolutionary paradigm, differences between Upper and Lower Egyptians once thought to be racially-influenced differences, can now be alternatively interpreted as clinal variation, an expression of environmental selection. The ancient Egyptians have limb proportions and other features of their stature that are the same as all other African populations but different from Caucasoids in Europe and Asia. These adaptations indicate a long period of evolution in tropical regions. Since Egypt is not in tropical Africa, these observations reinforce sub-Saharan Africa as the region of origin for the ancient Egyptians. Collectively, all of these data strongly support an African bio-historical affiliation for the ancient Egyptians and their closest relationships with other Africoids. The ancient Egyptians were most similar to populations inhabiting Northeast Africa, which included variants with Broad (Negroid), Elongated (Hamitic) and Nilotic facial traits.” The following statement that we posted on October 13 provides responses to some of the other issues that you raised. A more scientific response was posted here on October 19, by “Blackfacts.” It would also be worth reading: To Carl and Sherry: Most of our Black colleagues refuse to respond to White people who passionately condemn our contention that the ancient Egyptians were Black Africans. They believe that to attempt a debate with Caucasians on this issue is a useless dialogue of the deaf. We, on the other hand, believe that most White people are victims of a vast conspiracy promoted by scholars, scientists and politicians who have developed a “civilization” based on fiction. Part of this fiction is that Whites have been the harbingers of civilization since time immemorial, and that Blacks and other people of color have been their subordinates throughout history. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Hence, when you come to this site with your racist views, we are certain to respond. We believe that the falsification of history by White scientists and scholars has remained unchallenged for far too long. And we certainly will not tolerate it here. So, let’s get it on! We’ll start with you, CARL: It is absurd for you to claim that “no one denied Egypt is in Africa…just not Black Africa.” I challenge you to find 10 books written by White Egyptologists who mention that Egypt is in Africa. They are in such denial that they cannot even tell the truth about geography. Why? Because they know that to mention Africa would suggest Blackness and the real origin of all African people, including the Egyptians. Secondly, you claim that the Egyptians “mixed with blacks” during the late period and that this was responsible for the decline of the country. This, too, is untrue. The Egyptians themselves traced their origin to the BLACK SOUTH- the land of Punt, modern day Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Even racist white Egyptologists will admit that the early fossils and skulls of the predynastic Egyptians are “Negroid.” The Black Egyptians later mixed with Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Roman, etc.-all of whom brought nothing but destruction and desecration of monuments, traditions and human beings. Finally, if Egypt were indeed a white (you say “blonde”) civilization, why did White people cross the mountains and hills of Europe, sail across the Mediterranean into Africa and then cross miles of hot desert sands to begin civilization on another continent, yet they left no evidence of their brilliant civilization in Europe! Why? Because this never happened! The truth is that Black people founded Egypt long before Europeans even existed in the world. White journalist Richard Poe has said the following about the earliest White Egyptians: “Why is the racial identity of ancient Egypt such a sensitive issue? Perhaps because it touches on the question of who invented civilization: Whites or Blacks? When the pyramids were built, Europe was still a wilderness, peopled by cannibals and headhunters.” We are not “inventing proof,” Carl, White scholars and scientists have been doing so for two hundred years, and we, as Black people, are simply not going to tolerate this degradation of our people and our history any more. It must stop, now, as we enter the 21st Century. Now, as for you, Sherry: You stated that you do not understand what White people would gain from claiming the ancient Egyptians were White, if this were not so. Why would they lie about history? White scientists and scholars would lie about history for the perpetuation of the illusion of White supremacy. White supremacy dominates everything in this society (i.e., economics, education, labor, law, politics, religion, etc.) The distortion of history is just one component of this longstanding practice and tradition. The Egyptians had many slaves, some of whom were Black people from the south-the very south to which the Egyptians traced their origin. In centuries passed Europeans enslaved other Europeans, and no one questioned the fact that some White people enslaved other Whites. But, if Egyptians enslaved Nubians they must have been of a different race. This is nonsense. Both the Egyptians and Nubians were African people. As you will see below, in my brief reference to Egyptian mummies, the remains that you make reference to are totally inconclusive. There is no proof of the true identity of the mummies of Ramesis II and Queen Hatshepsut. Furthermore, Queen Hatshepsut was the granddaughter of the unquestionably Black queen Ahmose Nefertari, co-founder of the 18th dynasty. Hatshepsut’s entire family was of Nubian origin. Moreover, have you seen the wall paintings of Queen Hatshepsut’s expeditions to the African nation of Punt. The king and queen of Punt are clearly Black Africans. The peaceful relationship between the Egyptians and the Puntites resulted from the fact that the Egyptians traced their origin to Punt. We are well aware of the on again/ off again conflict between the Negroid Egyptians and the Black Nubians. Breasted, as most other racist Egyptologists, has erroneously defined the word Nahasi as “Black,” when it meant no such thing. So all of that nonsense that you have quoted about “Blacks” not being able to cross into Egypt, etc. is a farce. Nahasi was a geographical name applied to certain peoples, tribes and nations south of Egypt. Remember, the people of Punt (modern day Somalia, Kenya & Uganda) were also south of Egypt and Black, but the Egyptians did not refer to them as Nahasi because they were in a different location (in East Africa and on the horn of Africa). In this vein, Cheikh Anta Diop has written: “Because of this inscription which marked off the border between the Meriotic Sudan and Egypt after the troubles of the Twelfth Dynasty, it is often concluded that this separated two distinct races, that the stela barred ‘Blacks’ from entering Egypt. Such a conclusion is a grievous error, for the term “Black” was never used by the Egyptians to distinguish the Meriotic Sundanese from themselves. Egyptians and Meroitic Sundanese belonged to the same race. They designated each other by tribal and regional names, never by epithets related to color, as in cases involving contact between a black race and a white race.” Diop also adds: “Not one of the many modern texts is authentic that mentions the term ‘Black’ as if it had ever been used by the Egyptians to distinguish themselves from Negroes. Whenever these texts relate some fact reported by the Egyptians about ‘Blacks’ it is a distortion. They translate Nahasi by ‘Blacks’ in order to serve the cause. Strangely enough, the word Kushite becomes incompatible with the idea of ‘Blacks’ as soon as it refers to the first inhabitants who civilized Arabia before Mohammed; the land of Canaan, prior to the Jews (Phoenicia); Mesopotamia, prior to the Assyrians (Chaldean epoch); Elam; India, before the Aryans. This is one of the many contradictions that betray the specialists’ fear of revealing facts they must have detected.” Now the word Kemit, WHICH DOES MEAN BLACK, was used by the Egyptians to describe themselves; but the same Egyptologists who mistranslate Nahasi as Black claim that Kemit refers not to the people, but to the soil. We reject this nonsense out of hand. You mentioned Sesostris I and III and claim that they hated “the Blacks.” Sherry, not only were these middle Kemit pharaohs of Nubian origin Nubia, but their sculptures depict them as unquestionably Black Africans themselves. Even some of their queens are shown wearing “Afro” hairstyles. What we have here is Black Egyptians at war with Black Nubians. You cannot expect us to believe that these Black Pharaohs referred to the lands south of Egypt as Black lands, when they called their own country, Egypt, “the place of the Black people.” Nahasi does not mean Black. In the midst of all your citations, you also mentioned the pharaoh Ahmose, brother of Ahmose-Nefertari (also his queen) as saying “The Black is helpless. Even Harris and Weeks (no friends to Africentrists), who wrote “X-Ray The Pharaohs,” admit that this pharaoh and his family were “genetically influenced by people of the south.” They go on to say: “Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian…origin for Sequenenre (Ahmose’s grandfather) and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is true, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stands in need of considerable re-examination.” Now here you have two White Egyptologist acknowledging that Ahmose was Nubian, and yet, you insist that he despised “the Blacks.” We reject your reasoning, Sherry, because it is the same preposterous thinking that has led to the illusion of a White (blonde, you claim) Egypt in the middle of Africa. Generally, when the Egyptians painted foreigners, they depicted them true to form; but when they painted themselves, they often depicted themselves as reddish brown-the colors of life, blood and rebirth. This was a conventional color, which they used no matter what the actual color of the individual might have been. When the Egyptians chose to depict the races with which they were familiar, they depicted themselves and the Nubians with BLACK SKIN. They depicted Europeans and Semites as white and tan respectively. If you visit the tomb of Ramesis III (1200 B.C.) you will see this firsthand. Furthermore, the most ancient monument in Egypt, the Sphinx, bears the likeness of a Black African and, during the late period, when Herodetus and other Greeks visited Egypt, they described the people as Black skinned with woolly hair: Hence, from the early date of the Sphinx, through Ramesis III and finally the late period, the Egyptians were clearly “Negroid,” in spite of the gradual mixture with foreigners. As for blue-eyed Egyptians, this is clearly a fluke. As a matter of fact, it may even be fake. Not even the staunchest racist would claim that the Egyptians had blue eyes. Next, the “mummy evidence” that you mention has lost all credibility. In a recent article in KMT magazine, it was pointed out that grave robbers stacked scores of mummies on top of one another, and later Egyptologists picked and chose at random which mummies they wanted to represent which pharaohs. Since most of the Egyptologists are blatantly negrophobic, we, as Blacks, certainly do not trust the validity of the mummies they have selected, especially when these mummies do not bear the characteristics of the corresponding sculptures and monuments. All of the monuments of Ramesis II depict him with a very broad nose and thick lips-White people have pointed noses and thin lips. It is interesting that you would focus on King Tutankhamen (18th dynasty) to draw a distinction between the Egyptians and the Nubians. The 17th dynasty was of almost pure Nubian origin and the 18th dynasty was founded by the same family. All 18 of these pharaohs and queens were either Black, Negroid or of Black origin. Don’t you understand, Sherry, where there was conflict, these were Black people fighting other Black people, just as is happening in parts of Africa today. King Tut’s mother and father were Negroid. If you don’t accept this from us, then, let us give you the names of a few White scholars who agree: John Wilkinson, Gerald Massey, Christian Desroches-Noblecourt and Alexander von Wuthenau. As a matter of fact, Von Wuthenau says the following about King Tut, which should clarify our position for you: “The features of this king, whose mother was of pure black stock, are almost as Negroid as the ones of his captured Nubian enemies.” One of the founders of modern Egyptology was Champollion the younger. He and his Colleagues knew that the ancient Egyptians were not White people. In a letter to his brother, he described the paintings on the tomb of Sesostris I: This is what he said about the White people, who were designated last in the status of human beings: “Finally, the last one is what we call flesh-colored, a white skin of the most delicate shade, a nose straight arched, blue eyes, blond or reddish beard, tall stature and very slender, clad in a hairy ox-skin, a veritable savage tattooed on various parts of his body; he is called Tamhou…finally (and I am ashamed to say so, since our race is the last and the most savage in the series), Europeans who, in those remote epochs, frankly did not cut too fine a figure in the world. In this category we must include all blond and white-skinned people living not only in Europe, but Asia as well, their starting point.” Finally, even with all of the White suppression of evidence and lies, most of the mummies on display have Negroid features; DNA tests show a genetic relationship between the Egyptians and Nubians. Scholars like Diop and Greenberg have demonstrated that the tongue of the Pharaohs was related to other African languages. Furthermore, if the Egyptians were white and blonde, why didn’t the Greeks and Romans say so. They and the Hebrews described the ancient Egyptians as Black skinned with woolly hair. You and your kinsmen may continue to perpetuate white supremacist nonsense; but we as people of African descent are no longer dependent on you for information, thank God. So we will tell our own story, whether you like it or not!!! Legrand H. Clegg II Editor & Publisher, MA’AT news
Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news
USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 22:27:34 (EST)

For starters Cheik Anta Diop was not an egyptologist he had a Phd. in some sort of science, perhaps physics.In 1990 and 1992 Dr. Shomarka Keita a black bioanthropologist conduted reasearh on Egyptian skulls and found the northern Egyptians had skulls intermediate between north Europeans and Egypts southern neighbors. This study was in the American Journal of American Anthropology or Archeology I forget which one. Secondly, It must be remebered the Ancient Egyptians called their southern neighbors “wretched” Kush or “miserable” Kush which shows the Egyptians thought their southern neighbors were savages. Martin Bernal in his book Black Athena described the northern Egyptians as being a lighter Meditteranian type while the southern Egyptians were dark. Greek writers such as Manilius, Flavius Philistratus, and Arrian all commented on how the Egyptians were lighter than their southern neighbors but the afrocentrists ignore this. Frank Snowden a black classicist from Howard University found those examples of Greek authors. Also Dr.Snowden talks about how Greeks called black people Ethiopian which means “burnt faced”.Look at the famous bust of Nefertiti this is a perfect example of a northern Egyptian. She has a tan complexion and very non negroid facial features. She was the Queen of Akhnaten.Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodsan who are real Egyptologists and experts on mummies because they have seen thousands while studying in Egypt have said that the northern Egyptians were a light tan complexion with straight hair and non negroid features while the southern Egyptians were a dark brown and negroid looking people. The problem is that to qualify as black in most countries you must be pretty dark and the northern Egyptians dont qualify as even fairly dark. In South Africa,the Latin American countries and Arab countries light brown is not a black person. The same applies in White countries unless you have black ancestry and it is the melanin test Diop simply says that the Egyptians are darker than northern Europeans but that is not good enough for me or the greatest expert on mummies in the world Salima Ikram who is an Egyptologist in Egypt as mentioned before. She has seen thousands of mummies and could kill Diop in a debate.I met her in Washington D.C. and she is incredibly intelligent.She is not white either and she has a dark compiexion so I doubt she is racist.We need a commission of archeologists and egyptologists from around the world to study the remains of the Egyptians and reach a real conclusion about their race once and for all.The Greeks lived on the Meditteranian and had light brown skin,straight brown hair, and non negroid features and the northern Egyptians had these same features. With Diop’s argument I guess they must all be black.All Diop had to do was test southern Egyptians to get Black Egyptians and it appears that some of his testing was done on southern sites and allowed to stand for all of Egypt.I must be cautious of this problem. According to Rosa David a prominent Egyptologist the Egyptians had different blood types and her study did not even talk about race at all.The Egyptians had different comlexions and to claim them as either “black” or “white” reveals much more about the person making the claim than the Egyptians themselves!!!
Bryan Harman
Age: 24, Richmond, VA USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 13:42:32 (EST)


this message is for tutmose turner in compton california. You are a true revolutionary. I wanted to e-mail you because I am in the Afrikan Student Union in California and I am finding it very hard to organize my comrades behind a central belief. please e-mail me. Your comrade a student in the art of Afrikan Amerikkkan revolution
USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 00:49:37 (EST)

:10 (EST)

Se alafia ne? It is good that we have brothers and sisters aware and conscious. The new millenium is approaching and our efforts as African people should be focused on nationbuilding, i.e. securing land, developing strategetic economic and socializatioin progams, projects and policies, incorporating a sense of national identity and evolving political platforms instead of the age old political Democratic/Republican favoritism. We have the potential to re-surrect like phoenix from flames just as sure as our ancestors build the khu-tis (pyramids), Zimbabwe, Ghana, Benin and other grand testiments. We are the original people, those who are destined for a great new within the old cycle of reciprocity. Let’s network, Let’s connect, Let’s build, Let’s strive. Black People, Black People, beautiful Black People, let no one define your reality except yourself!!!! This includes your past, present and future. Odabo. Ase Ase Ase-O Ire-O!!!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 20:03:20 (EST)

42 (EST)

Should have expected it. This is in regard to an article from ABC News titled “First Americans from Europe?” located at —- Only weeks after skull evidence suggests (even proves) that blacks were first in the Americas, the Europeans try to steal the spotlight and say that their ancestors were first because their spear heads are “sooooo similar.” I think I am more apt to believe the skull and skeletal evidence, than spearheads. Europeans want to claim everything for themselves. It is soooo annoying.
Me again
Age: even older, Smalltown, In USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 17:19:46 (EST)

Yes by Brothers, as the calcified Pineal Melanin deficient trailer trash white boy (Advocate person) said, the Native Americans have indeed endured so many trajadies. However, notice the Advocate thing did not address the fact that the white boy perpetrating GENOCIDE on the Native American was and is the only trajedy. Who splaughtered all the Indians? ANSWER: white boys! The only thing this savage Advocate white boy is sorry about is that it can’t go out to rape and kill today. Actually, since 100% of the mass murders and serial killers are white males….he just may be out killing as I write this message. SAVAGE BARBARIAN TRAILER TRASH with no upper lip (chicken lips Advocate)!
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 16:39:22 (EST)

To: Bro. James Esther: Brother, “EVERY DOG HAS ITS DAY”. I’m sure you have heard that saying. The whites have been so-called in charge (to some extent) only a very brief period of time in history. Their oppressive terror has only lasted approximately 400 years. That is all! In the larger scheme of time and space, this is really insignificant, and it would be a grave error (an error the we make frequently) to think this is by any means a permanent condition. We are simply in the midst of a dark period of time and one that we will be able to draw knowledge from to eternity! The whites are only a tine MINORITY (less than 10%) and shrinking fast. Thus the reliance of the white man on so-called technology, brutality, geocide, and lies to stay in so-called control. Power is never relinquished voluntarily! NEVER! No brother, the white boy is not that powerful…..he is however a survivor at all cost. They are simply trying to survive. So then, what does it matter if you lie if it is to survive. The object is to stay in the game to survive at “ALL” cost. When a critical mass of Black people stop the negro mentality of thinking of these genetically recessive people as something special over us, stop trying to pray for the enemy and start to “BATTLE” them, when we start to “WORK TOGETHER AND LOVE ONE ANOTHER…….the worldwide system of racism white supremacy will fall overnight! “Every dog has its day”! Look around at the big picture and you will see the light going out on racism white supremacy. Life is a state of mind……and so is the so-called power of the white man. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 16:24:46 (EST)

Curtis is absolutely correct. Here is more information on it: This is a webpage Mr. Bheki Ngidi of South Africa who is president of the Alexandra, Johannesburg branch of the Universal Negro Improvements Association (Marcus Garvey’s organisation) in South Africa. He would like to open communication lines with you since I am busy linking up with Afrocentric people and organisations worldwide.
Mackens P. Audena
USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 11:45:30 (EST)

To “James Esther” You asked a good question. How is it that Europeans and Americans of that descent can still oppress black peoples. The answer is simple actually. Africa and the Carribean are rich in natural resources. Europeans and Americans however, have a strangle hold on extraction, production, manufacturing, export, etc. When black peoples try to cut into the business and manufacture at home what the Europeans usually manufacture using the natural resources of the black peoples (i.e., their land) white businessmen conspire to drive those individuals out of business. They intimidate the locals (for lack of a better word), and put pressure on the governments (by threatening to cut or end trade, investments, etc.). The governments (often corrupted by “western” ideals) would rather appease the European and American officials and businessmen, than do what is right economically and socially for the people. Now I say corruption, but even more so it is intimidation. Many African & Caribbean leaders feel that they must appease the white-owned multi-national corporations, otherwise their economies will be even worse than what it is. So they do not try to compete against them, they do not ask for fair (i.e., American equivalent) wages, they do not ask for any of this. And if they are unable to compete because of unfair trade practices, their economies will collapse. This is a water-downed and over-simplified explanation, but it is the best that I can do in the short time that i have. Travel to Jamaica, and other Caribbean nations. Travel to Africa. See how much of their economy is controlled by foreign whites. That is a primary source of oppression. Please forgive my spelling mistakes, I do not have time to proofread. Curtis
Age: 27, BROOKLYN, NY USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 11:24:14 (EST)


“Racial diversity as we think of it today only began approximately 25,000 years ago (Diop, 1991)…in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Before that, all humankind was dark-skinned and Africoid.” I, as well as many of the posters here do not hate white people. Yet it seems that many white people are blinded to the fact that they have proclaimed their culture as the universal culture; thereby, subjugating all other cultures. They have defined beauty (Anything closer to white is beauty; this is why all other people want to be anything but Black), and intelligence by their standards. Our children are born into poverty because when European immigrants were conquering the western frontier and mining gold, Africans and American-Africans were being conditioned to believe that they were inferior. And what white people can’t see is that this process goes on today and everyday, with our children, in one form or another. One example is the one provided for us by Brother Curtis. Heres more, “Snow White,” “Beauty and the Beast” and almost everything on television. Those are reinforced in schools with biased history books and by school teachers who are unconsciously biased and who unconsciously affected the minds of our youth so that they can grow up to fulfil the prophesies of this society. All of the atrocious acts committed by the Europeans for greed and economic reasons. This theft of land and people and exploitation of others to attain goals is viewed as being great by many who would rather be anything but that of the original people. It is not there fault they have been conditioned to believe this way. Well, Black people, we are here to bring out the trueth. History has not ended. Let us continue to spread the word as we are doing. Let us continue to re-Africanize our selves and continue to play our parts in our upliftment. And let us do it without committing the same acts that were committed on us. That way we will show that we, the original people, made in the image of God, truly are great. We were great before European intervention just the way that we are. Greatness is not measured by their standards. Yet, we will prove that the resilient children of Neter can accomplish anything even without “cheating.” Europeans will never be able to erase the wrong that they have done, but since we are, we shall be better. We realize the past, let us now look towards the future. We need to begin networking and working together. We need to think about how to aid Africa to become the great and powerful nation it is destined to become. It doesn’t surprise me that American-Indians will not claim descent from Africa, many Afro-Caribbeans do the same thing. It is because they only wish to relate to what has been taught to them by the Western world as being superior. Well, you know what sometime in the future, I envision an African world, with the spread of the trueth, (Advocate, I hope this bothers you) where all people give will give respect to mother Africa and the original people. So it is written, so let it be done.
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Sunday, October 31, 1999 at 22:07:41 (EST)

Citrus, please provide your sources regarding your claim about black Sumer and Elam, and how the “original people who excavated the sites” said they were Negroid. I cannot find any verification of this. Sumerian sculpture shows people with long noses and long flowing beards; the claim that these people were Negroid is just ludicrous. Another thing – when I was at the library yesterday I happened to stumble upon several books on Chinese art, and saw no evidence whatsoever that the Shang represented themselves in their art as black people. In fact, I think you are pulling my leg on this one. This has to be some kind of silly joke.

And another thing, and this really gets me! The Advocate savage (white boy) has the nerve to mention “anything” to us about Brother Ivan Van Sertima and /or us robbing the Native American’s culture! This is really amazing and really shows to full light what barbaric savages (calcified Pineal gland and difficiency of the neuro peptide MELANIN) we are dealing with. Why? Because this animal has the nerve to speak about the Naitve American Indian people and claim we are robbing their culture through the factual explanation that the Olmecs were imdeed Black or of Black ancestry. The savage did not mention the fact that there were conservatively 85 – 90 MILLION Indians in this land “BEFORE” the white boy arrived here and began their never ending blood thursty slaughter!!!!!! Thats 85 – 90,000,000! TODAY, THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 3 MILLION LEFT! NOW MR. WHITE boy TRAILER TRASH ADVOCATE….EVEN IF SOMEHOW WE WERE SO-CALLED ROBBING THE NATIVE AMERICAN OF HIS CULTURE, THAT COMES FAR FAR “LIGHT YEARS” SHORT OF THE WHITE BOYS GENOCIDAL SLAUGHTER OF CLOSE TO 90 MILLION NATIVE AMERICANS. IF THE NATIVE AMERICANS WERE GIVEN A CHOICE OF OUR WRITING BOOKS CLAIMING A PERT OF THEIR CULTURE VS. THE WHITE boys GENOCIDE OF THEIR PEOPLE, i’M SURE THEY WOULD HAVE TOLD US TO WRITE AS MANY BOOKS AS WE WANTED. THIS IS A CLEAR EXAMPLE OF THE PSYCHOTIC “UNFEELING” NATURE OF A SAVAGE BARBARIAN (AUSTRALOPITHICUS MENTALITY) CALCIFIED PINEAL MELANIN DEFICIENT WHITE boy. THIS ANIMAL SHOULD BE WORKING IN REPENTENT FASHION ON HIS KNEES TO REPAIR THE GENOCIDAL CARNAGE HIS RELATIVES HAVE INFLICTED ON THE NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANS. THIS IS INSANITY AND IT MUST BE DEALT WITH! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Sunday, October 31, 1999 at 01:36:52 (EDT)

USA – Saturday, October 30, 1999 at 20:08:22 (EDT)

Brother Shekem, you have hit it right on the head. May Ialso recommend “MELANIN ON MY MIND” by Charles “Wsir” Johnson. This is a paperback but very insightful. A deficiency of the neuro peptide-Melanin and a calfified Pineal Gland. This is the cause of the killing and slaughter of countless millions/billions through the past 400 years. The production of SAVAGES that do not feel when they kill. The production of the only people on the planet that kill for pure sport…..and/or they just don’t understand a thing. The only people on the planet…..SAVAGES. The Black population of Australia have been slaughtered and butchered down to only 1% of the population by the SAVAGE and BARBARIC whites. Yet they comprise over 55% of the prison population! This is the white boys legacy. Almost the complete lack of spirituality in binding all of everything to MONEY. This is not civilization. As Dr. John Henric Clark said “civilization is the act of being civil”. Instead, we have the white boy system of oppression with superfluous wealth sistering abject poverty. This is not civilization….this is simply the best the white boy can do until he attempts to catch up to the level of our magnificent ancestors. The savages are simply trying to hang on but they are slipping fast. This is one reason for the paranoia in locking up the Black populations in prison, multiculturalism by psychotic neanderthals like Advocate. I know better than to argue with the insane. There are no fruits to be gained from trying to teach the calcified/Melaninless empty KILLER mind of a barbaric savage (Advocate, Sherry thing, Wagdi, etc)! However, each time you brothers/sisters enteres a response to one of the neo nazi white supremists I learn something new. Thank you brothers/sisters. All this said, time spent on hate is wasted time and all white people do not fall into this category. However, lets face it, when it comes down to the chase…..if whites have to choose them or us, they will choose their own (as they should). WE CAN AFFORD TO DO NO LESS! Let us all (Blacks) work together for the day the Black men/women do indeed rule the world again! Hotep…THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Saturday, October 30, 1999 at 02:15:57 (EDT)

“It would seem that this Eve has even reached the popular press and news media. She lived approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years ago and echoes in ouir blood today. The meaning of this is that the diverse race of colors and variations of today are all unfold from a common human or parent stock, who in all likelihood was a small, dark skinned African…The notion of the DNA “mother of humanity” has gained more and more acceptance in modern scientific and intellectual circles.”(((The African Unconsciousness by Edward Bruce Bynum))) So Mr. Advocate maybe it is you and the rest of the white supremist lead individuals who would rather be anything but black who are out of step. Now that Europeans have separated us into different subgroups for their own benefit, they intend to bend and change the rules whenever it best fits them. You claim that Eurasians are all part of the same race, which of course is not Black. Please explain to by what criteria you are classifying these races. Many people who are admittedly of African descent would not be Eurasian; my niece would now be Eurasian. Oh, but no she’s not, because if you saw her on the street you wouldn’t say she was White or Eurasian you would say she was a light skinned American-African. So please, stop the non-sense if you want to be logical the only the only conclusion that can be reached is that we are all different shades of Black. The less melanin in your body the further you are from the original! You cannot hold the trueth down forever!!!
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:39:40 (EDT)

Melanin gives Black people superior physical, mental & spiritual ability. Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body most rapidly in Black people, the Original People. Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than whites, and demonstarte more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts because of their abundance of Melanin. Carol Barnes writes “…your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (atheltics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!” The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically, mentally and spiritiually. This why all the founders of the world’s great religions are Black. Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called SOUL in Black people. In the same way Blacks excel in athletics, they can excel in all other areas as well (like they did in the past!) once the road blocks are removed! Is God Black? The Original Man was BLACK, “made in the IMAGE of God” his Parent, according to scared books. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.(see pages 7 & 8) Most whites have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, therby limiting their moral capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal & pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradion regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian royalty/crowns. Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally & morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most whites are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians – 15-25%; Europeans -60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural diffences between Blacks and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, ridgid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and therefore cannot get into feelings. Carol Barnes writes “Melanin is responsible for the existence of civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. Individuals (whites) containing low levels of Melanain will behave in a barbaric manner.” Melanin give humans the ability to FEEL because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy. Dr. Welsing wrties “Since melanin is a superior absorber of all energy , it is essential to establish this understanding of God and ‘all energy.’ The fact thaat the albinos (whties) lack melanin may also help to explain …why, in the view of many non-white peooples, they (whit4es) lack ‘spirituality” and the capacity to tune in to, and therby establish harmony and justice…” The scientific evidence of Melanin threatens the ideology of white supremacy. After considering Melain to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western (white) science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to inferiorize the Black race, “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview). The central role Melanin plays in the body has been “suppressed to maintain the mythological inferiority of blacks…and the defensive clinging to whiteness as some token of superiority.” (Dr. Richard King) The “superiority complex” of white people is a defense mechanism and a mas for their deepset inferiority complex which they project onto people of color. Psychologists say insistent denial means readlity in the opposite way. If whites really believed that white skin was “superior,” why is “tanning”so important in white culture despite its known health risks (thousands die annually from skin cancer). Also, curling or permming lifeless,straight hair, and the lastest; lip injections for a fuller look! And it is the white female who tells you that her ideal mate is “tall, DARK, andhandsome!” “Dark” indeed refers to more Melanin! “Messed-up Melanin” is killing Melanated people! In their ongoing effort to destroy people of color, whites create “designer durgs,” structured to chemically bind with and alter the Melanin molecule, causing it to become toxic and even fatal to highly melanated people! Carol Barnes, who documents this subject writes, “MELANIN can become toxic to the Black human because it combines with harmful drugs such as a cocaine, amphtamines, pyscholic, hallucinoge…marijuana…etc.” The molecules of these drugs resemble the Melanin molecule! The body is fooled and its balance is thrown off as it relieson its drug-wrecked Melanin in order to function. Even legal drugs such astetracyclines, neurolepts (tranquilizers), have strong affinity for bind to Melanin. Herbicides (paraquats,’agent orange’ [dioxin]) bind irreversibly with Melanin & remain in the Black human throughout life causing many disorders. Drug abuse by Blacks is more likely to occur because Melanin causes Blacks to become addicted faster and stay addicted longer from thses drugs which are deliberately placed in Black communites. Drugs are destroying the heart of Native American and Black society, causing many deaths. For more information on the wonders of Melanin: Dr. Richard King’s superb African Origin of Biological Psychiatry and Carol Barnes’ information rich Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness (C. Barnes, Box 3009189,Houston Texas, 77230). Also the technical paper Melanin, The Organizing Molecule by Dr. Frank Barr, discoverer of Melanin’s organizing ability & other properties (Institute for Study of consciousness (510) 849-4784 /2924 Benvenue Ave., Berkeley CA 94704).
truth teller
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:26:26 (EDT)

Subtil evidences of white supremism in American media from ABCNEWS —– —— This web page talks about the incredibly amazing things modern scientists think that computers will be able to do (and what humans will be able to using these super computers). It talks of engineering humans to eliminate genetic defects, create computers that can think and FEEL, computers that would be smarter than all of the U.S. population combined. But consider this quote “We can be blonder if we want, and seven feet tall, with longer legs, stronger arms, naturally straighter teeth and naturally curly hair We’ll be handsomer, we’ll be healthier, we’ll be just as smart as we can be.” Blonde is yoked together with height, athleticism, good looks, health, and intelligence, i.e., everything that is deemed good or socially valuable. Why blonde? Why doesn’t it say you can be black-skinned if you want to be, or you can have richer fuller lips? To many this is nit picking, but as a whole it evidences the fact that everything we read, see or hear that comes from mainstream america reenforces the white supremacist viewpoint. I will not stop speaking out against it. Unlike some of the speakers here, I don’t wish (or need) to demean people of European descent to establish the fact that all peoples are of worth and value; and that Black peoples have been denied there rightful spot in history.
Age: 27, Brooklyn , NY USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:11:54 (EDT)

“Advocate,” I’m breaking my own rule (again) of not trying to educate people like you, but here I go. First, I’m not talking about some white people here or there who just write any ole thing about history, anthropology, and archeology. The white people I am referring to (as for Elam and Sumer) were the original people who excavated the sites. The original (European) people who discovered the Grimaldi said they were negroid (or negritos, eseentially the same thing). Everyone seemed to claim the Grimaldi were black until a few years later when the social and historical ramifications of having Europe inhabited originially by blacks was more than what the Eurocentrists could take. As for the Olmecs, so what if hispanics believe we are stealing their culture. Most hispanics consider themselves Caucasians, or at best Indians. Many who clearly have black ancestry either deny ir or downplay it. The issue is this, every attempt to show that blacks were in fact everywhere, and played a dominant role in establishing many of the centers of ancient civilization, is met with resistance by whites who cannot imagine blacks doing anything but boil people and pots and swing from trees. Americans an many Europeans (not all but most) have a Tarzan mentality, i.e., the white man must come to civilize the wretched savages. Give it up. Once again, your own scholars and original excavaters condemn you. The University of Chicago (Oriental Dept.) has concrete proof that the origin of the Egyptian Pharoanic (sp?) system came from (black) Nubia. Nubians were the first to symbolize their kings with the “Upper Egypt” crown, and the “god” Horus. Egyptian civilization came from (African) Nubia, not (white/asian) Eurasia. The Shang Dynasty artwork condems Mr. Wagdi. He would rather address skull size than to address how these people actually represented THEMSELVES in THEIR artwork. It is sad. Mr. Wagdi, an asian of mixed descent, probably considers himself caucasian, how backwards is that? I don’t dislike whites (Europeans, Scandinavians, Middle Easterners, or any other group) but what I dislike (in fact hate) is misinformation that is used to deny the prominant role black people have played throughout history. You “Advocate” may not be a white supremist is the “Aryan Nation/KKK” sense (but then again maybe you are, I don’t know), but you are a white supremist in the general sense, because almost all Americans are. This nation and it’s media and education systems perpetuated the myth that only caucasians (and sometimes Far East Asians) contributed anything of significance to history, the arts, the sciences, discoveries, etc. When you are led by your national institutions to believe that “Europeans” rescued the “poor dumb africans” from lives of savage cannablism and barbarity (a myth still perpetuated today), then you can not help but be a white supremist. Any one who denies the myth is branded a foolish black man who has to “manufacture” hist history and self-esteem. Stop with the lies already. Quit advocating foolishness and advocate historical accuracy. This is all I have to say to you. Will you listen? I wonder.
Age: 27, Brooklyn , NY USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 14:52:43 (EDT)

The Advocate (white person) fails to let one clear fact sink into his Calcified Pineal brain. The fact that “WE DON’T CARE WHAT ANY WHITE PERSON SAID ABOUT ANYTHING”!!!!!!!!! Not speaking for Curtis (whom you so rudely and SAVAGELY) referred to as Citrus, when we refer to white scholars in response to people like you (white neo nazi white supremists), we are simply aware of your limited capacity to function on the higher mental level of our children let alone our scholars. Therefore, we simply refer you to the references of a white persons level and hope you can assimilate just a portion of what our scholars are trying to teach you. It is sad but so true. Again, the fact is that we as self aware and conscious Black people don’t care what you think. You white people are still going around teaching that Christopher (white boy) Columbus discovered America. And you have the nerve to slam Dr. Van Sertima with that trash “Robbing Native America’s Cultures” book. What is your white supremist Christopher Columbus myth if not robbing everybodies culture? Whay don’t you speak out about that? Surely your (white)calcified Pineal and Melanin deficiency does not obstruct clear thinking on this racist white insanity myth! Get a life! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 12:16:53 (EDT)

For those who believe the Shang Chinese resembled black Africans, let me recommend a couple of books: ***Skull Shapes and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo.*** by the Harvard anthropologist W. W. Howells, and also ***Who’s Who in Skulls. Ethnic Identification of Crania from Measurements.*** by the same author. Howells analyzes the cranial data in many different ways, and the results show, among other things, that the Shang Chinese were clearly Mongoloid variants and were not close to Africans. This supports dental comparisons which classed the Shang as having either the Sinodont or Sundadont dental complex (I forget which one), which is typical of East Asians but is absent in Africa. These studies also put another nail in the coffin of the “Grimaldi Negro” theory – the Grimaldi race was really quite different from Africans.
Maksat Tohme
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 09:58:37 (EDT)

To Mr. Advocate person: Please don’t refer to Black peoples of any distinction wether past or present as a “lost tribe”. In a previous attempt to educate you, a brother pointed out that you can’t be a lost tribe if you are indigenous. This makes no sense and is simply a “white term” (lost tribe) used to advertise Tarzan movies (a white boy raised by the apes of Africa). Unless you believe a white boy could be raised by apes and become the so-called king of the jungle….stop calling Black inhabitants from anywhere a lost tribe. I have never heard of whites calling white inhabitants of anywhere a “LOST TRIBE”. Can’t white people belong to a lost tribe if there was any such thing? If a group of white people crashed in the desert and did not know where they were would other whites refer to them as a lost tribe of white people? The answer is no! More racism white supremacy at work! Do you believe in Tarzan Mr./Ms. white Advocate person? I hope this has been an addition to your education. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 03:13:17 (EDT)

“Advocate,” get your facts right. No one said anything about “lost” black tribes. They were not lost, but they were everywhere. They are the indigenous peoples. They didn’t just get lost one day and wonder to the uttermost parts of the earth. They were the original explorers. Besides, much of what has been said comes from white scholars. The recent connection between Africans &/or Australaboriginals and South American Indians, and the recent connection between the Shang(Chinese) and the Olmec, were all reported by ABC News, which is a non black-owned media. So whats the problem? Likewise, the fact that the original inhabitants of Sumer, Elam, Egypt, Nubia, and Europe (yes Europe, see the Grimaldi people), were black is based on assertions made primarily (i.e., originally) by white scholars. It was a white scholar who excavated elam and sumeria and made the claim that they were originally black peoples, and the excavation took place from the mid 1800’s to the early 1900’s, way before “Afrocentrism” became a popular term. A famous white (Dutch or German) scholar (whose name escapes me at the moment, Von something or another) also made the connection between blacks and Olmecs. Also, ancient Chinese artwork depicts the original chinese as being black-skinned with coarse hair, sorry if reality hurts. Face it, it is your own fellow Europeans (honest ones, that is) that have helped to prove many of these facts. It’s time to wake up now and let go of your white supremist viewpoints, the evidence is everywhere so deal with it. Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 28, 1999 at 15:18:05 (EDT)

PRAISE GOD!!! You are needed! Thank you so much for telling the truth. My husband and I loved the tape when black men ruled the world. You are a gift divine. Since, my husband and have taken it upon ourselves, to learn more about our magnificent selves. I can say with certainty, my life has been changed forever. Words will not allow me to express,what I feel and how I feel. Since I’ve been enlightened. Keep chipping away, at the blantant lies, that have been forced upon us all. Much love and sincere respect. Mr. & Mrs. Terence D. Mallett
Mrs. Tasha M. Mallett
Age: 29, Milwaukee, WI USA – Thursday, October 28, 1999 at 14:14:00 (EDT)


If a man knows precisely what he can do to you or what epithet he can hurl against you in order to make you lose your temper, your equilibrium, then he can always keep you under subjection. It is a man’s reaction to things that determines their ability to exercise power over him. – Dr. Howard Thurman
Rodney Jordan
Age: 34, Norfolk, VA USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 13:46:11 (EDT)

Trailer trash “SLIME”! We have been “SLIMED” by their mere presence! No…..we don’t want pictures of dead trailer trash white people with blonde wigs posted on this site. This site is not for the trailer trash! Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 12:27:16 (EDT)


I just want to say I love what you brothers and sisters are doing. You’re making me real proud. Let the fight continue.
Much Love
Age: 18, USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 00:30:13 (EDT)





Please visit the following site, the impact is major. Archeologists comparing Olmec writings with Shang Dynasty Chinese found amazing similarities. They also address the recent discovery proving that blacks (whether African or Austral-Aboriginal) were first in the Americas. As many notable black scholars have attested to, the Shang dynasty was a black dynasty. In various depictions of Shang rulers, (though the eyes are similar to asians) the skin color and hair type was clearly black (perhaps pointing back to the Khoisan and other variations of our people). The archeologists would use this as proof that asians were early visiters to the Americas, but it reinforces the fact that it was black peoples. If the Shang = the Olmec, and both are black, then you draw the conclusion. ……. The article is posted below without the pictures.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 26, 1999 at 11:17:30 (EDT)

This is the actual ABCNews story on the Shang-Olmec relationship (but the site contains pictures that are very helpful, so link to it from the post above)……….. It may be a simple matter of historical chance that this story is not written in Chinese…At least two scholars believe Asians traveled by boat to New World long before Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Yet another anthropologist recently said water travel permitted Australian aborigines to reach South America more than 11,000 years ago…..These controversial theories have academics debating and individuals wondering if the Pacific Ocean was a superhighway, instead of a barrier, to the New World…..By Land or By Sea?……… The traditional theory on early migration to the Americas says much of the northern hemisphere was covered in ice sheets until glaciers began to break up and sea levels fell about 12,000 to 13,000 years ago. At this time, a land bridge was thought to have formed over the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. Asian hunters tracking big game crossed the bridge in search of dinner. Some, according to the theory, liked their new environs so much they decided to stay…….. A 1997 study published by the National Academy of Sciences appears to support the fact that the New World’s first migrants came from Asia. Researchers studied Native Americans from the Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead tribes and determined that all three groups possess a unique type of retrovirus gene, JCV, found only in China and Japan…….. After the land bridge migration, current dogma teaches that Asia had no further contact with the Americas until the early 1800s, when shipping records prove a handful of immigrants and visitors began to arrive…… Striking Similarities……..But Michael Xu, assistant professor of Chinese Studies at Texas Christian University, is among those who theorize that China had further contact with the Americas before the early 19th century. This jade celt is among those excavated at La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico in 1955 and attributed to the Olmec. The striking similarities between the Olmec and Chinese Shang Dynasty symbols suggest that Chinese may have traveled to the Americas by boat well before the early 19th century. (Photo: Krantz & Martinez/Journal of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences)……While excavating Mesoamerican sites in the American Southwest and Central America, Xu discovered jade, stone and pottery artifacts attributed to the Olmec, believed to be ancestors of the Maya. Artistic motifs on the objects bear an extraordinary resemblance to Chinese bone inscriptions from the Shang dynasty, about 1600 to 1100 B.C. Symbols for agriculture, astronomy, rain, religion, sacrifice, sky, sun, trees and water are nearly identical, according to a report published in the current issue of the Quarterly Journal of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences……..“When I first brought my artifacts from the Americas to China, scholars there thought that I just had more samples of Shang writing,” Xu says. “The similarities are that striking.”……..Colonization was not a Chinese priority, according to Xu, which could explain why other aspects of Chinese culture did not spread to the Americas — and why North Americans aren’t speaking Chinese……..Pacific Superhighway……..Betty Meggers, a research archaeologist at the Smithsonian Institution, thinks Asian contact goes back even further, to 5,000 years ago. She has identified compelling similarities between pottery found at a site called Valdivia in Ecuador to pottery from the Jomon period in Japan………Both Meggers and Xu say they believe natural Pacific water flows, such as the Kuroshio from Japan and the Black Current from China, transported boats to the New World. Meggers theorizes that Asians have traveled to and from the Americas for thousands of years……..While there is no direct evidence for regular trade or foreign settlements, Meggers points to other signs of contact, such as similarities between Mayan and southeast Asian pyramids. It is unclear when, or if, the contact ended, but she says, “Ancient man saw the ocean as a superhighway and not as a barrier.”……..Aborigines As Well……..A team of Rio anthropologists also believes early water travel to the Americas was possible. As evidence they point to an 11,500-year-old skull, found in Brazil, which they say belonged to a woman of African or Aboriginal descent. Digital computer imaging last month revealed she had round eyes, a large nose and a pronounced chin — features characteristic of ancient Africans and Aborigines………Ventura Santos, a researcher at Rio’s National Museum and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, who led the study, suggests the woman had ancestors related to Australian aborigines who boated across the northern Pacific 15,000 years ago………John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, is skeptical about the Brazilian skull’s history, and he says he doubts boats at that time could withstand long journeys. But, he says, shorter boat trips along the Pacific coastline seem plausible……..Earlier this year, Johnson used radiocarbon dating to determine that the remains of a skeleton, called Arlington Springs Woman, found on Santa Rosa Island, across the Santa Barbara Channel, were 13,000 years old. “The channel was five to six miles wide then, so I doubt she swam across,” Johnson says. “Some sort of water craft must have been used.”……..DNA May Offer Key Despite such tantalizing evidence as the Arlington Woman or Xu’s Mesoamerican artifacts, it is difficult to prove anyone traveled by water thousands of years ago. Early boats were probably made from wood, reeds and other plant materials that decay easily……..DNA analysis, however, may soon provide the concrete evidence many scholars seek. Johnson hopes to perform DNA research on the Arlington Springs Woman within the next several months, and other related studies are sure to follow. One, or more, of these reports could reveal what traffic was like on “the Pacific Ocean superhighway” thousands of years ago.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 26, 1999 at 11:16:23 (EDT)

