Archive for the ‘BLACK WOMEN’ Category


April 10, 2007



To the ancient Greek and Latin writers contemporary with the ancient Egyptians the physical classification posed no problems with them: the ancient Egyptians were black, snub-nosed, thick lips, with curly hair. [Primary evidence]

Herodotus: “there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country” (The Histories, Book 2:100)

“Colchians are an Egyptian race . . . . the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too.” (The Histories, Book 2:104)


Professor William Petrie “The Father of Egyptian Pre-history”

Egyptologist Petrie, excavations at Nagada and Ballas in Upper Egypt nearly 100 years ago unearth nearly 2200 ancient graves. He wrote over a thousand books, articles and reviews reporting on his excavations and his finds.

Petrie, W.M. Flinders, The Making of Egypt, Sheldon Press, New York, 1939, p. 105:

Sudanese Dynasties:

“Scorpion king of the Anu [Aunu] culture”.

“A breath of life came from the Sudan. This southern source was likewise the inspiration of . . .” the 1st, 2nd (Anu),

3rd [Sudanese], 4th, 5th, 12th [Sudanese] dynasties. “The 12th dynasty was undoubtedly descended from Amenemhat, the great vizier of the 11th dynasty. It seems, then, that he married the heiress of the Uah-ka family, as stated in the pseudo-prophecy, “A king shall come from the south whose name is Ameny, son a Nubian woman.” She called her son by the family name Senusert, and he was the founder of the 12th dynasty, according to Manetho. The main sources of the 18th dynasty were Nubian and Libyan, depicted black and yellow, but not red of the Egyptians.

Ahmos Nefertari was one of their black queens. Her black strain seems to come through the Tao I and II ancestry. The 19th dynasty was a direct mixture of races.” Petrie states: “Decay continued in a divided kingdom; Egypt seemed hopeless until a fresh Ethiopian invasion stimulated it, as in earlier instances”. This was the beginning of the 25th dynasty.

See photo of kings Menes, Khasekhem and Djoser. Also the Gebel el-Arak Knife.


The following was taken from Petrie, A History of Egypt – Part One, 1896, pp. 125-129:

“The Galla Penetration. It has long ago been remarked that the black sphinxes, later appropriated by the Hyksos, approximated to the Galla type of Abyssinia”.

“This starts an enquiry how the Galla connection could thus appear on monuments. In the clearance and planning of the rock tombs at Qau, Antaeopolis, the peculiar plan of those tombs, with great halls and small chambers annexed, was observed to be closely parallel to that of later Nubian temples. In both tomb and temple the chief work is in the solid rock, while the forecourt is of masonry constructed in front of it. Another peculiarity was the hammer-work excavation of one tomb, which had evidently been done with stone balls, as in the Aswan granite working, and this implies a southern connection”.

“These people do not appear in any records, and all their monuments have been reappropriated. They left, however, a most striking style of sculpture, in the sphinxes which were later removed to Tanis, but seem originally to have come from El Kab, where a piece of such a sphinx has been found.The type is closely like that of the Galla. The evidence that all the earlier sculptures of Tanis were collected there by Ramessu II seems clear; and that these sphinxes are earlier than the Hyksos is certain by those kings having appropriated them. No period seems so likely for them as the 7th to the 10th dynasties. The type was heavily bearded, with bushy hair”. Petrie


Nubia is a relatively modern name, introduced a mere 2000 years ago by the Greek geographer and historian Strabo (63 BC-24 AD), who met members of the Noba tribe and decided to call their country Nubia. For millennia before Strabo’s visit, the Egyptians called it Ta-Seti, “Land of the Bow,” because of its famous archers. Strabo visited the lands south of the Nile’s first cataract in 29 B.C., he remarked on the region’s mineral wealth.


X-raying the Pharaohs:

The authors of X-raying the Pharaohs (1978) are James E. Harris director of the expedition to x-ray the pharaohs, professor of dentistry and chairman of the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Michigan; Kent R. Weeks, an American Egyptologist and member of the expedition, is associate professor and chairman of the Department of Anthropology at The American University in Cairo wrote:

Seqenenra Tao: “His entire lower facial complex, in fact, is so different from other pharaohs that he could be fitted more easily into the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian–that is, non-Egyptian–origin for Seqenenra and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stand in need of considerable re-examination”.

Written in the book X-raying the Pharaohs states that Donald Redford, a modern Canadian Egyptologist. . . . “believes Hatshepsut’s attainment of the throne represents the final attempt in the Eighteenth Dynasty to establish a strong matrairchate in Egypt. He cites the unusual importance of earlier queens in this period –Tetisheri, Ahhotep I, Ahmose-Nefertari–as evidence of such a tendency, and here suggest that the influences for such a matriarchally determined order of succession might have come from Nubia. The possibility that the rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty were themselves at least part Nubian”.

James E. Harris, Kent R. Weeks, X-raying the Pharaohs, 1973, p. 135; 17th & 18th dynasty family tree.


1980 Discovery in Upper Egypt:

35,000-30,000 years ago: “Oldest human skeleton found in Egypt”. Nazlet Khater man was the earliest modern human skeleton found near Luxor, in 1980. The remains was dated from between 35,000 and 30,000 years ago. The report regarding the racial affinity of this skeleton concludes: “Strong alveolar prognathism combined with fossa praenasalis in an African skull is suggestive of Negroid morphology [form & structure]. The radio-humeral index of Nazlet Khater is practically the same as the mean of Taforalt (76.6). According to Ferembach (1965) this value is near to the Negroid average.” The burial was of a young man of 17-20 years old, whose skeleton lay in a 160cm- long narrow ditch aligned from east to west. A flint tool, which was laid carefully on the bottom of the grave, dates the burial as contemporaneous with a nearby flint quarry. The morphological features of the Nazlet Khater skeleton were analysed by Thoma (1984). The 35,000 year old skeleton was examined using multivariate statistical procedures. In the first part, principal components analysis is performed on a dataset of mandible dimensions of 220 fossils, sub-fossils and modern specimens, ranging in time from the Late Pleistocene to recent and restricted in space to the African continent and Southern Levant.

Thoma A., Morphology and Affinities of the Nazlet Khater Man; Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 13, 1984.

Nazlet Khater falls closer to the Late Palaeolithic Nubian samples . . . If an ancestral descendant relationship existed between Nazlet Khater and the Late Palaeolithic Nubian specimens, then regional continuity persisted among the Upper/Late Pleistocene populations of the Upper Nile region. The Nazlet Khater specimen is part of a relict population which is a descendant of a larger sub-Saharan stock, which extended as far north as present day upper Egypt sometime during the Last Interglacial period, or the early part of the Last Glacial period. In such a scenario, the Nazlet Khater belongs to a relict population which retained some of the morphological features [form & structure] that were present among Middle Stone Age populations, but no longer present in other contemporaneous sub-Saharan and North African populations.