Peace to Mr. Clegg and Staff: I truly am priviledged and honored to have “discovered” your website. Thanks also to “Emerge” magazine for advertising your site,because we know the role of “Black Media” is FIRSTLY to inform our people of both “Our-Story” as well as current events. I overstand that while not one individual scholar,historian,or spiritual/religious teacher may not possess all of the answers,it’s vitally important that as a colective we continue to share and grow in,as my Teacher Dr. Malachi Z. York puts it,”right knowledge,right wisdom,and right overstanding” which leads to “sound right reasoning”!! Although this is my first visit to your website,I assure you it won’t be my last! Thanks again Mr. Clegg and your staff for your excellent work and may “THE NETERU” continue to shine and rain blessings upon you. Peace In The Lamb…Is Truly Wonderful!! Your Brother In The Name Of “AL-KULUWM(THE ALL)” -Johnnie L. Smith-EL(Yuhanna-EL)10/25/99
Johnnie L. Smith-EL
Age: 36, Tampa, FL USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 15:28:54 (EDT)

MAAT NEWS (The Africentric Voice of The Internet) “When Black Men Ruled The World” (Videotape and Booklet) ORDER TODAY! 1-800-788-CLEGG For Back Issues of Ma’at and to Receive MA’AT News via E-Mail SPECIAL BULLETIN October 21, 1999 One of the frequent visitors to our guestbook, Curtis (McWildy, recently posted a reference to an article regarding the discovery, in Brazil, of an ancient woman’s skull with African features. Although unearthed in 1975 from a 43 foot deep cavern in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, it had been packed away in the vast archives of the National Museum of Rio DeJanerio for over twenty years.1 Just over a year ago, scientists named the skull, which they believed to be the earliest known American, “Luiza,” after the famed Lucy, one of the most ancient human ancestors discovered in Ethiopia. Luiza is believed to be 11,500 years old, while Lucy is 3.2 million years old. What is startling about this discovery is not so much the fact that an African skull has been unearthed in prehistoric America, but that the normally negrophobic scientific community acknowledges this. Archaeologists Walter Neves, “one of the few specialists in human paleontology in Brazil,” concluded that Luiza’s eyes, nose and chin structures are similar to those of Australian aborigines and native Africans. From the late 1800’s through the middle of the 20th century, Latin American scholars routinely made reference to the presence of Black people in prehistoric and ancient Mexico, Central and South America. However, by the middle of this century White scholars and scientists began to rewrite and monopolize historical works and, in so doing, completely dismissed the idea that Africans or other Black people had reached the Americas before Columbus. In light of the recent discovery of Luiza, we have shall soon republish an early article that we authored which provides theories for the possible origin of Luiza as well as her near and distant relatives. In the meantime, the following are a few quotations taken from books written by Latin American scholars prior to the censoring of these opinions by the White academic thought police: Jose M. Melgar, the first writer to embark on an in-depth study of Black people in early America, began his work while visiting San Andres Tuxtla in the State of Veracruz, Mexico in 1862. Upon learning of the existence of a huge Olmec stone head in this region, Melgar insisted on visiting the hacienda at which the stone carving was located: “We went, and I was struck with surprise; as a work of art it is without exaggeration a magnificent sculpture…, but what astounded me was the Ethiopic type which it represents. I reflected that there had undoubtedly been Blacks in this country and this had been in the first epoch of the world; that head was not only important for Mexican archaeology but also would be for the world in general……..”2 So impressed was Melgar with this Olmec sculptured head that he wrote two articles concerning the early “Ethiopian” migrants whom he insists the sculpture represents. Another Mexican scholar, Nicholas Leon, was of similar opinion: “The oldest inhabitants of Mexico, according to some were Negroes, and according to others, the Otomies. The existence of Negroes and giants is commonly believed by nearly all the races of our soil and in their various languages they had words to designate them. Several archaeological objects found in various localities demonstrate their existence, the most notable of which is the colossal granite head of Hueyapan, Vera Cruz, and an axe of the same located near the city. In Teotihuscan abound little heads of the Ethiopian type and paintings of Negroes. In Michoacan and Oaxaca the same have also been found….. Memories of then in the most ancient traditions convince us to believe that the Negroes were the first inhabitants of Mexico.”3 Historian Riva Palacio has provided more detail regarding the ancient presenceof Black people in the New World: “But who is that aboriginal man, inhabitant of the Valley of Mexico since the most ancient epoch? No doubt in answering, it was the Otomi people. “Nevertheless, the existence of the Black man in our territory gives us material to hesitate. Did he precede the Otomi people or was he the first invader? On the continent that was united to our westside the man was Black and after the separation of the continents this Black man also existed in Asia: in India, invaded by other peoples, the remainder of the Black race sought refuge in the mountains in the central region called Vindhya. Even today these Black men exist: the Glondos, the Kolas, the Bhillas, the Meras of Aravali mountain, the Chitasy, the Minas and the Pahorias whose conquest has given rise to the name Pariahs. “With regard to our continent, scarcely traces of the Black man remain. Proof of his existence was in a very distant epoch. Was he the first in the world and was this the racer that spread everywhere by virtue of the union of the continents, or when he arrived in our region, were the Otomies already present? His disappearance suggests to us it being the exiled race therefore the former; but there are indications opposing the indigenous character of the Otomi race and traditional fact that in our view is very important: until recent times the priests pained themselves Black as if it was a remembrance of the introducers of the first cult. “But the peremptory test of the ancient existence of the Black race on our continent are the still-encountered remains of him, and the other primitive story-tellers that speak of him. They are: the Caracoles of Haiti, the Califurnams of the Caribe Islands, the Arquahos of Cutara, the Aroras or Yaruras of Orinoco, the Chaymans of Guyana, the Maujipas, Porcigas and Matayas of Brazil, the Nigritas, Chuanas or Gaunas of the Isthmus of Darien, the Manabis of Popayan, the Guavas and Jaras or Zambos of Honduras, the Esteros of New California, the Black Indians encountered by the Spainards of Louisiana and the Ojos de Luna and albinos, some of which were discovered in Panama and others destroyed by the Iroquois. “All of this demonstrates that in a very ancient epoch or before the existence of the Otomies or better yet invading them, the Black race occupied our territory when the continents were joined. This race brought its religious ideas and its own cult. Later they were dislodged and forced to the coasts by the Otomies or perhaps they were obliged to look for warm places to which they were more appropriately accustomed by their nature, and fled the freezing temperatures and other cataclysms that occurred after this continent was separated”.4 J.A. Villacorta, another authority on Mexican history, was so convinced that earliest Mexico was influenced by Africoids that he concluded: “De todos modes la civilization mexicana tuvo su origen in Africa”. [“Any way you view it, Mexican civilization had its origins in Africa”.]5 Carlos C. Marquez also spoke of the widespread presence of Black people in prehistoric and ancient America: …..”The Negroes figure frequently in the most remote tradition of some American people. Certain tribes of Darien say that when their ancestors arrived for the first time in that region it was inhabited by small black men who soon afterwards retired to the forests while the Payas and Tapalisas of the Cuna-Cunas origin goes back to a man and two women, one Indian and the other Negro, who lived on the banks of the Tatarcuna. “The ancient skeletons which are very different from the Red American races, and have been found in various places from Bolivia to Mexico, doubtlessly belong to this race. “It is likely, then, we repeat, that long ago the youthful America was also a Negro continent……”5 Footnotes 1 “Brazil Unveils ‘Luiza’ As Earliest known American,” 19990922_1496.html. 2 Jose Melgar, “Notable Escultural; Antigua, Antiguedades Mexicanos”, Boletin de Geografia y Estadistica, Secunda Epoca, vol 1, pp. 292-297, 1869. Also see Jose Melgar, “Estudio Sobre la Antiguedad y el Origen de la Cabeza Colosal de Tipo Etiopico que Esiste en Hueyapan”, Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana, Secunda Epoca., vol 3, pp 106-109, 1871. 3 Quoted in J.A,. Rogers, Sex & Race, published by the author, New York, 1943, vol 1, p. 270. 4 Riva Palacio, Mexico a’ Trave’s de los Siglos, Ballesca y Comp., Editores, Mexico, p. 63, 1889. 5 Jose Antonio Villacorta, Argueologia guatemalteca (Guatemala, C.A., Tipografia. nacional, 1930), p. 336. Also see Prehistoria & Historia Antigua de Guatemalteca (Guatemala C.A. Tipografia nacional, 1938), pp 222-239. 6 Carlos C. Marquez, Estudios argueologicas y etnograficos (Mexico: Bogota, D.E. Editorial Kelly, 1956), pp. 179-180. Legrand H. Clegg, Publisher and Editor MAAT Newletter
Legrand H. Clegg II
USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 14:57:48 (EDT)

Ms. Iskander Wagabi… are proably no more from Tanta, Egypt than I am (probably from somewhere in Simi Valley). The Aryan part of Simi Valley!!!!!! Anyway, this Wagdi person totally ignores “ALL” evidence that cannot be refuted and she commences headlong with wacked out theories supporting white supremacy (blonde mummies and European origins), etc. Not only that, but she attacks the nicest people on the net… (Thutmos Turner). Nevertheless, the Rahotep and Nofret (the Aryan’s “WAGDI” dream) statues are once again “FORGERIES”! I know of several people that regularly visit this site who have the vital information that exposes the Rahotep and Nofret cheap racist white supremist attempt to re-write our BLACK hisory. Either I or they will be posting the particulars shortly. Call me anything……but DON”T CALL ME WHITE! Also, don’t call my ancestors white (that is the ultimate insult). That is as bad as some people trying to say the face of the Sphinx is that of a white boy (which has been said on this site recently). Thurmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 01:37:31 (EDT)

USA – Sunday, October 24, 1999 at 22:37:43 (EDT)

Oh by the way, this information also agrees with the MDS plot, perhaps the MDS plot should be looked at in the reverse situation.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Saturday, October 23, 1999 at 14:20:58 (EDT)



Iskander, if you were to continue reading you would see that Blackfacts also said that Kemet was “predominately Black.” You would also see that he says “And in many[pictures] the Nubians are portrayed with black skin and very kinky hair. The Egyptians are portrayed with reddish brown skin and VARIOUS hair types–straight and kinky. But, having red-brown skin DOES NOT make the Egyptians non-black or non-African! All Africans DO NOT have jet black skin. In fact, the portrayal of Nubians in this manner is common during a certain New Kingdom period.” So your claim that being able to post pictures is invalid. You keep making reference to genetics. In fact, go to this site: and you will see a picture of Shekem Tutankhamen and tell me if he Black or White. Mr. Wagdi, did you read the post by Blackfacts on Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:12:23 (EDT). It is obvious that you didn’t. You should refrain from posting until you have completely read it because you are going to have us going around in circles. Mr. Wagdi, are you making reference to dental evidence? Did you go to the webpage that Blackfacts referred you to? Let me give it to you again: and go to the links if you are truly someone who is interested in the trueth and not someone who wants to perpetuate the idea of the superior white race. Here is a quote from there: “The cranial shape displayed by the New Kingdom royal mummies is most commonly found among inhabitants of the Nile and the south Sahara. The skull of Thutmose IV shows some peculiarities regarding the sagittal contour and occiput in the lateral view (profile).” Here is another one about your proposed dental evidence(SN mandibular plane:”In the study of Alexander and Hitchcock of Alabama populations, the AA norm for SN-Mand. was 34.4 compared to 32.0 for Caucasians. The average for the Pharaohs is 34.23. If one includes the New Kingdom Queens the mean is 35.83! (Alexander TL, Hitchcock HP. Cephalometric standards for American Negro children. Am J Orthod 1978;74:298-304)” You say that the people are more closely related to West Asia or Southern Europe. Well of course they do, didn’t you know that Arabs and Berbers came to reside in Egypt. Am I correct in saying that you are assuming that the Kamau were white? Please go back and read Mr. Wagdi, because “There is a hell of alot of evidence against you and anyone who looks into the subect more deeply(look beyond” Brace et al) “would have to come to the same conclusion.” Or perhaps you think they are dark whites, Mediterraneans, or Hamites? “In reality the “true African” does not exist as the continent holds a variety of different Black Africoid types who have existed this way without foreign admixture. There are Black Africans with somewhat straight hair, thin lips and elongated noses (a product of dry heat as well as extreme cold). If globally applied many of African descent throughout the Diaspora can be labeled Dark Whites or Eurafricans.” And Furthermore, “Black Africans were well known in the Nile Valley region in early times. Evidence has shown in fact that North Africa was inhabited by Black African types prior to other types (Caucasian Berber and Semitic). What is more, as Gloria Emeagwali states, The Northern regions of Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon as well as Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso and so on fall within the Saharan/Sahelian zone, which is the same latitude with the Nile civilizations of Antiquity. No impassable barrier stood or stands between East and West. Thus it stands to reason that no barrier stood between North and South. Cultural similarities have been found between Egypt and regions as far away as the Great Lakes region. The ancient Egyptians state continually that they originated in the south. According to historian John G. Jackson, The Edfu Text is an important source document on the early history of the Nile Valley. This famous inscription, found in the Temple of Horus at Edfu, gives an account of the origin of Egyptian civilization. According to this record, civilization was brought from the south by a band of invaders under the leadership of King Horus.” So Iskander, you are wrong and has some intelligence would agree.
Mackens Audena
USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 17:11:48 (EDT)

Rahotep & Nofret, (the Aryans dream) is indeed a forgery. I have seen detailed presentations on it with my own eyes. Why did they pick these two characters anyway? The fact is that “THEY WERE NOT ROYALTY AT ALL”. The savage trailer trash just pulled them our of thin air for parading all over the world. They were not royaly or sat on any ancient throne. Down with the barbarian savages! THUTMOS URNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 03:11:54 (EDT)

TRUTH never rejects questions or challenges because it is ETERNAL. This statement should be focused on in the context of what has been happening at this website over the past ten days. In spite of the fact that this is an Africentric website, we are so confident of the truth of our stance that we have welcomed the opinions of outsiders. They often insult us, call us racists, ignore our evidence and opinions and then insist that they are right. Yet, we continue to permit them to express themselves while we respond with our viewpoints. Some of us have angrily insulted them in return. This is understandable; however, most of us have patiently read their rantings and ramblings and then, again patiently, responded with counter-evidence. WHAT BLACK PEOPLE MUST UNDERSTAND IS THIS: For nearly three hundred years now, White scientists and scholars have monopolized the writing and teaching of history without challenge. Their overriding theme has been the superiority of Europeans over all others and European preeminence on the world stage from time immemorial. This distorted view of the world has held sway for the following reasons: (1) It has been taught on virtually all university and college campuses; (2) Most major publishing houses have only printed books promoting White supremacy; (3) Magazines, journals newspapers, television and radio have perpetuated the same lies and misrepresentations; (4) Dissenting opinions have been completely rejected to the point where even letters to newspaper and magazines have been excised or censored. Now, fast forward to today: (1) Over the past ten years, every major newspaper and magazine in this country has attacked Africentrism without providing its proponents an opportunity to present their points of view (This is virtually unprecedented in America media forums); (2) White historical websites predominate over the internet and, in virtually all cases, if one introduces a Black perspective on history, he is sure to be barred, purged or dismissed; (3) In spite of the global domination of Eurocentrism in education, the general media and now the Internet, many White people (and Arabs who are attempting to defend their interloper status in Africa) cannot tolerate the fact that we, as people of Africa descent, are determined to tell our story from our perspective. Just think of this: White people control world thought on most issues, but, in spite of this, they cannot bear to believe that we are willing to think for ourselves. If you review the comments that have been entered in this guestbook over the past ten days, you might reasonably conclude that “Well, clearly there are two points of view here, two schools of thought. Reasonable people may differ in their viewpoints.” But, no, White scholars and scientists must have it all and control it all! From their perspective, there is no room for dissent. Why else would they spend so much time venting in our venues, when, because of their blatant insecurities, they will not even allow Black dissent to be expressed in any of their national or international media forums? White authorities have maintained for three centuries that Black people are “small brained, genetically inferior sub-humans with no history.” Now incensed over our independence of thought, they exclaim on these pages: “How dare you fight back!” Well, Sherry, Iskandar, et al, the days of White supremacy and monopoly are over!!! We have presented sufficient facts to support our views, whether you agree or not. White people represent less than 10% of the world’s population and Arabs represent far less than that! There is no reason why your tiny minority opinion, no matter how well funded or widely disseminated, should monopolize the global mind or stifle further inquiry. The only real threat to the revelation of the true history of the human race is Eurocentrism/White supremacy. Why haven’t you fought this bane of the human race? The reason is because your role is to perpetuate it, and that is why our site and countless others will continue to grow-until the last vestige of racist nonsense is uprooted from the earth. In the meantime, we shall return from time to time to offer responses to these irrational racists. In the present posting we present an excerpt from an article entitled, “Kemet: The Place of The Blacks As symbolized In the Medu Netcher (Hieroglyphs) and Related Issues,” that appeared in our MA’AT newsletter in January, 1998. We shall follow this up with postings on the sculptures of Rahotep and his wife, mentioned by Iskander, and the painting from the tomb of Ramesis III, also mentioned by Iskander. Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, one of the greatest scholars of the 20th century, wrote the following in his book, The World and Africa: “We may give up entirely, if we wish, the whole attempt to delimit races, but we cannot, if we are sane, divide the world into whites, yellows, and blacks, and then call blacks white.” White scientists and scholars have had a heyday defining and redefining races according to their own racist predilections, without regard for logic or any other defensible paradigms. Hence, their disciples congregate in this space and offer to us nonsense about blonde mummies and blue eyed Egyptians and scoff at us when we question their sanity. If White science is unscientific, why should we expect its followers to be less so? In any case, as we enter the 21st century, we as people of African descent must return integrity to the study of history. It is our responsibility, as direct descendants of the parents of the human family, to rise above the shortcomings of the White monopolists and, drawing upon all of the resources at our disposal, i.e., astronomy, architecture, art, language, sacred writings, anatomy, archaeology, genetics, etc., present a fair and objective picture of the history of the human race. Since we know that Black people have played a significant part in that history, this site is devoted to telling the story of African people and their descendants. The following, then, is an excerpt from an article that presents the Africentric definition of Kemet. We certainly hope that the brilliant scholar, who identifies himself as Blackfacts, will provide input regarding this, since he has expressed concerns about the definition of this word. “Kemet is what the ancient people of the Nile Valley called what is erroneously known as ‘Ancient Egypt.’ According to European egyptologists Egypt is a Greek word, a corruption of the city name ‘He ka Ptah’ (city of Ptah). The word Egypt was not used until 300 b.c.e., after the conquest of Kemet by Alexander, son of Phillip of Macedonia. In books by European egyptologists, Kemet is translated as “the black land,” in an attempt to state that the people named their country after the soil that resulted from the annual inundation of the Nile River. This is not the translation that the texts themselves show us. Before looking at the correct meaning of the word Kemet, a brief description of the way Medu Netcher operates will be provided. Medu Netcher is a highly complex language that exists on many levels. It is pictorial (ideograms), symbolic (determinatives), and phonetic (phonograms) at the same time. Any symbol could be pictorial (used to represent itself). Determinatives are generally used at the end of words to help clarify meaning. There are three types of phonograms: 1. monoliterals (one sign, one sound), 2. biliterals (one sign, two sounds), and 3. triliterals (one sign, three sounds). Monoliterals are also used as phonetic complements. A phonetic complement is used as a reading aid; it may be placed before or after a bi- or triliteral as a visual reminder or reinforcement of the pronunciation of the word shown. This is the word Kemet [Image]. The first symbol, a piece of charred wood (some say a crocodile’s spine), is the biliteral “km.” The owl symbolizes the monoliteral “m,” used in this instance as a phonetic complement. The third symbol is a loaf of bread, the monoliteral “t.” The last symbol, a determinative, is very important for our discussion of this word. This symbol depicts an aerial view of a circular walled settlement displaying a network of roads. Here the symbol is drawn in abstract which has been reduced to the two principal axes [Image]. These types of cities have been unearthed in excavations in Upper Kemet dating from the oldest epochs of urbanization. Also this symbol has been documented on predynastic palettes. This symbol is very easily distinguished from the symbol for land, [Image]ta, which represents the flat plain of the valley that is often painted black to represent the fertile soil. It invokes the idea of Ancient Kemet, the black flood plain, the gift of the Nile; which is quite different from the concept of Kemet as the civilized Country of the Blacks, which is the literal translation of the word [Image]Kemet in Medu Netcher. One concept represents the land given to the Ancient Africans by God, and the other represents the country as a civilized unit developed by the Africans themselves. As shown in Alan Gardiners’ Egyptian Grammar book, [Image]is a naturally occurring symbol, and is a [Image]man-made symbol. Therefore it is not possible to correctly state that they mean the same thing; undeveloped land is different than developed land. When the people wanted to describe themselves, they used the same symbols, Kmt, but they changed the determinative to a seated man and woman, placed in front of the plural sign (three vertical strokes), indicating a collective nominative, referring to “human beings,” “people,” “ethnic groups,” which taken in total can only be translated as [Image]”Black People.” Most Europeans translate this word as “Egyptians.” It is obvious that anyone who has studied the language of Kemet and continues to translate these words as “Egypt” or “Egyptian,” is purposely attempting to mislead and misinform. The proper translation of classical African languages is part of the work that must be done in order to “construct a body of modern human sciences, in order to renovate African culture.”(7) Footnotes 1. Sir Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1961, pg. 19. 2. Adolf Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, Dover Publications, Inc., 1971, pg. 29. 3. Ibid. pg. 30. 4. Theophile Obenga, “Genetic Linguistic Connections of Ancient Egypt and the Rest of Africa,” in African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources, ed. by Molefi Kete Asante and Abu S. Abarry, Temple University Press, 1996, pg. 266. See also Theophile Obenga, Ancient Egypt and Black Africa: A Student’s Handbook for the Study of Ancient Egypt in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Gender Relations, Kamak House, 1992. 5. Ibid. pg. 281. 6. Ibid. pg. 271. The spiritual system of Kemet laid the foundation for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. See also Who Is This King of Glory?, by Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Kessinger Publishing Co., Christianity Before Christ, John G. Jackson, and The Book Your Church Doesn’t Want You To Read, ed. by Tim Leedom. 7. Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology, Lawrence Hill Books, 1991, pg. 3. copyright 1998 CHEIKH ANTA DIOP INSTITUTE OF EGYPTOLOGY AND AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS To learn more about Medu Netcher, The Cheikh Anta Diop Institute of Egyptology and African Civilization is proud to offer the book, Let the Ancestors Speak: Removing the Veil of Mysticism from Medu Netcher, by Ankh Mi Ra. The price of the book is $19.95, and ordering instructions may be obtained by e-mail from A correspondence course is also available. Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news, The Clegg Series.
Legrand H. Clegg II
USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 00:30:43 (EDT)

not that ancestor was a memeber of the Khoisan complex of Southwest Africa. There is no race, except the Human race. We are all Black African people in genetic composition.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 20:39:01 (EDT)



If the Egyptians had soft blond or red hair, why did they wear wigs that look like black african cornrolls. Why are the wigs curly like naps, and not straight like the Aryan stereotype. In fact why do they where the wigs at all, when they look so black African in nature. I wonder……Also check out the profile of the Sphinx, it looks “negroid to me.” This actual image of the Sphinx was posted on a plastic surgery center website.
USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:48:55 (EDT)


Check out royal scribe Hesire, and King Zoser (click on the 1/2 image size and notice the profile); some of the others are admittedly ambigous at best. But at least I’m willing to link to everything. All of the images on the “Egyptians are not Black” web page that the “arab” dude keeps linking to, are also found here. Notice the tan on the Nordic Rahotep, not bad for someone who should be 20 shades lighter than that.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:21:29 (EDT)

Check out royal scribe Hesire, and King Zoser (click on the 1/2 image size and notice the profile); some of the others are admittedly ambigous at best. But at least I’m willing to link to everything. All of the images on the “Egyptians are not Black” web page that the “arab” dude keeps linking to, are also found here. Notice the tan on the Nordic Rahotep, not bad for someone who should be 20 shades lighter than that.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:20:39 (EDT)

Rahotep & Nofret, the Aryans dream. I’m posting them anyway because even though Rahotep doesn’t look black, he sure is dark for an Aryan. Also, in one of Van Sertima’s books on Egypt, someone wrote a detailed (though preliminary) article on why he thought these images either forgeries. I’m not saying he is right, but we should consider the possiblity. I’ll try to get the name of the book and the pages so that all of you can check it out for yourselves. It is very interesting. Also some archeologists ascribe a much later date to this sculpture, and I’m talking about whites not blacks. But here is the link to the images
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:16:07 (EDT)

Wow, look at how “Aryan” Amenophis III looks; and i thought Aryans had sharp noses and then lifts. Now I realize that Aryans must be negroes. Thanks to the neo-nazis my eyes have been open. —- Also look at the “Portrait of an elegant lady” from the Tomb of Menena in Thebes. I never knew Aryans had black skin.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:10:49 (EDT)

Look at Semenkhkara & the Princess Meritaten; or Akhenaten. If these are Nordics then all “negroid” peoples are. Click on the link that says “1/2” for the biggest images.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:07:02 (EDT)

“Goddess” Hathor (won’t tell ya what I think) —– What about Seti I, he doesn’t look very Nordic to me. —– King Horebheb looks like many of the black men here in New York (admit it)
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:04:41 (EDT)

All of these image links are from the Australian National University (and no, it is not run by the aboriginals). Look at Akhnaton, looks black to me. ——- look at the profile of the Sphinx (looks black to me)
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:00:52 (EDT)

Look at this website containing Egyptian sculptures. It is by no means Afrocentric (it doesn’t even address the issue to my knowledge. . Again, notice how even if the bust of nefertiti is real it is more Ethiopic than anything “caucasian.” Also, look at the images of Sesostris I and Mentuhotep I, they look black african to me. Metherthy may not be black, but then again, he is a farmer, not a royal. —-
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 15:56:22 (EDT)

About the bust (sculpture) of Nefertiti. There are hundreds of images on the walls of various Egyptian archeological sites depicting her purely as black African. On top of that, the well-known (white) historian John Anthony West says this about the bust “The famous bust of Nefertiti, Akhenaton’s wife and one of the most beautiful women ever depicted, is in all likelihood not Nefertiti. This bust was found with other treasures, in the abandoned sculpture studio at Akhenaten. Since Nefertiti disappeared from the inscriptions some seven years prior to the disbanding of Akhenaton’s city, the bust, unfinished at the time and still being worked on, is almost certainly not Nefertiti, but perhaps one of her daughters.” Perhaps one of her daughters, he says. But that in itself is mere (and inaccurate) speculation given all of the other evidences. But lets say the bust in dispute is real, it most definitely isn’t nordic. There is no blond hair, blue eyes, or pale skin. She looks far more like an Ethiopian (Somali, Eritrean, i.e.) variation of black Africans than anything close to be nordic, or any other white racial group. Give it a rest already. This is the same bust Hitler used to make his point. It is so moronic it is sad.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 15:47:17 (EDT)

I think Ive worked out how the cocked up half baked arab we know as Iskander brian works.You see the arabs are one of the most anti black racist people you will ever meet.In the koran Mohamad said that white people were created by the right hand of allah from pure water and that black folks were created by his left hand and were a mistake.That is is why moslems use their right hand for eating and their left hand for wiping their backsides.I know it seems sick but it is totally true,moslems have thought black people to hate themselves.A good examample of this are the Swahili who are as black as you and me but a large number of them claim to be arabs others even claim to be persians and indians.So any brother who claims islam is the black manns religion should maybe learn a little more about from were and who its coming from.The arabs took the indiginus black people of Kemit(our ancestors not yours mr wagdu)and sold them to the white man who brought to America.So you see Mr Wagdu has his Egypt but Kemit belongs to the black peoples. And Mr wagdu wants to be an Aryan well of coarse he does because as I said before muslems are anti black so for them theyd rather be anything but a nigger.
USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 14:27:02 (EDT)

I can see that the person who posted this IS REALLY FROM EGYPT. He knows as I do the writing is ALL on the WALLS within the pyramids. Half of you black wanna be egyptians never even been to Egypt…yet you make such claims…when in reality, you dont know your black ass from a hole in the ground.READ THE FACTS: Here are some links to interesting pictures, Most of the pictures here are from the old kingdom, they clearly show Nofret daughter of Khufu was fair skinned and had blue eyes, the man seated beside her is her husband Rahotep.The picture at the top of the page of a fairly overweight man is Hemiunu.Heminunu oversaw the building of Khufu’s pyramid, but hang on a minute the ancients were black, why would a Caucasian oversee the building of the pyramids (which you argue were the results of black genius)and why does Khufu’s daughter have such a light complexion? Why?Well ether theres a conspiracy where the evil Egyptians/Arabs(who are apparently are not Egyptian at all but asiatics) and evil devil white men have destroyed all the original artifacts and replaced them with fakes, because they are afraid of the mighty black africans (who also happened to invent everything ever worth inventing in history)rising up from the sorry state their people are in and taking over the world or perhaps due to the society which Afro-Americans live in, which is riddled with racism they/you need to have a feeling of superiority,greatness and a belief you are decended from kings and queens, just because you have a massive chip on your shoulder and no self-confidence.It makes sence for you to blame others for your problems.In fact you lot have alot in commom with the Nazis, just like they blamed the Jews for all Germanys problems and made up a false history of an ancient Aryan race whho throughtout history the Jews were trying to destroy.Just replace the Jews with Arabs and whites,the German race with the black race and the ancient Aryans with the ancient Egyptians and you have a new master race full of brainwashed automaton’s.It is very important that history dosent repeat itself because we all know what happened to the Jews last time around.(this is directed only at people like Thutmos Turner and Osiris who in below posts have used some vulgar and extremely offensive language which I will not repeat.So if your hear for a genuine love and interest in history please do not be offended) The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt). I made it clear the meaning of the Greek word melanchroies so I will not go into that again. Herodotus compared the Egyptians to “Colchians”-were the Colchians black Africans. The Colchians inhabited what is roughly modern-day Georgia in the Caucasus, so the vast majority were most likely — and quite literally — CAUCASIAN.Herodotus’ exlanation that being melanchrroes or oulutrches “indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too” suggests that these adjectives did not apply exclusively to any one “race” of people.The description of Colchians by Herodotus can be contrasted with that of Hippocrates,who wrote of the Colchians in Phasis”have an appearance different from that of other men.As to size,they are large and corpulent in body.Neither joint nor vein is evident.They have a yelloish flesh, as if victims of jaundice”(Hippocrates,Airs,Waters,Places 15).Nothing in Hippocrates, descrition suggests that Colchians look anything like sub-Saharan Africans and this further wekens the Afrocentric argument that Egyptians and Colchians must have looks like “blacks” on the basis of Herodotus’ Words. Also when Herodotus,other classical writer and the Ehtiopians said that Egypt was a colony of Ethiopia thay were not lying.If you remember the 25th dynasty was of Ethiopian origin and only a couple of hundred years before Herodotus visited Egypt ,Egypt was ruled from Napata in the heart of Nubia/Ethiopia(Afrocentrists twisting the truth again). Other ancient quotes cited by Afrocentrists Other ancient quotes that some Afro-Egyptocentrists interpret in such a way as to conflict with other descriptions such as the ones I quoted before.These are marred by basically the same failings as the Herodotus quote described above in interpreting Greek words such as mlanchroes as “negro”, and failing to recognize stereotypes and exaggerations.Using the same faulty techniques, Afrocentrists might as well say Jews in the Middle Ages were “black”(I wouldnt be surprised if they did) because Joeeph ben Nathan in the 13th centuary quoted his father as saying “we Jews come from a pure,white source, and so our faces are black”.Of course to do this would igore the fact that in medieval Europe as in ancient Greece,”black” often meant “swarthy”.Likewise Afrocentrists could insist that 12th centuary Turks were “black” on the basis of their being exaggerated as “blacker than pitch or ink” in the epic Chanson d’Aspremont.But we know on the basis of physical remains and ample pictorial evidence that neither the Jews nor Turks were actually “black” in medieval times. Heres interesting information about the picture (can be seen in in most Afrocentric books)that Afrocentrics say is proof that the Egyptians saw themselves as looking the same as Nubians/Kushites/Ethiopians can be found at Subject:Re:photos of “black Egyptians” Date: 1999/05/11 Author:Bernard Ortiz de Montellano Civilization: Dear Paul, Those figures in the Lepsius Erganzungsband,pl.48 are not actually Lepsius’ work, but a re-edition done in 1913, as Ishowed in my article in Egypt in Africa(Bloomington,IM:Indiana University Press, 1997).To make matters worse , the hieroglyph texts between these figures were garbled.The original scenes both in Sety the 1st’s tomb and in Ramesses the 3rd’s tomb showed the Egyptians and the Kushites as distinctly different.Also, the hieroglyphs on the real walls are distributed between each of the four figures depicting each type.You can now view the real photographs of both the Sety the 1st and Ramesses the thirds walls in Hornung’s volumes on the valley of the Kings.I have been inside both tombs myself and have seen these scenes and their texts, and on the basis of this, the depiction in Erganzungsband is not the real depiction of what is on the walls but rather a pastische, arranged from Lepsius’ notes and garbled in the process.It is unfortunate that so many people have depended on this depiction as reality, when a look at the walls in both tombs shows that patently it is not reality. Most sincerly Frank J.Yurco ***** Regards Picture of Ramesses the second smiting a Libyan,Nubian/Ethiopian and a Asiatic.Notice how the artist used the same pigment for Ramesses as he did for the Asiatic,think about that!Now compare the facial features of Ramesses to the Nubian and the Asiatic,notice how Ramesses looked almost complestly like the Asiatic apart from the beard.I know its only a picture but I think its fairly obvious that Ramesses was not black, further weakening the Afrocentric arguement. This is a picture of an Nubian/Ethiopian Captive.Take a look closly does he look Egyptian, I dont think so and if dont agree I think you should probably see an optician. P.S.Its a pity pictures cant be posted on this page I could probably end this debat hear and now.And as I said more to come incluning quotes,dental and hair evidence and more genetic tests.
Laughing in Your Face
Black liars world-wide r exposed, USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 11:42:11 (EDT)

To the (mythological) “Aryans;” not that it ultimately matters, but I am still awaiting the answer to the following question. What did the Nordic peoples (Germanic, Aryan, Scandinavian, etc.) contribute in terms of science, culture, or the arts BEFORE 1000 A.D.. Please don’t tell me what the “Mediterraneans” did or “Hamites,” or the southern Europeans, the Eastern Europeans, the Semitic Peoples, the Sumerians, Elamites, Indians, Romans or Greeks (all of whom are not Nordics according to Hitler & the neo-nazis). Tell me what the berserker nations, the vikings, the “Aryan”/Nordics ever did. Their math and mathematical symbols are not their own, their alphabet is not their own, even their science and arts are not their own. Why did the Romans consider them Barbarians (Me thinks because they were). Why are vikings (Nordics) associated with raping, pillaging, murder, and mayhem. Why do we have images of them in bearskins (from whence the term berserker originates). Why do so many neo-nazi groups continue to this very day, to identify themselves along with the berserkers and the vikings. What did they ever do to “advance civilization.” I suspect that i will never get a valid answer. Also consider the pyramids in the Americas. They rival the Egyptian pyramids in some aspects. Were the American Indians white aryans? You probably think so. — Listen, all people are created equal in God’s eyes, so the question is moot. But from an historical perspective, your own fellow Europeans, as well as the inhabitants of the rest of the world testify against you. “Nordics” have to foster the myth of their superiority because they know that all of history (up until the middle ages or so) indites them as being amongst the most savage and UNcivilized of the peoples of the world. This is all so very sad.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 10:41:34 (EDT)

Mr. Bridges, may I be so bold as to add this book is only about $17.00 and is in paperback form. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 03:22:02 (EDT)

Hello to all that are interested in expanding their knowledge base. I have recently fell across a book by the name of Ancient and Modern Britons by David MacRitchie. In it he discuses the original inhabitants of Europe and Briton as being Moors (aka black, negroe, african-american.) He also in several passages discusses the fact that these same people founded other civilizations including Egypt. If anyone cares to challenge me on this first obtain a copy of the book read it. Oh, by the way the book was originally written in the 1800’s by a white man from the UK who looked deeply into the history of his own land. Salaam.
Henry Bridges
Age: 25, USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 23:05:14 (EDT)

Brothers and sisters, I admit I may have exaderated a bit when I referred to the Sherry thing and her fellow neo nazi Black haters as Australopithicus savages. Australopithicus was of course an ape like humanoid who lived more than 5 million years ago and never left Africa and died out about 1 million years ago. This is evidence that they are not Austrolopithicus. The same for Homo habilis in extenction for 1.6 million years. I was in error. I now estimate these people to be of Homo erectus (upright man) with a larger brain capacity and was the first to leave Africa ad thought to be extenct 1.7 million years. Theory has it that a few of them strayed a were caught behind the polar icecaps. Wallah…..the Sherry thing and her neo nazi kinsman polluting this site. Can you imagine the barbarians of Europe building the 65 foot monument of Ramesse II? Again, where are the European monuments? We know of all the “AFRICAN” monuments, cities, libraries, pyramids, etc. etc. WHERE ARE THE EUROPEAN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THIS ERA???????? Where are they? The question will never be answered through all eternity! Did the whites pack them all up and transplant them in Africa? Did all the smart people leave Europe and settle in Africa? Never-mine the monuments….just show us the evidence they even had a system of writing! SAVAGES amongst us! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 22:41:17 (EDT)

Brother Kwabena, thank you for exposing the so-called Iskander Wagdi. This may translate to “I AM A NEO NAZI WHITE BOY”. One of the site this trailer trash referred to is a site called “The Ancient Egyptians Were Not Black”. This is so weak that it is almost entertaining. Imagine….a site created just for people of this ilk to attempt convincing people that we don’t have a heritage othewr than slavery. Notice the savages can never tell you our origin but they can tell you what our origin is not! To enter this subject would make fools of their crimminally insane ramblings. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 22:08:33 (EDT)

Is Mr. Wagdi confused? Mr. Wagdi says—–>”The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt).” He speaks of a Mediterranean race in Southern Europe and Asia, but where are they now? Did he say Portuguese but by definition of local race, linguistic correlation and geographical location, the Portuguese are more Mediterranean than anything else. Yes, the Vandals and the Visigoths did invade Portugal but there was also an indigenous population there. The Portuguese may have been invaded by the Germanic Vandals and Visigoths, who are or were a Nordic type, but studying the phenotypic features of the Portuguese no one would confuse them with Swedish people. Sherry called an Eygptian Black and Mr. Wagdi asserts he is genetically related to the Mediterraneans, but not the Mediterranean Portuguese. It seems like contradictions to me and you got it straight for the mouths of those who said it. Excuse me, Mr. Wadgi, but I didn’t mean to misspell your name. Oh yeah, good written and grammatical correct English for a third language. I commend you for your astounding efforts.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:29:43 (EDT)

Yes, Sherry refered to Mr. Wagdu as Black, but he is Egyptian. Why is that? Mr. Wagdu says this—–>”I was born and raised in Egypt and it makes me laugh at you foreingers saying that our ancesters looked like Nordics or Ugandans.” Piece the puzzle with me. “?”
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minnesota, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:15:40 (EDT)

I hate to start something I see a snake! Sherry posted some time ago——->”One of your black brothers have posted a link right below my large post..his name is ” Iskander Wagdi . It may be very educational for all of you to click on his name/link, to visit the web page he has refered you all to. I did. It is very interesting….” Hmmm… Now watch this!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:08:58 (EDT)

Iskander, I don’t believe you have read anything that Blackfacts wrote. I think you should go back and read. I have just taken a copy of everything Blackfact (I informed Blackfacts that I was doing this)wrote and emailed it to George Sarafis at and I am awaiting his response.
Mackens P. Audena
Age: 20, USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 20:23:38 (EDT)

Just out of curiosity! Mr. Iskander Wagdi, do you have fair skin and blue eyes? Also, is your hair blonde? To Sherry, it’s been some time now since our initial discussion so may I refresh your memory because you never provided FACTS that could be scrutinized. The only thing you have supplied were hierogylphic interpretations, which can be used flexibly according to one’s agenda. Oh yeah, I forgot you gave your eyewitness account of blonde pharaohs and queens, which I did see pictures of in the Stormfront’s website. (No pun intended, because this is truth) Besides your assertations can be seen as radical for Western norms and no scholar has come forth to support your blue-eyed and blonde Egyptians (not those Western academically accepted). I have presented, although very brief, a list of African/Egyptian cultural characteristics, but it seems those so obsessed with “blonde pictures” finds this either too trivial or too profound. I, even, provided evidence that your “intriguing” Egyptians did practice excision, which you un-educatedly categorize as an unique African “savage” tradition. Why have you fail to scrutinize my position; is it because you can’t refute my claims or none of the other claims here? Is this why you now proceed to call us “liars” and attack the basic integrity of this website, as well as, African people? What is your motivation? Frustration. Did you not, in attempts to dehumanize African people, present a barrage of stereotypes which you know nothing about? I believe so. This is why you dodge an intellectual confrontation with my words. So convenient! To claim Egyptians weren’t Black, next degrade African people and grossly mis-represent cultural values and concepts, then to condemn those who refute your position as liars, when you haven’t even adequately proven your position. This is a case of the pot calling the kettle black. I have looked at the words of you and your colleagues, analyze them and using the discerning eye of an anthropology student, attempted to figure out your motives. Never once have I in the course of this discussion attacked Europeans based on the cultural ideas, unlike others; to do so would be biased. I had decided to remain quiet, as the foolish is the one who doesn’t listen and weigh things before speech, but proceeds to argue with the vigor of a ox things he does not know. But I can not allow someone, the least interested in African culture, slaughter cultural practices and walked away with questioning! This is to save the fool! Odabo! I have plenty of questions, as I said before, that have never answered or replied to; at best, the majority were only brushed aside as irrelevant or with a catch-all excuses utilize by those who don’t know the answer. You have some explaining to do. If not, then we know who the LIAR is!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 20:06:48 (EDT)

keep up the good and necessary work!!!!!!!! Let me know if I can be of any help. I have already reccommended the readings to several friends. Tya
Tya Wahington
Age: 27, Houston, Tx USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 19:38:47 (EDT)

Brother Curtis, you bring a smile to my face with your comments. I answer to your question, I don’t think the Pharoahs would do as I have. Instead, they would nto have time to write for their wconstant and non-stop war waging on the enemy. Not just wars of the words but actual war. As Black men we all need to all ask ourselves daily…”HOW HAVE I WAGED WAR ON THE ENEMIES OF OUR PEOPLE TODAY”. What have I done “TODAY” to stop the cocaine dumped in our communities; what have I done “TODAY” to stop the murder of our women and children (Kyesha Miller, Margaret Mitchell, children by so-called police officers; what have I done “TODAY” to stop the trashing of our image in the white/jewish controlled medias; What have I done “TODAY” to direct and thereby save the life of a Black child? I respect your comments my brother, but the Pharoahs would be out kicking the hell out of our enemies! We are at war my brother….no less than war with the ……. (you know). My comments are not to name call, they are my actual descritions of what I see in them. It is not my fault if it is not pretty! However, once again I admit to taking the non scholarly so called low road in responce to the savages. You take the high road and I take the low and if we are both fighting the enemy we will smash them between us. Our people are indeed in a demolition derby and if we don’t wake up we will be demolished. There is no room and no time left for simply talk without direct action. This is our site as Black people to express ideas about and discuss our heritage…..that must be defended. If I am fighting to defend any ground we have catured (including here) then you should support it. You should just go on making your posts in defense and I will do the same. Damn the so-called bad spirits….lets get it on! I think the Pharoahs would use “ANY” and “ALL” means at their disposal to evict the barbarians. In fact, that is just what they were fighting then and us now. Self indulging and scholarly words have their place, but some times when you get in a dog fight one must use other words to fit the occasion. Compared to the advanced state of our people, the Pharoahs saw nothing but “AUSTROLOPITHICUS (white) SAVAGES” attacking them. Sadly…..SOME OF THEM HAVE NOT CHANGED MUCH–IF AT ALL. Is that my fault? Therefore why should I not called the ones that exhibit characteristic bahavior in accurate terms using accurate descriptive words? I have never yelled fire in movie theatre, but I would if there were a fire. Never stop a brother from fighting (in any way)….it does not inhibit your activities. “WE ARE NOT HYPED UP ENOUGH”! I don’t visit neo nazi sites and attack them but I do come to this site for knowledge and will defend it. Let us work….if not together…lets just work! All the best to you my good brother. Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 15:39:11 (EDT)

Thut, I think you meant “Osiris,” not “Curtis.” As for your comments, we are in a discussion group not a demolition derby. Let us not get so hyped up that we lose our dignity. Can you really see any of the Pharoahs using sentences like “barbaric racist AUSTROLOPITHICUS savage neo nazi whites Sherry thing..” in any of their discourses. You keep bringing up Sherry, she is a non-issue now that she has been exposed. By responding to her in any manner, especially yours, you are causing the troublesome spirit to hang around even longer. The majority of her responses have been to you. Like an annoying itch, just ignore her, and eventually she will go away. Here is an interesting hypothesis: What if Sherry and Thutmose are really alter egos, and their is some scary Schizophrenic – multiple personality type of thing going on here. Or better yet, maybe they ARE two seperate people but there is a love-hate relationship forming. What was that Spike Lee movie/Stevie Wonder song called again? Somethin’ about a Tropical illness? Oh never mind. Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 14:28:18 (EDT)

USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 12:48:44 (EDT)