The Position of the Nazlet Khater Specimen Among Prehistoric and Modern African and Levantine Populations, Ron Pinhasi, Departent of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, U.K., Patrick Semal, Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium; Journal of Human Evolution (2000) vol. 39, 269–288.


Ancient Text Source (Primary):

It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments, and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days’ absence, serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes, and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon. “I think,” says Heeren, after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship, “that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. The sacred ship of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment, and is towed along by another boat. It is therefore on its voyage. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals, since, even according to the interpretation of antiquity, Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter’s visit to the Ethiopians, and his twelve days’ absence.”–Long, “Egyptian

Antiquities” vol. 1 p. 96. Eustathius, vol. 1 p. 98, sq. (ed. Basil) (quoting from the the Iliad, written by Homer in 800 B.C.E )

Greek historian Diodorus Siculus. From his own statements we learn that he traveled in Egypt around 60 BC. His travels in Egypt probably took him as far south as the first Cataract.

“They (the Ethiopians) say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris [“King of Kings and God of Gods] having been the leader of the colony . . . they add that the Egyptians have received from them, as from authors and their ancestors, the greater part of their laws.” Diodorus’s declared intention to trace the origins of the cult of Osiris, alias the Greek Dionysus also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus. The Homeric Hymn “To Dionysus” locates the birth of Dionysus in a mysterious city of Nysa “near the streams of Aegyptus” (Hesiod 287). Diodorus cites this reference as well as the ancient belief that Dionysus was the son of Ammon, king of Libya (3.68.1), and much of Book 3 of the Bibliotheka Historica is devoted to the intertwined histories of Dionysus and the god-favored Ethiopians whom he believed to be the originators of Egyptian civilization. [emphasis added]

(1st century B.C., Diodorus Siculus of Sicily, Greek historian and contemporary of Caesar Augustus, Universal History Book III. 2. 4-3. 3)

Dionysus is Orisis reinvented. The mysteries were neither of Cretan origin nor a part of the original Greek religion is well established by the fact that the initiatory rites as practiced among these islanders were open to everyone, in contrast to the secret rituals of Byblus, Cyprus, Thrace, Samothrace, and Eleusis (Diodorus, Book V, 77). The mystery, which originated in Egypt, was imported into Greece long after Zeus and his family had migrated from Mt. Ida to Mt. Olympus.

Diodorus devoted an entire chapter of his world history, the Bibliotheke Historica, or Library of History (Book 3), to the Kushites [“Aithiopians”] of Meroe. Here he repeats the story of their great piety, their high favor with the gods, and adds the fascinating legend that they were the first of all men created by the gods and were the founders of Egyptian civilization, invented writing, and given the Egyptians their religion and culture. (3.3.2).

“Now they relate that of all people the Aithiopians [Ethiopians] were the earliest, and say that the proofs of this are clear. That they did not arrive as immigrants but are the natives of the country and therefore rightly are called authochthonous is almost universally accepted. That those who live in the South are likely to be the first engendered by the earth is obvious to all. For as it was the heat of the sun that dried up the earth while it was still moist, at the time when everything came into being, and caused life, they say it is probable that it was the region closest to the sun that first bore animate beings”.

[160,000-year-old fossilized skulls uncovered in Ethiopia are oldest anatomically modern humans.]

Diodorus continues:

“They further write that it was among them that people were first taught to honor the gods and offer sacrifices and arrange processions and festivals and perform other things by which people honor the divine. For this reason their piety is famous among all men, and the sacrifices among the Aithiopians are believed to be particularly pleasing to the divinity,”

“The Aithiopians [Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement.The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Aithiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Aithiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Aithiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them.”

“There are also numerous other Aithiopian tribes [i.e. besides those centered at Meroe]; some live along both sides of the river Nile and on the islands in the river, others dwell in the regions that border on Arabia [i.e. to the east], others again have settled in the interior of Libya [i.e. to the west]. The majority of these tribes, in particular those who live along the river, have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair”.

(Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. II: From the Mid-Fifth to the First Century BC (Bergen, Norway, 1996))


Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher, scientist, and tutor to Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises.

“Too black a hue marks the coward as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians and so does also too white a complexion as you may see from women, the complexion of courage is between the two.”

(Physiognomics, Vol. VI, 812a)

Aristotle makes reference to the hair form of Egyptians and Ethiopians: “Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair.”

(Physiognomics, Book XIV, p. 317)


The evidence of Lucian (Greek writer, 125 B.C.) is as explicit as that of the previous writers. He introduces two Greeks, Lycinus and Timolaus, who start a conversation:

Lycinus (describing a young Egyptian): “This boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin . . . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman.”

Timolaus: “But that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus, All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. It is the exact opposite of the custom of our ancestors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to keep it in place.”

(Lucian, Navigations, paras 2-3)


Herodotus (490-425 B.C.E.) The first Greek historian. Called the Father of History.

He reports faithfully what the Egyptian priests communicated to him as the history of their country, when he visited Egypt about 460 to 450 BC.

“I went as far as Elephantine [Aswan] to see what I could with my own eyes, but for the country still further south I had to be content with what I was told in answer to my questions. South of Elephantine the country is inhabited by Ethiopians. . . Beyond the island is a great lake, and round its shores live nomadic tribes of Ethiopians. After crossing the lake one comes again to the stream of the Nile, which flows into it . . . After forty days journey on land along the river, one takes another boat and in twelve days reaches a big city named Meroë, said to be the capital city of the Ethiopians. The inhabitants worship Zeus and Dionysus alone of the Gods, holding them in great honor”.

“The Ethiopians to whom this embassy was sent are said to be the tallest and handsomest men in the whole world. In their customs they differ greatly from the rest of mankind, and particularly in the way they choose their kings; for they find out the man who is the tallest of all the citizens, and of strength equal to his height, and appoint him to rule over them . . . The spies were told that most of them lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even went beyond that age — they ate boiled flesh, and had for their drink nothing but milk. Among these Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable. Also, last of all, they were allowed to behold the coffins of the Ethiopians, which are made (according to report) of crystal, after the following fashion: When the dead body has been dried, either in the Egyptian, or in some other manner, they cover the whole with gypsum, and adorn it with painting until it is as like the living man as possible. Then they place the body in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive it, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies; and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly; yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare. The next of kin keep the crystal pillar in their houses for a full year from the time of the death, and give it the first fruits continually, and honor it with sacrifice. After the year is out they bear the pillar forth, and set it up near the town. . .”

“Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony; and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else. The Ethiopians were clothed in the skins of leopards and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they laid short arrows made of reed, and armed at the tip, not with iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, of the kind used in engraving seals. They carried likewise spears, the head of which was the sharpened horn of an antelope; and in addition they had knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their bodies, half with chalk, and half with vermilion. . .”