Don’t calm down brother Curtis! Don’t calm down at all. Why should we not take our rightful place as world leaders. Whites are less than 10% of the population and their birthrates are falling through the floor fast. This is their reason for panic imprisonment and mass killing! They are even pushing multiculturalism in order to mix with our genes. They are in a state of crisis (as we are living in their barbaric society) and they are simply trying to survive! Don’t calm down at all! Anyway, I am proud the way our brothers and sisters have stepped up to the plate and drove the barbaric racist AUSTROLOPITHICUS savage neo nazi whites (Sherry thing and friends) back into hell! We have defended our Black heritage and I declare victory in this round. It was absolutely masterful. I have learned a great deal from my brothers and sisters quotes and references while they answered the savages. I guess in this way the white supremist neo nazi savages have assisted us in achieving our goal…..whiich is the increase of THE KNOWLEDGE OF SELF. I never thought I would say thank you to a savage but……….no no I just can’t do it! The savages just don’t understand that Black peple (not negroes) don’t care what white savages have to say. The day is over when we accept knowledge of self from the oppressor. The next thing these barbaric white savages will be saying is that Christopher Columbus discovered America. Maybe I am stretching a bit….not even the neo nazi savage Sherry thing wold go that far! Brothers you have done me proud and it will take me a month or so just to sift through the sources you provided in this last round with the savages. On with the war to unite our MINDS! The day we achieve this unity is the day racism white supremacy ends and peace and justice brought back to the planet. It has been only 400 years and they are already on their way out. Again, this is why the panic over what we think of ourselves. Hotep my brothers and sisters. Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 12:42:32 (EDT)

Jeez, Osiris, calm down.
Maksat Tohme
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 10:03:56 (EDT)

Some day the white man will serve the black man and bow before him!!The WAR continues!!!!!
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 09:15:02 (EDT)

Whats the name address for the websight with the inscription of Uni?
Iskander Wagdi
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 07:40:52 (EDT)

Here are some links to interesting pictures, Most of the pictures here are from the old kingdom, they clearly show Nofret daughter of Khufu was fair skinned and had blue eyes, the man seated beside her is her husband Rahotep.The picture at the top of the page of a fairly overweight man is Hemiunu.Heminunu oversaw the building of Khufu’s pyramid, but hang on a minute the ancients were black, why would a Caucasian oversee the building of the pyramids (which you argue were the results of black genius)and why does Khufu’s daughter have such a light complexion? Why?Well ether theres a conspiracy where the evil Egyptians/Arabs(who are apparently are not Egyptian at all but asiatics) and evil devil white men have destroyed all the original artifacts and replaced them with fakes, because they are afraid of the mighty black africans (who also happened to invent everything ever worth inventing in history)rising up from the sorry state their people are in and taking over the world or perhaps due to the society which Afro-Americans live in, which is riddled with racism they/you need to have a feeling of superiority,greatness and a belief you are decended from kings and queens, just because you have a massive chip on your shoulder and no self-confidence.It makes sence for you to blame others for your problems.In fact you lot have alot in commom with the Nazis, just like they blamed the Jews for all Germanys problems and made up a false history of an ancient Aryan race whho throughtout history the Jews were trying to destroy.Just replace the Jews with Arabs and whites,the German race with the black race and the ancient Aryans with the ancient Egyptians and you have a new master race full of brainwashed automaton’s.It is very important that history dosent repeat itself because we all know what happened to the Jews last time around.(this is directed only at people like Thutmos Turner and Osiris who in below posts have used some vulgar and extremely offensive language which I will not repeat.So if your hear for a genuine love and interest in history please do not be offended) The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt). I made it clear the meaning of the Greek word melanchroies so I will not go into that again. Herodotus compared the Egyptians to “Colchians”-were the Colchians black Africans. The Colchians inhabited what is roughly modern-day Georgia in the Caucasus, so the vast majority were most likely — and quite literally — CAUCASIAN.Herodotus’ exlanation that being melanchrroes or oulutrches “indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too” suggests that these adjectives did not apply exclusively to any one “race” of people.The description of Colchians by Herodotus can be contrasted with that of Hippocrates,who wrote of the Colchians in Phasis”have an appearance different from that of other men.As to size,they are large and corpulent in body.Neither joint nor vein is evident.They have a yelloish flesh, as if victims of jaundice”(Hippocrates,Airs,Waters,Places 15).Nothing in Hippocrates, descrition suggests that Colchians look anything like sub-Saharan Africans and this further wekens the Afrocentric argument that Egyptians and Colchians must have looks like “blacks” on the basis of Herodotus’ Words. Also when Herodotus,other classical writer and the Ehtiopians said that Egypt was a colony of Ethiopia thay were not lying.If you remember the 25th dynasty was of Ethiopian origin and only a couple of hundred years before Herodotus visited Egypt ,Egypt was ruled from Napata in the heart of Nubia/Ethiopia(Afrocentrists twisting the truth again). Other ancient quotes cited by Afrocentrists Other ancient quotes that some Afro-Egyptocentrists interpret in such a way as to conflict with other descriptions such as the ones I quoted before.These are marred by basically the same failings as the Herodotus quote described above in interpreting Greek words such as mlanchroes as “negro”, and failing to recognize stereotypes and exaggerations.Using the same faulty techniques, Afrocentrists might as well say Jews in the Middle Ages were “black”(I wouldnt be surprised if they did) because Joeeph ben Nathan in the 13th centuary quoted his father as saying “we Jews come from a pure,white source, and so our faces are black”.Of course to do this would igore the fact that in medieval Europe as in ancient Greece,”black” often meant “swarthy”.Likewise Afrocentrists could insist that 12th centuary Turks were “black” on the basis of their being exaggerated as “blacker than pitch or ink” in the epic Chanson d’Aspremont.But we know on the basis of physical remains and ample pictorial evidence that neither the Jews nor Turks were actually “black” in medieval times. Heres interesting information about the picture (can be seen in in most Afrocentric books)that Afrocentrics say is proof that the Egyptians saw themselves as looking the same as Nubians/Kushites/Ethiopians can be found at Subject:Re:photos of “black Egyptians” Date: 1999/05/11 Author:Bernard Ortiz de Montellano Civilization: Dear Paul, Those figures in the Lepsius Erganzungsband,pl.48 are not actually Lepsius’ work, but a re-edition done in 1913, as Ishowed in my article in Egypt in Africa(Bloomington,IM:Indiana University Press, 1997).To make matters worse , the hieroglyph texts between these figures were garbled.The original scenes both in Sety the 1st’s tomb and in Ramesses the 3rd’s tomb showed the Egyptians and the Kushites as distinctly different.Also, the hieroglyphs on the real walls are distributed between each of the four figures depicting each type.You can now view the real photographs of both the Sety the 1st and Ramesses the thirds walls in Hornung’s volumes on the valley of the Kings.I have been inside both tombs myself and have seen these scenes and their texts, and on the basis of this, the depiction in Erganzungsband is not the real depiction of what is on the walls but rather a pastische, arranged from Lepsius’ notes and garbled in the process.It is unfortunate that so many people have depended on this depiction as reality, when a look at the walls in both tombs shows that patently it is not reality. Most sincerly Frank J.Yurco ***** Regards Picture of Ramesses the second smiting a Libyan,Nubian/Ethiopian and a Asiatic.Notice how the artist used the same pigment for Ramesses as he did for the Asiatic,think about that!Now compare the facial features of Ramesses to the Nubian and the Asiatic,notice how Ramesses looked almost complestly like the Asiatic apart from the beard.I know its only a picture but I think its fairly obvious that Ramesses was not black, further weakening the Afrocentric arguement. This is a picture of an Nubian/Ethiopian Captive.Take a look closly does he look Egyptian, I dont think so and if dont agree I think you should probably see an optician. P.S.Its a pity pictures cant be posted on this page I could probably end this debat hear and now.And as I said more to come incluning quotes,dental and hair evidence and more genetic tests.
Iskander Wagdi
Tanta, Egypt – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 07:38:41 (EDT)

Not only are your “idealogies” far from the truth, but just about all of you are nothing more than LIARS. To blackfacts…your mythical facts that you post are absurd. Have you been to Egypt? Really…have you? Evidnetally not. No one here, and specifically not you..can brain-wash me into your desperate attempts to make the world”black”. I have LISTED numerous FACTS here..which no one could dispute. Though many have tried, and when they realized, it wasnt working with me…suddenly Im a racist..suddenly , Im a neo-nazi, a savage…etc etc. Now, from you…I am sopossed to have an “obsession” with blacks, and I go from board to board ..lurking? (laughing) You really are disturbed. I came across this site, one night while I was searching for some additional information related to Egypt. When I entered this site..I was astonished at what I had seen and read. The twisted facts that I read …I had to respond…and I will keep on responding all of these lies. You can read ANY of my posts, there is nothing “racist” within my posts…just FACTS, and it seems as though when “blacks” are confronted with facts, its automatically “racist”. Which is not true. If any of you were sincere in your efforts of study, you wouldnt twist facts to fit your beliefs, resort to name-calling, and call the race card when your confronted with facts that you dont like, and dont want to hear. Go read my posts. See for yourself…its a simple fact of how you and your people twist things and put words in other peoples mouths..afterall, many of you did it here to me…scroll down…read a little. I find it funny that you have the audascity to claim I lurk on “black” boards..can you clarify that ? Where have I been? Who I am , is no “Secret”, and when I post will have my name on it. I encourage you to check the ip#s’ you know how to do that? If so, check and see…then go to these other “black boards” and get the ip#s’…and get back with me. You are very immature. Also, the pallette of narmer…does anyone have a pic of it? I do, I can post it , and show everyone his features. As much as you would like him to be negroid, hes not. Also…no one has still proven the inscription of uni to be a real “fake” or “mistake”. In fact, someone here put a link to the university of chicago egyptology and oriental refer peopole there for some so called “black” information on egypt. Well, its funny…I used the same website, and encouraged people here to look up the interpretation of the inscription of uni…and suddenly I was a barbaric savage racist..and that website was racist..and the egyptologist breadsted was racist..when I used it…but when your people used wasnt racist. HHHmmmm…thats really going to make people think when they read that. It proves my point of not only the distortion of facts here, but, how anything that doesnt agree with this sites idealogy…is racist. That is hypocritical…and just by that one little mistake(though there have been numerous other contridictions here) of calling me a racist because I used the SAME EXACT SITE THAT YOUR BROTHERS USED AND POSTED A LINK TO…its obvious…what you people really are. In the future, learn history…and dont distort it…and accept history for what it is..because you surely cant change it .In Truth…Sherry
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 22:15:28 (EDT)

I have no interest in disputing the claim that Egypt and not Greece being the seat of western law and I don’t thinbk it really matters, however, in your article you quote a Greek saying: “Ex Africa semper liquid novi” You should be aware that this is Latin and not Greek (and especially not Ancient Greek). You may wish to go back to your sources for the original quote.
Age: 33, USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:54:03 (EDT)

I have taken a back seat to read and absorb of the posts. This is a learning experience for me. I have seen my brothers and sisters step to share their wealth of information like true defenders of their heritage and this makes me proud. For sometime, even before reading Diop and others, I have always assumed the indigenous peoples of India to be our kith and kin. There are those early findings of africoid (our as scholars try to cover and say “Negritos”) people in lands far from Mama Africa and I would always wonder. Earlier this year, I conducted a rudimentary study of the Andamanese and now much I have presented and then some have been proven. It is also good to know my people are thinking, in terms, of the global collective of African people. Continue my people to research and write and I will enjoy the fruit of your labor. Bigups to Bros. Nepal, Blackfacts, Curtis, Rodney, Menes and all others who have diligent in their studies and wisdom in their words. As I finish reading, I will provide my perspective! Odabo. One Love!!!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:24:43 (EDT)

Brother S.R. Nepal, I couldn’t find a way to contact you on your website. In any case, I am putting your a link to your website on my own.
Mack Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:05:29 (EDT)

Blackfacts, thank you for setting it all straight. Respect and Love for Mother Africa!Egyptians were Black. Here is a quote from “In fact, quite a few historians have postulated that African civilization follows along a continuous path. …there was no interruption of African history. It is evident that, if starting from Nubia and Egypt, we had followed a continental geographical direction, such as Nubia-Gulf of Benin, Nubia-Congo, Nubia-Mozambique, the course of African history would still have appeared uninterruptied. This is the perspective in which the African past should be viewed. Cheikh Anta Diop, African scholar”
Mack Audena
Age: 20, USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 19:55:46 (EDT)

Now we’re not supposed to refer to the Kamau as being either “black or white.” Is this where we are to be assaulted with assertions of a “multiracial” Kemet after having discovered that there’s copious documentation and a body of informed African-centered scholars and researchers willing to promote the African presence in the Hapi (Nile) Valley? Given the anti-African tirades posted in the recent weeks one can see that europeans and their colored adjuncts still haven’t given up their Hegelian views and their attempts to commit historicide against African people. Read “THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY” by Georg Hegel.Then again this is “intellectual warfare.” And Curtis, thank you for expanding the discussion to the African/Black presence in western Asia. SOUL! PEACE! AND HAIRGREASE!
Rodney Cash Jr.
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 19:05:48 (EDT)

From “Europa: The History of the White Race” — “Although Hammurabi himself was then clearly a descendent of one of the Nordic tribes and not one of the “black haired” peoples, as the Law Code reveals, by this time large numbers of the population had become distinctly Semitic, as waves of immigrants swarmed in from the Arabic heartland on the Saudi Arabian peninsula, drawn by the allure of the great Sumerian cities.” —– These “Aryans” are sad. Not one source on the web from any Mesopatamian Departments of any universities, translates “black-headed” as black-haired.” Why do the Aryans twist the translation. All the sources that translate it as black-headed, are from whites. So are the white people in a grand conspiracy with the Afrocentrists? The neo-nazi argument is just plain stupid. Also, no other sources state that Hammurabi was a Nordic. If anything he was a semite. No modern day Assyriologist would be so foolish as to claim that these people were Nordics. It is true that he is called the white king, but he was hardly Scandinavian, germanic, or anything closely resembling these people. The Nordics were still wearing bearskins and calling themselves berserkers at this time. The Viking peoples were some of the most barbaric in Europe, and some of the last to be “civilized.” Before the 1100’s A.D. what did any Nordic (Germanic or Scandinavian) ever do to “advance civilization.” My friends, the nazi’s are jokers, and their fellow Europeans consistently prove it.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 18:11:52 (EDT)

Thanks for the replies. More about the artwork: on a website referred to previously in this discussion (click my name to get to the page) there is a picture of Ramses II holding captives by the hair. Here we have Egyptian, Nubian, and Asian all in the same picture. While the Egyptian and Asian both are painted using exactly the same “Egyptian red” pigment, the Nubian is clearly differentiated in terms of skin color as he is much darker than the rest of the figures. One other artwork I’d like to point out – which was not on the website – is a famous chest from Tutankhamen’s tomb showing Tut slaying enemy armies. Tut’s army is fighting Nubians on one side of the chest and Asiatics on the other. It is clear that the Egyptians are physically different from both enemies, but in terms of color they appear closer to the Asiatics. By the way, just to make my stance clear, I believe it is inaccurate to call Egyptians either black or white. Take care.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:57:41 (EDT)

Mr. Tohme. You’ve already proven yourself racist in earlier posts (The Arab rants) with your statements of Africans being underdeveloped and sarcastic tones to black people ever being in positions of power. Incidentally the Arabs had much the same to say about their Berber cousins, some of whom are black but many of whom are some variety of white. But anyway…you stated: “A suggestion for people in this forum: please find pictures of the ancient Faiyum portraits. There are many portraits that are of native Egyptians, and some of these have dark-skin, tightly-curled hair and relatively full lips (as in some but not all Greek descriptions), but at the same time could never be mistaken for a West African or even an Ethiopian.” REALLY? SOUNDS LIKE BLACK FOLKS TO ME?!?! You been to West Africa? You’ve seen ALL West Africans? You seen ALL Ethiopians? Ever been to Ethiopia? And perhaps the ancient Egyptians did not look predominantaly like West Africans. Does that instantly make them non-black? Is West Africa the only habitable place in Africa? Groups like the Fulani claim descent from East Africa. So do the Yoruba of Nigeria. Why did the Egyptians draw the people of Punt so identical to themselves? Why do many Ethiopian medieval paintings draw themselves with very light skin and straight noses? Ever seen a picture of the late Haile Selassie? How bout Menelik II? You also state, “They show many lighter-skinned Egyptians, too.” Come to my family reunion sometime Tohmey—I’ll show ya’ folks that range from chocolate deluxe to mocha to french vanilla. And guess what? They’re ALL BLACK! Classify us as Hamites, Bantus, Negroes or what have you. Try as one might, you cannot wash off Mother Africa. HUMANITY is AFRICAN Tohme. You and Sherry betta stop running. And please, in following in the ways of Egyptians and other Africans—respect your black ancestors. Its the least you could do…
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:47:29 (EDT)

More on Sumerian Blacks (BTW these were written by the black-headed peoples themselves. Most scholars agree that the “black” refers to skin color not to hair since most of the people in that region were dark-haired). —— The swift runner, a hurricane — the strength of his loins is never ending, who emerges victorious from the race among the settlements; the terrifying one, who is furious in his running, the strongest among those selected from the people, ……. When he stretches his arms out, …… at his sides. Culgi, …… from the horizon. Because of his being most powerful, in his vigour ……. He, the tireless one, …… the road. No king ever cared so much for the black-headed people; he established justice on a grand scale.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:45:09 (EDT)

Black Sumerians – —– In the Gagiccua of the great palace, where she renders verdicts with grandeur, he made the great mother Ninlil glad. Enlil and Ninlil relished it there. In its great dining-hall, the trustworthy hero chosen by Nunamnir made them enjoy a magnificent meal: the E-kur was rejoicing. They looked with approval at the shepherd Ur-Namma, and the Great Mountain decreed a great destiny for Ur-Namma for all time, making him the mightiest among his black-headed people. 12-21In the E-tarsirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, my lady, render verdicts and decree judgements. Bau, in the E-tarsirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, Bau, render verdicts and decree judgements. The …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in the holy city. Bau, the …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in the holy city.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:42:16 (EDT)

Oh yeah, to Sherry. One of the reasons the Narmer bust was related to Narmer is because it DOES resemble the thick lipped and “bulbous” nosed figure on the celebrated Narmer pallette! I guess we each see what we want to see eh’ STURMfront? Narmer comes from the south, where predynastic kings had set up their own kingdom in Upper Egypt. A visit to modern day Egypt will show Upper Egypt to still very “Africoid” in make up when compared to Lower Egypt. As the Egyptians themselves claim they come from the South, Like Narmer and the Horus kings and Souls of Neken, I suppose then that blond haired whites with white skin migrated from inner Africa eh? Woulda been heck on them when Ra made his ascent…. You’re silly. If you wasn’t such a little Nazi… I’d find you humorous… What happened Sherry? Got tired of haunting the other black boards? For those that don’t know Sherry makes a habit of popping up on black boards and lurks silently in black listservs waiting to pounce. Her obsession with black people and black people’s business is truly disturbing…
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:36:09 (EDT)

Dark, dusky, swarthy or black—all have been terms used to describe blacks. In the Greek quotes I gave you, Aristotle compares the Egyptians and Ethiopians in having the same skin color. He sees himself, the Greek, as having the medium tone. Replace black with dusky, swarthy, etc. and the comparisons are still there. And as for differentiations between artistic drawings of Nubians and Egyptians, well for one—they weren’t always so. Often times the Egyptians painted Nubians in their same red ochre. In the reliefs of the people of Punt (modern day Somalia or Eritrea) the people are also drawn nearly identical to the Egyptians. Point is, I have seen numerous pictures depicting Egyptians and Nubians. And in many the Nubians are portrayed with black skin and very kinky hair. The Egyptians are portrayed with reddish brown skin and VARIOUS hair types–straight and kinky. But, having red-brown skin DOES NOT make the Egyptians non-black or non-African! All Africans DO NOT have jet black skin. In fact, the portrayal of Nubians in this manner is common during a certain New Kingdom period, and not the entire 3,00 year old dynasty. Why this stereotype of Nubians with very black skin, exceedingly thick lips and blonde wigs during this time period? It is unknown. Point is, it doesn’t make the Egyptians any less Africoid. No more than it makes the Bedja of Somalia, the brown skinned Fulani of West Africa, or the slender thin nosed/lipped Tutsi non-Africoid. New York police sketch detective Frank Domingo (a man who has done numerous race profiles) could not help but be reminded of Puerto Rico as he walked the streets of modern day Cairo and Luxor. The African stamp upon many of the faces was obvious. As I have walked those streets myself, I was reminded of the same thing. It was like walking through the Dominican Republic or Brazil. The Africoid stamp was still evident on MANY of the modern day inhabitants of Egypt. The black skinned Nubians the New Kingdom Egyptians chose to portray are today very brown skinned (take a trip to Aswan sometime) and in fact look very much like the many reddish-brown peoples who can be found on the walls throughout ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt of today is a land of many different peoples who have settled in the region. Hate to break it to you, but black people do not all have “black” skin, very thick lips, kinky hair, etc. We have all the varieties in the world— because in case you didn’t know, we’re the oldest people on the planet. Modern day Egyptians can claim to be WHATEVER they want to be. Its the politics of the world we live in. Better to be anything than black. So everyone from the very intermixed modern day Egyptians to some Somali to some Ethiopians to some black Brazlians to Tiger Woods—don’t want to be black. That’s politics talking. If you’re white you’re alright. If you’re black—jump back! If politics was different, everybody today would be beatin’ down the black door. You, Sherry and Iskander keep on lumping all Afrocentrics together. I do not fully agree with the KMT meaning “black people” statement. Neither do I think that ALL of Egypt was black. All of Egypt was not black just as ALL of Greece was not white. But Egypt was “PREDOMINANTALLY black” is what I contend; and you may take that in all the variants of black that exist in the Western Hemisphere today. You look at the “claimed” bust of Nefertiti and say “white girl.” I look at the bust of a queen who was supposedly of Persian or Mittani and Egyptian heritage and say, “Mariah Carey.” For further explanation look up the term “high yella” in Leroy’s Urbanite Dictionary… Suffice it to say, if there were no black Africans who sat upon the thrones of Egypt—then there are no Africans in the United States, the Caribbean or South America. >>>>>>>>>>>”The way of looking at the world to be found in, say the Hebrew Bible or in Babylonia literature or amongst the Greeks is very different from anything you find in Egypt. And that difference is its Africaness.”—Bruce Williams, Egyptologist/Nubiologist (white)
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:26:06 (EDT)

Link between black Indians and Sumerians from the following website: 1.Tamil people are compared with the Sumerians: ” The people responsible for the first monumental temples and palaces, for the founding of the first city states and most likely for the invention of writing (all in the period of 3100-3000 BCE) are the Sumerians. The first written signs are pictographic, so they can be read in any language and one can’t infer a particular language. …..The Sumerians called their country ‘civilised land’, their language eme.gir and themselves ‘the black-headed ones ‘Sumerian’ has no known relation to any other language. There seems to be a remote relationship with Dravidian languages (like spoken by the Tamils, now in the south of India). There is evidence that the Dravidian languages were spoken in the north of India, being displaced by the arrival of the Indo-European invaders around 1500 BCE. Because of the term ‘the black-headed ones’, it is possible (but far from proven) that the Sumerians are an early branch of one of the people now living in southern India.” In my view, if Tamil linguistic experts are involved in research to decode the Sumerian languages, there must be some interesting finding. The western historians, in my view, are handicapped because of their limited knowledge of literary Tamil. Of course, we the Tamils may not be able to understand even the Sangam Tamil… the biggest generation gap in our language! 2. Some of the Sumerian towns had names that resembles Tamil names ..Ur, Nippur and more so the name “Elam (Tamil Elangai) and the Elamites (people of Elam): The ruins of many famous ancient cities, like Eridu, Ur, Nippur and Kish are now far from the river, but were in the past situated at the river banks.Modern Iran is roughly equivalent to Persia and including in its south-western part ancient Elam. The Elamites are the people of Elam. 3. There is a spurious belief in India that Sanskrit is the oldest language and most languages are derivatives. The word ‘Sans’ and ‘Script’ means ‘without’ ‘script’. Historians indicated that when Aryans brought their oral language, the Dravidians had a well developed language (Tamil) with script and that’s why they called the Aryan language as “Sanscript”. 4. There is another research undertaken by Mr Arunachalam of Tirunelveli District (Winner of the Chief Ministers Award and right now a teacher in Government School), on the question whether the languages spoken by Aborigines in Australia have some relationship with Tamil language. (Interested persons may refer to his book on that subject published by St Xaviers College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli Dt, India). He even suggested that the “boomerang’ used by Aborigines was equivalent to “kalari erithal’ in old Tamil literature which most of us thought as a highest imagination but seems to be reality. I am not a historian but I love the history and more so the History of Tamils. Nantri, Vanakkam and Meendum Santhippom.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:15:41 (EDT)

A suggestion for people in this forum: please find pictures of the ancient Faiyum portraits. There are many portraits that are of native Egyptians, and some of these have dark-skin, tightly-curled hair and relatively full lips (as in some but not all Greek descriptions), but at the same time could never be mistaken for a West African or even an Ethiopian. They show many lighter-skinned Egyptians, too.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:11:26 (EDT)

If you read the body of ancient Egyptian literature it is clear that skin color was of no concern to the Egyptians, yet the Nile and the land surrounding it was of central importance. It is impossible for me to believe they would have made skin color the central point of their identity, rather than the fertile strip of land which was of utmost importance to their civilization and way of life. Like Iskander said, in Egypt there were dichotomous terms kemit (“black land”, fertile Nile valley) and deshret (“red land”, desert). If you take kemit to mean “land of black people”, then the word “deshret” would cease to make sense, unless you believe there were red people running around in the desert. And since the Egyptians had neighbors much darker than themselves, as their art shows, calling themselves “the black people” would have been utterly illogical. It would be useless because the term would not have differentiated them from their darker neighbors. If the Egyptians ever used skin color terms to denote ethnic groups, they would have applied “black” to Nubians, not Egyptians.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:53:32 (EDT)

Although I hate the biblical references, and I do not like the politics of the writer, I will post this any way for the historical record. This is from — The primary sources show Sumer to be a settlement by a non-Semitic, “black-headed people,” of the Dravidian language-group. The internal evidence corresponds to Herodotus’ accounts of a Subcontinent-based (Shatki-Siva) maritime culture of the Dravidian language-group, which Herodotus associates with such locales as Yemen (Aththar), Ishtar (Mesopotamia), and Canaanite (Astarte). The Isis-Osiris cult is recognized as part of the same cultural set, as also the Phrygian Cybele-Dionysos, and Delphi Gaea-Python (Apollo) cult. The gross evidence is, that the Subcontinent-based branch of this Dravidian-language-group culture, associated with Harappa, went into decline during a period corresponding to some time during the Third Millennium B.C., a period corresponding to the growing influx of the Indo-European, Vedic culture, originating proximately from a relatively less arid period in Central Asia. The Semitic cultures of more recent times are by-products of the interaction between Egyptian culture and Dravidian-based influences such as those encountered in the Akkadians, Yemen, Ethiopia, and Canaan. Thus, whereas the original Hebrew, Mosaic faith is associated with Egypt, the Hebrew tradition following the first Babylonian captivity (accounting the Persian as the second Babylonian captivity) is mixed, syncretically, with the imposition of elements of the pagan mythologies of the Akkadians.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:45:36 (EDT)

An excellent site for ancient Black global history (1) — (2)
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:42:16 (EDT)

Greetings all. I stumbled upon your site. I could not help but notice that the website you sent us by the Egyptian fellow spoke of the ancient Egyptians being related to the Dravidians. How humorous. You know the late great Cheikh Anta Diop said that those who did not favor an African Egypt often found themselves running from one black type (so-called Hammites) to another black type (Dravidian). Well guess what? I’m of Dravidian as well as modern African heritage myself. I guess I bridge both lands. Not suprising at all that Herodotus would state, “There are two Ethiopias—one to the south and the other to the East.” Here’s a page by the ever fighting Dravidian with whom I also share descent. If you are really Egyptian (native) as you say Iskander, then if you’re of Dravidian heritage—you’re certainly NO ARYAN! Being white is NOT always right!!!! This one’s for Sherry as well…since she seems to be so fond of Aryans and their ilk. Visit the site of my people’s resistance. Black People of the WORLD…UNITE AND FIGHT! BLACK AMERICANS FIRST AND FOREMOST! GO TO THIS SITE SO WE CAN LEARN OF EACH OTHER AND UNITE!!!
S.R. Nepal
– Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:40:32 (EDT)

I take issue with the quotes that our friend “blackfacts” supplied. Clearly Iskander pointed out that words Greeks sometimes used to describe Egyptians, such as “melas” and “melanochroes”, should be translated as “dark-complected” (and not “black”) in English, and this is proven by the fact that Homer described the Greek hero Odysseus (Ulysses) using the exact same words but many ancient portrayals exist to show Odysseus was neither black nor negro nor negroid. So if you replace the word “black” in blackfacts’ quotes by the word “dark”, the translations will be more accurate. The Greek writer Manilius clearly said the Egyptians had a “medium” skin tone and differentiated them from the black of Ethiopians. So that’s what the Egyptians were, “medium-toned”, just like they were portrayed themselves in their artwork relative to other peoples.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:33:05 (EDT)

In his book “The Destruction of Black Civilization,” Chancellor Williams claimed that the original Sumerians were black. Unfortunately this book contained almost no footnotes, endnotes, or other source references. Until now, I have been unbale to find something that substantiates his statements. But Samuel Noah Kramer (who was Clark Research Professor Emeritus of Assyriology at the University of Pennsylvania and Curator Emeritus of the Tablet Collections at the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.) proves (to my satisfaction) the Mr. Williams assertions were true.—————- DISCLAIMER: The information to follow comes from a (supposedly) Christian website. I have not reviewed their theological material and I am IN NO WAY promoting this site from a religious standpoint. My SOLE purpose is to offer more proof that the original inhabitants of Sumeria were black. Some parts may seem racist, but look beyond it and see what the facts are really saying. BTW, for the neo-Nazis, Mr. Kramer is white and is in now way associated with the Afrocentric movement ————– —— APPENDIX– WAS CANAAN A TRUE BLACK?– The evidence now seems to indicate the presence in Mesopotamia, in very early times, of three distinct groups of people: the Sumerians, the Elamites, and a very small group referred to as Japhethites, known especially for the fairness of their skin. The two dominant groups were the Elamites, the first settlers who spread northwards, and the Sumerians in the south, who brought with them new civilizing influences leading to considerable cultural advance. The Table of Nations clearly indentifes the first settlers as the children of Elam, a son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). But there is no mention whatsoever of Sumerians. There is this note, however, that there was a “mighty one in the earth” named Nimrod, whose kingdom began in the land of Shinar. (Gen. 10: 8-11). Nimrod, whose name is found in Sumerian tradition, was the son of Cush, as son of Ham, and his uncle would be Canaan. No one has ever suggested, to my knowledge, that the Sumerians were Negroid – nor do any of the reconstructed “Sumerian Life and Times” series such as have appeared in the National Geographic Magazine, or Life, ever so portray them. Yet there is some evidence to suggest that they may have been black-skinned. According to Samuel Kramer they refer to themselves as “the blackheaded people.” Actually the Sumerian original reads “head-of-black people,” the symbol for head (SAG) being a cone-shaped hat hiding all but the neck of the wearer, thus: Hammurabi, in his famous Code of Laws, also refers to the natives of Mesopotamia as A-NA SALMAT GAGGADIM, i.e., “blackheaded ones.” Such descriptive phrases are, I think, usually taken to mean merely “dark-haired.” But it seems likely that 95% or more of all the people who made up the early Middle East cultures were black-haired, whether Semitic or Sumerian, and so this feature was hardly a distinguishing one. But the Semitic population according to A. H. Sayce distinguished themselves (with racial pride) from other peoples by their own light coloured skin, and claimed that Adam too was a white man. They considered themselves direct descendants. Yet they had black hair like the Sumerians and would not be different in this. They might therefore just as well have been termed “blackheaded people.” But they apparently never were. Evidently, then, it would be no mark of distinction to refer to the hair colour, but it would definitely be such to refer to skin colour. And the Sumerians were apparently proud of their black skin. Gadd says they came to equate the term “black-headed people” with the idea of “men” as real people by contrast with other human beings who were not really men at all. It is further to be noted that the founders of the wonderful Indus Valley cultures were black-skinned, and not merely black-haired. The Rig Veda makes frequent reference to the fact that the conquering Aryans triumphed over these black and noseless (!) enemies. And there does seem to be some real connection, if not racial identity, between the Sumerians and these Indus Valley people. It may well be, therefore, that the phrase does really refer to skin colour. Furthermore, in the famous six-sided prism of Sennacherib, the king refers to the conquered Canaanites as “blackness of head people.” From all this, it can be concluded with reasonable assurance that, genetically, Canaan could indeed have been a black child, the homozygous offspring of his mulatto parents, Ham and his wife.
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:16:59 (EDT)

And since the mysterious Egyptian Iskander decided to throw up some Greek quotes…couldn’t help but throw a few in myself. ———————————>>>>>> {“They (the Ethiopians) say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony…And the larger part of the customs of the Egyptians are, they hold, Ethiopian…” (Diodorus Siculus, Book III. 2. 4-3. 3)} {“Those who are too black are cowards, like for instance, the Egyptians and Ethiopians. But those who are excessively white are also cowards as we can see from the example of women, the complexion of courage is between the two.” (?) (Aristotle, _Physiognomy_, 6)} {“Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because of that the body of itself creates, because of disturbance by heat, like loss of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations…” (Aristotle, _Problemata_ 909, 7)} {Lycinus (describing an Egyptian): ‘this boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin…his hair worn in a plait shows that he is not a freeman.’ Timolaus: ‘but that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus. All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood…’ (Lucian, _Navigations_, paras 2-3)} {Dialogue: “Aegyptos conquered the country of the black-footed ones and called it Egypt after himself” (Apollodorus, Book II, paras 3 and 4)} {Dialogue: Danaos (describing the Aegyptiads): ‘I can see the crew with their black limbs and white tunics.’ (Aeschylus, _The Suppliants_, vv. 719-20, 745)}
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 15:40:56 (EDT)

Sorry Iskander, if that is indeed your REAL name… 🙂 But like genetic frequencies, craniometrics can have a high degree of variable interpretation. Here is another take on the classification of ancient Egyptian craniology. Clicking on the website at the bottom of the post will give you more information. And oh yes, here’s an interesting peice of trivia. Anthropologist Morton in the early 1900s took crainiometric measurements and determined that blacks were supposedly of lesser intelligence. His theory has since been proven bogus though white supremacists love to bring it up from time to time. What is of interest is that for his white sample of skulls he used Nordic, blond haired, blue-eyed types (Sherry’s master race…). For the black “negroid” types he used…yup you guessed it…ancient Egyptian skulls. And that’s a blackfact. _________________________________________________________________________ James Harris and Edward Wente conducted an x-ray analysis of the New Kingdom royal mummies with the results published in their book X-ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1980). Included in the work were cephalograms of Pharaohs of the XVII-XX Dynasties and their queens. The angular measurements presented in tabular form in pp. 358-363 will be used here to compare the Pharaohs in craniofacial terms to tropical African types such as the Nubians. We will analyze all the data of the New Kingdom Pharaohs in terms of ANB (A point-nasion-basion) and SN – Mand. Pl. (sella-nasion/gonion-menton). Also, the three images available on Edward Wente’s website, Who was Who among the Royal Mummies, will be analyzed in more details for their correspondence with Africans to the south. Harris and Wente note the prevalence of dental prognathism among Nubians. Often this is combined with malocclusion. Similar incidence can be found in other African peoples. For example, one study found that a sample taken from the Kenya showed 61.3% of Maasai had diastema; 84% of Kikuyu had overbite and 99% had overjet; and 24% of Kalenjin had anterior open bite. (J. Hassanali, GP Pokhariyal, “Anterior tooth relations in Kenyan Africans, Archives of Oral Biology 38 [Apr 1993] 337-42). Although these dental traits can often be acquired through habits like thumb-sucking, as noted by Harris and Wente, the high frequency in the royal mummies indicates a genetic origin as found in Africans. Studies have shown that persons of African descent tend to have greater projection of the alveolar region as compared to the lower mouth. The difference in projection measured as ANB (A point-nasion-B point) and research on persons of African descent has shown ranges from 5.5 to 4.3. In comparison with Caucasians, the values were from about 1.5 to 2 times greater (see Alexander et al., 1978; Downs,1948; Fonseca et al.,1978; Steiner, 1959). After studying all the data, particularly after analyzing the computerized ethcings, one can certainly see that the royal mummies displayed high frequencies of African traits shared with most Africans. Thus, the royal mummies display a strong southern affinity just like other ancient Egyptians of all classes studied by Cheikh Anta Diop, Larry Angel and Shomarqa Keita. See the links below for the tables of data and results, or click on the detailed analysis of the three images from Who was Who among the Royal Mummies. For diagrams and more see here:
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 15:29:39 (EDT)

Iskander, I believe that Blackfacts explained what I was saying better than I ever could. The genetics research is not in opposition to what we Afrocentrist were saying. The website, like many others (as you can see from Blackfacts posting), twisted the trueth. If you are using our current concept of race then the Egyptians, like the present day Nubians and Ethiopians, were black Africans. However, you can believe as you wish.
Mack Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 14:36:39 (EDT)

Before Sherry “Stormfront” white supremacist finds a way to pollute this as well…————-> >Genes hint Africa’s Khoisan world’s oldest people > > By Emma Thomasson > > > CAPE TOWN, Sept 23 (Reuters) – Genetic studies of the Khoisan population of > southern Africa suggest the group could be the world’s most ancient people, > > adding weight to the “Out of Africa” theory of human evolution, scientists > said on Thursday. > > “The Africans who were the earliest humans were likely to be more closely > related to modern Khoisan humans than any others,” Professor Trefor Jenkins, > geneticist at the South African Institute for Medical Research, told Reuters > in an interview. > > Jenkins said changes in mitochondrial DNA showed that modern Khoisan people > have retained some of the genes of human ancestors from 100,000 to 120,000 > years ago while the genes of Eurasian people stretch back only 40,000 to > 60,000 years. > > Mitochondrial DNA is a genetic marker only inherited from the mother. > > Jenkins’ colleague, Dr Himla Soodyall, said the discovery provided further > proof of the “Out of Africa” theory that modern humans evolved from a > common ancestor in Africa and spread across the world between 180,000 and > > 90,000 years ago. > > “What we have found is that some of the most ancient genetic signatures are > still carried in the genes of modern Khoisan people,” she said. “The > hypothesis that seems to be the most favoured is that modern humans evolved > in Africa and a subset of these people left Africa to colonise the rest of > the world.” > > KHOISAN ALL BUT WIPED OUT > > The Khoisan people are indigenous to southern Africa, but have been all but > wiped out as a distinct group after centuries of persecution by European > settlers and competition with other tribes who migrated south from central > Africa. > > A small number of Khoisan maintain their traditional hunter-gatherer > lifestyle on reserves. But the majority have been subsumed into South > Africa’s mixed-race or coloured population and have lost their rich language > > and culture. > > Jenkins said his team was also studying part of the male “Y” chromosome > which showed that Khoisan people and some groups in Ethiopia and Sudan had a > more direct genetic relationship with non-human primates than other > populations on the continent. > > Geneticists estimate that human beings evolved from non-human primates five > to six million years ago and homo sapiens, the modern human being, evolved > between 750,000 and 100,000 years ago. > > “Racists will latch onto this to say it proves Africans are more primitive, > but what it shows is we are looking at modern people who are all descended > from a common ancestor who lived 100,000 to 120,000 years ago,” Jenkins > said. > > Fossils of skeletons about 100,000 years old have been excavated in South > Africa. Scientists have also unearthed sets of fossilised footprints on the > > country’s coast from the same period that appear to have been made by modern > humans. >
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 14:28:43 (EDT)

Brother /sister Blackfacts: You are absolutely correct, these white supremists just coincidentally popped up all at the same time and their writing is all similar. Very interesting indeed. Anyway, much of your writing seems to come from the book “No Color Lines”. Have you read it? NOTE: This question is not directed to the neo nazi caucasoids! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:44:15 (EDT)