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II); Herodotus, The History, trans. George Rawlinson (New York: Dutton & Co., 1862)

Herodotus on the pharaohs: “So far, all I have said is the record of my own autopsy and judgment and inquiry. Henceforth I will record Egyptian chronicles, according to what I have heard, adding something of what I myself have seen” . . . . “The priests told me that Min was the first king of Egypt, and that first he separated Memphis from the Nile by a dam” . . . “After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men” . . . “The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery”.

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II, chap. 100

Herodotus also asserted that “the names of nearly all the gods came to Greece from Egypt . . . for the names of all the gods have been known in Egypt from the beginning of time . . . It was the Egyptians too who originated, and taught the Greeks . . . ceremonial meeting, processions and liturgies . . . The Egyptians were also the first to assign each month and each day to a particular deity, and to foretell the date of a man’s birth, his character, his fortunes, and the day of his death . . . The Egyptians, too have made more use of omens and prognostics than any other nation. . .”

(Herodotus, The Histories, 149-150; 152; 159).

There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others, I had remarked it myself. After the thought had struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the Egyptians had of them. Still the Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too. But further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learned the custom of the Egyptians. And the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbors the Macronians, say that they have recently adopted it from the Colchians. Now these are the only nations who use circumcision, and it is plain that they all imitate herein the Egyptians. With respect to the Ethiopians, indeed, I cannot decide whether they learned the practice of the Egyptians, or the Egyptians of them (it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in Ethiopia). But that the others derived their knowledge of it from Egypt is clear to me, from the fact that the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised. (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 2:104)


The Greek writer Herodotus repeatedly referred to the Egyptians as being dark-skinned people with woolly hair. “They,” he says, “have the same tint of skin which approaches that of the Ethiopians.” The opinion of the ancient writers on the Egyptians is more or less summed up by French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero The Dawn of Civilization (1894), when he says, “By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historians, they [the Egyptians] belong to an African race which first settled in Ethiopia on the Middle Nile: following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.” The German scholar, Eugen Georg, in his book The Adventure of Mankind (1931) p. 121, tells us about the “. . . world-wide dominance of Ethiopian representatives of the black race. They were supreme in Africa and Asia. In upper Egypt and India they erected mighty religious centers and mastered a perfect technique in the molding of bronze — and they even infiltrated through Southern Europe for a thousand years.”


Stephanus of Byzantium, who is said to represent the opinions of the most ancient Greeks, says:

“Ethiopia was the first established country on the earth, and the Ethiopians were the first who introduced the worship of the Gods and who established laws.”

Quoted by John D. Baldwin, Prehistoric Nations, p. 62.


According to Professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden Jr., (AB, AM, Ph.D.) Howard University Classicist Department — reading of the sources, the Ethiopians “pioneered” religion, and were key to the origin and propagation of many of the customs which existed in Egypt. The Egyptians, it was argued, were descendants of the Ethiopians. Snowden states that the term Kushites, Nubians, or Ethiopians is to used in much the same way as the modern term “colored”, “black, or Negro”. “The experiences of those Africans who reached the alien shores of Greece and Italy constituted an important chapter in the history of classical antiquity,” he writes. “Using evidence from terra cotta figures, paintings, and classical sources like Herodotus and Pliny the Elder, Snowden proves, contrary to our modern assumptions, that Greco-Romans did not view Africans with racial contempt. Many Africans worked in the Roman Empire as musicians, artisans, scholars, and generals as well as slaves, and they were noted as much for their virtue as for their appearance of having a “burnt face” (from which came the Greek name Ethiopian).”

(Snowden Jr., Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1970; Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983).)

Side Note: President Bush announced one of the 2003 Humanities medal to Frank M. Snowden Jr. (Washington, D.C.), one of the foremost scholars on blacks in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Italy, is Professor Emeritus of Classics at Howard University in Washington, D.C. A graduate of Harvard, Snowden has served as a member of the U.S. delegation to UNESCO in Paris and as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Rome. As a U.S. specialist lecturer for the Department of State, Snowden delivered lectures in Africa, Egypt, Italy, Austria, Greece, India, and Brazil. His many books on blacks in the ancient Mediterranean world include Blacks in Antiquity (1970), The Image of the Black in Western Art I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire, which he co-authored (1976), and Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983). Snowden’s nominator writes, “Howard students will remember him for his dramatic classroom recitations in ancient Greek and Latin from memory and his plea for the beauty and universality of great literature.”


Basil Davidson, born on November 9, 1914 in Bristol, England, well-known English scholar of African history. Combining archeological evidence and scholarly research Davidson traces the exciting development of the rich kingdoms of the lost cities of Africa, fifteen hundred years before European ships first came to African shores. “East Africa has developed from a completely primitive country, . . . more backward than the Stone Age . . .” Yet the Stone Age blacks of Khartoum (in Sudan) manufactured pots before the inhabitants of Jericho, the world’s earliest known

city. The Khartoum Mesolithic culture is dated about 7000 B.C. Prehistoric Egyptian artifacts dated a thousand years later would reflect a Khartoum influence. Between 5th century B.C. and 3rd century A.D., Meroe in Sudan was an iron-smelting center. 12th century Arab writer Edrisi reported numerous iron mines in Malindi and Sofala. Edrisi rated Sofala iron better than India iron. At that time, southeastern Africa exported smelted iron to India. (Malindi and Sofala are in modern Kenya and Mozambique respectively.)

(Davidson, Basil, The Lost Cities of Africa, Back Bay Books; Revised edition (1959)). Davidson has written more than 30 books on Africa since 1952.


The Senegalese Physicist and African Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986) tells us in his book The African Origin of Civilization Myth or Reality (1974) that the Greek writer, Herodotus, may be mistaken, when he reports the customs of a people. “But one must grant that he was at least capable of recognizing the skin color of the inhabitants of countries he visited.” His descriptions of the Egyptians were the descriptions of a Black people. At this point the reader needs to be reminded of the fact that at the time of Herodotus’s visit to Egypt and other parts of Africa (between 480 and 425 B.C.) Egypt’s Golden Age was over. Egypt had suffered from several invasions, mainly the Kushite invasions, coming from within Africa, and starting in 751 B.C., and the Assyrians’ invasions from Western Asia (called the Middle East), starting in 671 B.C. If Egypt, after years of invasions by other people and nations was a distinct Black African nation at the time of Herodotus, shouldn’t we at least assume that it was more so before these invasions occurred?

Until the publication of James G. Spady’s article, “Negritude, Pan-Benegritude and the Diopian Philsophy of African History,” in A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, volume 5, number 1, January, 1972, and an interview by Harun Kofi Wangara, published in Black World magazine, February, 1974, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop was known to only a small group of Black writers and teachers in the United States. His major works includes The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, Lawrence Hill & Co; (1983) (The book presents the historical, archaeological and anthropological evidence that supports the theory that the civilization of ancient Egypt, the first that history records, was actually Negroid in origin); The Peopling of Ancient Egypt & the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script, Karnak House, (1997) (A concise report of the 1974 Cairo conference and contains the arguments concerning the ethnic, linguistic and cultural composition of the ancient Egyptians as well as the deciphering of the merotic script). All of his books were originally published by Presence Africaine, the Paris-based publication arm of the International Society of African Culture.

The Legacy of a Genius: Cheikh Anta Diop (New York Amsterdam News; 10/8/2003; by Boyd, Herb) [Excerpts]:

“Two words – “union” and “intellectual” – were integral to Professor Diop and his dream to create a united Africa, as well as a singular pursuit of knowledge that made him one of the most versatile thinkers the world has ever seen. During an interview with Dr. Charles Finch, Diop recounted some of the early motivations that influenced his quest for knowledge and identity. “My desire to know my history, my culture, my personal problem – that is, my desire to become fulfilled as a person – led me to history.” My efforts were geared towards the restoration of the linguistic and historical personality of Black Africans,” Diop declared. In 1966, the first World Black Festival of Arts and Culture, held in Dakar, Senegal, honored Dr. Diop and Dr. W.E.B. DuBois as the scholars who exerted the greatest influence on African thought in the 20th century. For many aspiring Black thinkers, they represented the twin towers of African achievement.”


The Western Dilemma:

If Egypt is a dilemma in Western historiography, it is a created dilemma. The Western historians, in most cases, have rested the foundation of what is called “Western Civilization” on the false assumptions, or claim, that the ancient Egyptians were white people. To do this they had to ignore great masterpieces on Egyptian history written by other white historians who did not support this point of view, such as Gerald Massey’s great classic, Ancient Egypt, The Light of the World, (1907) and his other works, A Book of the Beginnings and The Natural Genesis. Other neglected works by white writers are Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, by A.H.L. Heeren (1833), and Ruins of Empires, by Count Volney (1787).

In the first chapter of his book, Dr. Diop refers to the Southern African origins of the people later known as Egyptians. Here he is on sound ground with a lot of support coming from another group of neglected white writers. In his book Egypt, British scholar Sir E.A. Wallis Budge says: “The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and in the new Stone Ages, was African and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South.” He further states: “There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggests that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda and Punt.” (Some historians believe that the biblical land of Punt was in the area known on modern maps as Somalia.)

European interest in “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” dates from the early part of the nineteenth century and is best reflected in a little known, though important, paper in German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius’ Incomparable Survey of the Monumental Ruins in the Ethiopian Nile Valley in 1842-1844. The records found by Lepsius tend to show how Ethiopia was once able to sustain an ancient population that was numerous and powerful enough not only to challenge but, on a number of occasions, to conquer completely the populous land of Egypt. Further, these records show that the antiquity of Ethiopian civilization had a direct link with civilization of ancient Egypt.

Many of the leading antiquarians of the time, based largely on the strength of what the classical authors, particularly Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1st century B.C.) and Stephanus of Byzantium, had to say on the matter, were exponents of the view that the ancient Ethiopians, or at any rate, the Black people of remote antiquity were the earliest of all civilized peoples and that the first civilized inhabitants of ancient Egypt were members of what is referred to as the Black race who entered the country as emigrants from Ethiopia. A number of Europe’s leading writers on the civilizations of remote antiquity have written brilliant defenses of this point of view. Some of these writers are Brice, Count Volney, Fabre, d’Oliver, and Heeren. In spite of the fact that these writers defended this thesis with all the learning at their command and documented their defense, most of the present-day writers of African history continue to ignore their findings.

In 1825, German backwardness in this respect came definitely to an end. In that year, Arnold Hermann Heeren (1760-1842), Professor of History and Politics in the University of Gottengen and one of the ablest of the early exponents of the economic interpretation of history, published, in the fourth and revised edition of his great work Ideen Uber Die Politik, Den Verkehr Und Den Handel Der Vornehmsten Volker Der Alten Weld, a lengthy essay on the history, culture, and commerce of the ancient Ethiopians, which had profound influence on contemporary writers in the conclusion that it was among these ancient Black people of Africa and Asia that international trade was first developed. He thinks that as a by-product of these international contacts there was an exchange of ideas and cultural practices that laid the foundations of the earliest civilizations of the ancient world. Heeren in his researches says: “From the remotest times to the present, the Ethiopians have been one of the most celebrated, and yet the most mysterious of nations. In the earliest traditions of nearly all the more civilized nations of antiquity, the name of this distant people is found. The annals of the Egyptian priests are full of them, and the nations of inner Asia, on the Euphrates and Tigris, have interwoven the fictions of the Ethiopians with their traditions of the wars and conquests of their heroes; and, at a period equally remote, they glimmer in Greek mythology. When the Greeks scarcely knew Italy and Sicily by name, the Ethiopians were celebrated in the verses of their poets, and when the faint gleam of tradition and fable gives way to the clear light of history, the lustre of the Ethiopians is not diminished.”


The French writer Constantin-François Volney (1757-1820), in his important work, The Ruins of Empires, extends this point of view by saying that the Egyptians were the first people to “attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.” In referring to the basis of this achievement he states further that, “It was, then, on the borders of the Upper Nile, among a Black race of men, that was organized the complicated system of worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture; and this first worship, characterized by their adoration under their own forms and national attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind.”

Volney’s Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires, Boston, J. Mendum, 1869.


English traveller Thomas Legh, member of the British Parliament, visited Egypt & Nubia in 1812-1814, was one of the first Europeans to visit the archaeological sites above the First Cataract and to publish plates of ruins that no longer exist today. Legh writes: “There has been considerable dispute about the colour of the ancient Egyptians, some authors asserting that they were Negroes, while others maintain that the present Copts are their descendants, and attempt to prove their supposition by the appearance of mummies, which exhibit complexions of dusky brown, lips occasionally thick, but the nose frequently aquiline. The opinion that the former inhabitants of the country were Negroes is founded chiefly on the expressions used by Herodotus, who calls them ‘dark-coloured and woolly haired’, and on the character of the head of the Sphinx, which has the Negro features, and may be justly supposed to offer a correct representation of the countenance of the Egyptians. On the other hand, with respect to the present Copts, it cannot be denied, that the dark hue of their hair and eyes, the former of which is frequently not more curled than is occasionally seen among Europeans, their dusky brown complexions and aquiline noses, all correspond pretty exactly with the paintings to be found in the tombs of Thebes. It is remarkable, however, that the inhabitants of the island of Elephantine (i.e. at the border of Nubia) are nearly black. But notwithstanding their colour, the females of Elephantine are conspicuous for their elegant shapes, and are, upon the whole, the finest women we saw in Upper Egypt.”

(Thomas Legh, Narrative of a Journey in Egypt and the Country beyond the Cataracts, Second Edition London, John Murray, 1817).