Here’s a post from a physical anthropologist: This post belongs to P.K. Mansansula: Brace et al’s views about the “trivial” nature of tropical variation is not supported by the evidence. The M-W team “expect” traits like “nasal elevation and elongation,” from long-term residents of the East Horn of Africa, and attempt to prove their point by comparing Europeans with Somalis (who live in a dry environment albeit in the tropics). What they don’t mention is that the Badari, early Naqada and Kerma series possess “blurred margin, platyrrhinism (broad nose), and alveolar prognathism,” (Keita, 1990; also Morant 1925, Stoessiger 1927, Anderson 1968, Strouhal 1971, Chamla 1980) and so did the predominant element of the 1st Dynasty Abydos tombs (Keita 1992, 1993). This agrees with the characteristics of the modern Nubian and Sudanese population and also with the ancient Egyptian iconography. These characteristics, combined with the limb proportions, unjustifiably dismissed by Brace et al, confirm the views of Diop and Keita that the predynastic, early dynastic, Nubian and Sudanese populations are/were of relatively recent tropical African provenance. Egypt is not in tropical Africa, neither are Nubia or Sudan anymore tropical than Somalia. On p. 18, Brace et al state: “From the observation that 12,000 years was not a long enough period of time to produce any noticeable variation in pigment by latitude in the New World and tht 50,000 years has been barely long enough to produce the beginnings of gradation in Australia (Brace 1993a), one would have to argue that the inhabitants of the Upper Nile and the East Horn of Africa have been equatorial for many tens of thousands of years.” This statement, of course, makes the assumption that these peoples were originally white and from the North! If Brace et al do believe in an African genesis of modern humans in tropical Africa (i.e., Ethiopia) why would there be an assumption that those of “the Upper Nile and the East Horn of Africa” would require adaptation rather than the lighter-skinned northern coastal peoples? Brace et al also mention a “circum-Mediterranean basin” in which they attempt to relate the peoples of the Northern Mediterranean with those of North Africa. This again contradicts all the evidence which show that the Maghreb, E, Sedment and other N. African series had great variation, to include tropical and “mulatto” forms that are rare, if found at all, in the N. Mediterranean. The evidence does not support a closer relationship between the northern coastal (Saharan) type with southern Europe than with populations immediately to the south, who shared the same trait of high variability. References Brace et al, “Clines and Clusters vs. “Race”” _Yearbook of Physical Anthropology_, vol. 36, 1993. Diop, C.A., “Historie primitive de l’Humanite: Evolution du monde Moir,” Bulletin de l’Institut francaise d’Afrique Noire, 24, 449. 1962. Ruggeri-Giuffrida, V., “Were the pre-Dynastic Egyptians Lybian or Ethiopians?” _Man_ 32 1915. Ruggeri-Giuffrida, V., “A few notes on Neolithic Egyptians and the Ethiopians.” _Man_, 55, 1916. Keita, S.O.Y., “Further Studies of Crania from Ancient Northern Africa: An Analysis of Crania from First Dyansty Egyptian Tombs, Using Multiple Discriminant Functions” _American Journal of Physical Anthropology_ 87:245-254, 1992. ____, “Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa,” _American Journal of Physical Anthropology_, 83: 35-48, 1990. ____, “Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships,” _History in Africa_ 1993. Morant, S.G., “The predynastic Egyptian skulls from Badari and their racial affinities,” IN G. Brunton (ed.) _Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture_ 1937. Robins, G. and Shute C. Predynastic Egyptian stature and physical proportions” _Journal of Human Evolution_ 4:313-324, 1986. Strouhal, E. “Une contribution a la question du caratere de la population prehitorique de la haute-Egypte” _Anthropolgie_, 6, 1968. ____, “Evidence of the early penetration of negroes into prehistoric Egypt,” _Egyptian Journal of African History_, 12: 1-9, 1971. [continued] The Brace et al. article is all too alarming in that it appears in a peer-reviewed journal leveling charges of racism against a scholar who spent his life breaking down theories of racial superiority, and the practice of these theories in institutional racism. J.D. Walker states in “The Misrepresentation of Diop’s Views,” _Journal of Black Studies_, Vol.26, No. 1, Sept. 1995, 77-85: “The charge of racism is alway serious and is interesting in light of Brace et al. calling Rushton a “racialist,” a term rarely seen in American writing or heard on American media, and therefore apt to be confusing. The charge that Diop was an inverted racist is countered by the fact, among others, that he was married to a “White” French woman. (Are there any Ku Klux Klan members married to Nigerians?). Diop was an internationalist who cited and had great respect for works of various European writers. He made it quite clear that culture, not “race,” was his primary interest. Diop never said that “Blacks” were genetically superior, which would be racist, although such sentiments divorced from real power can only be judged morally and not from the economic, psychological, and physical damage that anti-Black racism has actually done. The road to Damascus is long. Diop’s widow deserves an apology.” (p.78) Brace et al., like Cavalli-Sforza and company, have attempted to replace the old phenotype concept with a new one of “clusters and clines.” On the surface, these specialists are made out to be anti-racist as they belong to the “no-race” school. But a deeper examination shows that the “clusters and clines” they propose are often only a resurrection of older ideas of the “Great White Race.” Cavalli-Sforza, for example, has tried to relate his genetic research to verify the Indo-European family proposed by Greenberg, and has even shown some inklings toward the more moderate Nostracists. Basically, these “no-race” scholars have been cementing the old concept of a linguistically, and now, genetically, related group of “Caucasoids” (although Brace sometimes avoids this term) speaking mostly Indo-European (IE). At the same time, the older typological language groups have been broken into numerous units, supposedly unrelated not only linguistically but also genetically. Cavalli-Sforza has tried to relate the North Africans to the Southern Europeans, and Brace et al. do the same: “The latter in turn show ties with the inhabitants of the circum-Mediterranean basin past and present.” In fact, this is only a repetition of older theories of Seligman and others who followed the “Aryan Model” described by Bernal. The problem is, despite denying the existence of race according to phenotype, Brace et al. use a phenogram to show ancient Egyptians, Nubians, Somalis, etc., are not related to those in tropical Africa! They ignore the possibility of relationship despite variance (or with variability) as Walker points out regarding the stereotype concept of the “Negro”: “…Negro, like Nordic, should be understood as denoting one ensemble of traits or anatomical trends in the numerous interconnected populations of Saharo-tropical Africa, or just Africa. The “Negro” physiognomy has no priveleged place in the pantheon of African human variation. It does not define African (see Gabel, 1996; Hiernaux, 1975). Brace et al. have a monotypic a priori definition of biological Africans.” Brace et al. set out to prove what cannot be proven by the methods they use, according to their own stated beliefs. Differences in phenotype, by their own standards, cannot show that tropical Africans are unrelated in any way — genetically, culturally, historically–from the peoples of Egypt and the Horn of Africa. Yet this is what they try and do. If they had understood Diop’s model, they would know that all peoples are related, but that tropical Africans and Egyptians, Nubians, etc., are *coextensive* in a variety of ways. This is, of course largely supported by the geographic facts. The “Nilo-Hamitic” (Cushitic) languages spoken by Egyptians, Nubians, Sudanese, and among populations in Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, and as far south as Tanganyika. These peoples are coextensive with the Semitic speakers and Chadic speakers in a microlinguistic sense, but not at all with the people of southern Europe. Furthermore, the pyramid tombs found from Ethiopia to Egypt through the Sahara are only one point of correspondence between the AfroAsian cultures of Africa. The Nile River has also been a line of communication between cultures to the North and South, not only in the historical period, but in the prehistoric as well. While Brace et al. asserts the Africoid-like qualities in the Horn of Africa are due to climatic adaptation (by whites?!), they don’t consider the possibility that cranial traits among the northern coastal peoples, as Keita calls them (Keita 1990, 1992, 1993) may also be variation from peoples related to tropical Africans. Walker points this out clearly: “For example, the M-W team explains the clustering of certain cranial series with ones from Europe as being the result of gene flow/migration from Europe without discussing the more likely explanation that the biological characters responsible for the similarity are the result of convergence or chance. This is Seligmanish and nonevolutionary.” (p. 79) Indeed, this hearkens back to theories of the physical variability of “Caucasoids” as opposed to the static, fixed “Negroids,” “Mongoloids,” etc. The old “Dark White” theory proposed that whites could adapt dark skins, broad noses, thick lips, etc., while traits like narrow noses, thin lips, fair skins, etc., were evidence, even when found in isolation, of white intermixture or even white provenance! Yet in examining the ancient Egyptians, Brace et al. ignore the fact that the predynastic Egyptian, early dynastic and Nubian crania all show evidence of tropical adaptation such as broad noses and long, gracile limbs. Other traits they shared with typical tropical African types were alveolar prognathism and blurred nasal margin. (Keita 1992) Such traits have been widely acknowledged in non-Afrocentric works, albeit sometimes with the opprobrium that predynastic population were ruled by a “Caucasoid” ruling class. Indeed we are getting a clear picture of the importance the areas to the South may have played in forming the Egyptian civilization. Recent discoveries have revealed the first tool manufacturing society was located in Zaire. Remains showing similarity to some groups found in Nubia and South Egypt have been found at Gamble’s Cave (Kenya) dating back to 11,000 ot 9,000 B.C.E. (Walker 1995) It was at this time that evidence of movement out of Africa into the Near East has been discovered, possibly connected to the spread of the Afro-Asiatic languages (Bar Yosef, 1987). The direct origin of Egyptian dynastic civilization has been traced to the Nubians, who are closer in phenotype to peoples of sub-Saharan Africa than anyone in Europe or even to northern coastal types. Clyde Ahmad Winters states: “The A-Group people were caled Steu “bowmen.” The Steu had the same funeral customs, pottery, musical instruments, and related artifacts as did the Egyptians. Williams (1987, pp.173, 182) believes that the Qustul pharoahs are the Egyptian rulers referred to as the Red Crown rulers in ancient Egyptian documents. Williams (1987) gives six reasons why he believes that the Steu of Qustul founded Kemetic civilization: 1. direct progessin of royal complex designs from Qustul to Hierakonpolis to Abydos; 2. Egyptian objects in Naqada III a-b tombs; 3. no royal tombs in Lower and Upper Egypt; 4. pharoahic monuments that refer to conflict in Upper Egypt; 5. inscriptions ofthe ruler Pe-Hor that are older than Iry-Hor of Abydos; and 6. the 10 rulers of Qustul, 1 at Hierakonpolis, and 3 at Abydos corrspond to the “historical” kings of the late Naqada period. The findings of Williams support the findings of Diop (1991) because we also understand better now why the Egyptian term royalty etymologically means: (the man) who comes from the South=n y swt=who belongs to the South= who is a native of the South=the King of Lower Egypt, and has never meant just King; in other words king of Lower and Upper Egypt, King of all Egypt. (p.108)” References Bar Yosef, O. (1987) Pleistocene connexions between Africa and Southwest Asia. _African Archaeological Review_, 5, 29-38. Seligman, C.G., (1930) _The races of Africa_, Oxford. Winters, Clyde Ahmad (1994) Valid frame of reference, _Journal of Black Studies_, December 1994. (see previous posts for further references) [continued] Brace et al. and the ‘Dark White’ Theory The Brace et al. article (see previous posts) revives in a subtle, and sometimes not so subtle way the old ‘Dark White’ theory of Bernal’s Aryan Model. The idea that modern humans in Africa were originally “Caucasoid” and that they evolved into “blacks,” stems from the old Aryan Model, and it is the same argument used by the anti-Afrocentric side in the UNESCO conference on African history (See _UNESCO General History of Africa_ vol. II). Brace et al. suggest this scenario when they offer a time line for Somalis and other East Africans to “adapt” their skin pigment to the tropical African climate. The history of these ideas is based on a number of fallacies. One example is the classification of Neanderthals as primitive Caucasoids. This despite such non-Caucasoid traits as broad nose, prognathism and short squat stature. Indeed, the platyrrhine noses of Neanderthals suggest tropical adaptation according to the theories set forth by Brace et al. Such classifications were justified on false assumptions that Caucasoids were more highly variable than other races. In a similar fashion, the Austroloid type was also classified as a primitive Caucasoid (and still is by some), and was said to originate in the Mediterranean. However, as Prof. Diop points out in _Civilization or Barbarism_, new evidence shows the Austroloid type was most likely descended from Pithecanthropes of Java through Ngandong man of Java. Also, remains of this type have been found in Australia and Sri Lanka predating similar finds in the Mediterranean. But most important regarding the area around Egypt is the fact that modern humans first appear in Europe as tropically adapted with “super” tropical limb ratios (Trinkhaus, 1981). They do not become fully cold adapted until about the end of the mesolithic (Jacobs 1993). Brace et al. suggest substantial gene flow from Europe as far south as Somalia on a number of occassions: “…the presence of a palpable early German in Late Dynastic Egyptian cemetery exemplifies the contact that the delta region had with the world to the north and west. The contribution that such individuals surely made to the Lower Egyptian gene pool (Bowman, 1986) could well explain why both our dendograms and our discrimination function analysis suggest that the people of Lower Egypt at the end of Dynastic times had more in common with members of our European regional cluster than was true for the inhabitants of Upper Egypt 3,000 years earlier.” (p.21-22) Not only do Brace et al.’s conclusions differ from earlier work by Keita and Hassan, the idea of such significant gene flow is contradicted by other studies. Limb ratios in northern Egypt, Late Stone Age Egypt and predynastic Egypt are all tropically adapted. There is no “northern port of entry” (Walker, 1995) where limb ratios alter due to gene flow from the north. What Brace et al. also ignore is the fact that most of the genetic variation leading to the types described are found in Africa *before* the presence of modern humans in Europe. In fact, examples of possible prototypes can be found in Kenya thousands of years before the predynastic period, and before any evidence of migration from Europe. They also ignore or trivialize the possibility that any similarities between people in N. Africa and Europe may be due to gene flow from South to North rather than vice a versa. Indeed the earliest migrations must have been in this direction as proven by the limb ratios of early modern humans in Europe. Even as late as Phoenician times, the flow seems to have been more South, or Southeast to North/Northwest. Some of the assertions of Brace et al. are simply ridiculous prima facie. For example, their attempt to show Somalis are closer to Europeans than West Africans. (pp. 17-20) Anyone who has seen the images on CNN, etc., from the American fiasco in Somalia will come to the unbiased conclusion that they are pulling our legs. One of the problems with Brace et al. seems to be their excessive reliance of outdated sources from the “Aryan” period: “Blumenbach, however, saw human form as grading without break from one region to another (Blumenbach, 1865). The continuum could be cut however one might choose to suit one’s convenience. The Egyptians who displayed a mixture of “Hindoo” and “Ethiopian” characteristics were not therefore a mixture of separate “primordial” elements but just what would be expected to occur between one region to another. These expectations are precisely what we are defending in our present treatment…” (p.25) The truth is, though, in suggesting substanial gene flow from Europe, and even Germany, they did the exact opposite and betrayed their Aryan Model biases. References Hassan, F. (1988) The predynastic of Egypt. _Journal of World Prehistory_, 2, 135-185. Jacobs, K.H., (1993) Human postcranial variation in the Ukranian mesolithic-neolithic, _Current Anthropology_ 26(4), 512-514. Trinkhaus, E. (1981) Neanderthal limb proportions and cold adaptation, IN C.B. Stringer (ed.) _Aspects of human evolution_, (pp. 187-224), London: Taylor & Francis) Paul Kekai Manansala —————- Sir E.A. Budge “The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and new Stone Ages, was African, and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South.” “There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggest the orignal home of their ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda or Punt.” (Sir E.A. Budge, _Egypt_) “The ancient Egyptians were Africans, and they spoke an African language, and the modern people of Eastern Sudan are Africans, and they speak African languages…” (Sir E.A. Budge, _Ancient Egyptian Hierogyphic Dictionary_) Basil Davidson “That the ancient Egyptians were Black (again, in any variant you may prefer)–or, as I myself think it is more useful to say, were African–is a belief which has been denied in Europe since about 1830, not before. It is a denial, in short, that belongs to the rise of modern European imperialism…” (Basil Davidson, reviewing Martin Bernal’s _Black Athena_) —————- According to Keita (1993): “Paoli (1972) found dynastic mummies to have ABO frequencies most like those of the Northern Haratin, a group believed to be largely descended from the ancient Saharans.” (p.140) Livingstone, in _Abnormal Hemaglobins in Human Populations_, discusses the Haratin in connection with high incidence of hemoglobin S and C in North Africa: “The Haratin, who are the Negroid population in the Saharan oases, are the former slaves of the Touareg and are primarily agriculturalists.” (p. 83) Regarding the Nubians, D. L. Greene and Keita cite Greene, Ruffer and Berry in noting the fourth molar variants, third molar agenesis and in particular the rare sub-maxillary hypocone in suggesting the population stability of the Nile corridor over the period from the Mesolithic to the early historic These traits also show the close relationship between Egyptians and Nubians. The fourth molar variants are traits shared with sub-Saharan Africans.
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:27:37 (EDT)

How humorous. First we have Sherry, a white supremacist asserting ideas of white Nordic ancient Egyptians. Now we have an actual Egyptian claiming a non-African relation of the ancient Egyptians. Fascinating all these dissenters suddenly “appear” onto this site…all at the same time. Harmonic white convergence I presume? Ah well…let us go on. As for the idea of Mediterranean Egyptians and dark whites……————-> Anthropologist G.A. Dorsey in Race and Civilization stated , “Races do not exist; classifications of mankind do.”7 That is to say, the notion of race is one of invention: an attempt to understand the wide range of human variation. With this in mind it can be said then that the division of race is based heavily on man’s bias. In the controversy regarding ancient Egypt’s origins and predominant culture, the idea of racial classification and the dividing lines between these races is key. For those who do not accept the Semitic origins of ancient Egypt there is yet another racial category in which to place the ancient Egyptians: the Hamite. According to Webster’s New World Dictionary a Hamite can be described as, “a member of any of several usually dark-skinned peoples of N and E Africa, including the Egyptians, Berbers, etc.8” To many this is a general description of a Black African. But to those who perpetuate this Hamitic hypothesis however this is not the case. Rather these Hamites fall conveniently into the category of Caucasian. In his work, Races of Africa, Dr. C.G. Seligman makes the following statement: “…the civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history the record of these peoples and their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushman, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or by such wider pastoralists as are represented at the present day Beja and Somali…The incoming Hamites were pastoral Europeans— arriving wave after wave—better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes. 9” Aside from the obvious racism inherent in this statement, there is a confusing play on words. While Seligman links the “highly civilized Egyptians” with the Beja and Somali, he identifies them as Hamites who themselves are separated from “the Negro and the Bushman.” In fact these Hamites, who may have reached as far as Somalia, are classified as “pastoral Europeans.” A somewhat similar viewpoint is held by Dr. Donald Weidner in his work, A Short History of Africa South of the Sahara: “Caspian types also began to appear in western Kenya. They are known variously as Caspian people, early Cushites or early Hamites…These people, it is believed, migrated northeastward into Arabia and western Asia as well as northwestward into Egypt and North Africa. Recent scholars (notably Joseph H. Greenberg) have suggested that the term Cushite be applied to this parent of the Caucasian race, and that their basic language be Afroasiatic (formerly Hamitic)…Cushites who were developing Caucasian characteristics penetrated Egypt about 5,000 B.C.” Though similar in theme, unlike Seligman, Weidner places these mysterious Hamites as originating in the heart of Africa itself, as far as Kenya., and migrating northward. But in accordance with Seligman he readily identifies them with Caucasians. Thus when these supposed Caucasian cranial traits were found to exist in certain Nile Valley populations, it was assumed that these Africans were either Caucasians or hybrids of Caucasians and Africans. In fact, as seen in the quotes of Seligman and Weidner, it was generally accepted that nearly all African populations had experienced some form of Caucasian admixture.11 These Hamites are also known as members of the Brown race, Mediterranean race, Eurafricans, dark-whites and other contradictory names. In her work, The Myth of the Mediterranean Race Dana Reynolds traces the origins of the Hamitic hypothesis. She begins with the following statement: “The anthropological concept of a Mediterranean Race or Mediterranean Type has long been used to denote long-headed gracile types of men anciently inhabiting the lands around the Mediterranean, and alleged by some of its more extreme proponents to be ancestral to modern Europeans and Caucasoid types in Asia and Africa. It is a concept that has been predicated upon erroneous idea, and sustained by fallacious notions of the processes involved in human biological evolution an morphological variation.” Reynolds asserts in this passage that the concept of Hamites and the like are a fallacy. She attributes this pattern of thought to Orientalist theories regarding the origins of civilization in Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. She begins with a discussion on Guiseppe Sergi, Professor of Anthropology in the University of Rome. It is Sergi she believes who first becomes one of the major proponents of the concept of a Mediterranean Race. Through the usage of craniometric data, Sergi classified the Mediterranean and Eurafrican into three separate subgroupings: the African Hamites, the true Mediterraneans such as Southern Italians, and the Nordic race.13 “In his examination of the Hamite, Sergi found his closest modern relative in East Africa, specifically the Horn of Africa. Reynolds makes the following critique of Sergi’s findings: This so-called Hamite or Abyssinian man was immediately inducted by scholars into the saw no irony in portraying such phenotypically diverse people as the Ba-Himas of Uganda, long-headed Russians, Scandanavians, Italians, and Arabs, as representative of his superfamily of Eurafricans. Phenotypical characteristics like skin coloring and hair form were proclaimed ‘external traits without diagnostic value’ because they were ‘subject to environmental influence.’ At the same time, for Sergi, cranio-facial measurements were not viewed as subject to such influence.” Reynolds attributes much of this erroneous interpretation of data to the fact that scholars believed the form of the human skull was a permanent racial character. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith was the next figure to whom Reynolds attributed the proliferation of the Mediterranean myth. A Professor of Anatomy at Cairo’s Egyptian Museum in the early 1900s, Smith based his findings on his examination of a wide variety of human bodies belonging to predynastic and dynastic Egyptians. His findings revealed what he described as people having an effeminate and frail build, poorly developed eyebrows, small broad noses and slight prognathism.15 Of course it would seem with such words, to many, that Smith is describing an African type. But he classifies these people of predynastic and dynastic times as members of the Brown race and, according to Reynolds, vehemently “rejected the thought of a Negroid or Black affiliation of the type generally called Hamitic or Brown.”16 Reynolds makes the following summary of Smith’s findings: “Smith initially designated this type the Brown race on the basis of the coloring of the ancient Egyptian iconography and, secondly, because of what he considered to be the close osteological and cranial affinities with the mainly Cushitic-speaking peoples of East Africa, now called Bedja, Somali, Beni Amer, and Oroma (Galla) in Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea” In this manner did Smith make the ancient Egyptians non-Africans, placing them in the Caucasian branch of humanity. Of the ancient Egyptians, modern Somali, Bedja and other East African types, he asserted there was only a minor Negroid element . Smith goes further in stating that careful examination of the body of West and Central Africans would reveal a profound gap separating the Negro not only from Egypt, but the rest of mankind. Reynolds takes note that Smith, “harshly criticized William Z. Ripley’s 1899 work— The Races of Europe— for asserting that the entire ancient ‘Mediterranean race’ was descended from ‘African Negroes.'” Carleton S. Coon is the next major advocate of the Mediterranean Race pointed out by Reynolds. Using craniometric analysis he describes this Mediterranean type as, “a man of short stature with a cranial index of 73-75, browridges and bone development weak, short face, variable nasal form, paedomorphic and sexually undifferentiated ‘with a slight negroid tendency.'”20 It is this type he finds to predominate in early Egypt. Reynolds shows that Coon makes an even more grandoise claim of these Mediterranean types. She reveals the following about Coon’s assertion of Mediterranean dominance: “Coon reported that excavations in Kenya and Tanganyika had uncovered the remains of a tall, extremely long-headed Mediterranean type with a tendency to great elongation and narrowness of face. Recognizing the morphometric similarities, with characteristic abandon, Coon pronounced the are of the late stone age sites in East Africa, such as Elmenteita and Naivash, ‘ a second southern periphery of the white racial stock: peripheral in this case to the world of the African Negro.’ He speaks of the East African ‘Hamite’ as being ‘without doubt derived from this Palaeolithic racial type.'” Thus Reynolds shows that Coon made Caucasians not only of the ancient Egyptians and modern East Africans, but early stone age African man as well. Reynolds points out that Coon is not alone in such thought. She documents another specialist in African prehistory, Sonia Cole, in describing the tall dolichocephalic peoples of Gamble’s Cave, Naivasha, and Olduvai, as Caucasoids. It is this manner in which the Hamitic or Mediterranean African is separated from other Africans. And thus by populating Egypt with these Mediterranean-Hamitic types, the culture and people of the region can be designated as non-African. But along with Reynolds, there are a host of scholars who question the validity of this Hamitic hypothesis. Historian Cheikh Anta Diop makes the statement, “Coon’s work contributes nothing new. If all the specimens of races and sub-races described by him lived in New York today, they would reside in Harlem.” In his article The Racial Identity of Ancient Egyptian Populations Based on the Analysis of Physical Remains, Keith Crawford critiques Coon’s findings. In an examination of Coon’s Hamitic hypothesis, Crawford notes the following: “Coon (1965) displays a picture of a Shilluk man with Black skin, ulotrichous (wooly) hair and somewhat thickened lips. Under the photo of this unquestionably “Negroid” person is the caption “A Shilluk with European features…’ To the lay person such a statement is most puzzling. Understand that Coon is referring to features of the cranial anatomy, erroneously thought to have resulted from Caucasoid admixture.” In this passage Crawford reveals the inherent contradictions of Coon’s Hamitic arguments. At the center of this debate is the notion of what many have referred to as the “true Negro.” Diop borrows this term from anthropologists who use this racial classification to differentiate what they term to be Black Africans and Hamites. This “true Negro” has such characteristics as black skin, long arms and legs, tall stature, broad shoulders, narrow hips, black and kinky hair, doliocephalic cranium, considerable prognathism, a flat nose and thick often everted lips.25 This definition holds to the idea that Black Africans share one set morphology which is static and unchanging. Thus one can classify those who do not fit this description precisely enough as Hamites with Caucasian features. But Diop criticizes this monotypic classification of Black Africans in the following statement: “Anthropologists have invented the ingenious, convenient, fictional notion of the ‘true Negro,’ which allows them to consider , if need be, all the real Negroes on earth as fake Negroes, more or less approaching a kind of Platonic archetype, without ever attaining it. Thus African history is full of ‘Negroids,’ Hamites, semi-Hamites, Nilo-Hamitics, Ethiopoids, Sabaeans, even Caucasoids!…If the African anthropologist made a point of examining European races ‘under the magnifying glass,’ he would be able to multiply them ad infinitum by grouping physiognomies into races and sub-races as artificially as his European counterpart does with regard to Africa. He would, in turn, succeed in dissolving collective European reality into a fog of insignificant facts.” Thus Diop holds that the rejection of the idea of the true Negro will do away with the notion of Hamites. Crawford states the following regarding this monotypic classification of Africans: “A critical point to understand when studying the racial makeup of Nile Valley populations is that the full diversity of Africoid variants was not often appreciated by the early anthropologists. What anthropologists called the ‘Negro’ identified only one form of Africoid variant common to the forest zone of West Africa…Other Africoid variants are important to our discussion of Nile Valley populations because their range of distribution overlaps or is in close vicinity with the Nile valley. Their physical traits were likely present in ancient Egyptian populations.” Crawford’s statements reveal one of the fundamental errors in the classification of racial types within Africa and the Nile Valley in particular. Crawford identifies several of these Africoid variants. Two of these he describes as the Elongated African variant and the Nilotic variant.28 He notes that, “the Elongated variant is distinguished by a generalized elongated body, narrow head, face and nose, dark skin and spiralled hair, thick but not everted lips.”29 He identifies these Elongated types with the such groups as the West African-Saharan Fulani, the Great Lakes Region Tutsi and Hima, the Masai of Kenya, the Galla of Southern Ethiopia, Tigreans and Amharas from Ethiopia, Somalis and the Beja of Northern Sudan. Crawford cites Hiernaux as stressing, “there is evidence for the continued presence of Elongated traits since Pleistocene times, with no evidence of gene flow from populations outside of Africa…Elongated traits arose as an adaptation to dry heat.” Crawford also cites Hiernaux in his description of the Nilotic variant who are described, in comparison to the Elongated variant, as taller, more narrow headed, lower and wider nosed, of slender build, long legs and little fat.31 These Nilotic types include the Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk and Anuak who occupy the Nile river basins in the southern Sudanese region.32 In conclusion of these observations Crawford makes the following statement: “The preceding discussion should make it clear that African populations display an entire spectrum of phenotypes including those attributed to being characteristic of other races. This must be the case since all races evolved from an African prototype and it was necessary that this type possess the potential to express multiple traits which could then be modified further by the environment. The so-called ‘true Negro’ does not even represent the majority of African types on the continent.” This passage confirms Crawford’s belief that African populations are “poly” rather than monotypic. In conclusion it can be said that past examinations of Nile Valley remains have yielded faulty conclusions due to erroneous stereotypes of African morphology. Numerous works have shown that Africans do not share one set morphology. Thus deviations of this stereotype are not inherently the products of admixture and thus to be classified as Hamitic, Mediterranean, Eurafrican or Caucasoid.
– Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:12:23 (EDT)

Brothers and sister (BLACK): I leave the attempts to educate the Sherry thing to my brothers like Mack. Actually it increases my knowledge of my people as I read their postings. I however, (not in the least criticism of brother Mack)) believe that youcannot argue with the insane. You cannot argue nor teach a savage barbaric racist neo nazi INBRED neanderthal. A SAVAGE IN A BUSINESS SUIT IS STILL A SAVAGE! Our knowledge of “SELF” is proliferating and the savages inbred savages are panic stricken. The Sherry thing has been busted as a neo nazi! This trailer trash white thing has made a fool of itself by trying to pass itself off as an Egyptologist! Why is there no evedence of civilization in Europe???????? The trailer trash never did answer the site moderators question! No white scholar has ever been able to answer …..Why not. Its because the whites were barbarians without a civilization living in caves and having sex with animals. The white Melanin deficient, calcified Pineal, inbred trailer trash coming to this site trying to influence what we as Black people think of ourselves are irrelevant! The only thing that matters is what we think of ourselves. In responce to being the first one to call the other a savage…..WHO CARES!!!!! First or last….the sub-human that calls itself the Sherry is a racist anti-Black savage! The truth told first or the truth told last ….IS STILL THE TRUTH! It is white and its opinion does not matter! I still believe it to be male! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 12:39:10 (EDT)

Heres some food for thought,Afrocentists say that Kemit(Kmt) mean land of the black people.It clearly does not the ancients always refered to themselves as “remetch en Kemit”(the people of Kemit).Of course if we are too believe Afrocentrics the people who lived in the desert of been red,the truth is of course they weren’t,in fact the word desert comes from the ancient Egyptian word “deshret”(the red land). My friend below said Mr Saafis’s websight was not in conflict with what Afrocentrics are saying, I think if he looked around the webpage properly I think he would that he is wrong. Here are some quotes from the anthropology and genetics section: Genetics of modern Egyptians: :Cavalli-Sforza et al.(1994)compared populations from throughtout the world using extensive genetic data. The North African populations grouped with West Euraisian (European,Middle East)populations rather than Sub-Saharan African populations(including Ethiopians). :Di Rienzo et al. (1994)studied the relationship of three samples (taken from Egyptians,Sardinians, and sub-Saharan Africans), using mitochodrial DNA and simple sequence repeats.In genetic terthe Egyptian sample was closer to the Sardinian than to the sub-Saharan African sample. :Hammer et al. (1997)used seen diferent methods to compute population trees of world populations, using Y-chromosome data.All seven methods grouped the Egyptians with the non-African populations rather than with the sub-Saharan Africans.Egyptians genetic profile resembles that of South Europeans more than any other regional groups in the study. :Poloni et al. (1997).Egyptians and a few other African populationa (Tunisians,Algerians, and even Ethiopeans)Showed a stronger similarity to non-Africans Mediterraneans Than to the remainder of Africans mostly from south the Sahara. :Bosch et al.(1997),using classical genetic marker, calculated Egyptians to be genetically very close to Mediterranean Asians Europeans. Genetics of Ancient Egyptians: :Borgognini-Tarli annd G. Paoli, 1982. The ABO blood type freguencies of ancient Egyptians showed no signs of differing significantly from that that of present-day Egyptians.According to the autors,”the blood-group distribution obtained for Asyut,Gebelen and Aswan necropoles shows resemblances with the present leucoderm population of Egypt and particulary with its more ‘conservative’ fraction (the Copts, MOURANT et al., 1976).” Test done on Ancient Egypian skulls: (for diagram follow the above link or go to One of the most common ways of assessing population relationships has been comparative analysis of the skull types. Such a study was carried out by the physical anthropologist C. Loring Brace and five co-reserchers who statistically analyzed a range of 24 cranial measurements from diverse world samples, includin ancient Egypians. The results of the analysis suggest that ancient Egyptian crania had with those from southwest Asia and Neolithic Europe, as well as North and Northeast Africa. However, the Egyptian skulls showed little similariy to African crania from the more distant south and west.The above plot shows, as accurately as is possible in two dimemsians, the relationships between craniofacial configurations of the various regional samples> The predynastic sample from upper Egypt lies very close to the West Eurasian group but shows some tendencies toword Northeast Africans(Nubians,Somalis);(on the chart Indians are actually much closer to Somalis and Nubians than the pre dynastic people of upper Egypt) this should not be surprising given Egypts geographical position at the crossroads of Africa ans Asia.The northern Egyptians deviate even more strongly from the tropical African pattern, and indeed thier closest relatives appear to be west Eurasians.Notice that the pooled group of Sub_Saharan Africans from southern, central and western regions of the continent does not resemble Egyptians at all: this group is plotted very distant from both ancient Egyptian Samples. More to come(dental evidence, hair evidence, more cranial,etc.) Ancient Testimony: According to classical Greca-Roman authors, ancient Egyptian contempories had a “medium tone” and looked like northern Indians. The Ethiopians stain the world and depict a race of men steeped in darkness: less sunburnt are the natives of India: the land of Egypt, flooded by the the Nile, darkens bodies more mildly owing to the inundation of its fields; it is a country nearer to us and its moderate climate imparts a medium tone. -Manilius,Astronomica 4.724 Here the term Ethiopians(=Greek”burnt face”, denoting very dark skin) refers to the inhabitantn south of Egypt and roughly corresponds to what early anthropologist would called “Negro.”Although Ethiopians was a very broad term encompassing most Africans and sometimes part of southern Asia(Sri Lanka,Timor), the ancient Greco-Roman writers clearly distinguished the pre-Arab Egyptians from “Ethiopians”. Philostratus wrote that thhe people living near the Nubian bordr were lighter than Ethiopians, and that Egyptians were in turn lighter than those people. There are cases of Greco-Roman authors likening Egyptians to northern Indians, who generally do not look like black Africans. The appearance of the inhabitants is also not very different in India and Ethiopia: the southern Indians are rather more like Ethiopians as thhey are black to look on, and thier hair is black; only they are not so snub-nosed or wooly-haired as the Ethiopians; the northern Indians are most like the EGyptians physically. Strabo confirms in Geography 15.1.13, in almost identical wording: As for the people of India, those in the south are like the Aethiopians in colour, although they are like the rest in respect to countenance and hair (for on account of the humidity of the air their hair does not curl), whereas those in the noth are like the Egyptians. Arrian and Strabo concur that the Egyptians resembled northern Indians — who are usually straight haired and occasionally as light-skined southern Europeans — rather than the darker Dravidian types of southern India.Furthermore, although Arrian and Strabo diffentiate Ethiopians from south Indians in terms of facial form and hair texture, they cite no such differences between the Egyptians and northern Indians. THe Herodotus quote repeatedly cited by Afrocentrists: In efforts to make the ancient Egyptian “black,” Afro-Egyptocentrists have interpreted certain ancient Greco-roman quotes in a way that supports their own views.Perhaps the most frequently cited of these is a qoute by Herodotus describing Egyptians as well as as Colchians of Caucaus as “dark skinned and wooly-haired”.Part of the misinterpretation of this quote stems from their interpreting the greek word melas and its numerous variants as “black” or “white”.There are numerous examples of this usage in Greek literature — one unequivocal example of this usage decribes a rather aged Odysseus magically regaining his youth(Homer Odyssey 16.172-176 With this, Athena tuoched him (Odysseus) with her golden wand.A well washed cloak and a tunic she first of all cast about his breast, and she increased his stature and his youthful bloom.Once more he grew dark of colour(melenchroies), and his cheaks filledout, and dark grew the beard abuot his chin. In decribing the skin tone of Odysseus, Homer uses the word melenchoies, which is a different spelling of the same word that Herodotus used to decribe the colour of the Egyptians. However it is clear from the above passage that Homer means “of swarthy complexion” rather than racially “black” and is meant to describe Odtsseus regaining his youthful colour. Otherwise we would have to assume that during the process of rejuvenation Odysseus became a black man!This despite the numerousancient artistic portrayals of Odsseus as Greek-looking and plainly not black.In fact if we interpreted other works the same literal way Afrocentrists interpret Herodotus and other writers, we would have to assume that Greek trees truly black-leaved(melamphullos),and that Greeks bled black blood(haima melan, etc). Herodottus decribing the hair of Egyptians as oulotriches(=”wooly haired”) seems to conflict with other writers such as as Strabo,Arrian and the unknown autor of Physiognomonica who mention only the Ethiopians and not the Egyptians as having wooly hair.At first sight it seems unclear whether Herodotus accurately described the whole Egyptian population or simply citing a stereotype reresenting the “extreme” Egyptian type relative to the Greek perspective (much like “the tall,blond blue eyed” stereotype of Swedes).Lukilly in this case we do not have to rely on Herodotus’ description when there ids so much physical evidence available.Numerous mummies with still attached to the skuls show that straight ,wavy, or gently curled hair types were common in ancient Egypt.For an example , in a study (TItlbachova and Titlbach,1977) involing hair samples detailed microscopic investigation of hair samples taken from ancient Egyptian mummies, most were determined to have been naturally straight,wavy, of gently curled, with roundish cross-section typical of modern Eurasian and North African peoples.Only a small minority showed evidence of “negroid” structural charactoristics; even these “negroid” elements were weakly manifested.Nevertheless, in ancient as well as modern Egypt, the hair is on average curlier than that of Greeks — an obsevation which probably accounts for Herodotus’ stereotyping Egyptian hair as oulriches.But Herodotus mentions only “Etiopians” as having the “woolliest hair of all men”(Herodotus Histories 7.70.1) —More to come.
Iskander Wagdi
Tanta, Egypt – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 11:58:41 (EDT)

I didnt post the muslim/islamic sayings. Check the ip# on it, it wasnt me. Also, is this your scape-goat? Now…when you CANT answer the FACTS with FACTS…suddenly…your not going to post no more? HHmmm, I proved my point, and anyone can see that..all they have to do is scroll down, READ, and compare.Its very childish of you to spam the board by posting your same boring long message 3 times…grow up. Also, in response to your comment of the first one to call another “savage & barbaric” is thr one who is really “uncivilized”…well, again…scroll down, and you can “thank” your brother Turner from Compton, for being the first to show his true self…afterall, he said it first :o) I figured that once you and your people were confronted with the truth, first it would be name calling (which it was), then it would be Anger, (which it was) then the racist name calling would be used, and finally, you “gave-up” because I have confronted you with FACTS that you could not answer , because they are obviously undisputable. You were quite predictable…
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 07:16:38 (EDT)

African leaders: ‘Let us unite’ OAU summit ends in agreement to speed pace toward One Africa by James Muhammad Editor Heads of State join Libya in celebrating 30 years of revolution Gadhafi calls for reparations for African slave trade SIRTE, Libya—In the face of mounting competition from global economic blocs and the threat of neo-colonialism, African leaders meeting here for the 4th Extraordinary Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) determined that Africa would become the world’s largest economic and political bloc, and perhaps the leader of the next millennium. A record 43 heads of state answered the call of Libyan leader Muammar Gadhafi for the urgent Sept. 8-9 sessions to discuss the pace at which Africa is moving in the face of such global challenges. Col. Gadhafi, following the example set by the great revolutionary and Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah, and others, specifically called for the establishment of a United States of Africa, with its own central bank, military and parliament. The extraordinary meeting culminated a 10-day celebration of the September 1st Revolution (The Great Al-Fatah Revolution). The colors of each African nation’s flag decorated cities throughout Libya, African dance troupes performed nightly on the central square in Tripoli and revolutionary slogans and photographs of African presidents draped walls and billboards. A massive parade Sept. 7 in Tripoli witnessed by nearly two dozen heads of state, Palestinian leader Yassar Arafat, Algerian revolutionary Ahmed Ben Bella, a Nation of Islam delegation led by Chief of Staff Leonard F. Muhammad, and others marked the official observation of the Revolution. The parade was delayed until Sept. 7 for the presidents’ arrival. Announced near midnight on their target date of 9-9-99, OAU Secretary General Salim Ahmed Salim told more than 100 journalists that the leaders had agreed to quicken the pace of unity. “As we prepare to enter the 21st century and cognizant of the challenges … we emphasize the imperative need and high sense of urgency to rekindle the aspirations of our peoples for stronger unity, solidarity and cohesion in a larger community of peoples transcending cultural, ideological, ethnic and national differences. “It is our conviction that our Continental Organization needs to be revitalized in order to be able to play a more active role and continue to be relevant to the needs of our peoples and responsive to the demands of the prevailing circumstances,” he said. The OAU determined it would: •Quicken the pace of implementing the 1991 Abuja Treaty which established an African Economic Community •Speed up the process of establishing all of the institutions provided in the Treaty—an African Central Bank, an African Monetary Union, an African Court of Justice and a Pan-African Parliament •Strengthen and consolidate existing regional economic communities •Mandate its Council of Ministers to ensure implementation of those decisions, particularly to prepare the legal text necessary in light of the existing Charter and the Abuja Treaty •Mandate OAU Chairman and Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and South African President Thabo Mbeki to engage African creditors with the goal of securing the total cancellation of Africa’s debt. Mr. Salim said the OAU would establish the Pan-African Parliament by the year 2000 in order to provide a common platform for African peoples and grass roots organizations to be more involved in discussions and decision making on problems and challenges facing Africa. A return to Sirte The Council of Ministers should submit its report on implementation at the next meeting of the OAU scheduled for Lome, Togo, next year, he said, adding that December 2000 is the target date for ratification of the agreements. Then the OAU would return to Sirte in the year 2001 to adopt the document, he said. “This is a very, very serious milestone. Africa for a long time has been underestimated because we have not been united,” Liberian President Charles Taylor told The Final Call shortly after the meeting as the heads of state hurried to their cars after long hours of debate and discussions. “The time for unity is now, the unity will be organized. We are moving toward a parliamentary situation, and then the problems of Africa … can come into focus because we have decided that we are going to unite as a union.” Ghana’s Deputy Foreign Minister Mohamed Ibn Chambass called the deliberations “very profound and very radical. We needed to be taking these steps (toward consolidating Africa) decades ago. We are happy that Africa has now realized we need to take our destiny into our own hands and catch up with the rest of the world.” Throughout the summit meetings, Col. Gadhafi worked with a determination to reemphasize the need for unity. He dressed in his traditional Arab garments for the official meetings and dinners, but journalists and delegates alike were well aware of his focus on aligning himself closer to his African neighbors, particularly following their decision at an OAU summit in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, to defy the UN ban against flights into Libya. That move in 1998, observers feel, was a major dent in the wall of U.S.-led sanctions on Libya, whom the U.S. holds responsible for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Col. Gadhafi had accused Arab leaders of the Middle East of not standing with him in the face of sanctions. “We’ve been waiting for this day with a particular eagerness,” Col. Gadhafi said to foreign ministers Sept. 7, at a preliminary meeting in Tripoli prior to the official opening the summit. He said any union Africa determines must be comprehensive—economics, politics and culture. Mr. Gadhafi invoked the name of Mr. Nkrumah as the catalyst for the meeting. He also said that everything needed for a new charter already exists in the Abuja Treaty. The institutions were there, he said, but they were bodies without souls. “We want something considerable … a new soul to bring life to these institutions and bodies,” he said. The way forward While Africa is still a continent in crisis, all agreed that the mandate of the original OAU Charter—fighting colonialism—has been achieved. The focus now is to bring internal stability to member states—some of whom are involved in civil wars and rebel attacks against their governments—so that the countries can gain control of their mineral and human resources to strengthen their economies. The way forward must be deliberate, yet careful, most observed. In debating his point at the inception of the OAU Charter, Mr. Nkrumah argued that an African “continental union government” would have a two-house legislature: an upper house of two members from each state and a lower house based on the population of each state, with power to formulate a common foreign policy, common continental planning for economic and industrial development, a common currency, monetary zone and a central bank of issue and a common defense system with one military High Command, according to “Inside the OAU: Pan-Africanism in Practice” (1986) by C.O.C. Amate. “Since the conception of the OAU in ’63 we have been advocating unity and solidarity,” said OAU spokesman Ibrahim Daggash. “We used it in the liberation struggle and we succeeded. Why don’t we use it in our economic struggle as well? “We have to refuse marginalization. In the new millennium there’s no place for small entities. It should be viable political and economic groupings,” he said. “If we succeed in an intergrational process (in other areas), we’d succeed also in a common monetary unit. But we still have a long way to go,” said Liberian Foreign Minister Monie Captan, referring to what has happened with the European Union. Among the special guests at the summit were Gamel Nkrumah, son of the late Kwame Nkrumah, and Roland Lumumba, son of the late Congo freedom fighter Patrice Lumumba. At the close of the Summit, after giving Revolution Awards to the heads of state present, Col. Gadhafi, in a symbolic uniting of the past, present and future, awarded both sons the Revolution Award. With a horde of photographers chasing them, Col. Gadhafi walked out of the hall hand-in-hand with Nkrumah and Lumumba. “My father would have been proud of Gadhafi today,” the young Nkrumah told The Final Call in an interview. “I wish he could be around to see that somebody else has taken up his dream very seriously. It would have been a great day for him.” Copyright © 1999 FCN Publishing ” Pooling our resources and doing for self ”
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:14:03 (EDT)

(PART 2) (PART 1 BELOW THIS POST) >The Black List – > >Made a Chattel Slave: > African slaves’ descendants have tended to look at U.S. Slavery > from a >monolithic if not narrow view. When we think of slavery, we are >essentially thinking of chattel slavery. Even, when we are thinking of >chattel slavery, we are actually referring to physical slavery, or we are >combining the two forms in one. As we have seen from the above, slavery >consisted of a series of illegal acts, all in International Law and >Natural Law. Since we are not parties by human mutuality to the U.S. >Constitution, at no point in Real Law or in Hard Law, do our Real Rights >come under U.S. Constitutional Law. All of the illegal acts committed >against us as explained above are International and Natural Law acts. >And as we shall see, nothing else to the present has occurred in Real Law >that has brought our Real Rights into U.S. Constitutional Law, since we >have been under One Continuous Act(s) of enslavement to the present via >unilateral White illegal acts to maintain U.S. Slavery under a myriad of >forms that still spell slave without self-determination and without our >true liberties as human beings. >Chattel refers to personal property as opposed to real property. Real >chattels, as opposed to personal chattels, are such as leasehold estates, >interests issuing out of, or annexed in real estate, such as chattel >interests as devolve after the manner of realty. Upon arrival onto a new >jurisdiction by force into a territory, we were made personal property to >be sold as contraband. Contraband is defined in Black’s Law Dictionary, >6th edition p. 322 as, “…any property which is unlawful to produce or >possess.” The illegality of our being sold as personal chattel property >contraband emerges out of International and Natural Law, a violation of >our Human Rights. We were made a thing to be sold, like a cow or pig, >without a nationality or identity other than as property; in short, an >animal or just a person (later 3/5 of a person). >After being sold and/or resold as personal chattel property contraband, >we were made Physical Slaves, working without pay and without >Reparations. The famous quote from Frederick Douglass, “As long as we are >not the direct beneficiaries of our labors, we are still slaves.” >Douglass’ statement carries a great deal of common sense weight, but >hundreds of years of subjugation and propagandization had made us Mental >Slaves based upon White illegal unilateral acts including forced >illiteracy. A Mental Slave has a great difficult understanding that >he/she is still a slave based upon Douglass’ statement. Based upon our >unpaid wages and the continued profits from those unpaid wages, including >the profits from seized slave scientific inventions and innovations, the >wealth of America is our legal property. The U.S. Black/African slaves’ >descendants population is currently working for money that previous labor >has already purchased. And, after being charged twice for the same wages, >we are spending money on goods and services that we legally already own. >By 1865, what noted Black social psychologist Amos S. Wilson calls “the >most successful human brainwashing enterprise in history,” referring to >U.S. Slavery, we had become Automated Slaves, a slave who will behave as >a slave even without being seized. The 13th and 14th Amendments and The >Civil Rights Act of 1866 made us Legislated Slaves with a legal status >and so-called Civil Rights unilaterally determined by the U.S. Congress >and The U.S. Supreme Court. >The U.S. Congress in 1865 had the clear choice and opportunity to ask >slaves if we wanted to be U.S. Citizens, if we wanted to associate with >the U.S. Government, as were Whites asked on July 4, 1776. This would >have been treating us as human beings. But to treat us as human beings >would have also meant paying us Reparations, which the U.S. Congress >wanted to avoid at all cost. The decision was to make us so-called U.S. >Citizens without asking us. This also was a mammoth of a White propaganda >piece with regard to the International Relations of the U.S., as the >world thought that U.S. Slaves were being freed. How can your slave >become your citizen without self-determination? It can be done because >his/her status is still a slave; because the slave is still in slavery. >The 14th Amendment is quite didactic: > >Amendment XIV [1868] Section 1. “All persons born or naturalized in >the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens >of the United States and of the State wherein they reside…” > > Well, who in the heck are “all persons”? It must be clear that since >White People were already U.S. Citizens by human mutuality, not by >legislated Civil Rights in which they had no choice, The 14th Amendment >could not have been written for them. A discussion of White immigrants is >not germane. We are discussing U.S. Slavery, about U.S. Slaves. > >From the very definition of domicile of origin, a White person born in >the U.S. where his/her parents have domicile is clearly already an U.S. >Citizen. There would be no reason to restate this in an Amendment to the >U.S. Constitution. On the other hand, all African slaves by 1868 were >born in the U.S. as persons, indeed as 3/5 of a person. If we were >naturalized, where are our naturalization papers? >Slaves are captives. It is a slave who is a subject, brought by force >into a new jurisdiction into a territory and unilaterally made residents >in a State with The 14th Amendment, and made a Citizen who had no choice >in his/her Citizenship, i.e. a Legislated Slave. The Law is subject to >you if you are free, consent of the governed. Slaves are subjects to the >Law via forced jurisdictional association. The context in which the U.S. >Population is viewed from a legal standpoint, with regard to status or >standing, is set in Article 1, Section 3: > >”Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several >States which may be included within this Union, according to their >respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole >number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of >Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other >Persons.” > > It is clear from the above that “the whole number of free > Persons” makes >reference to free White People. Here is an admission that there are both >free Persons and subjects. But added to “the whole number of free >Persons” are White indentured servants. So, White indentured servants >were given their liberties in 1776 via U.S. Public Law to which they are >parties. Section 3 ends rather conspicuously, defining the remaining >population for taxation purposes, as “three fifths of all other Persons.” >These are slaves, Africans. > Twenty-four hours prior to making The 14th Amendment law, the U.S. >Congress issued The Expatriation Act of 1868, by which anyone had the >right to expatriate from the U.S. to another jurisdiction. After 246 >years of U.S. Slavery, slaves had 24 hours to expatriate. Very few slaves >had any knowledge of The Expatriation Act of 1868. It was simply another >unilateral illegal act, just as The 13th and 14th Amendments and The >Civil Rights Act of 1866, forced upon slaves without our input, >violations of our Human Rights. >These unilateral White acts were secondly, a manner by which the issue of >Reparations for U.S. Slavery could be eclipsed at an high point in U.S. >and global abolitionism, by presenting the impression to the world >community that slaves had been freed. In legal reality, these unilateral >acts were part of a long strand of White continuous acts of enslavement >of the African. >Stripped of our social systems of mutual trust by U.S. Slavery and the >plantation caste system, U.S. Slaves today are the only ethnic group >without a social system that applies to ourselves. As such, we have no >economic system as do other ethnic groups have beneath the dominant >economic system, since an economic system cannot exist without a social >system of mutual trust among members of a Class. As the world’s largest >slave liquid economy, we still have an economic value per head to White >People. > >MORE TO COME > >Contact Information: Attorney Dr. Robert L. Brock, P.O. Box 15288, >Washington, D.C. 20003. Website: > >For a general overview of Black Reparations, visit: > > >
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:10:12 (EDT)