Over a generation ago African American historians such as Carter G. Woodson, W.E.B. Du Bois, Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Willis N. Huggins, J. A. Rogers, and Charles C. Seifort read the works of these radical writer historians and began to expand on their findings. This tradition continued and is reflected in the works of present day Black historians such as John G. Jackson’s Introduction to African Civilizations (1970), Yosef ben-Jochannan’s Black Man of the Nile (1972), Chancellor Williams’s The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race From 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. (1971), and Ivan Van Sertima, Egypt Revisited. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA) & London (U.K.), 1999.


Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that Egypt was literally taken out of Africa, academically. Historian Basil Davidson also states that throughout history “the land of Ancient Egypt appears to have detached itself from the delta of the Nile, some five and a half thousand years ago, and sailed off into the Mediterranean on a course veering broadly towards the coasts of Syria”. (Basil Davidson, The Ancient World and Africa: Whose Roots? Race & Class (Vol. 29, no. 2, 1987).


Races of Africa, according to Edith Sanders, went through several editions and was reprinted until 1966 virtually unchanged. Much of the more vulgar scholarship on the ‘racial’ ancestry of the ancient Nile valley Africans can be traced to the intensity of racism in Europe from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Its decline after the second world war.

(Edith R. Sanders, ‘The Hamitic hypothesis: its origin and functions in time perspective’, Journal of African History

(Vol. 10, no. 4, 1969), pp. 521-32).


Flora Shaw’s (alias Lady Flora Lugard) book is an extraordinary look at the history of Africa, which she gathered from countless sources, and one would imagine a great deal of it came from the British Library and from the archives of The Times of London, for whom she had for many years been the Foreign Political Correspondent. She had always been known to be an intensive researcher into her subject matter, and one wonders at the months and probably years she put into this undertaking, which became the reference work for so many future books on Africa. This book was first publish 100 years ago showing the detail and descriptive power, and the greatness that Africa once was. Lady Lugard argues that:

“When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of Sudan (classical home of Ancient Ethiopians) were the home of races who inspired, rather than of races who received, the tradition of civilization associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt. For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and civilized world be forced to recognize in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come.”

“The fame of the ancient Ethiopians (ancient Kushites) was widespread in ancient history. Herodotus described them as the tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races, and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as the most just of men, the favorites of the gods. The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as Black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn than that remote period of history, the leading race of the Western World was a Black race.”

Lady Lugard/Flora Shaw Lugard, Asa G. Hilliard, III, A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Sudan With an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria, Black Classic Press (1996)


A Shift in the Perception of Ancient Egypt:

Further archaeological discoveries continue to legitimize the southern origin of Egyptian civilization. Archaeologist Bruce Williams’s discovery of the Qustul incense burner and of a city at Kerma dating back to 4,500 BCE. (Bruce Williams, ‘The Lost Pharaohs of Nubia’, in Ivan van Sertima (ed.), Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction, 1993). Williams also claims that there were southern predecessors of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, one of the latest results of archaeological explorations in the northern Sahara should be noted:

“The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at 4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in pre-dynastic Upper Egypt.

(J. McKim Malville, Fred Wendorf, Ali A Mazar and Romauld Schild, Megaliths and Neolithic Astronomy in Southern Egypt, Nature (Vol. 392, no. 2, April 1998).)

The Mystery of the Black Mummy

This programme explores the enigmatic central Saharan society which once spanned the entire north African continent. We unravel their tale through the story of the discovery of the black mummy, Uan Muhuggiag. It soon becomes obvious that these people were responsible for an extraordinary array of innovations which later became famous under the Egyptians. Their presence re-writes the history of Egypt and of the entire continent of Africa.

Professor Fabrizio Mori discovered the black mummy at the Uan Muhuggiag rockshelter.

Evidence of the Badarians into Prehistoric Egypt (4500-3800 BC)


In many ways Egypt is the key to ancient African history. African history is out of kilter until ancient Egypt is looked upon as a distinct African nation. The Nile River played a major role in the relationship to Egypt to the nations in Southeast Africa. During the early history of Africa, the Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa.

John D. Baldwin’s Pre-History Nations or Inquiries Concerning Some of the Great Peoples and Civilizations of Antiquity and Their Probable Relation to a Still Older Civilization of the Ethiopians or Cushites of Arabia (1869). Baldwin, commenting on the greatness of the Cushite people, says that early in the period of its colonizing enterprise, commercial greatness, and extensive empire, it established colonies in the valleys of the Nile and the Euphrates, which in later ages became Barbary, Egypt, and Chaldea. The ancient Cushite nation occupied Arabia and other extensive regions of Africa, India, and Western Asia to the Mediterranean. He concludes that “The old notion that Africa is chiefly a land of black savages arose from ignorance of the country, which could not be removed, but, on the contrary, was heightened by slave-trading communication . . . They could not describe truthfully what came under their observation, but they sought to excuse their own frightful savagery by describing Africa as a land of Negroes in the darkest and most hopeless condition of debasement. When this had been repeated many times, they ventured to represent their kidnapping villains as missionary agencies, intent on transferring savages to Christian countries for their own good.”

American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race” (May 17, 1998):

“How people have been accepted and treated within the context of a given society or culture has a direct impact on how they perform in that society. The “racial” worldview was invented to assign some groups to perpetual low status, while others were permitted access to privilege, power, and wealth. The tragedy in the United States has been that the policies and practices stemming from this worldview succeeded all too well in constructing unequal populations among Europeans, Native Americans, and peoples of African descent. Given what we know about the capacity of normal humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that present-day inequalities between so-called “racial” groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances.”

(To read the complete statement go to AAA Statement on “Race”).

Turning to the major falsification of the history of mankind, as he puts it, Cheikh Anta Diop underlines that the time has come to bring justice to the Negro race, to give black people their due credit for leading the march, and blazing a trail for humanity to follow.
Ancient Black Egypt 101
Afrocentric Book Recommendations

“Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest.”

Diodorus of Sicily

(Universal History, Book III: 2)
12th Dynasty Family Tree

18th Dynasty Family Tree

25th Dynasty Family Tree


April 10, 2007

at homestead go to Videos on that page and click on BLACK EGYPT to get the youtube video.


April 9, 2007


Ancient Egyptians wrote the Holy Bible
Posted: June 19, 2002
An analysis by
Dr. Kwame Nantambu

“And ye Shall know the Truth and the Truth Shall Make You Free.” Holy Bible, John 8:32.

According to Ghanian writer and researcher Nana Banchie Darkwah, “Black Afrikans of ancient Egypt wrote the Holy Bible and the Catholic Church is hiding and supressing this truth.”

In his book titled, The Africans who wrote the Bible-Ancient secrets Africa and Christianity Have Never Told, (2002), the author emphatically states that, “the worst lie and sin of the church was the premeditated transformation of the racial and ethnic identities of Jesus Christ, his mother and the entire people of the Bible from the Black people they were to White people, to satisfy emerging European racist sentiments against Black people.”