List – > >Dr. Brock Presents Proof That We Are Still U.S. Slaves in 1999 > >A report on the Atlanta September 1999 Black Reparations Conference >By Oscar L. Beard, Consultant in African Studies >Website: >Brock Website at: > >ªªª > > Attorney Dr. Robert L. Brock, Preseident of the Self Determination >Committee, began his comments on “Status of U.S. Slaves’ Descendants in >Regards to Reparations and Self-Determination Under International Law” by >stating that the greatest obstacle to a clear explanation of our ongoing >legal status as U.S. Slaves is the popular belief by African slaves’ >descendants that “We sold each other into slavery.” The cardinal concern >of Black or African Reparations are those nations whose current economies >are built upon the backbone of African enslavement, including >corporations whose profits can be traced to the enslavement of Africans >and nations trading with the U.S. during chattel slavery. This would >exclude African individuals and nations, since both African individuals >and African nations came under the influence of European aggression and >were not benefactors of the African so-called Slave Trade though caught >up in it. To be sure, the African so-called Slave Trade was a >demand-driven market out of Europe and America, not a supply-driven >market out of Africa. >Furthermore, if there is any in-house cleaning that African slaves’ >descendants need to do regarding Africans used as middle-men in the >capture of African slaves, middle-men who were frequently slaves >themselves, we will do so. Dr. Brock then proceeded to delineate the >unilateral acts, primary and original acts by which Africans continue to >be enslaved by Europeans and/or Whites in the U.S. > >In the European Mind: >An a priori act was the conception and intention in the mind of the >European to travel to Africa to capture bodies into slavery. There were >no African kings or queens in Europe when Europeans decided to invade >Africa for bodies. > >The Invasion of Africa: >Hence, the first unilateral act was the invasion of Africa by Europeans >in order to capture bodies, not gold, not land, but bodies for slavery. >We did not invite Europeans to Africa to capture bodies. They were/are >transgressors. The Portuguese attacked Africa in 1444, killing resisting >Africans, and capturing, seizing and illegally transporting other >Africans to Europe into slavery. There were no Africans among the >attackers or transgressors. With knowledge of their superior military >capability, the gun, the Europeans felt quite confident in attacking >unilaterally. This original act of aggression set the adaptive context by >which all further encounters between Europeans and Africans were to take >place. Trade denotes human mutuality within a context of free will >without force. >The primary act of force against Africans established fear as the news >traveled of the devastating military capability of the Whites. As such, >trade in the usual sense was forever made impossible. The conditions >under which the so-called trade was to be conducted were based upon the >use of an overwhelming deadly force, posturing the use of force and/or >the use of deception and high power intoxicants. These are facts that >African slaves’ descendants need to face if we seek ever to rebuild our >social systems of mutual trust out of the spoils of U.S. Slavery. > >War of Enslavement: >African resistance to European aggression issued forth the War of >Enslavement, an undeclared war, bodies as weapons due to African >resistance; killing the resisting object of captivity, bodies. Add these >killings to the numbers of the Black Atrocity. The West African phase of >the African military resistance to European aggression is most >classically chronicled in Michael Crowder’s West African Resistance, >Africana Publishing Corporation, New York, 1971. The fact of West African >military resistance to slavery, European imperialism and colonialism is >not well known. > >Capture and Seizure: >The third unilateral act of enslavement by Europeans was the capture and >seizure of Africans. Once captured there was a strong African >determination to escape physically (including suicide and continued >self-destructive behaviors). To capture the African was not sufficient. >The African had to be seized, yoked, chained and branded. Currently, the >African slaves’ descendant in the U.S. is seized mentally. Capture and >then seizure securely brought the African under the control and dominion >of the European. Pregnant African women captured and seized were >considered a special catch, two slaves in one, and more to come through >rape and forced breeding. Hence, the unborn Black child in the U.S. of >African slaves’ descendant also has a claim for African Reparations. > >Forcible Expatriation: >After capture and seizure we were detained and forcibly expatriated, >forcibly removed from our Common Law Jurisdiction (s) in Africa. We were >forced away from our legal African domicile(s) of origin. Black’s Law >Dictionary, 6th Edition, defines domicile of origin as, “The home of the >parents…domicile of origin constitutes of an infant, and continues until >abandoned, or until the acquisition of a new domicile in a different >place.” (p. 485) >Forced expatriation to a new territory (the U.S.) was not an acquisition. >It meant the loss of our African citizenship, language, culture and our >Natural and Human Rights. But we did not loose self-preservation, which >can still be exercised, via our real Rights in Natural Law and in >International Law. > >Illegal Transport: > The fifth unilateral act by Europeans was the illegal transport of >Africans across seas into Admiralty Law and International Law. >International waters begin three miles off shore. This is in violation of >our Human Rights in Natural Law and in International Law regardless of >whether from the perspective of European national laws slavery was >considered to be legal or illegal. It is illegal with respect to our >Human Rights. We never agreed to be transported or to be slaves. It is >astonishing how many African slaves’ descendants believe that slavery was >legal. > >Arrival Into Another Jurisdiction By Force: > Brought onto land, into a territory, not into a county or a state or >colony as citizens or as immigrants. Where are our immigration papers? >Where are the papers our ancestors signed agreeing to be U.S. Citizens? >Our status as captives with a place, not a nationality, persons forced >away from our legal domicile of origin(s), Africa, which will remain our >legal domicile of origin until legally abandoned via human mutuality to >transfer jurisdiction to a new domicile, which we have not done. Without >domicile there is no legal jurisdiction, except, in our case forced >jurisdiction, which is illegal in International Law and in Natural Law. >Without jurisdiction, there is no proof of crime. > >Made a Chattel Slave in a Territory: (more to come soon) >_____________________________________________________
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:04:59 (EDT)

To Sherry, I believe your questions have been answered. Egypt was black you don’t except it you can leave. I think the intelligent people here can see that you have lost this battle. Oh, and believe me your remarks about Africa was not getting me upset. I know I sparked something in you when I spoke of the Fall of Western Civilization, so much so you had to pretend to be Pro-Truth. Sherry, you wannabe Egyptologist, I am going to listen to Curtis’ advice. From henceforth, you will be ignored. As for Maskat, you are right about one thing. The premise was wrong because it was Muslims that begin the process of enslaving our people, the Europeans were just more evil. You posted quotes of ignorant, racist, close-minded Muslims who had no appreciation for a difference in culture. They, like the Europeans and your self, could not see that just because Africans didn’t behave in the manner with which they associated with being civilized did not mean that they weren’t civilized. And it is quite interesting because Islam, like Judaism and Christianity was highly influenced by African culture. Here’s and example ” The most profound influences upon Islam by African religions can be seen in the goddesses of ancient Arabia. It is often disputed whether these deities are originally Arabian or African. As ancient Saba included what is today Ethiopia and southern Yemen, we shall designate these deities Afroasiatic just as the Semitic tongue is called. Long before Allah, Arabia was home to an Afoasiatic goddess called All’at. This goddess was popular all throughout Arabia and was worshipped by the Prophet’s family himself. Another goddess was El’Ka’ba. Long before Mohammad, the jet black stone at Mecca was a holy site to the worshippers of El’Ka’ba who came to kneel at her symbol, a jet black stone. It should be again noted that as in the Hebrew Cabala, the Islamic Ka’ba refers to the two parts (Ka and Ba) of the Kemetan soul. Pictured here is the Islamic holy site of the Ka’ba attended by millions yearly. (Photo and Information courtesy of African Origins of Western Religions by Dr. Yosef-ben Jochannan and Man, God and Civilization by John G. Jackson)… Kitab Fakhr As-Sudan ‘Ala Al-Bidan, “The Book of Glory of the Blacks over the Whites.” Al-Jahiz in his work contended that even the Prophet Mohammad’s father may have been of African lineage.”============================= But any way here is some evidence of African civilization in your terms. “When they (European navigators) reached the Bay of Guinea and alighted at Vaida, the captains were astonished to find well-planned streets bordered for several leagues by two rows of trees; for days they traversed a countryside covered by magnificent fields, inhabited by men in colorful attire that they had woven themselves! More to the south, in the Kingdom of the Congo, a teeming crowd clad in silk and velvet, large States, well ordered down to the smallest detail, powerful rulers, prosperous industries. Civilized to the marrow of their bones…This flowering the European conquistadors destroyed as they advanced.” Leo Frobenius, German ethnologist============================ “Under Sundiata and his immediate successors, Mali expanded rapidly west to the Atlantic Ocean, south deep into the forest, east beyond the Niger River, and north to the salt and copper mines of the Sahara. The city of Niani may have been the capital. At its height, Mali was a confederation of 3 independent, freely allied states (Mali, Mema, and Wagadou) and 12 garrisoned provinces. The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa(1312-1337) who expanded Mali influence over the large Niger city-states of Timbuctu, Gao, and Djenné. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim who built magnificent mosques all throughout the Mali sphere of influence. In 1324 Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca with an entourage of 60,000 people and 80 camels carrying more than two tons of gold to be distributed among the poor. Of the 12,000 servants 500 carried a staff of pure gold. It has been said that the gold markets of regions such as Egypt were ruined for months or years after Musa’s visit through their respective kingdoms.” ( “At least by 1,000BC Ethiopia, Eritrea and what is southern Yemen were part of a large empire known as the Sabean Kingdoms. The connections of Ethiopia and Arabia should not be surprising as the distance between the East African horn and Southern Arabia is minimal. In fact recent linguistic study indicates that the Semitic languages of Arabia and the Middle East may well be a branch of a larger Ethiopian language group. It is also well known that this Eastern Horn-Arabian route was used for millennia by the earliest homonid migrants who later populated Asia. The people of Sabea were probably a mixture of East Africans and their Southern Arabian descendants who had long populated the region. Saba had a very matrifocal society with a host of female dieties. According to the Kebra Negast, a holy book of Ethiopia, it is said that Makedda herself created a dictate stating “only a woman can rule. Polyandry, the practice of taking more than one husband by a woman, and tracing one’s kinship based upon matrilineal descent was common. The earliest known Arabian temple was at Marib (in Southern Yemen), capital of Saba, and was called Mahram Bilqus, “precincts of the Queen of Saba.” The Arabs called this woman, Bilqus or Balkis; in Ethiopia, Makedda (also Magda, Maqda and Makera), meaning “Greatness.” Years later, the Jewish historian Josephus, referred to her as “Nikaulis, Queen of Ethiopia.” She is the celebrated Queen of Sheba of the Bible who is described as “black and comely.” Located in a strategic location, Saba flourished as a trading community in goods from Asia as well as Africa. Even coffee drinkers trace the original cup to Ethiopia’s Kefa region. Pictured above are the ruins of Marib, built between the 1st and 2nd Millennium BC. (Photo and Information Courtesy of Yemeni website and African Presence in Early Asia ed. by Ivan Van Sertima)”============================ “Located in the south central African nation of Zimbabwe are the ruins of monuments and cities built of stone. These ruins extend a radius of 100 to 200 miles, a diameter almost as great as the entire nation of France. Believed to have been built by southern Africans about 600-1,000 years ago, they are evidence of a thriving culture in the heart of Africa. Up until recent years, the ruins were believed by Western historians to be the remains of a “mysterious white race” in the heart of Africa. Great Zimbabwe has been ravaged by European treasure hunters and amateur archaeologists. Layer after layer of African artifacts were trashed in order to reach the bottom layer which, it was assumed, would prove that whites had exerted early influence in southern Africa. How many artifacts and important pieces of this ancient culture was lost is unknown. It is only in the last several of decades since Zimbabwe became independent in 1980 that archaeologists have begun to take a serious look at ruins of Great Zimbabwe and similar sites representing a dynamic social, economic and political culture in Southern Africa. Pictured above is the great walled enclosure of Great Zimbabwe. (Photo and information courtesy of MCC)”====================================== “Fueled by its economic vitality, the kingdom of Ghana rapidly expanded into an empire. It conquered local minor states, requiring tribute from these subordinate vassals. This tribute, however, was not the main form of Ghana’s wealth. Ancient Ghana boasted a mixed economy of extensive agriculture, iron smelting, stonemasonry, carpentery, pottery, goldsmithing, and cloth manufacturing. A strong trade emerged in goods that passed from western Africa east to Egypt and the Middle East. This trade primarily involved gold, salt, copper,… Pictured above is a gold weight from the Akan people of Ghana. Evidene connects the Akan to the great Kingdom of Ghana. It is seen in names like Danso, shared by the Akans of present day Ghana and the Mandikas of Senegal and Gambia, who have strong links with the medieval kingdom. The matrilineal practice is also shared. The kingdom of Ghana never converted to Islam, even though northern Africa had been dominated by the faith since the eighth century. The Ghanaian court, however, allowed Muslims to settle in the cities and even encouraged Muslim specialists to help the royal court administer the government and advise on legal matters. Unlike the Ghanaians however, their northern neighbors the fervently converted to Islam. In 1076, calling themselves Almoravids, they declared a holy war, or jihad, against the state of Ghana. The Almoravids destroyed the kingdom, converting a great deal of northern Ghanians. After this however Ghana ceases to be a commercial or military power. For a brief time (1180-1230), the Soso people, who were strongly anti-Muslim, controlled a kingdom making up the southern portions of the Ghanaian empire, but the Almoravid conquest effectively halted the growth of kingdoms and empires in the Sahel for almost a century. It was to be Mali who would later pick up the legacy of the Sahelien states.” ( “Due to the enormous length of the Arab Slave Trade, from 700 to 1911AD, it is impossible to be certain of the numbers of Africans sold in this system. Estimates place the numbers somewhere around 14 million: at least 9.6 million African women and 4.4 African men.” ( It is very interesting to find that the most uncivilized and barbaric of people are the quickest to label someone uncivilized. My black people take pride in your history and in your culture and look towards building the future. Hotep.
Mack “DaNo1Narmer” Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 01:45:00 (EDT)


This comment is directed to the poster who believes Walter Rodney’s premise about “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa”. The truth is that the black countries were underdeveloped well before the advent of European colonialism. Below I have included many racist and disdainful writings from medieval Islamic writings about blacks (Zanj). The Islamic scholars’ intense level of contempt for the barbarism of black cultures, as well as a belief in an inferior black intellect, suggests that the level of civilization in most black countries was extremely primitive even before Europe entered the picture. It’s a far cry from “ruling the world.” ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** Of the neighbors of the Bujja, Maqdisi had heard that “there is no marriage among them; the child does not know his father, and they eat people — but God knows best. As for the Zanj, they are people of black color, flat noses, kinky hair, and little understanding or intelligence.” – Maqdisi (fl. 966 AD), _Kitab al-Bad’_, vol.4 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “We know that the Zanj are the least intelligent and the least discerning of mankind, and the least capable of understanding the consequences of actions.” – Jahiz (d. 868 AD), _Kitab al-Bukhala’_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Like the crow among mankind are the Zanj for they are the worst of men and the most vicious of creatures in character and temperament.” – Jahiz, _Kitab al-Hayawan_, vol. 2 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “They [the Shu`ubiyya] maintain that eloquence is prized by all people at all times — even the Zanj, despite their dimness, their boundless stupidity, their obtuseness, their crude perceptions and their evil dispositions, make long speeches.” – Jahiz, _Al-Bayan wa`l-tabyin_, vol. 3 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “[inhabitants of sub-Saharan African countries] are people distant from the standards of humanity” “Their nature is that of wild animals….” – from the Persian geography _Hudud al-`alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The Zanj are slight-witted (_kam ‘aql_), and God, most high, has created them stupid, ignorant, and foul (_palid_).” from anonymous _Iskandarnamah_, 1343 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Galen says that merriment dominates the black man because of his defective brain, whence also the weakness of his intelligence.” – Mas`udi (d. 956 AD), _Muruj al-dhahab_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “As regards southern countries, all their inhabitants are black on account of the heat of their climate. Most of them go naked. In all their lands and provinces, gold is found. They are people distant from the standards of humanity.” – Persian geography _Hudud al-`Alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** About the Zanj: “Their nature is that of wild animals. They are extremely black.” About the Sudan: “Among themselves there are people who steal each other’s children and sell them to the merchants when the latter arrive.” – _Hudud al-`Alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The Zanj are so uncivilized that they have no notion of a natural death. If a man dies a natural death, they think he was poisoned. Every death is suspicious with them, if a man has not been killed by a weapon.” – Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, _India_, 1030 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar, in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth,–in no other peculiarity or property,–except for what God wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro, and more intelligent.” – Philosopher-theologian Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-74), _Tasawwurat_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Therefore, the Negro nation are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because [Negroes] have little [that is essentially] human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated.” – Ibn Khaldun, _Muqaddimah_, 14th century AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is no civilization in the proper sense. There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings.” – Ibn Khaldun, _Muqaddimah_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq … do not come out with something between blonde, buff, blanched, and leprous coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs and others of similar light complexion; nor are they overdone in the womb until they are burned, so that the child comes out something between black, murky, malodorous, stinking, and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, deficient minds, and depraved passions, such as the Zanj, the Ethiopians, and other blacks who resemble them. The Iraqis are neither half-baked dough nor burned crust but between the two.” – Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani, _Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan_, 903 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “[Blacks] are ugly and misshapen, because they live in a hot country.” – Ibn Qutayba (828-89 A.D.) ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The geographer al-Idrisi ascribes ‘lack of knowledge and defective minds’ to the black peoples. Their ignorance, he says, is notorious; men of learning and distinction are almost unknown among them, and their kings only acquire what they know about government and justice from the instruction of learned visitors from farther north.” – BernardLewis, _Race and Slavery in the Middle East_, 1990 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “In both Arab and Iranian Islamic writings, blacks are accused of being stupid, untruthful, vicious, sexually unbridled, ugly and distorted, excessively merry, and easily affected by food and drink.” – Minoo Southgate, “Negative Images of Blacks in Some Medieval Iranian Writings,” Iranian Studies 17 (1984): p.10
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 01:10:06 (EDT)

Okay, now you say it doesnt matter when the bust of Narmer was made? Well, your wrong. It does matter that his bust was made during the 25th dynasty, which was 2300 years after Narmer had reigned. The egyptians of the 25th dynasty wouldnt have the slightest clue as to what the real Narmer looked like. There is only one, Ill repeat, only ONE other image of Narmer, and it is VERY clear for all that have eyes to see…that he looks nothing like what the bust made from the 25th dynasty portrays him to be. The only image of Narmer from Narmers TIME of reign, depicts the closest to what he really looked like…and if you ever get a chance to see it..he CLEARLY had no negroid traits that you would like to make him to have. THE INSCRIPTION OF UNI: Well, it seems awefully funny that all of a sudden Breadsted was a “racist egyptologist”, and all of his other discoveries were valued in this site, yet all of a sudden he misinterpreted things, and is racist… Breadsted was (he is no longer living) the PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY AND ORIENTAL STUDIES @THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. I dont know if it was you or one of your people, but one of you linked that website from this page to post facts from, yet when I brought to your attention the insc. uni, all of a sudden it was a mistake and racist.. Its funny how its not racist when you use the SAME EXACT SITE, yet when I posted it for information…suddenly it was from a racist site, and racist egyptologist. You and your people have not only contridicted yourselfs, but you have also made hypocritical statements and accusations. So, if you think Im lying…SCROLL down this page and re-read very carefully…you will see, Im probably the most HONEST one here. To turner: I will not even answer you again…except to let you know…you havent “hurt” my feelings..and if you keep all of that anger inside of you, you will never be a true happy person, at peace with yourself. In regards to the slavery thing..I posted back FACTS in regards to slavery…after someone here threw it up in my face. White-aryan people have done more to help and benefit your people than this so called slavery could ever touch. So, in the future, attacking me with slavery, savage devil, etc etc…is only acting inmature, and taking many from this board off of the true topic here..the race of the ancient egyptians. Again…you may have posted back..but you posted with accusations and opinions…like for example the bust of narmer…you didnt answer me back with FACTS..your quote opinion was “it doesnt matter” Next time post back with fatcs..and intelligence, not hypocritical statements. In truth, Sherry
USA – Monday, October 18, 1999 at 23:09:11 (EDT)

Of course ancient Egyptians were Black, this is really an indisputable fact. So let’s move on to another more important topic. Who are the real Jews? In the article that prefaced my comment it was stated that Ham is the father of the Black races. First of all it is impossible to categorize people by skin color. If I have a dog and a cat that are both black does that make them the same species? Of course not. So are all dark skinned people the same just because of their skin color. The answer is no. But this is the racist propaganda that we have been taught. The bible clearly states in several places that the Jews are black. Job states that he is black. So does Solomon. Revelations 1 gives a description of Christ as having skin the color of brass and hair like wool. The bible also says that all of Isreal (the name given to Jacob the son of Abraham)is reckoned by geneology, meaning that you can not convert to being a Jew. It is determined by birth. Deut. 28:68 also states that the Jews would be taken on ships and sold into slavery. This was prophesized after the first captivity in Egypt(A greek name meaning bondage. The original name of Egypt is Mizarim after one of the sons of Ham). Have the white people calling themselves Jews ever been taken into bondage on ships? Or why isn’t their skin dark like the Bible says it is and will always be? The true Jews don’t even know who they are because they have been told that they are Black or African American, or Indians or Mexican or any other name given to people of so-called Negroid or Indian descent. In a book titled From Babylon to Timbuktu the arthur Ruldolph Windsor recounts how the Jews fled into Africa in 70AD to hid among other dark skinned people when the Romans invaded Isreal. They lived there as refugees for about 1200 years before being sold into slavery during the triangular slave trade. The three parties who took part in the trade were the Arabs, the white man, and the Africans. Black people are not of African descent. Africans are descendents of Ham. Black people are descendents of Shem. I know this may sound crazy, but it’s true and it explains the condition of the real Jews today. I encourage everyone to do their research and find out who they really are. The truth of who the true Jews are is the one truth upon which all the lies that control the world are built. Shalom!
Sarai Yahawa
los angeles, ca USA – Monday, October 18, 1999 at 22:40:47 (EDT)



April 10, 2007



To the ancient Greek and Latin writers contemporary with the ancient Egyptians the physical classification posed no problems with them: the ancient Egyptians were black, snub-nosed, thick lips, with curly hair. [Primary evidence]

Herodotus: “there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country” (The Histories, Book 2:100)

“Colchians are an Egyptian race . . . . the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too.” (The Histories, Book 2:104)


Professor William Petrie “The Father of Egyptian Pre-history”

Egyptologist Petrie, excavations at Nagada and Ballas in Upper Egypt nearly 100 years ago unearth nearly 2200 ancient graves. He wrote over a thousand books, articles and reviews reporting on his excavations and his finds.

Petrie, W.M. Flinders, The Making of Egypt, Sheldon Press, New York, 1939, p. 105:

Sudanese Dynasties:

“Scorpion king of the Anu [Aunu] culture”.

“A breath of life came from the Sudan. This southern source was likewise the inspiration of . . .” the 1st, 2nd (Anu),

3rd [Sudanese], 4th, 5th, 12th [Sudanese] dynasties. “The 12th dynasty was undoubtedly descended from Amenemhat, the great vizier of the 11th dynasty. It seems, then, that he married the heiress of the Uah-ka family, as stated in the pseudo-prophecy, “A king shall come from the south whose name is Ameny, son a Nubian woman.” She called her son by the family name Senusert, and he was the founder of the 12th dynasty, according to Manetho. The main sources of the 18th dynasty were Nubian and Libyan, depicted black and yellow, but not red of the Egyptians.

Ahmos Nefertari was one of their black queens. Her black strain seems to come through the Tao I and II ancestry. The 19th dynasty was a direct mixture of races.” Petrie states: “Decay continued in a divided kingdom; Egypt seemed hopeless until a fresh Ethiopian invasion stimulated it, as in earlier instances”. This was the beginning of the 25th dynasty.

See photo of kings Menes, Khasekhem and Djoser. Also the Gebel el-Arak Knife.


The following was taken from Petrie, A History of Egypt – Part One, 1896, pp. 125-129:

“The Galla Penetration. It has long ago been remarked that the black sphinxes, later appropriated by the Hyksos, approximated to the Galla type of Abyssinia”.

“This starts an enquiry how the Galla connection could thus appear on monuments. In the clearance and planning of the rock tombs at Qau, Antaeopolis, the peculiar plan of those tombs, with great halls and small chambers annexed, was observed to be closely parallel to that of later Nubian temples. In both tomb and temple the chief work is in the solid rock, while the forecourt is of masonry constructed in front of it. Another peculiarity was the hammer-work excavation of one tomb, which had evidently been done with stone balls, as in the Aswan granite working, and this implies a southern connection”.

“These people do not appear in any records, and all their monuments have been reappropriated. They left, however, a most striking style of sculpture, in the sphinxes which were later removed to Tanis, but seem originally to have come from El Kab, where a piece of such a sphinx has been found.The type is closely like that of the Galla. The evidence that all the earlier sculptures of Tanis were collected there by Ramessu II seems clear; and that these sphinxes are earlier than the Hyksos is certain by those kings having appropriated them. No period seems so likely for them as the 7th to the 10th dynasties. The type was heavily bearded, with bushy hair”. Petrie


Nubia is a relatively modern name, introduced a mere 2000 years ago by the Greek geographer and historian Strabo (63 BC-24 AD), who met members of the Noba tribe and decided to call their country Nubia. For millennia before Strabo’s visit, the Egyptians called it Ta-Seti, “Land of the Bow,” because of its famous archers. Strabo visited the lands south of the Nile’s first cataract in 29 B.C., he remarked on the region’s mineral wealth.


X-raying the Pharaohs:

The authors of X-raying the Pharaohs (1978) are James E. Harris director of the expedition to x-ray the pharaohs, professor of dentistry and chairman of the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Michigan; Kent R. Weeks, an American Egyptologist and member of the expedition, is associate professor and chairman of the Department of Anthropology at The American University in Cairo wrote:

Seqenenra Tao: “His entire lower facial complex, in fact, is so different from other pharaohs that he could be fitted more easily into the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian–that is, non-Egyptian–origin for Seqenenra and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stand in need of considerable re-examination”.

Written in the book X-raying the Pharaohs states that Donald Redford, a modern Canadian Egyptologist. . . . “believes Hatshepsut’s attainment of the throne represents the final attempt in the Eighteenth Dynasty to establish a strong matrairchate in Egypt. He cites the unusual importance of earlier queens in this period –Tetisheri, Ahhotep I, Ahmose-Nefertari–as evidence of such a tendency, and here suggest that the influences for such a matriarchally determined order of succession might have come from Nubia. The possibility that the rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty were themselves at least part Nubian”.

James E. Harris, Kent R. Weeks, X-raying the Pharaohs, 1973, p. 135; 17th & 18th dynasty family tree.


1980 Discovery in Upper Egypt:

35,000-30,000 years ago: “Oldest human skeleton found in Egypt”. Nazlet Khater man was the earliest modern human skeleton found near Luxor, in 1980. The remains was dated from between 35,000 and 30,000 years ago. The report regarding the racial affinity of this skeleton concludes: “Strong alveolar prognathism combined with fossa praenasalis in an African skull is suggestive of Negroid morphology [form & structure]. The radio-humeral index of Nazlet Khater is practically the same as the mean of Taforalt (76.6). According to Ferembach (1965) this value is near to the Negroid average.” The burial was of a young man of 17-20 years old, whose skeleton lay in a 160cm- long narrow ditch aligned from east to west. A flint tool, which was laid carefully on the bottom of the grave, dates the burial as contemporaneous with a nearby flint quarry. The morphological features of the Nazlet Khater skeleton were analysed by Thoma (1984). The 35,000 year old skeleton was examined using multivariate statistical procedures. In the first part, principal components analysis is performed on a dataset of mandible dimensions of 220 fossils, sub-fossils and modern specimens, ranging in time from the Late Pleistocene to recent and restricted in space to the African continent and Southern Levant.

Thoma A., Morphology and Affinities of the Nazlet Khater Man; Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 13, 1984.

Nazlet Khater falls closer to the Late Palaeolithic Nubian samples . . . If an ancestral descendant relationship existed between Nazlet Khater and the Late Palaeolithic Nubian specimens, then regional continuity persisted among the Upper/Late Pleistocene populations of the Upper Nile region. The Nazlet Khater specimen is part of a relict population which is a descendant of a larger sub-Saharan stock, which extended as far north as present day upper Egypt sometime during the Last Interglacial period, or the early part of the Last Glacial period. In such a scenario, the Nazlet Khater belongs to a relict population which retained some of the morphological features [form & structure] that were present among Middle Stone Age populations, but no longer present in other contemporaneous sub-Saharan and North African populations.

The Position of the Nazlet Khater Specimen Among Prehistoric and Modern African and Levantine Populations, Ron Pinhasi, Departent of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, U.K., Patrick Semal, Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium; Journal of Human Evolution (2000) vol. 39, 269–288.


Ancient Text Source (Primary):

It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments, and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days’ absence, serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes, and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon. “I think,” says Heeren, after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship, “that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. The sacred ship of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment, and is towed along by another boat. It is therefore on its voyage. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals, since, even according to the interpretation of antiquity, Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter’s visit to the Ethiopians, and his twelve days’ absence.”–Long, “Egyptian

Antiquities” vol. 1 p. 96. Eustathius, vol. 1 p. 98, sq. (ed. Basil) (quoting from the the Iliad, written by Homer in 800 B.C.E )

Greek historian Diodorus Siculus. From his own statements we learn that he traveled in Egypt around 60 BC. His travels in Egypt probably took him as far south as the first Cataract.

“They (the Ethiopians) say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris [“King of Kings and God of Gods] having been the leader of the colony . . . they add that the Egyptians have received from them, as from authors and their ancestors, the greater part of their laws.” Diodorus’s declared intention to trace the origins of the cult of Osiris, alias the Greek Dionysus also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus. The Homeric Hymn “To Dionysus” locates the birth of Dionysus in a mysterious city of Nysa “near the streams of Aegyptus” (Hesiod 287). Diodorus cites this reference as well as the ancient belief that Dionysus was the son of Ammon, king of Libya (3.68.1), and much of Book 3 of the Bibliotheka Historica is devoted to the intertwined histories of Dionysus and the god-favored Ethiopians whom he believed to be the originators of Egyptian civilization. [emphasis added]

(1st century B.C., Diodorus Siculus of Sicily, Greek historian and contemporary of Caesar Augustus, Universal History Book III. 2. 4-3. 3)

Dionysus is Orisis reinvented. The mysteries were neither of Cretan origin nor a part of the original Greek religion is well established by the fact that the initiatory rites as practiced among these islanders were open to everyone, in contrast to the secret rituals of Byblus, Cyprus, Thrace, Samothrace, and Eleusis (Diodorus, Book V, 77). The mystery, which originated in Egypt, was imported into Greece long after Zeus and his family had migrated from Mt. Ida to Mt. Olympus.

Diodorus devoted an entire chapter of his world history, the Bibliotheke Historica, or Library of History (Book 3), to the Kushites [“Aithiopians”] of Meroe. Here he repeats the story of their great piety, their high favor with the gods, and adds the fascinating legend that they were the first of all men created by the gods and were the founders of Egyptian civilization, invented writing, and given the Egyptians their religion and culture. (3.3.2).

“Now they relate that of all people the Aithiopians [Ethiopians] were the earliest, and say that the proofs of this are clear. That they did not arrive as immigrants but are the natives of the country and therefore rightly are called authochthonous is almost universally accepted. That those who live in the South are likely to be the first engendered by the earth is obvious to all. For as it was the heat of the sun that dried up the earth while it was still moist, at the time when everything came into being, and caused life, they say it is probable that it was the region closest to the sun that first bore animate beings”.

[160,000-year-old fossilized skulls uncovered in Ethiopia are oldest anatomically modern humans.]

Diodorus continues:

“They further write that it was among them that people were first taught to honor the gods and offer sacrifices and arrange processions and festivals and perform other things by which people honor the divine. For this reason their piety is famous among all men, and the sacrifices among the Aithiopians are believed to be particularly pleasing to the divinity,”

“The Aithiopians [Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement.The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Aithiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Aithiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Aithiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them.”

“There are also numerous other Aithiopian tribes [i.e. besides those centered at Meroe]; some live along both sides of the river Nile and on the islands in the river, others dwell in the regions that border on Arabia [i.e. to the east], others again have settled in the interior of Libya [i.e. to the west]. The majority of these tribes, in particular those who live along the river, have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair”.

(Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. II: From the Mid-Fifth to the First Century BC (Bergen, Norway, 1996))


Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher, scientist, and tutor to Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises.

“Too black a hue marks the coward as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians and so does also too white a complexion as you may see from women, the complexion of courage is between the two.”

(Physiognomics, Vol. VI, 812a)

Aristotle makes reference to the hair form of Egyptians and Ethiopians: “Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair.”

(Physiognomics, Book XIV, p. 317)


The evidence of Lucian (Greek writer, 125 B.C.) is as explicit as that of the previous writers. He introduces two Greeks, Lycinus and Timolaus, who start a conversation:

Lycinus (describing a young Egyptian): “This boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin . . . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman.”

Timolaus: “But that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus, All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. It is the exact opposite of the custom of our ancestors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to keep it in place.”

(Lucian, Navigations, paras 2-3)


Herodotus (490-425 B.C.E.) The first Greek historian. Called the Father of History.

He reports faithfully what the Egyptian priests communicated to him as the history of their country, when he visited Egypt about 460 to 450 BC.

“I went as far as Elephantine [Aswan] to see what I could with my own eyes, but for the country still further south I had to be content with what I was told in answer to my questions. South of Elephantine the country is inhabited by Ethiopians. . . Beyond the island is a great lake, and round its shores live nomadic tribes of Ethiopians. After crossing the lake one comes again to the stream of the Nile, which flows into it . . . After forty days journey on land along the river, one takes another boat and in twelve days reaches a big city named Meroë, said to be the capital city of the Ethiopians. The inhabitants worship Zeus and Dionysus alone of the Gods, holding them in great honor”.

“The Ethiopians to whom this embassy was sent are said to be the tallest and handsomest men in the whole world. In their customs they differ greatly from the rest of mankind, and particularly in the way they choose their kings; for they find out the man who is the tallest of all the citizens, and of strength equal to his height, and appoint him to rule over them . . . The spies were told that most of them lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even went beyond that age — they ate boiled flesh, and had for their drink nothing but milk. Among these Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable. Also, last of all, they were allowed to behold the coffins of the Ethiopians, which are made (according to report) of crystal, after the following fashion: When the dead body has been dried, either in the Egyptian, or in some other manner, they cover the whole with gypsum, and adorn it with painting until it is as like the living man as possible. Then they place the body in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive it, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies; and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly; yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare. The next of kin keep the crystal pillar in their houses for a full year from the time of the death, and give it the first fruits continually, and honor it with sacrifice. After the year is out they bear the pillar forth, and set it up near the town. . .”

“Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony; and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else. The Ethiopians were clothed in the skins of leopards and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they laid short arrows made of reed, and armed at the tip, not with iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, of the kind used in engraving seals. They carried likewise spears, the head of which was the sharpened horn of an antelope; and in addition they had knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their bodies, half with chalk, and half with vermilion. . .”

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II); Herodotus, The History, trans. George Rawlinson (New York: Dutton & Co., 1862)

Herodotus on the pharaohs: “So far, all I have said is the record of my own autopsy and judgment and inquiry. Henceforth I will record Egyptian chronicles, according to what I have heard, adding something of what I myself have seen” . . . . “The priests told me that Min was the first king of Egypt, and that first he separated Memphis from the Nile by a dam” . . . “After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men” . . . “The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery”.

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II, chap. 100

Herodotus also asserted that “the names of nearly all the gods came to Greece from Egypt . . . for the names of all the gods have been known in Egypt from the beginning of time . . . It was the Egyptians too who originated, and taught the Greeks . . . ceremonial meeting, processions and liturgies . . . The Egyptians were also the first to assign each month and each day to a particular deity, and to foretell the date of a man’s birth, his character, his fortunes, and the day of his death . . . The Egyptians, too have made more use of omens and prognostics than any other nation. . .”

(Herodotus, The Histories, 149-150; 152; 159).

There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others, I had remarked it myself. After the thought had struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the Egyptians had of them. Still the Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too. But further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learned the custom of the Egyptians. And the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbors the Macronians, say that they have recently adopted it from the Colchians. Now these are the only nations who use circumcision, and it is plain that they all imitate herein the Egyptians. With respect to the Ethiopians, indeed, I cannot decide whether they learned the practice of the Egyptians, or the Egyptians of them (it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in Ethiopia). But that the others derived their knowledge of it from Egypt is clear to me, from the fact that the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised. (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 2:104)


The Greek writer Herodotus repeatedly referred to the Egyptians as being dark-skinned people with woolly hair. “They,” he says, “have the same tint of skin which approaches that of the Ethiopians.” The opinion of the ancient writers on the Egyptians is more or less summed up by French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero The Dawn of Civilization (1894), when he says, “By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historians, they [the Egyptians] belong to an African race which first settled in Ethiopia on the Middle Nile: following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.” The German scholar, Eugen Georg, in his book The Adventure of Mankind (1931) p. 121, tells us about the “. . . world-wide dominance of Ethiopian representatives of the black race. They were supreme in Africa and Asia. In upper Egypt and India they erected mighty religious centers and mastered a perfect technique in the molding of bronze — and they even infiltrated through Southern Europe for a thousand years.”


Stephanus of Byzantium, who is said to represent the opinions of the most ancient Greeks, says:

“Ethiopia was the first established country on the earth, and the Ethiopians were the first who introduced the worship of the Gods and who established laws.”

Quoted by John D. Baldwin, Prehistoric Nations, p. 62.


According to Professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden Jr., (AB, AM, Ph.D.) Howard University Classicist Department — reading of the sources, the Ethiopians “pioneered” religion, and were key to the origin and propagation of many of the customs which existed in Egypt. The Egyptians, it was argued, were descendants of the Ethiopians. Snowden states that the term Kushites, Nubians, or Ethiopians is to used in much the same way as the modern term “colored”, “black, or Negro”. “The experiences of those Africans who reached the alien shores of Greece and Italy constituted an important chapter in the history of classical antiquity,” he writes. “Using evidence from terra cotta figures, paintings, and classical sources like Herodotus and Pliny the Elder, Snowden proves, contrary to our modern assumptions, that Greco-Romans did not view Africans with racial contempt. Many Africans worked in the Roman Empire as musicians, artisans, scholars, and generals as well as slaves, and they were noted as much for their virtue as for their appearance of having a “burnt face” (from which came the Greek name Ethiopian).”

(Snowden Jr., Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1970; Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983).)

Side Note: President Bush announced one of the 2003 Humanities medal to Frank M. Snowden Jr. (Washington, D.C.), one of the foremost scholars on blacks in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Italy, is Professor Emeritus of Classics at Howard University in Washington, D.C. A graduate of Harvard, Snowden has served as a member of the U.S. delegation to UNESCO in Paris and as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Rome. As a U.S. specialist lecturer for the Department of State, Snowden delivered lectures in Africa, Egypt, Italy, Austria, Greece, India, and Brazil. His many books on blacks in the ancient Mediterranean world include Blacks in Antiquity (1970), The Image of the Black in Western Art I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire, which he co-authored (1976), and Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983). Snowden’s nominator writes, “Howard students will remember him for his dramatic classroom recitations in ancient Greek and Latin from memory and his plea for the beauty and universality of great literature.”


Basil Davidson, born on November 9, 1914 in Bristol, England, well-known English scholar of African history. Combining archeological evidence and scholarly research Davidson traces the exciting development of the rich kingdoms of the lost cities of Africa, fifteen hundred years before European ships first came to African shores. “East Africa has developed from a completely primitive country, . . . more backward than the Stone Age . . .” Yet the Stone Age blacks of Khartoum (in Sudan) manufactured pots before the inhabitants of Jericho, the world’s earliest known

city. The Khartoum Mesolithic culture is dated about 7000 B.C. Prehistoric Egyptian artifacts dated a thousand years later would reflect a Khartoum influence. Between 5th century B.C. and 3rd century A.D., Meroe in Sudan was an iron-smelting center. 12th century Arab writer Edrisi reported numerous iron mines in Malindi and Sofala. Edrisi rated Sofala iron better than India iron. At that time, southeastern Africa exported smelted iron to India. (Malindi and Sofala are in modern Kenya and Mozambique respectively.)

(Davidson, Basil, The Lost Cities of Africa, Back Bay Books; Revised edition (1959)). Davidson has written more than 30 books on Africa since 1952.


The Senegalese Physicist and African Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986) tells us in his book The African Origin of Civilization Myth or Reality (1974) that the Greek writer, Herodotus, may be mistaken, when he reports the customs of a people. “But one must grant that he was at least capable of recognizing the skin color of the inhabitants of countries he visited.” His descriptions of the Egyptians were the descriptions of a Black people. At this point the reader needs to be reminded of the fact that at the time of Herodotus’s visit to Egypt and other parts of Africa (between 480 and 425 B.C.) Egypt’s Golden Age was over. Egypt had suffered from several invasions, mainly the Kushite invasions, coming from within Africa, and starting in 751 B.C., and the Assyrians’ invasions from Western Asia (called the Middle East), starting in 671 B.C. If Egypt, after years of invasions by other people and nations was a distinct Black African nation at the time of Herodotus, shouldn’t we at least assume that it was more so before these invasions occurred?

Until the publication of James G. Spady’s article, “Negritude, Pan-Benegritude and the Diopian Philsophy of African History,” in A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, volume 5, number 1, January, 1972, and an interview by Harun Kofi Wangara, published in Black World magazine, February, 1974, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop was known to only a small group of Black writers and teachers in the United States. His major works includes The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, Lawrence Hill & Co; (1983) (The book presents the historical, archaeological and anthropological evidence that supports the theory that the civilization of ancient Egypt, the first that history records, was actually Negroid in origin); The Peopling of Ancient Egypt & the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script, Karnak House, (1997) (A concise report of the 1974 Cairo conference and contains the arguments concerning the ethnic, linguistic and cultural composition of the ancient Egyptians as well as the deciphering of the merotic script). All of his books were originally published by Presence Africaine, the Paris-based publication arm of the International Society of African Culture.

The Legacy of a Genius: Cheikh Anta Diop (New York Amsterdam News; 10/8/2003; by Boyd, Herb) [Excerpts]:

“Two words – “union” and “intellectual” – were integral to Professor Diop and his dream to create a united Africa, as well as a singular pursuit of knowledge that made him one of the most versatile thinkers the world has ever seen. During an interview with Dr. Charles Finch, Diop recounted some of the early motivations that influenced his quest for knowledge and identity. “My desire to know my history, my culture, my personal problem – that is, my desire to become fulfilled as a person – led me to history.” My efforts were geared towards the restoration of the linguistic and historical personality of Black Africans,” Diop declared. In 1966, the first World Black Festival of Arts and Culture, held in Dakar, Senegal, honored Dr. Diop and Dr. W.E.B. DuBois as the scholars who exerted the greatest influence on African thought in the 20th century. For many aspiring Black thinkers, they represented the twin towers of African achievement.”


The Western Dilemma:

If Egypt is a dilemma in Western historiography, it is a created dilemma. The Western historians, in most cases, have rested the foundation of what is called “Western Civilization” on the false assumptions, or claim, that the ancient Egyptians were white people. To do this they had to ignore great masterpieces on Egyptian history written by other white historians who did not support this point of view, such as Gerald Massey’s great classic, Ancient Egypt, The Light of the World, (1907) and his other works, A Book of the Beginnings and The Natural Genesis. Other neglected works by white writers are Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, by A.H.L. Heeren (1833), and Ruins of Empires, by Count Volney (1787).

In the first chapter of his book, Dr. Diop refers to the Southern African origins of the people later known as Egyptians. Here he is on sound ground with a lot of support coming from another group of neglected white writers. In his book Egypt, British scholar Sir E.A. Wallis Budge says: “The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and in the new Stone Ages, was African and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South.” He further states: “There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggests that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda and Punt.” (Some historians believe that the biblical land of Punt was in the area known on modern maps as Somalia.)