First of all, for one to understand the truth of the above statement and accept it as a fact, that Black Afrikans of Ancient Egypt wrote the Holy Bible, thus, one must dispel the erroneous notion and fabricated lies that Christian Europe, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, have done in painting the ancient Egyptians as pagans, devils, and heathens.

Also, one must understand that Christian Europe’s and the Catholic Church’s motives for attacking Ancient Egypt in such negative vein, is due to the fact that Ancient Egyptian High priests were the Scribes who wrote what we come to know today as the Holy Bible. As a master-teacher H.M. Maulana points out: “Ancient Egypt from its pre-dynastic period up to its Golden Age of Pyramid building was an unadulterated predominantly Black race of people (3500-2100 B.C.E.).

The descendants of these Ancient Egyptians are living throughout Sub-Saharan Afrika, today, particularly in the nations of Ghana, Nigeria, and Cote d’Ivoire.” The very first “Bible”, or “Scroll” on record produced by man, with regards to paying honour and divine respect to a “Creator of all Mankind” was that of the Afrikan people of the Nile Valley in Ancient Kemet (Egypt) and Great Lakes regions of Central, East, and Northern Afrika.

The book was called by its Afrikan Creators and developers, The Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night. It was translated from its original Medu Netcher text into the English language by several Europeans since the latter part of the 19th century A.D. The easiest one to read is called, The Egyptian Book of the Dead. This work was translated by British Egyptologist, Sir Ernest A. Wallis Budge. This original Bible was produced by Black Afrikans approximately 3,400 years before the Old Testament and more than 4,200 years before the New Testament, and countless versions of it have been written and published. According to Darkwah, the “Ancient Egyptians cross is the earliest and most sacred symbol of religion.

Egyptologists who believe they have successfully deciphered Ancient Egyptian Medu Netcher say it is called the Ankh, which means ‘Life’.” The meaning is correct, however, that is not what the Ancient Egyptians called it. The language from which this word originated is Akan and it actually means Life. This symbol was the Ancient Egyptians’ sacred religious symbol that reinforced the cross on which Jesus was crucified,as a sacred Christian symbol. How did this happen?

The early Christian Church of Ancient Egypt adopted the Nkwa symbol as the symbol of their Church and called it Crux Ansata. From here, it was taken to Rome and there it became a Christian symbol with only a slight variation in design. The symbol of Nwka was excavated from the tomb of the Akan King Tutu Ankoma, the boy King of Ancient Egypt, whose name Europeans have corrupted to Tutankhamun or King Tut.

He ruled from 1336-1327B.C.E. Nana Darkwah suggests that the intelligentsia of Ancient Egypt was headed by such ethnic groups as the Akan, Ewe, Ga-Andangbe, Hausa, and Ibo. However, he asserts that the Akan was the main ruling class in Ancient Egypt sincethe majority of Ancient Egyptian Kings had Akan names. He also asserts that, “the early apostolic fathers of Christianity and the Church knew of many things they did not want the Christian masses to know about the background history, content, and people of the Bible.”

As a result, the very design of Christianity was based upon protecting the Holy Bible from the lay masses. Until the reformation in the 15th century A.D., therefore, the Holy Bible was secretly guarded and its content was known to only a few in the Church. Because of the perceived need to protect the Holy Bible from the masses, the earliest design and practice of Christianity was based upon placing a cadre of priests between the Holy Bible and the people.

The Afrikan origin of Christianity was common knowledge among western scholars and early apolistic fathers of the Church long before the European Renaissance. This was common knowledge known by the Aryan-Whites in the past and is still known, today.

There have been numerous European scholars who have known and written about the falsehoods, fabrications, and false assumptions in the foundations of Christianity. One such European-American researcher and writer was Gerald Massey, who in his book titled The Natural Genesis: A Book of the Beginnings(1883), called the story and practice of Euro-Christianity: “the legendary lying love.” Moreover, in The Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalistic Ideasin Europe, Leon Poliakov revealed that, “knowledge of the people of the Bible as Black people was common in Europe and in early European scholarship. “James Cowles, by far the most popular anthropologists of the first half of the19th century, elaborated around 1810 implying that “Adam and Eve were Black.” And in 1836 a renowned British orientalist, Sir Godfrey Higgins, wrote, The Anaclypsis. Or an inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations, and Religions.

He pointed out that the people of the Bible were Black and that in all early Catholic Churches of Europe: “the God Christ, as well as His mother, are described in their old pictures to be Black (peoples). The infant God in the arms of His Black mother, his eyes and drapery white, is himself perfectly Black.” In 1875, Kersey Graves wrote a book titled The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors” in which he pointed out from clear evidence in Europe that” Jesus was Black and the people of the Bible were originally Black people.”

He wrote as follows: There is as much evidence that the Christian Savior was a Black man, or at least a dark man, as there is of him being the son of the Virgin Mary or that he once lived or moved upon the earth. And that evidence is the testimony of his disciples, who had nearly as good an opportunity of knowing what His complexion was as the evangelists who omit to say anything about it. In the pictures and portraits of Christ by early Christians, He is uniformly represented as being Black.” Furthermore, he continues: “The statue of St. Peter inside St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Italy is a Black man. St. Peter was a Black man.

Thus, Jesus’ last words before His execution was that a Black man has the keys to Heaven.” According to H.M. Maulana, the aristocracy of Europe has always shown their hatred against the so-called Jewish people, since it was well known in their socio-political and economic circles that these people were of a Black Afrikan origin, who migrated out of Ancient Egypt up into Europe. Due to the negative anthropological ideas and theories of early European scholars against Black Afrikans, thus, the knowledge and reality that theosophy and philosophy, has surely been a major source of social-political embarrassment for Europeans.

The fact of the matter is that the racist and extremist European has always seen the so-called Jewish people with suspicion and contempt vis-à-vis their same contempt and ill-feelings they had towards Sub-Saharan Afrikans. That is to say, historically, the Europeans had no genesis of religion to claim as their own other than what came up “out of Afrika”, Christianity, which was brought to them by the so-called Jews. This fact has left the European (Aryan-Whites) with bitterness, enmity, and jealousy against the so-called Jewish people and Afrikans.

Also, this fermented ill-feelings among Europeans that the so-called Jewish people had deliberately deceived them so that the Jews would dominate Europe. According to Darkwah: “This is also the reason no credible reason has been given for the most atrocious massacre of Blacks and Jews in human history.” In the final analysis, Afrikan people must know that the “Aryan-White (European) tradition, Apolistic fathers of the Church, theosophical teachings and writings, as well as the Arabs, have all laboured over the past 500years, trying to disconnect Black Afrikans from Ancient Egypt, in order to hide the true identity of the original authors of the Bible and the origin from whence the Bible originated, which was Ancient Egypt.”