European interest in “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” dates from the early part of the nineteenth century and is best reflected in a little known, though important, paper in German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius’ Incomparable Survey of the Monumental Ruins in the Ethiopian Nile Valley in 1842-1844. The records found by Lepsius tend to show how Ethiopia was once able to sustain an ancient population that was numerous and powerful enough not only to challenge but, on a number of occasions, to conquer completely the populous land of Egypt. Further, these records show that the antiquity of Ethiopian civilization had a direct link with civilization of ancient Egypt.

Many of the leading antiquarians of the time, based largely on the strength of what the classical authors, particularly Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1st century B.C.) and Stephanus of Byzantium, had to say on the matter, were exponents of the view that the ancient Ethiopians, or at any rate, the Black people of remote antiquity were the earliest of all civilized peoples and that the first civilized inhabitants of ancient Egypt were members of what is referred to as the Black race who entered the country as emigrants from Ethiopia. A number of Europe’s leading writers on the civilizations of remote antiquity have written brilliant defenses of this point of view. Some of these writers are Brice, Count Volney, Fabre, d’Oliver, and Heeren. In spite of the fact that these writers defended this thesis with all the learning at their command and documented their defense, most of the present-day writers of African history continue to ignore their findings.

In 1825, German backwardness in this respect came definitely to an end. In that year, Arnold Hermann Heeren (1760-1842), Professor of History and Politics in the University of Gottengen and one of the ablest of the early exponents of the economic interpretation of history, published, in the fourth and revised edition of his great work Ideen Uber Die Politik, Den Verkehr Und Den Handel Der Vornehmsten Volker Der Alten Weld, a lengthy essay on the history, culture, and commerce of the ancient Ethiopians, which had profound influence on contemporary writers in the conclusion that it was among these ancient Black people of Africa and Asia that international trade was first developed. He thinks that as a by-product of these international contacts there was an exchange of ideas and cultural practices that laid the foundations of the earliest civilizations of the ancient world. Heeren in his researches says: “From the remotest times to the present, the Ethiopians have been one of the most celebrated, and yet the most mysterious of nations. In the earliest traditions of nearly all the more civilized nations of antiquity, the name of this distant people is found. The annals of the Egyptian priests are full of them, and the nations of inner Asia, on the Euphrates and Tigris, have interwoven the fictions of the Ethiopians with their traditions of the wars and conquests of their heroes; and, at a period equally remote, they glimmer in Greek mythology. When the Greeks scarcely knew Italy and Sicily by name, the Ethiopians were celebrated in the verses of their poets, and when the faint gleam of tradition and fable gives way to the clear light of history, the lustre of the Ethiopians is not diminished.”


The French writer Constantin-François Volney (1757-1820), in his important work, The Ruins of Empires, extends this point of view by saying that the Egyptians were the first people to “attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.” In referring to the basis of this achievement he states further that, “It was, then, on the borders of the Upper Nile, among a Black race of men, that was organized the complicated system of worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture; and this first worship, characterized by their adoration under their own forms and national attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind.”

Volney’s Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires, Boston, J. Mendum, 1869.


English traveller Thomas Legh, member of the British Parliament, visited Egypt & Nubia in 1812-1814, was one of the first Europeans to visit the archaeological sites above the First Cataract and to publish plates of ruins that no longer exist today. Legh writes: “There has been considerable dispute about the colour of the ancient Egyptians, some authors asserting that they were Negroes, while others maintain that the present Copts are their descendants, and attempt to prove their supposition by the appearance of mummies, which exhibit complexions of dusky brown, lips occasionally thick, but the nose frequently aquiline. The opinion that the former inhabitants of the country were Negroes is founded chiefly on the expressions used by Herodotus, who calls them ‘dark-coloured and woolly haired’, and on the character of the head of the Sphinx, which has the Negro features, and may be justly supposed to offer a correct representation of the countenance of the Egyptians. On the other hand, with respect to the present Copts, it cannot be denied, that the dark hue of their hair and eyes, the former of which is frequently not more curled than is occasionally seen among Europeans, their dusky brown complexions and aquiline noses, all correspond pretty exactly with the paintings to be found in the tombs of Thebes. It is remarkable, however, that the inhabitants of the island of Elephantine (i.e. at the border of Nubia) are nearly black. But notwithstanding their colour, the females of Elephantine are conspicuous for their elegant shapes, and are, upon the whole, the finest women we saw in Upper Egypt.”

(Thomas Legh, Narrative of a Journey in Egypt and the Country beyond the Cataracts, Second Edition London, John Murray, 1817).


Over a generation ago African American historians such as Carter G. Woodson, W.E.B. Du Bois, Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Willis N. Huggins, J. A. Rogers, and Charles C. Seifort read the works of these radical writer historians and began to expand on their findings. This tradition continued and is reflected in the works of present day Black historians such as John G. Jackson’s Introduction to African Civilizations (1970), Yosef ben-Jochannan’s Black Man of the Nile (1972), Chancellor Williams’s The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race From 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. (1971), and Ivan Van Sertima, Egypt Revisited. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA) & London (U.K.), 1999.


Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that Egypt was literally taken out of Africa, academically. Historian Basil Davidson also states that throughout history “the land of Ancient Egypt appears to have detached itself from the delta of the Nile, some five and a half thousand years ago, and sailed off into the Mediterranean on a course veering broadly towards the coasts of Syria”. (Basil Davidson, The Ancient World and Africa: Whose Roots? Race & Class (Vol. 29, no. 2, 1987).


Races of Africa, according to Edith Sanders, went through several editions and was reprinted until 1966 virtually unchanged. Much of the more vulgar scholarship on the ‘racial’ ancestry of the ancient Nile valley Africans can be traced to the intensity of racism in Europe from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Its decline after the second world war.

(Edith R. Sanders, ‘The Hamitic hypothesis: its origin and functions in time perspective’, Journal of African History

(Vol. 10, no. 4, 1969), pp. 521-32).


Flora Shaw’s (alias Lady Flora Lugard) book is an extraordinary look at the history of Africa, which she gathered from countless sources, and one would imagine a great deal of it came from the British Library and from the archives of The Times of London, for whom she had for many years been the Foreign Political Correspondent. She had always been known to be an intensive researcher into her subject matter, and one wonders at the months and probably years she put into this undertaking, which became the reference work for so many future books on Africa. This book was first publish 100 years ago showing the detail and descriptive power, and the greatness that Africa once was. Lady Lugard argues that:

“When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of Sudan (classical home of Ancient Ethiopians) were the home of races who inspired, rather than of races who received, the tradition of civilization associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt. For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and civilized world be forced to recognize in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come.”

“The fame of the ancient Ethiopians (ancient Kushites) was widespread in ancient history. Herodotus described them as the tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races, and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as the most just of men, the favorites of the gods. The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as Black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn than that remote period of history, the leading race of the Western World was a Black race.”

Lady Lugard/Flora Shaw Lugard, Asa G. Hilliard, III, A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Sudan With an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria, Black Classic Press (1996)


A Shift in the Perception of Ancient Egypt:

Further archaeological discoveries continue to legitimize the southern origin of Egyptian civilization. Archaeologist Bruce Williams’s discovery of the Qustul incense burner and of a city at Kerma dating back to 4,500 BCE. (Bruce Williams, ‘The Lost Pharaohs of Nubia’, in Ivan van Sertima (ed.), Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction, 1993). Williams also claims that there were southern predecessors of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, one of the latest results of archaeological explorations in the northern Sahara should be noted:

“The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at 4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in pre-dynastic Upper Egypt.

(J. McKim Malville, Fred Wendorf, Ali A Mazar and Romauld Schild, Megaliths and Neolithic Astronomy in Southern Egypt, Nature (Vol. 392, no. 2, April 1998).)

The Mystery of the Black Mummy

This programme explores the enigmatic central Saharan society which once spanned the entire north African continent. We unravel their tale through the story of the discovery of the black mummy, Uan Muhuggiag. It soon becomes obvious that these people were responsible for an extraordinary array of innovations which later became famous under the Egyptians. Their presence re-writes the history of Egypt and of the entire continent of Africa.

Professor Fabrizio Mori discovered the black mummy at the Uan Muhuggiag rockshelter.

Evidence of the Badarians into Prehistoric Egypt (4500-3800 BC)


In many ways Egypt is the key to ancient African history. African history is out of kilter until ancient Egypt is looked upon as a distinct African nation. The Nile River played a major role in the relationship to Egypt to the nations in Southeast Africa. During the early history of Africa, the Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa.

John D. Baldwin’s Pre-History Nations or Inquiries Concerning Some of the Great Peoples and Civilizations of Antiquity and Their Probable Relation to a Still Older Civilization of the Ethiopians or Cushites of Arabia (1869). Baldwin, commenting on the greatness of the Cushite people, says that early in the period of its colonizing enterprise, commercial greatness, and extensive empire, it established colonies in the valleys of the Nile and the Euphrates, which in later ages became Barbary, Egypt, and Chaldea. The ancient Cushite nation occupied Arabia and other extensive regions of Africa, India, and Western Asia to the Mediterranean. He concludes that “The old notion that Africa is chiefly a land of black savages arose from ignorance of the country, which could not be removed, but, on the contrary, was heightened by slave-trading communication . . . They could not describe truthfully what came under their observation, but they sought to excuse their own frightful savagery by describing Africa as a land of Negroes in the darkest and most hopeless condition of debasement. When this had been repeated many times, they ventured to represent their kidnapping villains as missionary agencies, intent on transferring savages to Christian countries for their own good.”

American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race” (May 17, 1998):

“How people have been accepted and treated within the context of a given society or culture has a direct impact on how they perform in that society. The “racial” worldview was invented to assign some groups to perpetual low status, while others were permitted access to privilege, power, and wealth. The tragedy in the United States has been that the policies and practices stemming from this worldview succeeded all too well in constructing unequal populations among Europeans, Native Americans, and peoples of African descent. Given what we know about the capacity of normal humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that present-day inequalities between so-called “racial” groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances.”

(To read the complete statement go to AAA Statement on “Race”).

Turning to the major falsification of the history of mankind, as he puts it, Cheikh Anta Diop underlines that the time has come to bring justice to the Negro race, to give black people their due credit for leading the march, and blazing a trail for humanity to follow.
Ancient Black Egypt 101
Afrocentric Book Recommendations

“Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest.”

Diodorus of Sicily

(Universal History, Book III: 2)
12th Dynasty Family Tree

18th Dynasty Family Tree

25th Dynasty Family Tree


April 10, 2007

at homestead go to Videos on that page and click on BLACK EGYPT to get the youtube video.


April 9, 2007


Ancient Egyptians wrote the Holy Bible
Posted: June 19, 2002
An analysis by
Dr. Kwame Nantambu

“And ye Shall know the Truth and the Truth Shall Make You Free.” Holy Bible, John 8:32.

According to Ghanian writer and researcher Nana Banchie Darkwah, “Black Afrikans of ancient Egypt wrote the Holy Bible and the Catholic Church is hiding and supressing this truth.”

In his book titled, The Africans who wrote the Bible-Ancient secrets Africa and Christianity Have Never Told, (2002), the author emphatically states that, “the worst lie and sin of the church was the premeditated transformation of the racial and ethnic identities of Jesus Christ, his mother and the entire people of the Bible from the Black people they were to White people, to satisfy emerging European racist sentiments against Black people.”

First of all, for one to understand the truth of the above statement and accept it as a fact, that Black Afrikans of Ancient Egypt wrote the Holy Bible, thus, one must dispel the erroneous notion and fabricated lies that Christian Europe, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, have done in painting the ancient Egyptians as pagans, devils, and heathens.

Also, one must understand that Christian Europe’s and the Catholic Church’s motives for attacking Ancient Egypt in such negative vein, is due to the fact that Ancient Egyptian High priests were the Scribes who wrote what we come to know today as the Holy Bible. As a master-teacher H.M. Maulana points out: “Ancient Egypt from its pre-dynastic period up to its Golden Age of Pyramid building was an unadulterated predominantly Black race of people (3500-2100 B.C.E.).

The descendants of these Ancient Egyptians are living throughout Sub-Saharan Afrika, today, particularly in the nations of Ghana, Nigeria, and Cote d’Ivoire.” The very first “Bible”, or “Scroll” on record produced by man, with regards to paying honour and divine respect to a “Creator of all Mankind” was that of the Afrikan people of the Nile Valley in Ancient Kemet (Egypt) and Great Lakes regions of Central, East, and Northern Afrika.

The book was called by its Afrikan Creators and developers, The Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night. It was translated from its original Medu Netcher text into the English language by several Europeans since the latter part of the 19th century A.D. The easiest one to read is called, The Egyptian Book of the Dead. This work was translated by British Egyptologist, Sir Ernest A. Wallis Budge. This original Bible was produced by Black Afrikans approximately 3,400 years before the Old Testament and more than 4,200 years before the New Testament, and countless versions of it have been written and published. According to Darkwah, the “Ancient Egyptians cross is the earliest and most sacred symbol of religion.

Egyptologists who believe they have successfully deciphered Ancient Egyptian Medu Netcher say it is called the Ankh, which means ‘Life’.” The meaning is correct, however, that is not what the Ancient Egyptians called it. The language from which this word originated is Akan and it actually means Life. This symbol was the Ancient Egyptians’ sacred religious symbol that reinforced the cross on which Jesus was crucified,as a sacred Christian symbol. How did this happen?

The early Christian Church of Ancient Egypt adopted the Nkwa symbol as the symbol of their Church and called it Crux Ansata. From here, it was taken to Rome and there it became a Christian symbol with only a slight variation in design. The symbol of Nwka was excavated from the tomb of the Akan King Tutu Ankoma, the boy King of Ancient Egypt, whose name Europeans have corrupted to Tutankhamun or King Tut.

He ruled from 1336-1327B.C.E. Nana Darkwah suggests that the intelligentsia of Ancient Egypt was headed by such ethnic groups as the Akan, Ewe, Ga-Andangbe, Hausa, and Ibo. However, he asserts that the Akan was the main ruling class in Ancient Egypt sincethe majority of Ancient Egyptian Kings had Akan names. He also asserts that, “the early apostolic fathers of Christianity and the Church knew of many things they did not want the Christian masses to know about the background history, content, and people of the Bible.”

As a result, the very design of Christianity was based upon protecting the Holy Bible from the lay masses. Until the reformation in the 15th century A.D., therefore, the Holy Bible was secretly guarded and its content was known to only a few in the Church. Because of the perceived need to protect the Holy Bible from the masses, the earliest design and practice of Christianity was based upon placing a cadre of priests between the Holy Bible and the people.

The Afrikan origin of Christianity was common knowledge among western scholars and early apolistic fathers of the Church long before the European Renaissance. This was common knowledge known by the Aryan-Whites in the past and is still known, today.

There have been numerous European scholars who have known and written about the falsehoods, fabrications, and false assumptions in the foundations of Christianity. One such European-American researcher and writer was Gerald Massey, who in his book titled The Natural Genesis: A Book of the Beginnings(1883), called the story and practice of Euro-Christianity: “the legendary lying love.” Moreover, in The Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalistic Ideasin Europe, Leon Poliakov revealed that, “knowledge of the people of the Bible as Black people was common in Europe and in early European scholarship. “James Cowles, by far the most popular anthropologists of the first half of the19th century, elaborated around 1810 implying that “Adam and Eve were Black.” And in 1836 a renowned British orientalist, Sir Godfrey Higgins, wrote, The Anaclypsis. Or an inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations, and Religions.

He pointed out that the people of the Bible were Black and that in all early Catholic Churches of Europe: “the God Christ, as well as His mother, are described in their old pictures to be Black (peoples). The infant God in the arms of His Black mother, his eyes and drapery white, is himself perfectly Black.” In 1875, Kersey Graves wrote a book titled The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors” in which he pointed out from clear evidence in Europe that” Jesus was Black and the people of the Bible were originally Black people.”

He wrote as follows: There is as much evidence that the Christian Savior was a Black man, or at least a dark man, as there is of him being the son of the Virgin Mary or that he once lived or moved upon the earth. And that evidence is the testimony of his disciples, who had nearly as good an opportunity of knowing what His complexion was as the evangelists who omit to say anything about it. In the pictures and portraits of Christ by early Christians, He is uniformly represented as being Black.” Furthermore, he continues: “The statue of St. Peter inside St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Italy is a Black man. St. Peter was a Black man.

Thus, Jesus’ last words before His execution was that a Black man has the keys to Heaven.” According to H.M. Maulana, the aristocracy of Europe has always shown their hatred against the so-called Jewish people, since it was well known in their socio-political and economic circles that these people were of a Black Afrikan origin, who migrated out of Ancient Egypt up into Europe. Due to the negative anthropological ideas and theories of early European scholars against Black Afrikans, thus, the knowledge and reality that theosophy and philosophy, has surely been a major source of social-political embarrassment for Europeans.

The fact of the matter is that the racist and extremist European has always seen the so-called Jewish people with suspicion and contempt vis-à-vis their same contempt and ill-feelings they had towards Sub-Saharan Afrikans. That is to say, historically, the Europeans had no genesis of religion to claim as their own other than what came up “out of Afrika”, Christianity, which was brought to them by the so-called Jews. This fact has left the European (Aryan-Whites) with bitterness, enmity, and jealousy against the so-called Jewish people and Afrikans.

Also, this fermented ill-feelings among Europeans that the so-called Jewish people had deliberately deceived them so that the Jews would dominate Europe. According to Darkwah: “This is also the reason no credible reason has been given for the most atrocious massacre of Blacks and Jews in human history.” In the final analysis, Afrikan people must know that the “Aryan-White (European) tradition, Apolistic fathers of the Church, theosophical teachings and writings, as well as the Arabs, have all laboured over the past 500years, trying to disconnect Black Afrikans from Ancient Egypt, in order to hide the true identity of the original authors of the Bible and the origin from whence the Bible originated, which was Ancient Egypt.”

In essence, then, and in the tradition of European supremacy, “what the Aryan-White race has attempted to do by high-jacking Ancient Egypt is as follows: Kill the Messenger (Black Ancient Egyptians), but save and embrace the ‘Message’ of the messenger for themselves”-that is, the Holy Bible. The main purpose of European scholarship supremacy is “to destroy the Black Afrikan genesis of Ancient Egypt and give the world a counterfeit analysis of this great civilization as being a creation of the Aryan-White race.”

However, the late Dr. Chekh Anta Diop (the modern-day Imhotep), capsulises the dire attempt by the Aryan-White race to “white-wash” Ancient Egypt as follows: “Mankind trying to destroy the Black Afrikan genesis of Ancient Egypt is like trying to drown a fish in the ocean.”

Shem Hotep (“I go in peace”).

Dr. Nantambu is an Associate Professor, Dept. of Pan-African Studies, Kent State University, U.S.A.

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April 9, 2007




Black Hebrews?
The very words cause many people to grin at what appears to be simply a play on words. No one reads about such people in european authored history books and there are only a few references to “Ethiopian Jews” in white Jewish sources. Yet Black Hebrews have existed since biblical times. In fact, they are the original or proto-typical Hebrews.

Their story begins with the Patriarch Abraham (2117-1942 B.C.), a native of the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. Archaeological discoveries have proven that the earliest inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia were members of the “Brown Race,” i.e., the Negroid branch of humanity.

It has been confirmed that the ancient Sumerians were akin to the modern Black Dravidians of India. The Sumerians also had an affinity with a people known as the Elamites, the very first Semitic group mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 10:22). The Elamites were a black-skinned and woolly-haired people as the colorful glazed artwork on the royal palace walls of the ancient Persian city of Susa clearly show.Thus Abraham, the native of Sumerian and the founding father of the Israelite nation, was a black man. The black racial origins of the Patriarchs is not based on mere conjecture, it is in complete agreement with the picture one gets from examining the identity of the earliest inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia.

This truth is grossly neglected, suppressed, and distorted in most European and American historical texts which are flavored with race prejudice. Fortunately, however, there are enough well authored and highly researched works by Black historians that challenge the Eurocentric revisions of history and correct the various erroneous views regarding the ethnic identity of the Hebrews.

Biblical history relates that the descendants of Abraham, namely Jacob (Israel) and his twelve sons and their wives, 70 in all, migrated from Canaan to Egypt around the year 1827 B.C. During their sojourn in Egypt the Children of Israel multiplied from being a family of 70 souls to a nation of over 3 million people at the time of the Exodus which took place in 1612 B.C.

This astounding number of people in so short a time can only be adequately explained by intermarriage between the family of Jacob and the native Egyptian populace. It is an established fact that the ancient Egyptians were a black African people. Thus, even if the Hebrews were not black before they arrived in Egypt, which is unlikely given Abraham’s background, they were definitely black by the time they left Egypt under Moses

The biblical Hebrews were indistinguishable from native Egyptians and Ethiopians. The Bible is full of examples which demonstrates this, and even ancient secular historians remarked of the physical appearances of the Hebrews. The historian Tacitus, for example, stated that it was a common opinion among the Romans that the Jews “were an Ethiopian race.” In Roman times PalestinianIsraelites were classed among Black Africans because it was almost impossible to tell them apart.

Hence, the Eurocentric notion of the Black Hebrew as a kind of Johnnie-come-lately in Hebraic history does not accord with the facts. On the contrary, the historical record is abundantly clear that the majority of white European Jewry are not Hebrews in the biological sense but are actually the descendants of converts to Judaism during Greco-Roman and Mediaeval times. Professor Roland B. Dixon states emphatically that: “The great majority of all Jews [Ashkenazi] to-day are ‘Semites’ only in speech, and their true ancestry goes back not so much to Palestine and Arabia as to the uplands of Anatolia and Armenia, the Caucasus and the steppes of Central Asia, and their nearest relatives are still to be found in these areas to-day” (Racial History Of Man, p. 175).

Caucasian Jews are not the lineal descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Nor do they constitute a separate race but rather a religious fraternity which adheres to the ethnic tradition of a people whose origins are inextricably linked to Black Africa.

But if the original Hebrews were black where are their descendants in the world today? Are all black people Hebrews? The answer to the latter question is obviously no. The Israelites were only one of several black people existing in ancient the ancient world. Nevertheless, it is certain that the ancient Hebrews customs and practices who’s legacy orginated in Africa, were adopted by that of white Jews in Europe. Very little is heard about the hundreds of thousands of Black Hebrews living in various parts of the world such as Africa, Asia, India, Arabia, the Caribbean islands, South America, and North America.

The history of Black Hebrews in North America is perhaps one of the most important chapters in US history which has yet to be fully written. The ancestors of African Americans came from West Africa during the era of slavery. That particular region of Africa was once home to a number of Black Hebrew tribes that migrated from North and East Africa over many centuries. In speaking of these migrations, Dr. Yoseph A. A. ben-Yochannan writes that: “In North Africa, just before the period of Christianity’s legal entry into Rome – due to Constantine “the Great” conversion in the 4th century – there were many Hebrew (Jewish) ‘tribes’ that are of indigenous African (the so-called ‘Negroes’) origin.

These African Jews, as all other Romanized-African of this era, were caught in a rebellion in Cyrene (Cyrenaica) during 115 C.E. against Roman imperialism and colonialism. This rebellion also marked the beginning of a mass Jewish migration southward into Soudan (Sudan or West Africa) along the way of the city Aer (Air) and into the countries of Futa Jalon and Senegal (Sene-Gambia) which lie below the parabolic curve of the Niger River’s most northern reaches, where the City of Tumbut (Timbuktu, Timbuctoo, etc.), Melle (Mali) presently stands.” (“African Origins of the Major Western Religions,” 1970, p. 76).

Dr. Ben goes on to relate that Black Israelite immigrants from northern and eastern Africa merged with indigenous groups in western Africa to become the Fulani of Futa Jalon, Bornu, Kamen, and Lake Chad. They also formed the parent-stock of groups such as the Ashanti, the Hausa, the B’nai Ephraim (mentioned in earlier posts), and the Bavumbu (Mavumbu or Ma-yomba). All of these groups suffered tremendous population decreases during the years the Atlantic slave trade was in operation, others were completely eliminated.

Thus, every so-called African American has Israelite ancestry in their family tree whether he or she knows it or not. Even in the very crucible of slavery the descendants of West African Hebrew captives in America struggled to keep their heritages from being obliterated by forced assimilation and acculturation. Their distinctive traditions became submerged in Christianity but always remained a part of the oral tradition via the so-called Negro Spirituals which praise the memory of ancestors and kinsmen like Moses, David, Joshua, and Daniel.

Since the African-American conviction of having Israelite ancestry antedates the Civil War it is not surprising that the earliest Black Hebrew congregation to be established in North America was founded in the 1880s in Chattanooga, Tennessee by F. S. Cherry (the group later moved to Philadelphia). Cherry was a railroad worker and seaman who was fluent in both Yiddish and Hebrew. He adamantly preached that so-called American Negroes are really the lost sheep of the House of Israel whose true legacy was stolen from them during slavery. He urged his hearers to investigate their history in order to rediscover this truth and reclaim their heritage.

In 1896, a man by the name of William S. Crowdy established another Hebrew congregation in Lawrence, Kansas. In 1899, Leon Richlieu established the Moorish Zionist Temple in Brooklyn. To date there are literally hundreds of uncharted Black Hebrew congregations in North America. They do not exist because of an aversion for mainstream American Protestantism or an attraction to white Jewish culture. As stated earlier, Black Hebrews have always been in the world; and they repudiate the notion that they are usurpers of the heritage of white Jews.

The great proliferation of Black Hebrew groups occurred after World War I during the Great Migration of Blacks from rural areas in the South to urban centers in the North. There were at least nine Black Hebrew congregations in New York in the early 1900s, one of which was founded by a West Indian named Arnold Josiah Ford called “Beth B’nai Abraham Congregation.” In 1918, another West Indian born Israelite named Wentworth Arthur Matthews founded the “Commandment Keepers,” and emerged as one of the leading Black Israelite rabbis in Harlem. Born in 1892 of African Hebraic parentage in Lagos, West Africa, Matthews moved with his family to St. Kitts in the West Indies before coming to America in 1911.

Branches of the “Commandment Keepers” exist in many American cities such as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Cincinnati, Chicago, Ohio, Virginia, and New Jersey. In 1965, the “House of Judah” was founded by William Lewis in Wetumpka, Alabama. The group later purchased a twenty-acre tract near Grand Junction, Michigan where they practice a communal life-style. Black Hebrews feel that by reclaiming their Israelite identity they have also recovered an important part of their ancestral heritage. They hold to the conviction that their “Hebrewness” is directly traceable to their African forebears of Israelite extraction who were brought to this country during slavery. They are cognizant and proud of their non-Hebrew African heritages but like many other people with mixed backgrounds they opt to give certain of their forebears a more pronounced place in their identity.

Black Israelite groups in America are decentralized and varied in ideology.Unlike white Orthodox Jews, Black Hebrews reject the Talmud, a collection of commentaries, as being on a par with the Bible and so they do not conform to rabbinical judgments which emphasize the need of conversion to Talmudism in order to be considered “truly” Jewish.

Since the Bible recognizes patrilineal as well as matrilineal descent, Black Hebrews (like Reform Jews) do not place any special significance on having a “Jewish” mother as do Orthodox Jews. Another major reason why the Talmud is rejected is due to its role in creating the so-called Hamitic Myth which is the doctrine that teaches that all black-skinned people are the cursed descendants of Ham in the Bible.

It was the promulgation of this erroneous myth, passing under the guise of “Jewish” talmudic scholarship, which provided the moral pretext for European slavery of Africans. The Talmud was not the product of ethnic Hebrews but of proselytized Babylonian sages who worked on editing it from the 3rd to in the 6th century A.D. It should not be used as the litmus test on Hebrew identity, particularly since it was of men who were clearly prejudice of Blacks, Israelites or otherwise.

A major dilemma facing many Black Hebrews who wish to settle in Israel has to do with the Talmud and the fact that conversion is a mandatory prerequisite for gaining Israeli citizenship. The Black Jews from Ethiopian were not allowed to immigrate to Israel until they agreed to undergo a ceremonial conversion to white Judaism (which was tantamount to a denial of their own Hebrewness) and embrace the Talmud. However, many Ethiopian Jews, particular in the aftermath of the recent blood scandal in Israel, are seriously rethinking their decision to adopt the Talmud because it has not given them equal status with other white Israelis.

Ethiopians Jews occupy the bottom rung of Israeli society today because they are black and are not considered “true” Hebrews because of their blackness. American Black Hebrews wanting to join their Ethiopian brethren feel that the Israeli Law of Return is unjust because it forces recognition of a racist text (the Talmud) in order to be considered eligible for citizenship It is truly ironic that the descendants of the original Hebrews are not considered to be Hebrews even in their own land because they happen to look like their distant forebears.

MAY 1999



April 6, 2007



Create Poll | Print Interest level

To: All
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-1 11:35 PM
Msg 66099.1

Peace and Respect: Afrikans/Black folk

From: LCason

I Have a question for you is the White/European race a group of Devils?

We are going to look at this from an academic point of view. I have a passage from a book called Blacked Out Through Whitewash by Suzar. This sista asks the question of Eupreans and she does it through Eupreans way and actions/behavior. I would like to here your opinions on this topic. When you respond, do it through a eyes of a Afrikan/Black person! Peace

Are whites really a “race of devils” created by Yacub?

Elijah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam, taught that whites were ‘ grafted’ from the blackrace through a selective breeding process about 6000 years ago by yakub, a black god- like Scientist who created whites as a “race of devils” to be the enemy of people of color. Also , to rule earth for about 6000 years by deception and force while the Original (Black) people were “asleep” that is mentally dead and anesthetized immobilized by white False Christianity. In Making Of The Whiteman Paul Guthrie has assembled much astounding evidence. Interestingly, the ancient Egyptians documented the Tamahu, meaning , created white people. (African Presence In Early Europe(p149). These whites were also called Children of Set and Devs or Divs , said to be the origin of the word devil. In fact, the devil of the Bible (Satan) is based on Set-en (or Set/Seth) of ancient Egypt, who is described whiteskinned with straight red hair in Larousse’s Encyclopedia of Mythology. He is also described as red (white people are all shades of Red). The “devils” of ancient cultures were usually depicted whiteskinned.

In his/her time of rule, the white man has fulfilled the prophetic warnings of what to expect of him.

Evil is the word LIVE spelled backwards. Evil is that which is anti-life. History bears witness that the white man has been continuing history of mass genocide against people of color on all continents, whites have collectively established themselves as the arch-enemy of all people they classify as nonwhite. That’s at least 90% of the world! The White Supremacist, secret world government plans to murder 3/4 of the world’s population of nonwhite people by the year 2000. They are making progress towards this goal through AIDS, a virus they created for this purpose. They have demonstrated they themselves are a deadly virus to the world of “hue-mans” and the Earth herself, even exploding nuclear weapons within the earth. No creature has demonstrated more anti-natural behavior then the White Man/Woman. All through his history he has done everything to ruin the balance in nature and has always been destructive to all civilization of people of color on all continents. Whether or not whites were created to BE devils, they have done and are doing a spectacular job of it!

Top record for”evil” & atrocities. whites have a history of committing horrible, murderous atrocities to their own kind especially during the Inquisition) so how dare we expect them to treat us humanely! Scalping was invented by White Men aggressing against Indians. Football originated from White Men kicking around the decapitated heads of Indians for sport. Columbus’ men hunted Indians for sport and used Indian Bodies (ESPECIALLY BABIES) as food for their hunting dogs! Romans fed the early Black Christians to the lions. Atrocities upon new African Slaves by the heartless slave makers were so horrible that the Slave Maker is never mentioned in history books. The Thousands of Black lynching were “executed with a bestiality unknown even in the most remote and uncivilized parts of the world” Black Men were tied down and castrated with knives or axes. In some cases, families of the intended victims were seized and delivered to the site to witness the atrocities in order for Whites to derive sadistic satisfaction. In the 1920s, lynching became popular cultural events like circuses. Hundreds of White Women and Children took part in the festivities. Finger, Ears and other Body Parts Of Black Victims were eagerly seized for Souvenirs. True, not all Whites are devils, just as not all Devils are White but WHITES HAVE OUT DONE ALL OTHER SPECIES!

“Ellijah Muhammad did not improperly refer to the White Man/Woman as the devil; he accurately and truthfully identified him for all to see” writes Dr. Dorothy Fardan (who is White) in her profound Message to the White Man and Woman in America: Yacub & the Origins of White Supremacy. ” if we follow the teaching of Elijah Muhammad o the making of the White Man we understand that the nature of the White Man has been ‘Grafted ” out of the original. It is, therefore , an aberrant genetic construct and thus lies at the base of the errant and malicious way of White rule… Therefore, on this most fundamental level, the ‘salvation’ of white people … lie in grafting back to originality (the righteous nature).. of Original Black People”

Can whites’ “evil” nature can be scientifically & spiritually explained? White skin is a form of Albinism a genetic aberration. As a result, most whites are unable to produce Melanin normally. Your body can’t operate without melanin the absorber of all wavelengths of energy. The biological basis for “evil” begins with deficiency in Melanin and Melatonin, the humanizing hormone produced by the Pineal Gland. Because 60-80% of white adults have Calcified Pineal Glands impairing their Melatonin production, they have a greater propensity for “evil”. A” White ” body does not make Glands Imparing their Melatonin production, they have a greater propensity for “Evil” A ” White body does not make Whites Evil. Rather, Inherently Evil Souls find their Ideal and most natural, comfortable expression in White bodies. Thus, the aberration of skin Whiteness appears to be an outer manifestation of a collective inner spiritual disease. Your body

…[Message truncated]
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To: All
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-1 11:42 PM
Msg 66099.2
Reply to 66099.1

Peace and Respect: Afrikan Family

From: LCason

I see the Racist Trolls along with their uncle toms some I had a run in with had this thread deleted. For what, I wish a Rep from Black Voices would explain to me why. I use sources very good sources this is suppose to be for black people. Two I pay a fee for aol services.

Look My position on White folk is this I belive about less than five percent are good white folk I belive it is safe to say less then three, I give less then five for the benift of the doubt. Yes I do agree with 90% of the content Suzar say in her book. So now my position is out their again like before.

Give your opinion if you have fact show and prove Peorid!


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To: LCason
Posts: 6326

Date: Apr-2 12:19 AM
Msg 66099.3
Reply to 66099.2

I pay a fee for AOL services also. While I had nothing to do with having your rather ridiculous thread deleted, what does you having to pay for AOL have to do with it? Respect the rules of the board and stop starting threads that are absurd and I bet they will stay up. “To have a child is to spend our lives watching our heart walk around outside our body”
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To: LCason
Posts: 629

Date: Apr-2 12:29 AM
Msg 66099.4
Reply to 66099.1

Peace LCason

For those ‘atrocities’ you listed, I’m familiar with them. Could you provide a link with a further explanation? Certainly a touchy subject, but I like suspense, mysteries and sci-fi.

Too bad your other thread was deleted; I hadn’t even read all the responses.

Edited Apr-2 by mentalmarinade
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To: nanato3
Posts: 2263

Date: Apr-2 12:31 AM
Msg 66099.5
Reply to 66099.3

Actually, some of the greatest threads ever posted are routinely deleted. This is because they contain the unadulterated truth.

Offensive Whites/non-blacks:

Whiteynohatey, AvgWhiteGuy,Stamfordrocks*, Nanato3, Aztec8888 Simlegree, Blueyeddiablo11, 13thTribe/, Nashiva Stoveguy2000 Eclecticasian Catstalker, Unlimitedvision/RealTing

Alternate Screennames of Offensive Whites:

Hotnjuicey35, Alexquiraga, Ericamarie309* Lebraat , , Ihfiannow, theafrocentrist, Bilyroby, Kasbrya, Rsantana, jexarianzarn, Notanotherepisode, Nijelone,
Poetic4justic/Latoya Kay blakzombie96 rebelangry nwwes twins4tammy nicole918409 raymaxz Rosetta or Rose qutkenia, DESTEE, KUNJUFU mymic1, deathdealer, immensestream

Perhaps (But Not Necessarily) White:

bigbowlla300x Khestfew tragedy7182 blackmantheobscure1969 Hov Johnshowcase gloryofagoddess tongkissdacat decipherx* cosmiccomic* 1BPM itsmeAWG LadySteele26 Realbrother

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To: nanato3
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:00 AM
Msg 66099.6
Reply to 66099.3

listen racist what I am saying is truth! I follow the rule on this board I have a right to defend myself from attack from racist like yourself! Now I have not done nonthing wrong you are proving my topic to be true so you need to take you half jaw behind on some where lmao!

yes you are being disrespectful

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To: mentalmarinade
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:08 AM
Msg 66099.7
Reply to 66099.4

Peace and Blessings: Mentalmarinade

From: LCason

Sista the afrikans on here were posting and I was responding to them. I put to you like this the weather was bad here so I stay in and responded to the afrikan who posted on my thread this weekend. That how many posted very good conversons came about! You had your haters Tolls who cryed to BV and had my thread deleted.

This is for black people this does not say white voices, what it is I been kicking thier azz since my return. All I ask is for Documentation they run and hide behind the modertor. Their is not a troll on here that can did prove my information not a one.

As for more evidence I will post it up tommrow. futher evidence of what I am saying no I will do it tonight!

Good hearing from you and I will email you soon! Peace and Blessing


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To: name7o7
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:09 AM
Msg 66099.8
Reply to 66099.5

much respect goes out to you name 707

and thank you for telling the truth

good to have you back


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To: All
Posts: 211

Date: Apr-4 3:24 PM
Msg 66099.255
Reply to 66099.1

Here is another opinion of the origin of these maniacs:

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To: LCason
Posts: 32

Date: Apr-4 4:31 PM
Msg 66099.256
Reply to 66099.1





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To: nanato3
Posts: 135

Date: Apr-4 4:38 PM
Msg 66099.257
Reply to 66099.162

My point is that your list was directed at one race, so don’t act like it wasn’t. Other people here took the same way and that was your point. It was not to say that all races do crimes cause all the ones you posted were indeed black.

pointing out that serial killers are mostly white, does it do the same thing if I point out that gang members are mostly black?? But your not racist??That is what i mean. You are contradicting yourself. Is this tit for tat? Oh i said that most serial killers are white so therefore you say that most gang members are black(which in case you have not noticed the latinos are more than both races combined so what are you really talking about. And the reason why you had to post hear IS because of the racist connotation….

Edited Apr-4 by miss310elyse
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To: meninarmer
Posts: 135

Date: Apr-4 4:40 PM
Msg 66099.258
Reply to 66099.146

That particular person likes threads like this. SHe is always in the white people….race…..type of topic.

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To: LCason
Posts: 153

Date: Apr-4 5:08 PM
Msg 66099.259
Reply to 66099.207

There are innumerable, objective psychosocial and demographic markers of unprecedented racial integration and peaceful co-existence. Frienship patterns, inermarriage,business relations, mixed communities, etc. We may have problems to ovecome, but no serious person debates the fact that our country is the most successful, diverse and integrated country that has ever existed. Your interesting historical revisionism regarding MLK’s relationship with Farrakhan’s victim and his polygamist ex-associate is without foundation. I am not a scholar on the area, but I am aware of the fact that there is a large body of MLK’s published work as well as his wife’s work that quite clearly speaks to his rejection of the angry, irrational, separtist, divisive, and oppressive Islamic fundamentalist principles Malcolm and EM espoused.

Our nation and our community is in a more positive and stable place now, and we are continuing to work MLK’s dream. However well-intentioned the two you mention may have tried to be at one point in their lives, they were part of an unstable, unproductive, and failed political past.

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To: meninarmer
Posts: 153

Date: Apr-4 5:12 PM
Msg 66099.260
Reply to 66099.210

You are living in an America that no longer, thankfully exists. We may have problems as a nation and in our own community, but we have countless reasons to be positive, optimistic, and hopeful. It’s important to laern from the past, adapt, and move on stronger,-not ruminate on the past and let anger and victimization shackle you. This is one of the many reasons why so many are afraid to leave the false safety and security of the Democrat Plantation Party.
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To: bpq
Posts: 348

Date: Apr-4 5:34 PM
Msg 66099.261
Reply to 66099.260

You are living in an America that no longer, thankfully exists. We may have problems as a nation and in our own community, but we have countless reasons to be positive, optimistic, and hopeful. It’s important to laern from the past, adapt, and move on stronger,-not ruminate on the past and let anger and victimization shackle you. This is one of the many reasons why so many are afraid to leave the false safety and security of the Democrat Plantation Party.

I, and many others have abandoned the America you speak of, as well as the 2-party, single agenda political farce-land. The only real and effective solution to black america’s problem has been accurately identified and demonstrated by several dynamic historical figures to include, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, Malcohm X, and Farrakhan. Any other alternative option is only a setup for future failure.

Why would one wish to set themselves up to fail, by emplying doomed strategies that have been proved wrong, time and time again? I guess, some of us are just slower then others, but hopefully you’ll catch up before the bus leaves you behind. That of course gives the benefit of doubt that you are actually black, which at this point is highly improbable.

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To: LCason
Posts: 3187

Date: Apr-4 5:59 PM
Msg 66099.262
Reply to 66099.234

Brilliant post LCason yes the white man is a devil of Biblical proportions as a matter of fact in Aztec lore The Quetzlcoatl which was a winged serpent rising fromthe ashes was described in its human form as a whiote man with dark hair and a mustache consequently when Cortez and his men arrived in Tenochtitlan, Cortez embraced him as the Quetzlcoatl and did not attempt to thwart his destruction of The Aztecs.. Now another Aztec god is kukulcan which means “divination of the serpent.” Think about the similarities between this word and “ku klux clan.” and you will realize and recognize the origins of the white man, these are not a GOD-fearing people. THey hold GOD in the utmost contempt and pervert or destroy all that GOD has created. Every Empire they have created has been in obeisance to the one downstairs and yes you can watch historians(white) on television attempt to rationalise and explain why the white man is a blood-thirsty pschopath from the pitiful conclusion that The Caesers of Rome were eating bread and drinking wine infested with psylocybins to well they cannot even explain the behavior of white amerikkka towards the native and Black
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April 5, 2007


History Thursday, April 5, 2007

Published: August 12, 2002

By Naiwu Osahon
Leader World Pan-African Movement

Of course, Africans sold their kith and kin into slavery. Yes, the slave merchants found willing accomplices amongst us and in exchange for cheap ridiculous items like a mirror, tobacco, cutlass, gun or a drink, we did their dirty jobs for them.

But if you expect us to feel guilty about our negative role in slavery, you are not being realistic because Africans, like the other species of the human race, have their own greedy ones too. In relative terms though, only a very small minority of Africans benefited commercially from our enslavement considering the quantities of mirrors etc they acquired and they were loathed by the captive majority. Names of such African traitors like the notorious Kosoko of Lagos still invoke hate today in Africans when ever mentioned.

Collectively, Africans did not understand what slavery was really all about . Even including the traitors, we had no idea we would never see our dear ones again or how far the ocean stretched to keep them apart from us. Parents hoped that their children being kidnapped into slavery would be treated no worse than we treat our houseboys today. Houseboys or girls in Africa are slaves in a sense but slavery to an African is like an adoption. Africa is almost a free slavery system, more akin to the Greek or Roman system. A parent who cannot cope with bringing up a child may hand over the child to another parent in a better position to give the child a good home. A parent may give a child to a Chief because usually, Chiefs are well placed to provide food and shelter through the communal tax systems. The slave in an African home often has the rights of the adopted child.

Even now, a hundred years after the supposed end to cross Atlantic slavery, Africans on the continent still do not know the hell enslaved Africans went through in the hands of the slave masters.

You have kept your historical perspective on slavery intact whereas in Nigeria for instance, the only reminder of it is a solitary slave chain preserved as a tourist attraction in a run-down hut in Badagry, a coastal suburb of Lagos. Ghana has more terrifying evidence in their fantastic Castles, but Africans on the continent hardly visit or relate to the evidence. One of the Castles in Ghana has been given over to the African Descendants Association. They have a guest book you sign, and looking through, you see very personal and emotional comments by black visitors from abroad to the Castle. For you, the reaction when faced with damning evidence is painful. It is painful to remember that you were sold here like cattle but for us Africans on the continent, our memory of slavery is completely blank.

We sold you into slavery alright but Africa as a whole was not just waiting to be dismembered without a fight. Names of our warrior nationalists, mostly Kings and Queens abound: Queen Nzingha of Angola, King Nana Kwamena Ansa of Ghana, Nehenda of Zimbabwe, Anowa of Ghana, Ashanti King Prempeh, the Jaja of Opobo, Queen Idah of Benin City, Oba Overamwen Nogbaisi of Benin City, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Queen Amina of Zaria, Behanzin Hossu Bo Willi of Dahomey, Samory Toure of Mali, Moremi of Ile-Ife, Mohammed Ahmed the Mahdi of Sudan, Nefertiti of Nubia, Mohammed Ben Abdulla Hassen the mad Mullah of Somaliland, Chaka the Zulu and many others, gave good account of themselves in our honour. Africans had to be beaten and dragged on board slave ships.

On slave ships, many Africans starved themselves to death, cut their own throats with their fingernails, threw themselves overboard to escape torture and slavery and quite a number of them succeeded in over powering their captors and taking over their slave ships as was the case with AMISTAD or Joseph Cinque, the son of a Mendi King of Sierra Leone.