In essence, then, and in the tradition of European supremacy, “what the Aryan-White race has attempted to do by high-jacking Ancient Egypt is as follows: Kill the Messenger (Black Ancient Egyptians), but save and embrace the ‘Message’ of the messenger for themselves”-that is, the Holy Bible. The main purpose of European scholarship supremacy is “to destroy the Black Afrikan genesis of Ancient Egypt and give the world a counterfeit analysis of this great civilization as being a creation of the Aryan-White race.”

However, the late Dr. Chekh Anta Diop (the modern-day Imhotep), capsulises the dire attempt by the Aryan-White race to “white-wash” Ancient Egypt as follows: “Mankind trying to destroy the Black Afrikan genesis of Ancient Egypt is like trying to drown a fish in the ocean.”

Shem Hotep (“I go in peace”).

Dr. Nantambu is an Associate Professor, Dept. of Pan-African Studies, Kent State University, U.S.A.

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April 9, 2007




Black Hebrews?
The very words cause many people to grin at what appears to be simply a play on words. No one reads about such people in european authored history books and there are only a few references to “Ethiopian Jews” in white Jewish sources. Yet Black Hebrews have existed since biblical times. In fact, they are the original or proto-typical Hebrews.

Their story begins with the Patriarch Abraham (2117-1942 B.C.), a native of the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. Archaeological discoveries have proven that the earliest inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia were members of the “Brown Race,” i.e., the Negroid branch of humanity.

It has been confirmed that the ancient Sumerians were akin to the modern Black Dravidians of India. The Sumerians also had an affinity with a people known as the Elamites, the very first Semitic group mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 10:22). The Elamites were a black-skinned and woolly-haired people as the colorful glazed artwork on the royal palace walls of the ancient Persian city of Susa clearly show.Thus Abraham, the native of Sumerian and the founding father of the Israelite nation, was a black man. The black racial origins of the Patriarchs is not based on mere conjecture, it is in complete agreement with the picture one gets from examining the identity of the earliest inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia.

This truth is grossly neglected, suppressed, and distorted in most European and American historical texts which are flavored with race prejudice. Fortunately, however, there are enough well authored and highly researched works by Black historians that challenge the Eurocentric revisions of history and correct the various erroneous views regarding the ethnic identity of the Hebrews.

Biblical history relates that the descendants of Abraham, namely Jacob (Israel) and his twelve sons and their wives, 70 in all, migrated from Canaan to Egypt around the year 1827 B.C. During their sojourn in Egypt the Children of Israel multiplied from being a family of 70 souls to a nation of over 3 million people at the time of the Exodus which took place in 1612 B.C.

This astounding number of people in so short a time can only be adequately explained by intermarriage between the family of Jacob and the native Egyptian populace. It is an established fact that the ancient Egyptians were a black African people. Thus, even if the Hebrews were not black before they arrived in Egypt, which is unlikely given Abraham’s background, they were definitely black by the time they left Egypt under Moses

The biblical Hebrews were indistinguishable from native Egyptians and Ethiopians. The Bible is full of examples which demonstrates this, and even ancient secular historians remarked of the physical appearances of the Hebrews. The historian Tacitus, for example, stated that it was a common opinion among the Romans that the Jews “were an Ethiopian race.” In Roman times PalestinianIsraelites were classed among Black Africans because it was almost impossible to tell them apart.

Hence, the Eurocentric notion of the Black Hebrew as a kind of Johnnie-come-lately in Hebraic history does not accord with the facts. On the contrary, the historical record is abundantly clear that the majority of white European Jewry are not Hebrews in the biological sense but are actually the descendants of converts to Judaism during Greco-Roman and Mediaeval times. Professor Roland B. Dixon states emphatically that: “The great majority of all Jews [Ashkenazi] to-day are ‘Semites’ only in speech, and their true ancestry goes back not so much to Palestine and Arabia as to the uplands of Anatolia and Armenia, the Caucasus and the steppes of Central Asia, and their nearest relatives are still to be found in these areas to-day” (Racial History Of Man, p. 175).

Caucasian Jews are not the lineal descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Nor do they constitute a separate race but rather a religious fraternity which adheres to the ethnic tradition of a people whose origins are inextricably linked to Black Africa.

But if the original Hebrews were black where are their descendants in the world today? Are all black people Hebrews? The answer to the latter question is obviously no. The Israelites were only one of several black people existing in ancient the ancient world. Nevertheless, it is certain that the ancient Hebrews customs and practices who’s legacy orginated in Africa, were adopted by that of white Jews in Europe. Very little is heard about the hundreds of thousands of Black Hebrews living in various parts of the world such as Africa, Asia, India, Arabia, the Caribbean islands, South America, and North America.

The history of Black Hebrews in North America is perhaps one of the most important chapters in US history which has yet to be fully written. The ancestors of African Americans came from West Africa during the era of slavery. That particular region of Africa was once home to a number of Black Hebrew tribes that migrated from North and East Africa over many centuries. In speaking of these migrations, Dr. Yoseph A. A. ben-Yochannan writes that: “In North Africa, just before the period of Christianity’s legal entry into Rome – due to Constantine “the Great” conversion in the 4th century – there were many Hebrew (Jewish) ‘tribes’ that are of indigenous African (the so-called ‘Negroes’) origin.

These African Jews, as all other Romanized-African of this era, were caught in a rebellion in Cyrene (Cyrenaica) during 115 C.E. against Roman imperialism and colonialism. This rebellion also marked the beginning of a mass Jewish migration southward into Soudan (Sudan or West Africa) along the way of the city Aer (Air) and into the countries of Futa Jalon and Senegal (Sene-Gambia) which lie below the parabolic curve of the Niger River’s most northern reaches, where the City of Tumbut (Timbuktu, Timbuctoo, etc.), Melle (Mali) presently stands.” (“African Origins of the Major Western Religions,” 1970, p. 76).

Dr. Ben goes on to relate that Black Israelite immigrants from northern and eastern Africa merged with indigenous groups in western Africa to become the Fulani of Futa Jalon, Bornu, Kamen, and Lake Chad. They also formed the parent-stock of groups such as the Ashanti, the Hausa, the B’nai Ephraim (mentioned in earlier posts), and the Bavumbu (Mavumbu or Ma-yomba). All of these groups suffered tremendous population decreases during the years the Atlantic slave trade was in operation, others were completely eliminated.

Thus, every so-called African American has Israelite ancestry in their family tree whether he or she knows it or not. Even in the very crucible of slavery the descendants of West African Hebrew captives in America struggled to keep their heritages from being obliterated by forced assimilation and acculturation. Their distinctive traditions became submerged in Christianity but always remained a part of the oral tradition via the so-called Negro Spirituals which praise the memory of ancestors and kinsmen like Moses, David, Joshua, and Daniel.