On Plantations, Africans continued their acts of rebellion through sabotage at work or by running away into hardly accessible swamps, forests and mountains to continue the fight for their freedom. Africans cursed their tormentors in work songs, communicated with each other, even under severe restrictions, with body language and signs, and transformed their religious indoctrination to their advantage by replacing, for instance, ‘Heaven’ with ‘Africa’ in Christian songs about the joys of Heaven. Flying away to Zion and crossing the River Jordan was translated by slaves to mean the joyful return home to Africa through the Atlantic. Death was seen as a welcome means of returning to Africa and with that, African slaves conquered the fear of torture and death.

Amongst the slaves, one of our wicked traits soon began to show. Slaves spied on other slaves to win a lousy cup of porridge. They betrayed confidence to gain small favours from their masters but our finer nature overwhelmed and produced many nationalists and inspirers of freedom in the new world such as: Blyden, Frederick Douglas, Nat Turner, Sam Sharpe, Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vasey, Paul Cuffe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Martin R. Delany and numerous others.

Then came August 1791, when the slaves of the Island of San Domingo revolted under the leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Boukman, Dessalines, and Henry Christophe. The struggle lasted for twelve years, during which time, they defeated in turn, the local whites and soldiers of the French monarchy, a Spanish invasion force, a British expedition of some 60,000 men, and a French expedition of similar size under Bonaparte’s brother-in-law. The defeat of Bonaparte’s expedition in 1803 gave us Haiti, our first independent anti-slavery state.

The revolt is the most successful slave revolt in history and to quote C.L.R James in Black Jacobins,: “The odds it had to over-come is evidence of the magnitude of the interests involved. The transformation of slaves, trembling in hundreds before a single white man into a people able to organise themselves and defeat the most powerful European nations of their day is one of the great epics of revolutionary struggle and achievement.”

Haiti’s revolution inspired other liberation wars and in particular the growth of what Prof. John Henrik Clarke described as ‘intellectual Pan Africanism,’ expressed immediately then through the building of cultural and religious ties across state barriers.

To quote John Henrik Clarke in Pan Africanism, a brief history of an idea: “In 1804, Jacques Dessalines, the Governor-General of Haiti, issued an appeal for American blacks to settle in his Island. In 1819, Henri Christophe, King of Haiti, negotiated for the settlement of 200,000 black Americans who ultimately settled in Liberia. Denmark Vasey sought the assistance of Haiti in his slave conspiracy of 1822. Jean-Pierre Bayer, who later became President of Haiti, pushed for similar emigration and the Maryland Haitan Society was formed in 1921 by free blacks to facilitate emigration.”

In the continent itself, the military Pan-Africanists were reacting to the so called scramble for Africa, which in effect was the transformation of the early nineteenth century system of slavery into the system of colonialism – an extension of slavery. Two new European powers (Germany and Belgium) entered the scene, and with the old colonial powers (mainly England, France and Portugal) began to spread their control from the coastal holding stations to the hinder-land. There was much rivalry amongst the scramblers so, like a bunch of hungry demon butchers, they assembled around a table in Berlin in 1884, carving knives in hand, map of Africa as their prized beef, to chop away to their heart’s content. Vandalising our economic resources beyond recognition to enrich their homelands. Ruining our mind and personality with their religion. Turning us into apes of their decadent culture.

We fought back with, for instance, the Zulu wars in South Africa, the Islamic or Mahdi wars in the Sudan, the Ashanti wars in the Gold Coast and others that will last for the next hundred years.

Intellectual Pan Africanism received a boost with its series of congresses from 1900. Europe grudgingly granted some of us ‘flag independence’ with deafening fanfare to distract our attention while they stayed quietly on in the guise of neo-colonialism. Now their cartels bestride our continent like giant Octopuses, crushing and absorbing all indigenous initiatives thrown in their paths.

The question now is, why has intellectual Pan Africanism, to which Africa surrendered its militancy, not routed our tormentors in a hundred years of organising congresses? Why are you still the underdogs here and I their footmat back in Africa?

A Trinidadian Lawyer called Henry Sylvester Williams, practising in Britain at the time and married to a white woman, convened the first Pan African Conference in 1900.

I am aware of the arguments for and against Henry Sylvester Williams as a major figure in the African consciousness movement and I think being able to call a Pan African Conference at the time ought to confer some honour on Mr. Williams.

This is not to say, however, that the content of this conference should escape the critical judgement of history. Mr. Williams’ Pan African Conference was attended by thirty delegates mostly from the USA and the West Indies. Its aims were to act as a forum of protest against the aggressiveness of white colonialists; to bring people of African descent throughout the world into closer touch with one another; and to start a movement which would secure to all African races living in civilised countries, their full rights and would promote their business interests.

Our Sylvesters of the 1900s obviously did not have a great deal of respect for Africa if they had to describe us as uncivilised. In any case, they did not camouflage the fact that the conference was to promote their individual private business interests in our name.

Actually, the opening address of the conference was given by a white man, the Bishop of London at the time, who supported the needs of Africans: “To be educated into a sense of responsible self-government.” Isn’t that condescending?

The conference addressed a petition to Queen Victoria through the British Government protesting against the treatment of Africans in South Africa and Rhodesia at the time. The petition, in a nutshell, could be interpreted in modern idiom as follows:

Our mighty and generous Queen,
The mother of the Universe,
The great one without blemish,
Whose forgiveness
we are not worthy of,
But whose mercy we seek all the same
being your meek and dutiful servants,
Nurtured and civilised
in the warmth of your matronly kindness.
We beg your majesty on our bended knees
to spare a thought, however small,
For those we left behind in the jungles of Africa.
To which the all conquering white goddess replied:
“Okay boys, I will see what I can do.”

Do not quote this as the reason why Mr. Williams’ conference is not counted amongst our Pan African Congresses today, but I would be surprised if other reasons are stronger.

Dr. W.E.B DuBois attended that first conference and seems to have been greatly influenced by it. A great deal has been written and said about Dr. DuBois. That he was the brightest star ever to have graced our firmament of ideas or words to that effect. I am too inconsequential to even begin to challenge such a reputation in any way. So, if you will pardon me, I will take nothing away from this intellectual colossus. But I have problems accepting that he served me any better than poor Henry Sylvester Williams did. I am talking about how DuBois relates to me as an individual. I know that DuBois wrote some thought provoking books in his life time and called four Pan African Congresses between 1919 and 1927 that set in motion the tradition that has brought me to this point now in the history of Pan Africanism.

But DuBois himself never claimed to have been the indispensable focus in our chequered journey. After all, he admits in his essay: Four congresses, that he, through his congresses, was not on our behalf: “seeking control of our economic and social life nor our independence.” So, we might be tempted to ask: What was this brilliant man seeking in our name then?

We know, for instance, that DuBois was half black and never tired of reminding everyone who cared to listen to him about his aristocratic white half. Mind you, his was very much the era of the darker you are the further down the social ladder of progress you were confined. So, DuBois had no respect for Garvey, not because Garvey was dark hopefully.

DuBois’ congresses dissociated from the patriotic Pan African posture of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) of Marcus Garvey, opting instead, for the rather tame tactics of begging Europeans politely to be nice to their African servants. Garvey wanted African progress through self development and self efforts. DuBois insisted that co-operation with whites was vital to our struggle. In fact, the opening speech at DuBois’ first Pan African congress claimed that European governments were not the enemies of Africans, a sentiment that flavoured all his resolutions afterwards on our behalf.

Whites responded by assisting DuBois’ programmes while vehemently opposing and discrediting Garvey’s and banning Garvey’s newspapers throughout Africa.

But did ordinary Africans forget Garvey? May be a little story from my past can help provide a possible answer. It is a true story about my mother. I have never told anyone the story before and I hope my mother would forgive me for exposing her so far away from home. I don’ t know if you can guess my age but my mother is over seventy years old and she has never been inside the four walls of any school. It is not something to boost about but that is the position. She never had the opportunity to go to school. She is the picture of ancient African motherhood, the type white television thinks they are taunting us with. My mother does not watch white television and does not miss it.

One evening after a busy weekend of reading publications on Dr. DuBois and Marcus Garvey, I felt like teasing my mother a little. I asked her on the spur of the moment, half expecting a rebuff, if she had ever heard of a man called Marcus Garvey? My mother, without appearing to have seriously thought about my question said in my native language, Bini: “Is that not our son who lived abroad?”

I was her only son who had lived abroad until that time so obviously she did not mean me. I prodded her further and found that by calling Garvey son, my mother was not only appropriating Garvey, she was showing her pride in him as a dedicated African son.

Encouraged by my discovery, I asked her about DuBois: “I have never heard of that one,” she said promptly but innocently. I have still not been able to figure out how my illiterate mother who had never travelled more than twenty kilometres from our home base could relate to Garvey and not DuBois. I have not tried to influence her on the matter since either. I do not think she knows about my activities in the Pan African Movement yet. I am saving my shock for when I hope to ask her in about ten years time, what she knows about her real son.

If at that point, my activities in the Pan African Movement have still not directly touched the lives of the likes of my mother, then it would be difficult for me to claim to have been relevant.

I don’t want you to go away thinking that I have no respect for Dr. DuBois. Of course, he was a great man, only that he never managed to win my illiterate mother over to his side like Garvey did and that is what has been bothering me really about intellectual Pan Africanism.

The fifth Pan African Congress was the first serious one in the redeeming sense. Without its bold features, the need to continue the congresses would have been lost forever.

The congress, held in Manchester in 1945, coincided with the second conference of the World Federation of Trade unions, thus enabling several trade union delegates from the African world to attend and broaden the narrow intellectual base of the Pan African Congress for the first time. It, of course, also helped to lock Pan Africanism more firmly into the Marxist – socialist politics of the unionists, thereby diverting us witlessly from our original goal of racial emancipation, to a formless, rhetorical and tedious sin-song about the working class uniting to over throw the nebulous bourgeois. The truth of the matter is that traditional African politics is not homogeneous and there is no reason why the fortunes of a whole race of people should be condemned to the status of the working class for ever. A billion virile, determined and ambitious people scattered all over the economies of the world can not and must not be restricted from reaching even beyond the stars.

That fortunately is the kind of positive and forthright posture that informed the broad activities of the team of George Padmore, C.L.R. James, Kwame Nkrumah and others at the fifth congress on the issue of our independence. They not only demanded immediate independence for all African countries, they threatened to use every means, including violence if necessary, to achieve their aims. Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Nnamdi Azikiwe who was represented and many other potential African leaders left the congress determined to do battle with our colonisers. Out-break of mass anti-colonial struggle followed throughout Africa. Armed uprising in Kenya and Algeria, mass nationalist parties in Zaire, Ghana and Nigeria etc. This phase of the struggle led to Ghana’s independence in March, 1957, under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah. Ghana’s example electrified the African world resulting in scores of free African countries between 1960 and 1963.

Ghana’s independence also provided intellectual Pan-Africanism with its first real foothold on the continent. Nkrumah, in collaboration with Padmore, consolidated this by convening the first Conference of Independent African States (CIAS), in furtherance of their Pan-Continental ideas, in Accra in April, 1958. The participants of this historic conference were Ghana, Ethiopia, Libya, Liberia, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and the United Arab Republic. These were the then independent African states except South Africa which was actually invited but refused to come because the colonial powers were not also invited.

Other meetings followed until a broader conference of independent African states took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in June 1963, establishing for the continent, the OAU, a loose interstate arrangement.

The OAU, of course, did not fulfil the ambition of Kwame Nkrumah for a strong political union of all African states but it opened the Pan-African ideology institutionally to non-blacks. This is how George Padmore defended the trend at the time: ” In our struggle for national freedom, human dignity and social redemption, Pan-Africanism offers an ideological alternative to communism on the one side and tribalism on the other. It rejects both white racialism and black chauvinism. It stands for racial co-existence on the basis of absolute equality and respect for human personality.”

I have no quarrel with all that, but I think we needed to have asked Uncle Padmore:

(1) Why other races can join our institutions and would not let us join theirs?

(2) Why we are the only race of people in the world striving desperately to tag on to others. We have Black-Arabs, Black Marxists, Black-Muslims, Black-Eskimos. Isn’t that saying something for our self esteem?

(3) Whether having a union of our own necessarily makes us any more racist than the EU, the Jewish World Congress, the Arab League etc?

(4) If our propensity to be seen to be identifying with our oppressors has helped to solve our being the racial underdogs of the world?

(5) And whether we do not need to tackle our peculiar racial problems first before contributing our wonderful expertise at problem solving to the rest of the world?

After all, charity ought to begin at home.

Also, Nkrumah and Padmore needed to have been asked to explain how their Pan-Continental politics was going to solve the deteriorating problems of the African Diaspora? 40% of the Black world do not live in Africa and are, as a result, ignored by the OAU.

The overall success of the 5th Pan African Congress blinded us to some of its not so sound pre-occupations. The 5thPAC set off many half-baked diversionary ideas which unfortunately led to the failure of the 6th Pan African Congress. The convenors of the 6thPAC did not reckon, for instance, with the selfish interest of the newly independent African governments of the time so:

(a) They let government delegations dominate the congress,

(b) Who in turn prevented leading Pan Africanists from participating.

(c) Non-Africans, without obvious commitment to Pan African ideals, were able to attend as delegates.

(d) The regular negative ideological division between our pseudo socialists and capitalists occupied centre stage.

(e) And, of course, University dons, as usual, were able to use congress to enhance their CVs and show off their borrowed language facilities and richly embroidered danshikis.

And yet, the 6th Pan African Congress succeeded in filling a yearning vacuum and keeping the movement alive, at least, in academic circles, 29 years after the 5th congress. More papers than ever before, were submitted or read at the 6thPAC and a great deal more resolutions were left behind for scholars to pore over till eternity as to their motives etc. The 6thPAC piled considerably more library materials, and gathered more delegates and observers, some 600 of them at one count, than all congresses before it, put together. To the extent that the 6thPAC achieved these feats administratively, therefore, it deserves to be recognised.

But did the congress touch the lives of ordinary Africans in the streets? No. Was the 6thPAC any better than the jamborees called first, second, third and fourth congresses? No.

Ask any African in the streets of Europe and America about the 6thPAC and you would draw a blank. Ask any grassroots African on the continent about Pan Africanism today and he would think you are speaking Greek. The 6thPAC has not stopped the continued racial rape and murder of our people in the Diaspora nor has it educated Africans on the continent, sixteen years later, to think beyond the severely circumscribed OAU.

Only the 5th congress was able to make immediate direct impact on our lives with its independence fire sweeping rapidly across colonial Africa soon after the congress. The 5thPAC set the standard by which to measure the success of all future PACs. The 6thPAC, therefore, was no more than a boring charade and if Pan Africanism is to be saved now, it must be moved beyond the constraining walls of our Ivory Towers, the deadly hold of our narrow-minded political leaders and deposited squarely on the laps of virgin Africans.

These were precisely the sources of my motivation when I began the campaign in 1982, as a private initiative, for the 7th Pan African Congress to convene within three years in a liberated African country. My principal ambition was to use the congress to institutionalise the Pan African Movement and unite the black world. I was building a farm house facility (I called the Monument to African civilisation), at Ilogbo-Eremi in the Badagry local government area of Lagos State in Nigeria, at the time, as venue for the 7th Pan- African Congress. The idea was to set up a possible meeting place that would be grand and yet rural in setting and relatively cost free to participants, to avoid recourse to government subvention or sponsoreship and, therefore, influence. At the time, I thought that the congress could hold in Nigeria in 1985. A picture of the still being constructed ‘Monument’ was eventually published in the Guardian newspaper of Nigeria, on Saturday February 4th 1984, with the following caption:

” This is the house Mr Naiwu Osahon is building. When completed, it would be one of the most unique, artistically designed houses ever built any where, says Mr Osahon of the house located on a suburban farmland. Mr. Osahon, ……………on the proposed retreat for local and visiting artistes says: ‘Discussions are already being held abroad about holding the next Pan African Congress at the Craftfarm House in 1985.”

Obstacles which I considered were mainly responsible for our disunity and lack of focus as a family included:

(1) Foreign religions and ideologies (which in all respects treat us as inferior human beings). These pull us in all sorts of directions to keep us divided despite our being the most marginalised people on the face of the earth right now. It is not in the interest of any dominating ideology for victims to unite or have a common focus. Peculiar spirituality serves to bind and encourage claims of ownership and birthright. Religion or spirituality is the greatest mobilising strategy available to man and we have nothing of our own as a rallying force like Islam is to the Arabs or Judaism to the Jews.

(2) Allowing colonisers (particularly Arabs who do not consider themselves even remotely as Pan Africanists) to participate in and sponsor our congresses. Arab occupiers of Northern Africa continue to exploit and dominate original African native owners of the land. The war in Sudan is ethnic cleansing against our race and is funded massively by the Arab League through Libya and Saudi Arabia. Arabs have their League but do not want blacks to have one. We as a race have not been able to focus on how to liberate Northern African blacks as we have done against white racists in Southern Africa because Northern Africa Arabs are equal partners with blacks in the OAU.

(3) Allowing our ‘Movement’ to be hijacked by reactionary African political leaders running our governments. These are leaders tied to the apron strings of our colonial masters for hand-outs which our leaders promptly divert to their individual private accounts abroad for personal gains. They are too busy enriching themselves at our expense to care about our collective welfare.

I strongly believed that while we could excuse the OAU perhaps, to serve the interest of all and sundry as a continental contraption, our ‘Movement’ cannot afford such a luxury. Not when there is liberation, reparations and repatriation wars still to be fought and won world-wide. Our Movement must aggresively tackle racism and our marginalisation if we are ever to collectively make progress as a people. And our ‘Movement’ must remain permanently on the alert thereafter. The best guarantee of this is a civil society controlled ‘Movement’ with grassroots Africans from the continent linking with the grassroots black Diaspora to wrestle power from our opportunistic political elite controlling our governments. The grassroots black world need to take their collective destiny into their own hands through an institutionalised ‘Movement’ that gives equal treatment to both governments and individual delegations. I was implacable over the 7thPAC institutionalising the Pan African Movement as a vibrant civil society compliment or challenge to the lame-duck OAU.

To keep rancour to the barest minimim at congresses, I insisted that decisions and resolutions of the ‘Movement’ must be fine-tuned and worked out at preparatory conferences and workshops etc in advance, with congress being used only to endorse. The preparatory activities of the 7thPAC were, therefore, to focus principally on the following three planks:

(a) To agree a body of resolutions and decisions to be known as THE BLACK AGENDA which could be up-dated now and again at regional and state conferences to become the bible or focus of activities of the black race, including black governments and individuals.

(b) To chisle out a strong and dynamic constitution for the institutionalised ‘Movement’ wielding together, black governments and black civil societies in a symbiotic relationship with leadership resting solely in the hands of civil society. The ‘Movement’ would have to develop a peculiar spirituality for such a leadership (or moral leadership of the black race) not to be controversial.

(c) To set up a ‘Foundation’ to ensure that the ‘Movement’ or Black League’ would never have to beg for financial support from anyone, particularly from extraneous sources. The philosophy of the ‘Foundation’ (called PANAF at the time), being that every black person in the world, alive or yet un-born, owes PANAF a hundred units of his or her local currency once in a life-time.

These pre-occupations were embodied in the first set of documents written and distributed lavishly by me around the world from 1982 to announce the convening of the 7thPAC in Africa in 1985.

Responses to my ‘CALL’ were generally enthusiastic, over the convening of 7thPAC which was described as overdue, but lukewarm on Nigeria (which at the time was under the jackboot of a vicious military dictatorship), serving as host. C.L.R. James, who was one of the first renown Pan Africanists at the time to received our delegation in London was full of support for an African country hosting the congress. He was not too fussy about the politics of the possible host African government. However, the series of letters addressed to Babangida, the self-proclaimed Military President of Nigeria at the time to provide 7thPAC with logistic support in the area of easy visas and adequate security for delegations were ignored. President Dos Santos of Angola wrote us the most inspiring letter of the time but was sorry he could not play host because of the debilitating civil war in his country. Zimbabwe was more interested in hosting the Commonwealth Heads of State Conference at the time and Ghana complained of poor financial resources.

While we were still shopping for a possible host country, the Foreign Minister of Nigeria, Professor Bolaji Akiyemi, out of the blues in 1987, announced the Nigerian government’s interest in convening the 7thPAC. A failed coup de’tat caused some changes in the Nigerian government with Brigadier Ike Nwanchukwu replacing Prof. Akinyemi as Foreign Affairs Minister. The Brigadier was not interested in the 7thPAC and wanted to know what it meant and who it was affiliated to. Apart from abysmal ignorance about self history, South African PAC added to the confusion. However, the earlier announcement of the Nigerian government’s interest increased focus on 7thPAC and my efforts which were independent all along of the Nigerian government’s attempted hijack.

The make shift leadership arrangement we had relied upon was formerly structured in 1987 involving a two-tier arrangement with the 7thPAC International Secretariat located in Lagos. The ultimate leadership committee was called the International Co-ordinating Committee (ICC) and had as pioneer members, Professor Kwesi Prah, a Ghanaian working in Kenya at the time, B.F.Bankie, a Ghanaian-Gambian living in London then and Naiwu Osahon, based in Lagos, as the Convernor/Chairman.

Reporting to the ICC was the International Steering Committee (ISC), which had as members: Ayi Kwei Armah; Nee Kwati Owoo; Robert Hayfron-Benjamin Beye and Boutros Boutros Ghali.

By January 1989, the ISC had been scrapped due to lack of perfomance by its members perhaps because of the cumbersome two-tier system in operation and was replaced by an expanded ICC comprising of Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Prof. Antonio Neto, Angola; Tau Napata, Jamaica; Prof. Alfred Opubor, Nigeria; Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, Egypt (who wrote trying to discourage us from institutionalising the Pan-African Movement but stayed on as committee member even when he became the Secretary General of the UN); Eunice Neto Foreid, Portugal; Dr. Ona Ekhomu, USA; Prof. H. Cunha Jr. Brazil; H. E. Dr. Henri Bangou, Guadeloupe; Dr. Laura M. Torres Souder, Guam; Amar Bentoumi, Algeria (who later withdrew because of the focus of the ‘Movement’); Dr. Joycelyn Loncke, Guyana; Dr. Digna Castaneda Puerta, Cuba; Pauulu Kamarakafego (Roosevelt Brown who still represents us now at the UN and was the pioneer sponsor of the 6thPAC, Bermuda; Hon. Mr. Bernard Narokobi, Papua New Guinea; Dr. Cyril. E. Griffith, USA; Grace Mera Molisa, Vanuatu; Prof. Mary Frances Berry, USA.

By 1990, we had received several letters of support from the likes of Leopold Sedar Senghor living in France at the time; C.L.R. James, before he died, insisting that the congress must be convened in an African country. The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Bahamas; the President of the United Republic of Tanzania; The Minister of Justice of Papua New Guinea; the governments of the Republics of Cote D’ Ivoire, Liberia, Togo, Angola, Zaire, Ghana, Guadeloupe Senator in France, Boutros Boutros Ghali as Minister of State for Foreign affairs in Egypt. We had influenced Chief Abiola of Nigeria sufficiently to try to steel our thunder by embarking on a ‘Reparations’ programme of his own, which was eventually sold to the OAU with our active lobby.

By 1992, we had established national branches or committees of the Pan-African Movement in the following countries; Angola, Australia, Barbados, Belize, Benin Republic, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Dominica, Equartorial Guinea, Fiji, France, Gambia, Germany-Benelux, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Portugal Senegal, South Africa, St. Kitts, St Lucia, St. Maarten, Surinam, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad, UK, USA, Zaire, Zimbabwe and several new national representatives were being cultivated.

The UK national branch was the very first committee of the 7thPAC to be set up by Naiwu Osahon. It was launched on the 10th of October, 1988 at Flat 69, Schomberg House, Vincent Street, Westminster, London, S.W.1 occupied at the time by Prof. Antonio Neto. Founding members of the UK committee included Neto, Bankie, Babu, Pepukayi, Napata, Gotzmore and Bing who was elected the protem secretary.

We started having problems with London right from its take off because, as things turned out, the branch was dominated by self-declared Marxists. They wanted to take over the leadership of the ICC and move its International Secretariat to London because according to them, communications were easier from there. Besides, they were not comfortable with my anti-Marxism or foreign ideology posture and attempt to institutionalise the ‘Movement’. Also my determination to exclude Arabs of Northern Africa from the union was a headache. One of their staunchest supporters at the time was Prof. Kwesi Prah who wrote that: “We can not bind the next generation to an institutionalised ‘Movement.” My answers at the time were to ask why that should stop us from trying? And how did other races achieve their institutions and union without some first steps? No answer to these questions ever came from Prah or London or may be it came through their gradual withdrawal from our fold to encourage and team up with Uganda eventually. They tried desperately to gain access to our International Secretariat’s address list before they finally dropped out of our hold three years after their launch. Our (ICC) impression of them at the time was that they were on an ego trip desperate to etch their names on posterity for convening a Pan African Congress regardless of quality of the congress.

My criticism of DuBois for bequeating to us the culture of jamboree congresses appeared also to have alienated some supporters of the intellectual icon, including his son who took offence and started looking for opportunities to scuttle our efforts. Nkrumah’s son too soon became less active on the ICC because his father, along with Padmore were blamed for diluting the spirit of Pan-Africanism with their defence of all comers’ congresses that welcomed Arab colonisers and Marxist domination all in one breath.

Preparatory conferences of the 7thPAC around the world included;

(a) Hamilton Bermuda (From July 20 – 22, 1990)

(b) Bridgetown, Barbados (From 21 – 22 September, 1991)

(c) Solidarity with Cuba (Saturday 7th December, 1991, Bridgetown, Barbados)

(d) Port-of Spain, Trinidad (Second regional conference of the Caribbean Pan African Movement (From 27 – 28 August, 1993).

(e) Savannah, Georgia, USA (From 1 – 3 May, 1992)

(f) Toronto, Canada (where ZAWADI KWAFRICA was launched for the first time in the world by Naiwu Osahon (From June 23 – 27, 1993).

The inaugural meeting of the BLACK THINK TANK (BTT) of the Pan-African Movement, now known as THE THINK TANK OF THE BLACK WORLD (TTB) took place from 1 – 8 August, 1992, at ASCON, Topo, Badagry, Lagos Nigeria. The BTT was attended by: Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Catherene Acholonu, Nigeria; Denese Bradford, USA; Duane Bradford, USA; Tom Dalgety, Guyana; Viola Davis, Barbados; C.M. Eya-Nchama, Equatorial Guinea; Diane Forte, USA; Malinali Meza Herrera, Mexico; Onwuchekwa Jemie, Nigeria; Owei Lakemfa, Nigeria; Olusegun Maiyegun, Nigeria; Rudy Mattai, USA; Kinja Mulegwa-Migabo, Zaire; T.C Nwosu, Nigeria; Osagie Obayuwana, Nigeria; Yinka Ogunsulire, Nigeria; Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade, Nigeria; Charles C. Roach, Canada; Gbenga Sonuga, Nigeria. Two members who could not get to the venue of the BTT, but who had paid to attend were: Joycelene Loncke, Guyana and G. Mawa-Kiese Mawawa, Congo.

The BTT examined the issues: “Why are we so blessed and yet so poor?” “Why are we not benefiting as a people from the civilisation we pioneered and what are we to do to get back on our feet again as one family?” THE BLACK AGENDA is a product of the BTT’s deliberations and it lays down the rules to guide the activities of black governments, individuals, organisations, communities, family units, institutions. The BTT also produced the CONSTITUTION of the Pan African Movement and approved ZAWADI KWAFRICA (ZA) as the name of the Pan-African Foundation. Zawadi Kwafrica are Swahili words meaning gifts of and from the people of Africa.

Members of the ICC in 1993 included: Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Charles C. Roach, Vice Chair; Pauulu Kamarakafego, Vice Chair; H. E. Dr. (Senator) Henri Bangou, Guadeloupe; Dr. Thomas Cornell Battle, USA; Gerlin Bean, Jamaica; John Benjamin, Anguilla; Prof. Mary Frances Berry, USA; Farika Birhan, Maroons; Dr. Michael L. Blakey, USA; Duane Bradford, USA; Musa Cham, Gambia; Bobby Clarke, Barbados; Dr. John Henrik Clarke, USA; Tom Dalgety, Guyana; Viola Davis, Barbados; M.K. Dingake, Botswana; Babacar Diop, Senegal; Robert M. Dossou, Rep. du Benin; Noel Dossou-Yovo, Rep. du Benin; Prof. Quince Duncan, Costa Rica; Louise Edimo, Cameroon; C.M. Eya-Nchama, Equatorial Guinea; Januario Garcia Filho, Brazil; Eunice Neto Foreid, Portugal; Dianne Forte, USA; Roderick Francis, Jamaica; Major-General J. N. Garba, President of the UN General Assembly at the time; Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, (UN Secretary-General at the time); Siegfried Hazel, Curacao; Malinali Meza Herrera, Mexico; Dr. Byron R. M. Hove, Zimbabwe; Eddie Iroh, UK; Onwuchekwa Jemie, Nigeria; Senator Irvin Stephen Knight, Dominica; Pontiff His Grace Srila Bhakti-Tirtha Swami Krsnapada, USD/USA; Joan Lucas, Belize; Dr. Joycelynne Loncke, Guyana; Dr. F. L. Lwanyantika Masha, Tanzania; Kae Matundu-Tjiparuro, Namibia; G. Mawa-Kiese Mawawa, Grenada; Kinja Mulegwa-Migabo, Zaire; James Mutambirwa, PCR/WCC; Hon. Bernard Narokobi, Papua-New Guinea; Abdias do Nascimento, Brazil; Michel Ndoh, Switzerland; Prof. Anthonio Neto, Angola; Felipe Noguera, Trinidad; T.C. Nwosu, Nigeria; Frantz Obas, Haiti; Clement O’ Garro, St. Kitts; Prof. Omolara Ogundipe-Leslie, Nigeria; Placide Prosper, St. Lucia; Dr. Digna Castaneda Puertas, Cuba; Mtra Araceli Reynoso, Mexico; Omowale Satterwhite, USA; Mr. and Mrs Savane, Senegal; Bania Mahamadou Say, Niger; Dr. Jean Sindab, USA; Ghenga Sonuga, Nigeria; Dr. Laura M. Torres Sounder, Guam; Andre France de Sousa, Portugal; Hassan A. Sunmonu, OATUU; Cheikh Tidiane Sy, PANA; Dr. Robert B. Sykes, Australia; Terrel Thomas, Suriname; Charles Pascal Tolno, Rep. du Guinea; Stewart M. Tsela, Swaziland; Siteri V. Tuilovoni, Fiji; Prof. Theo Vincent, Nigeria; Amelia Ventura, Mozambique; Alvin Williams, Bermuda; Emmanuel York, St. Maarten.

Out of frustration for not finding a suitable host country for 7thPAC, we pursued Uganda, more for President Museveni’ s gorilla war credentials than for any recognisable record of achievement in the realm of Pan Africanism. The man would not even tolerate dissent from within Uganda let alone from outside. Museveni’s Uganda is in the pockets of the Arabs that are marginalizing our kith and kin in Northern Africa.

Our first letter to Museveni was in January, 1990 followed by another in September, 1990 and a third one in June, 1991, inviting his government to be a possible host of 7thPAC without pre-conditions. At the end of March, 1991, a number of documents arrived at our International Secretariat in Lagos from Kwame Ture stating that Kwame Ture of the All African Peoples Revolutionary Party (AAPRP), Col. Otafiire, the personal assistant to the Uganda Head of State and four others had met in Tripoli, Libya on December 10, 1990 and decided to constitute themselves into a pre-preparatory committee which is to be enlarged to become the preparatory committee to convene a conference to create a mass Pan African organisation.

Among the documents sent was an invitation to Naiwu Osahon to attend a preparatory meeting of their proposed conference in March, 1991, in Uganda. Obviously that meeting did not hold because according to another notice from them later, the invitations were sent out too late and got to their destinations well after the March date of the proposed meeting.

Three further attempts were made, up to the 27th of January, 1992, to put their preparatory meeting together without success but further documents were sent to the International Secretariat of the 7thPAC in Lagos and addressed as such. The documents specified that they were putting together:

(a) A conference focusing on anti-Zionism and

(b) To be called ” All African People’s Conference.

Since the title of their conference was not in conflict with our own, we were not entirely opposed to co-operating with Uganda although we wrote back to say: “While we are not uncomfortable with your anti-Zionist focus, we also want anti-Arab and anti-West focus for your proposed conference.”

On the 7th August, 1991, we received a letter from Col. Otafiire, calling their group, the 7th Pan African Congress Committee with Col. Otafiire as convenor and Chairman and President Museveni as their Patron, thereby constituting a direct challenge to the International Secretariat of the Pan African Movement in Lagos. On the 7th August, 1991, we addressed a comprehensive letter of our objection and discomfort on the matter to President Museveni. After waiting for a while without response, we wrote on the subject to all our committees around the world. Several activities followed around the world after the Uganda bombshell culminating in a long awaited first ever meeting between me and Kwame Ture in my office in Lagos on Saturday 27 March, 1993. It was an extremely warm and inspiring meeting lasting nearly four hours from about 4.45 p.m. The Secretary General of the 7thPAC national committee for Nigeria, Dr. Osagie Obayuwana was in attendance mainly as an observer.

Several issues concerning the way forward were discussed and the highlights of our agreement were:

(1) That everything humanly possible should be done to keep us and the black world united. We felt strongly that our detractors must not be given any comfort on this issue. That we needed to close ranks and give purposeful direction at this critical point in our history otherwise posterity would judge us harshly.

(2) That no African government, not even the OAU, under any disguise, should finance or host the 7th Pan African Congress or any other Pan African Congress. They can participate at congress meetings but as equal partners with the rest of the black world. Congress definitely does not need the authority of the OAU to hold since the OAU is a child of congress.

(3) That non-black sources should not finance or host any Pan-African Congress.

(4) That the 7th Pan African Congress should be held in Africa, preferably in a country where:
(a) Blacks would have no problems obtaining visas to attend,
because no black person, for ideological, religious, or any other
reason should be prevented from attending or speaking his
or her mind freely on any issue as affects the black world at
the congress.
(b) The lives of delegates and others attending congress would be
safe and largely guaranteed.

(5) We did not discuss congress date in details but felt that the December, 1993 Uganda date might be too soon considering the enormous task of preparing adequately (especially in area of fund-raising) for a meaningful congress. The August, 1994 date proposed by the International Secretariat in Lagos, we felt was feasible, particularly for the launching of the institutionalised ‘Movement.’

(6) We felt that there was a strong need to ensure qualitative attendance at congress and agreed that while the mass movement dimension of congress should not be hindered, it is necessary for the movement to be led by recognisable Pan-Africanists. In other words, there is a need to identify and agree on who serious Pan Aricanists are right now, around the black world, and either split congress dates to accommodate them or find ways to ensure that congress direction and decisions are controlled by them. If congress date is to be split, the institutional dimension of congress could be held first, say in August, 1994, as already scheduled, followed immediately by the Pan African leaders congress.

After further consultations on the above issues through correspondence with Kwame Ture and other blacks of diverse interests world-wide, it was agreed that the Uganda conference slated for December, 1993 should be a preparatory one for the 7thPAC of the International Secretariat in Lagos in August, 1994. The Uganda team ignored our recommendation and announced that they were going ahead with their December 1993 7thPAC charade. With US$300,000 blood money from Gaddafi, Museveni was not only well fortified to play the devil’s advocate, he was poised to launch his personal ambition to become the Emperor of a new Tutsi Hema Empire annexing Rwanda and mineral rich Zaire (now DRC) under the behest of America. We immediately began circulating a strongly worded message warning the patriotic black world not to go to Uganda.

On January 3 1994, we received a phone call in Lagos from one of our deputy leaders, Pauulu Kamarakafego in Bermuda, informing us that the December, 1993 Uganda make-believe congress failed to hold. It was cancelled in the last minute because of the non-arrival of quality delegations. Several ordinary, innocent black folks from the Diaspora, unaware of the high wire politics being perpetrated in the name of Pan-Africanism and hoping to touch base perhaps for the first time in their lives with mother Africa were turned back at the Kampala airport. A Uganda team, led by Col. Otafiire then set out on a tour of the black world to deliver Museveni’s invitation and offers of free return travel tickets and free accommodation in Uganda to government delegations and renown intellectuals who attend their rescheduled April 1994, 7thPAC. They had to move fast to nullify our pending August 1994 7thPAC date. They arrived Nigeria on January 5 1994 to deliver their invitation to the Nigerian government without visiting the 7thPAC International Secretariat.

And yet, no head of state attended the Uganda 7thPAC debacle. Not even Nyerere who had received our warning message earlier on and who was the principal host of the 6thPAC in Tanzania, would grace Uganda with his presence at least to demonstrate continuity. As predicted, the Uganda exercise turned out to be an attempt to be a convenor of congress regardless of the outcome to the black race. A lot of bravado prevailed, loads of resolutions were passed and delegates were feted lavishly before returning to their various countries no better off than they were before the congress. In fact, the average black person in the world today does not know that the 7thPAC has taken place in his or her name. Another jamboree has passed, one of the many failed attempts that litter our chequered history but Uganda achieved ‘a me too.’ Uganda succeeded in helping us waste another decade, another generation while Museveni rides on his high visibility profile to destabilise his neighbouring countries to annex and exploit their mineral resources.

The Uganda 7thPAC set up a Pan-African office in Kampala as a propaganda tool of Museveni’s Empire building machinery. That done, his hit man, Paul Kagame, a CIA protege with US military school training brought down a plane carrying the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi over their countries’ common border with Uganda. The Presidents’ death launched Rwanda’s sack and pogrom resulting in the death of over half a million Rwandans and the displacement of millions of others. Then they replaced the dreaded Mobutu with Laurent Kabila as President of the DRC.

Kabila, a Lumumbist refused to play along so Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda occupied the mineral rich regions of the DRC in 1999 with America’s technical backing. They massacred over two and a half million Congolese while looting and plundering the DRC’s mineral wealth. But for the meddlesome intervention of the armies of Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe, Emperor Museveni was only a hair’s breath away from his dream of usurping what potentially would have been the largest and richest modern Empire in Africa. Surprisingly, the failed Emperor apparently had the tacit support of South Africa’s President Nelson Mandela who was waiting on a ship off the coast of Kinshasha to crown Wamba Dia Wamba as Laurent Kabila’s replacement for Emperor Museveni’s new surrogate in the DRC.

The latest version of the African Union concept started from a totally discredited non-black source with an OAU’s special meeting bankrolled by Muamar Gaddafi in Sirte, Libya in 1999. Gaddafi, as we all know is the rascal or Satan behind all the modern civil wars in Africa. From Chad to Liberia to Sierra Leone, Gaddafi had his fingers on the rotten, smellie pie. He financed and trained Museveni’s gorilla adventure and he is the leading sustainer of Arab pogrom against Africans in the Sudan right now. After failing to build his, the United States of the Arab world dream, he turned to halpless Africa for relevance in international politics. His interest in the African Union is fiendish and totally opportunistic and was designed to lead to the setting up of the AU’s headquarters in Sirte, Libya with Muamar Gaddafi as the United States of Africa’s first President.

At first, Gaddafi’s dream project was opposed by Presidents Obasanjo of Nigeria and Thabo Mbeki of South Africa in what may have been no more than a power struggle between the personalities involved. President Obasanjo and Abdoulai Wade of Senegal opposed the Reparations for Slavery and Colonialism strategy of the black world at the 2001 UN World Conference against Racism in South Africa. Mbeki, of course, is pocketed by apartheid architects in South Africa. General Abacha’s regime in Nigeria, during a moment of discomfort with Mbeki, described Mbeki’s government as a structure with white skin and black head. He probably believed the tail wags the head.

During our struggle to assert our 7thPAC variance in the 1990’s, one of our most formidable foes in Senegal was Abdoulai Wade. Wade who had strong links with the anti-African ‘Labour International,’ in collaboration with Pierre T. Sane of Amnesty International and a Senegalese based in Canada tried to prempty 7thPAC to convene what they called PANAF ’92 to deliver the black world on a platter to their French government cohorts. Wade as the leader of the P.D.S party was reputed for creating confusion and mayhem in the ranks of opposition political parties in Senegal before he became the country’s President. His antecedence is decidedly Western oriented so it was no surprise that along with Gaddafi, Obasanjo and Mbeki they crafted a constitution that delivers the AU as a neo-colonial appendage of the West. These leaders are not Pan-Africanists and do not love Africa or the black world. They are in all these for selfish personal gains (crumbs), from under the tables of their Western benefactors.

The Obasanjo-Mbeki cabal went down on their knees to beg the West for a $64 billion handout but instead got $6 billion spread over a period of years. A Pan-Africanist friend, Lester Lewis, believes that, that is where the NEEEEPAD name comes from. Obviously, the $6 billion bailout is to enable us continue to buy the loads of KNEEPADS we are going to need from the West. The deputy leader of the World Pan African Movement, Charles C. Roach who is based in Canada, describing the African leaders begging scene at the 2002 G8 conference in Canada, said: “There is an amusing photograph of Prime Minister Chretien of Canada sitting astride a kneeling camel on his recent trip to Algeria and five other African countries over the NEPAD issue. The Prime Minister is entreating the camel not to stand up and this is understandable, because the way a camel gets up, unfolding its long legs is a roller-coaster ride for anyone on its back. Symbolically, Chretien was telling the African camel to stay on its knees while he perches on its back.”

Earlier this year, President Moi of Kenya, said in a speech in Blantyre, Malawi that Africa was doomed to perpetual poverty and backwardness unless African leaders free themselves of egocentricity. That “no country in the West had an obligation to baby-sit and spoon-feed independent African nations. African leaders must accept this fact, however unsettling, and rethink about their development strategies.” Recently too, President Yahya Jammeh of the Gambia was reported to have described NEPAD as a charter for beggars. Hear him: “NEPAD would not work. ….Africa is the richest continent in terms of mineral resources, but because of ignorance, Africa in economic terms, is the poorest continent and we Africans are the laughing stock of humanity. We have failed because some of us are agents of the same people we are supposed to fight against. We produce the bulk of the world’s raw materials so why are we still poor? Some of us are fighting proxy wars in Africa for the benefit of others. Africa has never colonised anyone. Some people who prolonged apartheid are now waving the flag of democracy and freedom. The African debt is not globalised, it is Africanised.”

At a forum in Addis Ababa in March 2002, Prof Shadrack Gutto of South Africa’s University of the Witwaterstrand asked why NEPAD was presented first to the G8 before African governments had a chance to discuss it. Mr. Wiseman Nkuhlu, the South African president’s special adviser on NEPAD, provided the not so wise answer at the forum that it is because African governments have been pre-occupied with building the AU. In answer to another question at the forum, Mr. Nkuhlu admitted that consultation with civil society “is not where we would like it.”

If the Obasanjo-Mbeki cabal, set up by the West to perpetuate our developmental pains would not consult with even their colleagues in African governments before inflicting the culture of the begging bowl on Africa all over again, does the African civil society have a right to expect a miracle from the AU? Where does that leave the black Diaspora in the scheme of things? What about ‘Reparations’ and Repatriation’?

The answer is for African civil society to link up with the black Diaspora civil society to impose a vibrant, uncompromising institutionalised ‘ Movement’ on the black world, independent of African governments’ control. The two priority areas of activities of the institutionalised ‘Movement’ would be: (a) To pressurise the AU to produce a Pan-African Passport (PAP) to enable any black or African, regardless of nationality, return home to Africa at will without let or hindrance. (b) To compel the West and Arabs, by any means necessary, to pay Reparations to the black world. This is, therefore our ‘ CALL’ to all Africans, African organisations, institutions and NGO’s of goodwill, wherever they may be in the world, to nominate their representatives to the 8thPAC International Co-ordinating Committee working to convene the Eight Pan-African Congress within the next three to five years in Africa to launch the Institutionalised Pan-African Movement.

By Naiwu Osahon
The World Pan African Movement
7th August, 2002.

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April 5, 2007


Take, Take, Take
House Negros
June 20, 2008 in History, Japan, Japanese
X says it straight:

To understand this, you have to go back to what [the] young brother here referred to as the house Negro and the field Negro — back during slavery. There was two kinds of slaves. There was the house Negro and the field Negro. The house Negroes – they lived in the house with master, they dressed pretty good, they ate good ’cause they ate his food — what he left. They lived in the attic or the basement, but still they lived near the master; and they loved their master more than the master loved himself. They would give their life to save the master’s house quicker than the master would. The house Negro, if the master said, “We got a good house here,” the house Negro would say, “Yeah, we got a good house here.” Whenever the master said “we,” he said “we.” That’s how you can tell a house Negro.

If the master’s house caught on fire, the house Negro would fight harder to put the blaze out than the master would. If the master got sick, the house Negro would say, “What’s the matter, boss, we sick?” We sick! He identified himself with his master more than his master identified with himself. And if you came to the house Negro and said, “Let’s run away, let’s escape, let’s separate,” the house Negro would look at you and say, “Man, you crazy. What you mean, separate? Where is there a better house than this? Where can I wear better clothes than this? Where can I eat better food than this?” That was that house Negro. In those days he was called a “house nigger.” And that’s what we call him today, because we’ve still got some house niggers running around here.

This modern house Negro loves his master. He wants to live near him. He’ll pay three times as much as the house is worth just to live near his master, and then brag about “I’m the only Negro out here.” “I’m the only one on my job.” “I’m the only one in this school.” You’re nothing but a house Negro. And if someone comes to you right now and says, “Let’s separate,” you say the same thing that the house Negro said on the plantation. “What you mean, separate? From America? This good white man? Where you going to get a better job than you get here?” I mean, this is what you say. “I ain’t left nothing in Africa,” that’s what you say. Why, you left your mind in Africa.

On that same plantation, there was the field Negro. The field Negro — those were the masses. There were always more Negroes in the field than there was Negroes in the house. The Negro in the field caught hell. He ate leftovers. In the house they ate high up on the hog. The Negro in the field didn’t get nothing but what was left of the insides of the hog. They call ‘em “chitt’lin’” nowadays. In those days they called them what they were: guts. That’s what you were — a gut-eater. And some of you all still gut-eaters.

The field Negro was beaten from morning to night. He lived in a shack, in a hut; He wore old, castoff clothes. He hated his master. I say he hated his master. He was intelligent. That house Negro loved his master. But that field Negro — remember, they were in the majority, and they hated the master. When the house caught on fire, he didn’t try and put it out; that field Negro prayed for a wind, for a breeze. When the master got sick, the field Negro prayed that he’d die. If someone come [sic] to the field Negro and said, “Let’s separate, let’s run,” he didn’t say “Where we going?” He’d say, “Any place is better than here.” You’ve got field Negroes in America today. I’m a field Negro. The masses are the field Negroes. When they see this man’s house on fire, you don’t hear these little Negroes talking about “our government is in trouble.” They say, “The government is in trouble.” Imagine a Negro: “Our government”! I even heard one say “our astronauts.” They won’t even let him near the plant — and “our astronauts”! “Our Navy” — that’s a Negro that’s out of his mind. That’s a Negro that’s out of his mind.

Just as the slavemaster of that day used Tom, the house Negro, to keep the field Negroes in check, the same old slavemaster today has Negroes who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms, 20th century Uncle Toms, to keep you and me in check, keep us under control, keep us passive and peaceful and nonviolent. That’s Tom making you nonviolent. It’s like when you go to the dentist, and the man’s going to take your tooth. You’re going to fight him when he starts pulling. So he squirts some stuff in your jaw called novocaine, to make you think they’re not doing anything to you. So you sit there and ’cause you’ve got all of that novocaine in your jaw, you suffer peacefully. Blood running all down your jaw, and you don’t know what’s happening. ‘Cause someone has taught you to suffer — peacefully.

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10 Replies
June 21, 2008 at 9:13 pm
he says something straight but i’m not sure what it is. not sure we can take this conjecture of all “house negroes” being loyal and all “field negroes” as being revolutionaries as fact though. some of the “house negroes” ended up being key leaders to assist the cause of the north in the civil war. and, as such have every reason to say “we” when saying they are americans. without folks with a willingness to reconcile the differences between white and black we don’t have an obama for president or a chris rock doing comedy.

i can appreciate x for his positions in their context of the 60’s and the newly escaped jim crow laws of the south. in today’s context, we got lots of work to do in making the cooperation work. it’s working better than the 50’s but lots of room for improvement.

June 22, 2008 at 3:23 am
MLK…what an asshole.

June 22, 2008 at 8:11 am
I’m relating this to teaching English in Japan. Ain’t nobody more critical of X than me.

June 22, 2008 at 10:54 am
The post suddenly assumes a great truth. I must remember to read the tags.

Colin Doyle
June 22, 2008 at 10:59 am
You can’t relate it to teaching English in Japan unless you can find some earlier paragraphs which tell how the slaves got on the boats themselves, sailed to America and *asked* the white folks to *make* them slaves.
Nothin’ like a jug of sweet self-pity on a warm summer’s night on the ol’ plantation…

June 22, 2008 at 11:02 am
There seems to be a great number of field slaves who are painting their faces white… I guess you refused to be such a coward (all matters of prudence aside)?

Life is full of reconciling contradictions. This, I guess, is the other side of “When in Rome”.

June 22, 2008 at 1:25 pm
More specific: This reminds me of my current situation in which a gaijin in authority is trying to enforce an unfair contract meant to exploit foreigners who are unaware of Japanese law and who is doing it more vigorously than the Japanese in authority.

June 22, 2008 at 2:24 pm
fight the power my friend.

colin’s comments made me laugh though. so true. i guess it’s the difference between forced slavery and indentured servitude.

Colin Doyle
June 22, 2008 at 3:26 pm
Ah. You’re referring to your employer, not yourself.Now it (kind of) makes sense. Well, there are plenty of those about, it’s true. Strained analogy, though.

June 23, 2008 at 1:58 am
Ah yes, the painted slave is whiter than the white man. : ) I could allegorize all day.

Really, though, this is a definite type. I was always fortunate never to encounter it in a superior though.


April 5, 2007

Malcolm X: “Message To The Grass Roots”

delivered on 10 Nov, 1963 in Detroit, MI

Audio mp3 of Address

[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio.]

…And during the few moments that we have left, we want to have just an off-the-cuff chat between you and me — us. We want to talk right down to earth in a language that everybody here can easily understand. We all agree tonight, all of the speakers have agreed, that America has a very serious problem. Not only does America have a very serious problem, but our people have a very serious problem. America’s problem is us. We’re her problem. The only reason she has a problem is she doesn’t want us here. And every time you look at yourself, be you black, brown, red, or yellow — a so-called Negro — you represent a person who poses such a serious problem for America because you’re not wanted. Once you face this as a fact, then you can start plotting a course that will make you appear intelligent, instead of unintelligent.

What you and I need to do is learn to forget our differences. When we come together, we don’t come together as Baptists or Methodists. You don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Baptist, and you don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Methodist. You don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Methodist or Baptist. You don’t catch hell because you’re a Democrat or a Republican. You don’t catch hell because you’re a Mason or an Elk. And you sure don’t catch hell ’cause you’re an American; ’cause if you was an American, you wouldn’t catch no hell. You catch hell ’cause you’re a black man. You catch hell, all of us catch hell, for the same reason.

So we are all black people, so-called Negroes, second-class citizens, ex-slaves. You are nothing but a [sic] ex-slave. You don’t like to be told that. But what else are you? You are ex-slaves. You didn’t come here on the “Mayflower.” You came here on a slave ship — in chains, like a horse, or a cow, or a chicken. And you were brought here by the people who came here on the “Mayflower.” You were brought here by the so-called Pilgrims, or Founding Fathers. They were the ones who brought you here.

We have a common enemy. We have this in common: We have a common oppressor, a common exploiter, and a common discriminator. But once we all realize that we have this common enemy, then we unite on the basis of what we have in common. And what we have foremost in common is that enemy — the white man. He’s an enemy to all of us. I know some of you all think that some of them aren’t enemies. Time will tell.

In Bandung back in, I think, 1954, was the first unity meeting in centuries of black people. And once you study what happened at the Bandung conference, and the results of the Bandung conference, it actually serves as a model for the same procedure you and I can use to get our problems solved. At Bandung all the nations came together. Their were dark nations from Africa and Asia. Some of them were Buddhists. Some of them were Muslim. Some of them were Christians. Some of them were Confucianists; some were atheists. Despite their religious differences, they came together. Some were communists; some were socialists; some were capitalists. Despite their economic and political differences, they came together. All of them were black, brown, red, or yellow.

The number-one thing that was not allowed to attend the Bandung conference was the white man. He couldn’t come. Once they excluded the white man, they found that they could get together. Once they kept him out, everybody else fell right in and fell in line. This is the thing that you and I have to understand. And these people who came together didn’t have nuclear weapons; they didn’t have jet planes; they didn’t have all of the heavy armaments that the white man has. But they had unity.

They were able to submerge their little petty differences and agree on one thing: That though one African came from Kenya and was being colonized by the Englishman, and another African came from the Congo and was being colonized by the Belgian, and another African came from Guinea and was being colonized by the French, and another came from Angola and was being colonized by the Portuguese. When they came to the Bandung conference, they looked at the Portuguese, and at the Frenchman, and at the Englishman, and at the other — Dutchman — and learned or realized that the one thing that all of them had in common: they were all from Europe, they were all Europeans, blond, blue-eyed and white-skinned. They began to recognize who their enemy was. The same man that was colonizing our people in Kenya was colonizing our people in the Congo. The same one in the Congo was colonizing our people in South Africa, and in Southern Rhodesia, and in Burma, and in India, and in Afghanistan, and in Pakistan. They realized all over the world where the dark man was being oppressed, he was being oppressed by the white man; where the dark man was being exploited, he was being exploited by the white man. So they got together under this basis — that they had a common enemy.

And when you and I here in Detroit and in Michigan and in America who have been awakened today look around us, we too realize here in America we all have a common enemy, whether he’s in Georgia or Michigan, whether he’s in California or New York. He’s the same man: blue eyes and blond hair and pale skin — same man. So what we have to do is what they did. They agreed to stop quarreling among themselves. Any little spat that they had, they’d settle it among themselves, go into a huddle — don’t let the enemy know that you got [sic] a disagreement.

Instead of us airing our differences in public, we have to realize we’re all the same family. And when you have a family squabble, you don’t get out on the sidewalk. If you do, everybody calls you uncouth, unrefined, uncivilized, savage. If you don’t make it at home, you settle it at home; you get in the closet — argue it out behind closed doors. And then when you come out on the street, you pose a common front, a united front. And this is what we need to do in the community, and in the city, and in the state. We need to stop airing our differences in front of the white man. Put the white man out of our meetings, number one, and then sit down and talk shop with each other. [That’s] all you gotta do.

I would like to make a few comments concerning the difference between the black revolution and the Negro revolution. There’s a difference. Are they both the same? And if they’re not, what is the difference? What is the difference between a black revolution and a Negro revolution? First, what is a revolution? Sometimes I’m inclined to believe that many of our people are using this word “revolution” loosely, without taking careful consideration [of] what this word actually means, and what its historic characteristics are. When you study the historic nature of revolutions, the motive of a revolution, the objective of a revolution, and the result of a revolution, and the methods used in a revolution, you may change words. You may devise another program. You may change your goal and you may change your mind.

Look at the American Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For land. Why did they want land? Independence. How was it carried out? Bloodshed. Number one, it was based on land, the basis of independence. And the only way they could get it was bloodshed. The French Revolution — what was it based on? The land-less against the landlord. What was it for? Land. How did they get it? Bloodshed. Was no love lost; was no compromise; was no negotiation. I’m telling you, you don’t know what a revolution is. ‘Cause when you find out what it is, you’ll get back in the alley; you’ll get out of the way. The Russian Revolution — what was it based on? Land. The land-less against the landlord. How did they bring it about? Bloodshed. You haven’t got a revolution that doesn’t involve bloodshed. And you’re afraid to bleed. I said, you’re afraid to bleed.

[As] long as the white man sent you to Korea, you bled. He sent you to Germany, you bled. He sent you to the South Pacific to fight the Japanese, you bled. You bleed for white people. But when it comes time to seeing your own churches being bombed and little black girls be murdered, you haven’t got no blood. You bleed when the white man says bleed; you bite when the white man says bite; and you bark when the white man says bark. I hate to say this about us, but it’s true. How are you going to be nonviolent in Mississippi, as violent as you were in Korea? How can you justify being nonviolent in Mississippi and Alabama, when your churches are being bombed, and your little girls are being murdered, and at the same time you’re going to violent with Hitler, and Tojo, and somebody else that you don’t even know?

If violence is wrong in America, violence is wrong abroad. If it’s wrong to be violent defending black women and black children and black babies and black men, then it’s wrong for America to draft us and make us violent abroad in defense of her. And if it is right for America to draft us, and teach us how to be violent in defense of her, then it is right for you and me to do whatever is necessary to defend our own people right here in this country.

The Chinese Revolution — they wanted land. They threw the British out, along with the Uncle Tom Chinese. Yeah, they did. They set a good example. When I was in prison, I read an article — don’t be shocked when I say I was in prison. You’re still in prison. That’s what America means: prison. When I was in prison, I read an article in Life magazine showing a little Chinese girl, nine years old; her father was on his hands and knees and she was pulling the trigger ’cause he was an Uncle Tom Chinaman, When they had the revolution over there, they took a whole generation of Uncle Toms — just wiped them out. And within ten years that little girl become [sic] a full-grown woman. No more Toms in China. And today it’s one of the toughest, roughest, most feared countries on this earth — by the white man. ‘Cause there are no Uncle Toms over there.

Of all our studies, history is best qualified to reward our research. And when you see that you’ve got problems, all you have to do is examine the historic method used all over the world by others who have problems similar to yours. And once you see how they got theirs straight, then you know how you can get yours straight. There’s been a revolution, a black revolution, going on in Africa. In Kenya, the Mau Mau were revolutionaries; they were the ones who made the word “Uhuru” [Kenyan word for “freedom”]. They were the ones who brought it to the fore. The Mau Mau, they were revolutionaries. They believed in scorched earth. They knocked everything aside that got in their way, and their revolution also was based on land, a desire for land. In Algeria, the northern part of Africa, a revolution took place. The Algerians were revolutionists; they wanted land. France offered to let them be integrated into France. They told France: to hell with France. They wanted some land, not some France. And they engaged in a bloody battle.

So I cite these various revolutions, brothers and sisters, to show you — you don’t have a peaceful revolution. You don’t have a turn-the-other-cheek revolution. There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution. [The] only kind of revolution that’s nonviolent is the Negro revolution. The only revolution based on loving your enemy is the Negro revolution. The only revolution in which the goal is a desegregated lunch counter, a desegregated theater, a desegregated park, and a desegregated public toilet; you can sit down next to white folks on the toilet. That’s no revolution. Revolution is based on land. Land is the basis of all independence. Land is the basis of freedom, justice, and equality.

The white man knows what a revolution is. He knows that the black revolution is world-wide in scope and in nature. The black revolution is sweeping Asia, sweeping Africa, is rearing its head in Latin America. The Cuban Revolution — that’s a revolution. They overturned the system. Revolution is in Asia. Revolution is in Africa. And the white man is screaming because he sees revolution in Latin America. How do you think he’ll react to you when you learn what a real revolution is? You don’t know what a revolution is. If you did, you wouldn’t use that word.

A revolution is bloody. Revolution is hostile. Revolution knows no compromise. Revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way. And you, sitting around here like a knot on the wall, saying, “I’m going to love these folks no matter how much they hate me.” No, you need a revolution. Whoever heard of a revolution where they lock arms, as Reverend Cleage was pointing out beautifully, singing “We Shall Overcome”? Just tell me. You don’t do that in a revolution. You don’t do any singing; you’re too busy swinging. It’s based on land. A revolutionary wants land so he can set up his own nation, an independent nation. These Negroes aren’t asking for no nation. They’re trying to crawl back on the plantation.

When you want a nation, that’s called nationalism. When the white man became involved in a revolution in this country against England, what was it for? He wanted this land so he could set up another white nation. That’s white nationalism. The American Revolution was white nationalism. The French Revolution was white nationalism. The Russian Revolution too — yes, it was — white nationalism. You don’t think so? Why [do] you think Khrushchev and Mao can’t get their heads together? White nationalism. All the revolutions that’s going on in Asia and Africa today are based on what? Black nationalism. A revolutionary is a black nationalist. He wants a nation. I was reading some beautiful words by Reverend Cleage, pointing out why he couldn’t get together with someone else here in the city because all of them were afraid of being identified with black nationalism. If you’re afraid of black nationalism, you’re afraid of revolution. And if you love revolution, you love black nationalism.

To understand this, you have to go back to what [the] young brother here referred to as the house Negro and the field Negro — back during slavery. There was two kinds of slaves. There was the house Negro and the field Negro. The house Negroes – they lived in the house with master, they dressed pretty good, they ate good ’cause they ate his food — what he left. They lived in the attic or the basement, but still they lived near the master; and they loved their master more than the master loved himself. They would give their life to save the master’s house quicker than the master would. The house Negro, if the master said, “We got a good house here,” the house Negro would say, “Yeah, we got a good house here.” Whenever the master said “we,” he said “we.” That’s how you can tell a house Negro.

If the master’s house caught on fire, the house Negro would fight harder to put the blaze out than the master would. If the master got sick, the house Negro would say, “What’s the matter, boss, we sick?” We sick! He identified himself with his master more than his master identified with himself. And if you came to the house Negro and said, “Let’s run away, let’s escape, let’s separate,” the house Negro would look at you and say, “Man, you crazy. What you mean, separate? Where is there a better house than this? Where can I wear better clothes than this? Where can I eat better food than this?” That was that house Negro. In those days he was called a “house nigger.” And that’s what we call him today, because we’ve still got some house niggers running around here.

This modern house Negro loves his master. He wants to live near him. He’ll pay three times as much as the house is worth just to live near his master, and then brag about “I’m the only Negro out here.” “I’m the only one on my job.” “I’m the only one in this school.” You’re nothing but a house Negro. And if someone comes to you right now and says, “Let’s separate,” you say the same thing that the house Negro said on the plantation. “What you mean, separate? From America? This good white man? Where you going to get a better job than you get here?” I mean, this is what you say. “I ain’t left nothing in Africa,” that’s what you say. Why, you left your mind in Africa.

On that same plantation, there was the field Negro. The field Negro — those were the masses. There were always more Negroes in the field than there was Negroes in the house. The Negro in the field caught hell. He ate leftovers. In the house they ate high up on the hog. The Negro in the field didn’t get nothing but what was left of the insides of the hog. They call ’em “chitt’lin'” nowadays. In those days they called them what they were: guts. That’s what you were — a gut-eater. And some of you all still gut-eaters.

The field Negro was beaten from morning to night. He lived in a shack, in a hut; He wore old, castoff clothes. He hated his master. I say he hated his master. He was intelligent. That house Negro loved his master. But that field Negro — remember, they were in the majority, and they hated the master. When the house caught on fire, he didn’t try and put it out; that field Negro prayed for a wind, for a breeze. When the master got sick, the field Negro prayed that he’d die. If someone come [sic] to the field Negro and said, “Let’s separate, let’s run,” he didn’t say “Where we going?” He’d say, “Any place is better than here.” You’ve got field Negroes in America today. I’m a field Negro. The masses are the field Negroes. When they see this man’s house on fire, you don’t hear these little Negroes talking about “our government is in trouble.” They say, “The government is in trouble.” Imagine a Negro: “Our government”! I even heard one say “our astronauts.” They won’t even let him near the plant — and “our astronauts”! “Our Navy” — that’s a Negro that’s out of his mind. That’s a Negro that’s out of his mind.

Just as the slavemaster of that day used Tom, the house Negro, to keep the field Negroes in check, the same old slavemaster today has Negroes who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms, 20th century Uncle Toms, to keep you and me in check, keep us under control, keep us passive and peaceful and nonviolent. That’s Tom making you nonviolent. It’s like when you go to the dentist, and the man’s going to take your tooth. You’re going to fight him when he starts pulling. So he squirts some stuff in your jaw called novocaine, to make you think they’re not doing anything to you. So you sit there and ’cause you’ve got all of that novocaine in your jaw, you suffer peacefully. Blood running all down your jaw, and you don’t know what’s happening. ‘Cause someone has taught you to suffer — peacefully.

The white man do the same thing to you in the street, when he want [sic] to put knots on your head and take advantage of you and don’t have to be afraid of your fighting back. To keep you from fighting back, he gets these old religious Uncle Toms to teach you and me, just like novocaine, suffer peacefully. Don’t stop suffering — just suffer peacefully. As Reverend Cleage pointed out, “Let your blood flow In the streets.” This is a shame. And you know he’s a Christian preacher. If it’s a shame to him, you know what it is to me.

There’s nothing in our book, the Quran — you call it “Ko-ran” — that teaches us to suffer peacefully. Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. That’s a good religion. In fact, that’s that old-time religion. That’s the one that Ma and Pa used to talk about: an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, and a head for a head, and a life for a life: That’s a good religion. And doesn’t nobody resent that kind of religion being taught but a wolf, who intends to make you his meal.

This is the way it is with the white man in America. He’s a wolf and you’re sheep. Any time a shepherd, a pastor, teach [sic] you and me not to run from the white man and, at the same time, teach [sic] us not to fight the white man, he’s a traitor to you and me. Don’t lay down our life all by itself. No, preserve your life. it’s the best thing you got. And if you got to give it up, let it be even-steven.

The slavemaster took Tom and dressed him well, and fed him well, and even gave him a little education — a little education; gave him a long coat and a top hat and made all the other slaves look up to him. Then he used Tom to control them. The same strategy that was used in those days is used today, by the same white man. He takes a Negro, a so-called Negro, and make [sic] him prominent, build [sic] him up, publicize [sic] him, make [sic] him a celebrity. And then he becomes a spokesman for Negroes — and a Negro leader.

I would like to just mention just one other thing else quickly, and that is the method that the white man uses, how the white man uses these “big guns,” or Negro leaders, against the black revolution. They are not a part of the black revolution. They’re used against the black revolution.

When Martin Luther King failed to desegregate Albany, Georgia, the civil-rights struggle in America reached its low point. King became bankrupt almost, as a leader. Plus, even financially, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was in financial trouble; plus it was in trouble, period, with the people when they failed to desegregate Albany, Georgia. Other Negro civil-rights leaders of so-called national stature became fallen idols. As they became fallen idols, began to lose their prestige and influence, local Negro leaders began to stir up the masses. In Cambridge, Maryland, Gloria Richardson; in Danville, Virginia, and other parts of the country, local leaders began to stir up our people at the grassroots level. This was never done by these Negroes, whom you recognize, of national stature. They controlled you, but they never incited you or excited you. They controlled you; they contained you; they kept you on the plantation.

As soon as King failed in Birmingham, Negroes took to the streets. King got out and went out to California to a big rally and raised about — I don’t know how many thousands of dollars. [He] come [sic] to Detroit and had a march and raised some more thousands of dollars. And recall, right after that [Roy] Wilkins attacked King, accused King and the CORE [Congress Of Racial Equality] of starting trouble everywhere and then making the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] get them out of jail and spend a lot of money; and then they accused King and CORE of raising all the money and not paying it back. This happened; I’ve got it in documented evidence in the newspaper. Roy started attacking King, and King started attacking Roy, and Farmer started attacking both of them. And as these Negroes of national stature began to attack each other, they began to lose their control of the Negro masses.

And Negroes was [sic] out there in the streets. They was [sic] talking about [how] we was [sic] going to march on Washington. By the way, right at that time Birmingham had exploded, and the Negroes in Birmingham — remember, they also exploded. They began to stab the crackers in the back and bust them up ‘side their head — yes, they did. That’s when Kennedy sent in the troops, down in Birmingham. So, and right after that, Kennedy got on the television and said “this is a moral issue.” That’s when he said he was going to put out a civil-rights bill. And when he mentioned civil-rights bill and the Southern crackers started talking about [how] they were going to boycott or filibuster it, then the Negroes started talking — about what? We’re going to march on Washington, march on the Senate, march on the White House, march on the Congress, and tie it up, bring it to a halt; don’t let the government proceed. They even said they was [sic] going out to the airport and lay down on the runway and don’t let no airplanes land. I’m telling you what they said. That was revolution. That was revolution. That was the black revolution.

It was the grass roots out there in the street. [It] scared the white man to death, scared the white power structure in Washington, D. C. to death; I was there. When they found out that this black steamroller was going to come down on the capital, they called in Wilkins; they called in Randolph; they called in these national Negro leaders that you respect and told them, “Call it off.” Kennedy said, “Look, you all letting this thing go too far.” And Old Tom said, “Boss, I can’t stop it, because I didn’t start it.” I’m telling you what they said. They said, “I’m not even in it, much less at the head of it.” They said, “These Negroes are doing things on their own. They’re running ahead of us.” And that old shrewd fox, he said, “Well If you all aren’t in it, I’ll put you in it. I’ll put you at the head of it. I’ll endorse it. I’ll welcome it. I’ll help it. I’ll join it.”

A matter of hours went by. They had a meeting at the Carlyle Hotel in New York City. The Carlyle Hotel is owned by the Kennedy family; that’s the hotel Kennedy spent the night at, two nights ago; [it] belongs to his family. A philanthropic society headed by a white man named Stephen Currier called all the top civil-rights leaders together at the Carlyle Hotel. And he told them that, “By you all fighting each other, you are destroying the civil-rights movement. And since you’re fighting over money from white liberals, let us set up what is known as the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. Let’s form this council, and all the civil-rights organizations will belong to it, and we’ll use it for fund-raising purposes.” Let me show you how tricky the white man is. And as soon as they got it formed, they elected Whitney Young as the chairman, and who [do] you think became the co-chairman? Stephen Currier, the white man, a millionaire. Powell was talking about it down at the Cobo [Hall] today. This is what he was talking about. Powell knows it happened. Randolph knows it happened. Wilkins knows it happened. King knows it happened. Everyone of that so-called Big Six — they know what happened.

Once they formed it, with the white man over it, he promised them and gave them $800,000 to split up between the Big Six; and told them that after the march was over they’d give them $700,000 more. A million and a half dollars — split up between leaders that you’ve been following, going to jail for, crying crocodile tears for. And they’re nothing but Frank James and Jesse James and the what-do-you-call-’em brothers.

[As] soon as they got the setup organized, the white man made available to them top public relations experts; opened the news media across the country at their disposal; and then they begin [sic] to project these Big Six as the leaders of the march. Originally, they weren’t even in the march. You was [sic ] talking this march talk on Hastings Street — Is Hastings Street still here? — on Hasting Street. You was [sic] talking the march talk on Lenox Avenue, and out on — What you call it? — Fillmore Street, and Central Avenue, and 32nd Street and 63rd Street. That’s where the march talk was being talked. But the white man put the Big Six [at the] head of it; made them the march. They became the march. They took it over. And the first move they made after they took it over, they invited Walter Reuther, a white man; they invited a priest, a rabbi, and an old white preacher. Yes, an old white preacher. The same white element that put Kennedy in power — labor, the Catholics, the Jews, and liberal Protestants; [the] same clique that put Kennedy in power, joined the march on Washington.

It’s just like when you’ve got some coffee that’s too black, which means it’s too strong. What you do? You integrate it with cream; you make it weak. If you pour too much cream in, you won’t even know you ever had coffee. It used to be hot, it becomes cool. It used to be strong, it becomes weak. It used to wake you up, now it’ll put you to sleep. This is what they did with the march on Washington. They joined it. They didn’t integrate it; they infiltrated it. They joined it, became a part of it, took it over. And as they took it over, it lost its militancy. They ceased to be angry. They ceased to be hot. They ceased to be uncompromising. Why, it even ceased to be a march. It became a picnic, a circus. Nothing but a circus, with clowns and all. You had one right here in Detroit — I saw it on television — with clowns leading it, white clowns and black clowns. I know you don’t like what I’m saying, but I’m going to tell you anyway. ‘Cause I can prove what I’m saying. If you think I’m telling you wrong, you bring me Martin Luther King and A. Philip Randolph and James Farmer and those other three, and see if they’ll deny it over a microphone.

No, it was a sellout. It was a takeover. When James Baldwin came in from Paris, they wouldn’t let him talk, ’cause they couldn’t make him go by the script. Burt Lancaster read the speech that Baldwin was supposed to make; they wouldn’t let Baldwin get up there, ’cause they know Baldwin’s liable to say anything. They controlled it so tight — they told those Negroes what time to hit town, how to come, where to stop, what signs to carry, *what song to sing*, what speech they could make, and what speech they couldn’t make; and then told them to get out town by sundown. And everyone of those Toms was out of town by sundown. Now I know you don’t like my saying this. But I can back it up. It was a circus, a performance that beat anything Hollywood could ever do, the performance of the year. Reuther and those other three devils should get a Academy Award for the best actors ’cause they acted like they really loved Negroes and fooled a whole lot of Negroes. And the six Negro leaders should get an award too, for the best supporting cast.


Also in this database: Malcolm X – The Ballot or the Bullet

Also in this database: Malcolm X: Photo Gallery and Final Speech

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April 5, 2007




Professor Molefi Kete Asante
Temple University
I am pleased that you have come to hear my lecture tonight and I want to thank the organizers of this event for their diligence and generosity. In particular I would like to publicly thank Dr. Kofi Anyidiho, and Executive Director Moore, the staff and the Board of the DuBois Center for making this occasion possible. I give praise to Nyame, Asase Yaa, and the Nananom nsamanfo for whatever clarity I am able to share with you.

I shall begin my lecture with a conclusion: Until an African leader publicly acknowledges, honors and prays to an African God, we Africans will continue to be viewed as pathetic imitators of others, never having believed in ourselves.

So powerful is the concept of religion when we discuss it in connection with civilization that to deny the validity of one’s religion is to deny the validity of one’s civilization. Indeed to deny one’s religion as valid is to suggest that the person is a pagan, a heathen, uncivilized, and beyond the sphere of humanity. So to talk about religion is to talk about our views of ourselves, our understanding of our ancestors, and our love of our culture.

To establish my argument that we have a crisis in civilization because we have a crisis in religion I will make several points dealing with the themes of tradition, history, religion, and human action.

There are no people without traditions and traditions are the lifeblood of a people. A people who refuse to express its love and appreciation for its ancestors will die because in traditions, if you are not expressing your own, you are participating in and expressing faith in someone else’s ancestors. No person is devoid of an attachment to some cultural fountain. Whose water are we drinking?

Our African history has been a recent orgy of forgetfulness. We have often lost our memories and accepted the gods of those who enslaved and colonized us. This is something the Chinese and the Indians have fought hard to keep at bay. While we have often embraced our enemies gods they have found those gods to be anathema to their interests. Show me the gods we Africans worship and I will show the extent of our moral and ethical decay.

Those who speak to us of Christian or Islamic morals have often been the very ones who had defiled our ancestors’ memories and called out sacred rites paganism. Malcolm X once said that the world pushes the African around because we give the impression that we are chumps, not champs, but chumps, weaklings, falling over ourselves to follow other people rather than our own traditions.

The distribution of religion represents the distribution of power. African distribution is minimal and exists in a few places in the diaspora like Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica and the American South. The religion that people practice is based on the influences that have captured their imaginations. In the American South and the Caribbean and in South America one will often find the Yoruba religion. It is Africa’s most powerful religious export to the Americas, but this is still a minimal influence when one considers the fact that others have imposed their religions on us and we have accepted the imposition often without a fight from our traditional leaders. Indeed our traditional religious leaders have often been hijacked by the material goods offered by the purveyors of these migrating gods.

The great African pharaoh, Menes, united the two lands (TAWY) bringing 42 clans or nomes under one government around 3100 B.C. By this time already Africans had formulated the first human response to the unknown. If anything we knew God befor anyone else, not because we were wiser but because we were first to be civilized.

If you take any of the scientific reports we know that the first hominids were from Africa. Australopithecus afarensis is 4,200,000 years old and Australopithecus ramidus, 3,800,000. When Richard Johnason discovered Dinqnesh, later called Lucy, by the Europeans, he claimed to have found the earliest example of a hominid in Ethiopia. Until 75,000 years ago all humans were black. Did they have an appreciation for the Almighty? Did they formulate a response to the unknown? Of course they did; they were human and human before anyone else.

Our ancestors brought forth the first civilizations and gave the world the oldest organized cosmological explanations. Thus, Ra as Ptah, Atum, Amen, Khepera, Khnum – the many names of the one, the Supreme, created Shu and Tefnut, air and moisture, Geb and Nut, earth and sky. Then came Ausar, Auset, Nebhet, and Set. Ausar was killed by his brother Set and Auset put him back together with the assistance of her sister, Nebhet and her son, Heru, who avenged his father by killing Set. This is the story of good over evil. The purpose was to create Maat, balance, harmony, justice, righteousness, reciprocity, order. These are the key concepts in any ethical system and the fact that they emerged first in the Nile Valley of Africa suggests that other ideas, related to these ideas, found their way into the very practices and beliefs of our people throughout the continent. The deliberate attempt by the European to separate Africans from the classical civilizations of the Nile is one of the biggest falsifications in history. Only when we reclaim our history will we be able to see that the origins of many religious ideas are African. How is it that the parent has become the child?

Thus, not only do we have the earliest emergence of God, we have the first ethnical principles, reinforced by proverbs, and refined in the oral and artistic traditions of our narratives.

The ancient name of Egypt was Kemet and it was the culmination of classical Africa’s achievements in science, art, architecture, medicine, astronomy, geometry, and religion. The Greeks honored the Africans as the originators of the science and art practiced by the Greeks themselves. It would be the Europeans of the 15th through 19th centuries that wouild try to divorce Europe from its African origin and deny Africa any role in civilizing the world.

The early Greek historian, Herodotus claims that nearly all of the Greek gods came from Africa. We know that the Greeks worshipped Imhotep as Aesclepius, the God of Medicine, and that the name Athens, Athena, is from Aten.

When Constantine in 325 A.D. took ideas from African spirituality and created a control mechanism at Council of Nicea he was trying to organize a system for using African spiritual ideas. The early Christian church had to deal with the fact that Christians had used many African ideas, the son of God, eternal life, and the resurrection, in their religion. The sad fact is that since we have forgotten so much we do not know that we are the originators of religion.

The abandonment of our history, indeed the abandonment of our gods, the gods of our ancestors, have brought us deep into the quagmire of misdirection, mis-orientation and self pity. When the missionaries forbade our shrines and punished us in the Americas when we called the names of our gods and sounded our mighty drums they were looking for the Pavlovian reaction they finally got in millions of Africans: African is bad, it is inferior, it is pagan, it is heathen. We often hear others cursing our ancestors in ways the Chinese, the Lebanese and the British would never allow. Why is this? Are we truly shamed by our military defeat? Can we no longer think about how right our ancestors were in exploring human nature and positing ways to combat the unknown? Cannot we create new forms out of the old mold or must we throw away the mold?

What would be anymore pagan than the wanton willful destruction of millions of Africans, Jews, Native Americans, and Chinese by Christians Europeans? How could white men pray to a god on the second floor of a slave dungeon while on the first floor they held our ancestors, yours and mine, in horrible bondage? What kind of religion denied our humanity at the same time they were raping our women, brutalizing our children, and demanding our wealth and our souls?

It is true that the idea of Christian names or Muslim names promotes and advances those cultures. Why must you change your name even if you chose to buy into a foreign religion? What is wrong with your name? Any religion that asks you to do what others do not have to do is asking you to abandon your mother. The question is, why would you abandon your mother?

Religion in General
What is religion but the deification of ancestors, the making sacred of traditions within the context and history. How can we honor any god who was used against us? The only people who accept alien gods are defeated people;
all others honor and accept their own name for the Almighty. We must learn to appreciate ourselves and our traditions. What is wrong with the African God?

What would we think of a Yoruba who accepted Chinese ancestors as his own? We would find it quite interesting and wonder how it came to be. But what of Africans’ acceptance of others’ gods? Is there no tradition with these alien gods? Of course there is tradition with these gods! To accept the Jews’ god or the Arabs’ god or the Hindu’s god and so forth is to valorize those histories above your own. Indeed, it is to honor the names in those myths and stories higher than your own stories, it is to love the language, the places in their stories above your own. Why is Mecca, Rome, or Jerusalem more sacred that Bosumtwi? Quite simply, it is imperialism, not by force of arms, but by force of religion which sometimes comes

Joel Kotkin’s Tribes – a book about people ready for the 21st Century claims that only Jews, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and British are ready. These groups have some commonalities which include (1) strong sense of identity, (2) international network, and (3) a passion for technology.

He does not include any African community or ethnic group. In fact, he believes that the African people were best organized under the leadership of Marcus Garvey who believed that Africans were not only capable of achieving without the whites; Africans had to achieve without whites in order to be seen as fully participating in the drama of history. Kwame Nkrumah believed in much the same idea.

Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations claims that there are six major civilizations: Chinese, Japanese, Orthodox, Hindu, Western, Islamic. He says each one has a nation that is vanguard, deeply committed to its religion and history. Africa has no such vanguard nation and furthermore Africa has yet to emerge from under the cloaks of its interventionists. Of 53 nations only one nation is more African in religion than either Christian or Muslim. That nation is small Benin.

Benin is 87% popular traditional African Religion. But it is a small nation with limited influence in a propaganda fashion. As such we do not expect African traditional religion to play a major part in the civilization of Africa for a long time to come, but we can begin to examine the questions, to raise the issues, and to interrogate our practices.

Let me explore African Religion with you to provide some common understanding.

African Religion
In the first place it is important that we call popular traditional African Religion everywhere by a common acronym, Ptare. This means that Akan, Yoruba, Igbo, Zulu and Shona are the same religion with different branches. Just as Christians may be Baptists, Methodists, and Catholics, and just as Muslims may be Mourrides, Sunni, or Shiities. There is no difference in speaking of Ptare as one religion and speaking of Christianity or Islam as one religion.

I believe that Popular Traditional African Religion everywhere (Ptare) is as old as civilization, indeed, it is much older than either Christianity or Islam. The major characteristics of Ptare are found in all of the traditions from East to West and from North to South. The fact that we have often misunderstood the legacy we have inherited is not the fault of those who left it; it is our fault for preferring the oppressors’ legacy over that of our own ancestors.

The characteristics of Ptare include:

Creator God
Domicile of Gods – Presence, Shrine
Priest/Priestess of God
Devotee of God – medium (Noc??)
Herbalist – Pharmacist
Psychiatrist – mental harmonizer
Diviner – scientist, Hunter’s/explorers
All ritual in Ptare seek a return to Maat.
Everything is one – we are a part of the whole and nothing is disconnected from the Almighty. That is why we recognize Mother Earth as well as Nyame.
What Europe sees and teaches as limitations in Ptare are really advantages:
No vast interpretative literary corpus to say what is and what is not – Ptare’s interpretations are often dependent on a multitude of situations that demand attention.

No concentration on the material manifestations of the God’s house. All temples started as shrines and from the shrine place people build other edifices. Buildings should have some historical or religious significance.

Advantages of Ptare
The ethical principles are more conducive to community, not so geared toward individualism. Some religions demonstrate their power by showing what they can build but this is only a matter of financial not moral wealth. Are you more civilized because you can build a nuclear bomb?

We must not be impressed by the things which can be created because we are human and have the same capacity and can create the same things out of our own minds. But our African gods do not advance destruction. They have never been gods of death, but of life.

The material manifestations of religion are not the wisest standard of how good god is unless your god is money. The new religions seem to bring schools and hospitals but we have always had those institutions without calling them by those names. Now it is time that the practitioners of Ptare explain the interrelationship of the traditions of ordinary life in the context of institutions. Our entire existence is religion. Our shrines are sacred places on sacred land given by the ancestors. Our health is interconnected to our spirituality.

We Africans have always believed in a supreme deity
whether the name was Nyame, Oludumare, Abasi, Nkulunkulu, Woyengi, Chukwu, Mawu and Lisa. This is true although others have said we did not. They have confused a lot of us.

When the white missionaries translated the bible in our languages, they asked our ancestors for the name of the Almighty and they used the names our ancestors had always used for the Almighty and then told us that we did not have a belief in the Supreme.

But we now know that our priests were no less wise in their observations than the Greek sophists, the Hebrew prophets, the Arab ulema, or the Chinese literati.

Our ancestors believed in pluralism without hierarchy — many expressions of God without saying mine is right, or the only one, and yours is bad, pagan, and heathen. Perhaps had we done that we would have stopped the alien religions at the shore, but we are the world’s first humanists and we allowed others to come with their goods and their gods.

They came with a political ideology in the name of religion. It was imperialism. Imperialism brings destruction, obliteration. How could we fall for it for so long? The introduction of a book or a gun caused us to lose our
footing, to stumble on our way, to denounce our fathers and mothers.

There are no other people on the earth who have had to denounce their ancestors in order to become better people. Is it because our ancestors are so strong that we are forced to denounce them before our conquerors? This is one thing you shall never find me doing because I know too much about my African contribution to history.

Contributions of Ptare
The first naming of the divine, netcher, god, or netcheru divinity from which some say the English word nature is ultimately derived.
The first trinity: Ausar, Auset, Heru which has been repeated by Amen, Mut, Khonsu and then God, the father, God the son, God the holy
spirit. The Christians took out the mother who represented Auset -and gave Christians a virgin Mary, but she was no god. Asase Yaa is Mother Earth, but no one can have a son without a mother
The first idea of a son of god or a daughter of God. Sa Ra or Sat Ra.
The first black stone altars – long before the Kaaba was revealed at Mecca.
The first example of the resurrection from the dead Ausar. This is also where we find that the Neb Ankh – Lord of Life was not a sarcophagus, that is, not a flesh eater, but something that spoke of life.
The name of god Amen now used by others in their prayers.
The idea that your good should outweigh your evil, that your soul should be lighter than a feather, that perfection is not what is sought after, but overwhelming goodness.
The complementarity of males and females, different roles but not subjugation, Mawu and Lisa, male and female – Auset and Ausar, complementarity.
The first records of ancestors’ wisdom. The books of Ptahhotep, Kagemni, Duauf
The idea of heaven and earth, Nut , Geb, Auset is called, Lady of Heaven
Here in Africa humans have prayed to God longer than on any other continent. When the pyramids were finished, Europe had given the world not one organized civilization, even Asia was just stirring. Just look at a broad chronology:
2500 B.C. – The African people along the river valleys of the eastern highlands floated stones down the Nile to help monuments to God.
2500 Hsia Dynasty rises in China
2200 BC. Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro were found in India
800 BC Homer is the first voice of the Greeks
500 Romans come to power in Europe.
639 A.D. Arabs are able to cross into Africa with force under General El As from Arabia-Yemen.
Africans made the idea of the beautiful and the good one world nfr – nefer
Ptare gave the world its first ethical system: Maat – balance, harmony, justice, righteousness, reciprocity, order – Maat was the only major deity without priesthood since all were priests of Maat.

The idea of eternal life – Ankh neheh was African

The first libations, offerings and burning of incense as ritual forms

The ten commandments were preceded by the 42 confessions in the Egyptian Book of the Dead or more accurately the Egyptian Book of the Coming Forth By Day.

Ptare gave the idea of collective and communal salvation rather than a rampant individualism which says save me and the rest of the world go to hell.

The Future
All futures are made by human beings. But the begin with consciousness which precedes Afrocentricity.

A few days ago I walked into a Kumasi restaurant and found that I could get Ghanaian food only by pre-arranged request. But western food was immediately available. Imported. Are African Gods only on request? We determine
this by how we live.

The Wolof and Senegal say wood may remain in water for ten years but it will not become a crocodile. We live Africa by living its tried and true values and customs –
this is a credit to our gods. Almost all of the disarray in Africa can be traced to the disruption of the traditional religion. In fact, one can go from country to country and find that the cause of the problems can be laid at the feet of alien civilizations. This is not a wild statement; it is based on deep reflection and study.

I believe in the African gods and believe that just as we have exported our cultural forms in music, art and science, the world needs a more sane and sensible ethic.

What Must Be Done
We must talk honestly to our elders — those who have not abandoned the traditions – consult the priests, learn from them, and discover the source of our problems.

Remove all images of a white Jesus. This is not correct even if one is Christian. The historical Jesus had be black in color despite the missionaries’ attempt to paint him English and Swedish.

We must believe that our names are as sacred as Arabic or European names.

We must understand that when others extend their values, religion and institutions they are penetrating our traditions with the poison of alien power that teaches us to hate ourselves and to love our oppressors. Meanwhile, they never follow the prescriptions they leave for us.

We must enhance the economic, political and military power of African states because a lack of such power creates self doubt, identity crisis, and a search for the material gods of the west who seem to produce these things. But spirit is greater if we use it and we can only use it if we practice.

We need boldness from our leaders to accomplish this transformation.

The British called Harry Lee the best Englishman east of the British Isles when he finished Oxford. He changed his name, converted to Confucianism and they wondered what happened to him.
He learned Mandarin Chinese and became Lee Kuan Yew, a leader who rejected Western values.

Asians are calling for Confucianism as they emphasize tradition. The Japanese are calling for Nihonjinron, Japanese values. Why must we be stuck with the attitudes and values of the European, so-called Christian values, particularly since they have shown themselves to be bankrupt on many fronts.

We can achieve our aims not so much by modernizing African traditions as Africanizing modernity itself. We are the modern people. Our ecological values, relationships values, respect for others values are the keys to the future.

I recognize that humans cannot advance without answering some basic questions like, Who Am I? Why am I here? What is the purpose of existence? Who are we as humans, Africans, Ghanaians, Gas, Ewe, Guans, Akans, African Americans?

Religion provides compelling answers and often small communities of others who believe like we do. African deities and the Almighty God of Africa do that for us. They give us identity and direction.

We are the children of the Supreme God sustained by our ancestral connections, formed to glorify the best values of Maat, encouraged to assume responsibility for each other in a community of consciousness.

Failure to do this is a deviation, an abomination and we can only re-connect through rites of ablution— making, doing or sacrificing time, money, energy in the name and interest of Africa. The concept of the gift is the idea, not what we give.
This may change given education, science, sensibility, scarcity, etc., but we need to sacrifice for Africa.

But our God must not be one of exploitation, egocentrism, conservatism and westernization. If so, we shall go to hell.

We must create our African personality and identity in art, dance, medicine, education, science, and religion and if we cannot do it here in the land of Okomfo Anokye, Nkrumah and Du Bois, then it cannot be done in Africa.

If we do not do it here in the land of Yaa Asantewaa, then we can never be the hope of the hopeless.

If Africa cannot find its way, then I fear the prospects of the world.

But Africa will rise to throw off the vestiges of mental enslavement and there shall be rejoicing among the Nananom nsamanfo. The ancestors will say: Rejoice! Rejoice! Let the Gods of Africa Rejoice!

Note: Dr. Molefi Kete Asante is the author of 42 books, more than 200 articles, the father of Afrocentricity, and the creator of the first doctoral program in African American Studies.

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