Since the African-American conviction of having Israelite ancestry antedates the Civil War it is not surprising that the earliest Black Hebrew congregation to be established in North America was founded in the 1880s in Chattanooga, Tennessee by F. S. Cherry (the group later moved to Philadelphia). Cherry was a railroad worker and seaman who was fluent in both Yiddish and Hebrew. He adamantly preached that so-called American Negroes are really the lost sheep of the House of Israel whose true legacy was stolen from them during slavery. He urged his hearers to investigate their history in order to rediscover this truth and reclaim their heritage.

In 1896, a man by the name of William S. Crowdy established another Hebrew congregation in Lawrence, Kansas. In 1899, Leon Richlieu established the Moorish Zionist Temple in Brooklyn. To date there are literally hundreds of uncharted Black Hebrew congregations in North America. They do not exist because of an aversion for mainstream American Protestantism or an attraction to white Jewish culture. As stated earlier, Black Hebrews have always been in the world; and they repudiate the notion that they are usurpers of the heritage of white Jews.

The great proliferation of Black Hebrew groups occurred after World War I during the Great Migration of Blacks from rural areas in the South to urban centers in the North. There were at least nine Black Hebrew congregations in New York in the early 1900s, one of which was founded by a West Indian named Arnold Josiah Ford called “Beth B’nai Abraham Congregation.” In 1918, another West Indian born Israelite named Wentworth Arthur Matthews founded the “Commandment Keepers,” and emerged as one of the leading Black Israelite rabbis in Harlem. Born in 1892 of African Hebraic parentage in Lagos, West Africa, Matthews moved with his family to St. Kitts in the West Indies before coming to America in 1911.

Branches of the “Commandment Keepers” exist in many American cities such as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Cincinnati, Chicago, Ohio, Virginia, and New Jersey. In 1965, the “House of Judah” was founded by William Lewis in Wetumpka, Alabama. The group later purchased a twenty-acre tract near Grand Junction, Michigan where they practice a communal life-style. Black Hebrews feel that by reclaiming their Israelite identity they have also recovered an important part of their ancestral heritage. They hold to the conviction that their “Hebrewness” is directly traceable to their African forebears of Israelite extraction who were brought to this country during slavery. They are cognizant and proud of their non-Hebrew African heritages but like many other people with mixed backgrounds they opt to give certain of their forebears a more pronounced place in their identity.

Black Israelite groups in America are decentralized and varied in ideology.Unlike white Orthodox Jews, Black Hebrews reject the Talmud, a collection of commentaries, as being on a par with the Bible and so they do not conform to rabbinical judgments which emphasize the need of conversion to Talmudism in order to be considered “truly” Jewish.

Since the Bible recognizes patrilineal as well as matrilineal descent, Black Hebrews (like Reform Jews) do not place any special significance on having a “Jewish” mother as do Orthodox Jews. Another major reason why the Talmud is rejected is due to its role in creating the so-called Hamitic Myth which is the doctrine that teaches that all black-skinned people are the cursed descendants of Ham in the Bible.

It was the promulgation of this erroneous myth, passing under the guise of “Jewish” talmudic scholarship, which provided the moral pretext for European slavery of Africans. The Talmud was not the product of ethnic Hebrews but of proselytized Babylonian sages who worked on editing it from the 3rd to in the 6th century A.D. It should not be used as the litmus test on Hebrew identity, particularly since it was of men who were clearly prejudice of Blacks, Israelites or otherwise.

A major dilemma facing many Black Hebrews who wish to settle in Israel has to do with the Talmud and the fact that conversion is a mandatory prerequisite for gaining Israeli citizenship. The Black Jews from Ethiopian were not allowed to immigrate to Israel until they agreed to undergo a ceremonial conversion to white Judaism (which was tantamount to a denial of their own Hebrewness) and embrace the Talmud. However, many Ethiopian Jews, particular in the aftermath of the recent blood scandal in Israel, are seriously rethinking their decision to adopt the Talmud because it has not given them equal status with other white Israelis.

Ethiopians Jews occupy the bottom rung of Israeli society today because they are black and are not considered “true” Hebrews because of their blackness. American Black Hebrews wanting to join their Ethiopian brethren feel that the Israeli Law of Return is unjust because it forces recognition of a racist text (the Talmud) in order to be considered eligible for citizenship It is truly ironic that the descendants of the original Hebrews are not considered to be Hebrews even in their own land because they happen to look like their distant forebears.

MAY 1999



April 6, 2007



Create Poll | Print Interest level

To: All
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-1 11:35 PM
Msg 66099.1

Peace and Respect: Afrikans/Black folk

From: LCason

I Have a question for you is the White/European race a group of Devils?

We are going to look at this from an academic point of view. I have a passage from a book called Blacked Out Through Whitewash by Suzar. This sista asks the question of Eupreans and she does it through Eupreans way and actions/behavior. I would like to here your opinions on this topic. When you respond, do it through a eyes of a Afrikan/Black person! Peace

Are whites really a “race of devils” created by Yacub?

Elijah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam, taught that whites were ‘ grafted’ from the blackrace through a selective breeding process about 6000 years ago by yakub, a black god- like Scientist who created whites as a “race of devils” to be the enemy of people of color. Also , to rule earth for about 6000 years by deception and force while the Original (Black) people were “asleep” that is mentally dead and anesthetized immobilized by white False Christianity. In Making Of The Whiteman Paul Guthrie has assembled much astounding evidence. Interestingly, the ancient Egyptians documented the Tamahu, meaning , created white people. (African Presence In Early Europe(p149). These whites were also called Children of Set and Devs or Divs , said to be the origin of the word devil. In fact, the devil of the Bible (Satan) is based on Set-en (or Set/Seth) of ancient Egypt, who is described whiteskinned with straight red hair in Larousse’s Encyclopedia of Mythology. He is also described as red (white people are all shades of Red). The “devils” of ancient cultures were usually depicted whiteskinned.

In his/her time of rule, the white man has fulfilled the prophetic warnings of what to expect of him.

Evil is the word LIVE spelled backwards. Evil is that which is anti-life. History bears witness that the white man has been continuing history of mass genocide against people of color on all continents, whites have collectively established themselves as the arch-enemy of all people they classify as nonwhite. That’s at least 90% of the world! The White Supremacist, secret world government plans to murder 3/4 of the world’s population of nonwhite people by the year 2000. They are making progress towards this goal through AIDS, a virus they created for this purpose. They have demonstrated they themselves are a deadly virus to the world of “hue-mans” and the Earth herself, even exploding nuclear weapons within the earth. No creature has demonstrated more anti-natural behavior then the White Man/Woman. All through his history he has done everything to ruin the balance in nature and has always been destructive to all civilization of people of color on all continents. Whether or not whites were created to BE devils, they have done and are doing a spectacular job of it!

Top record for”evil” & atrocities. whites have a history of committing horrible, murderous atrocities to their own kind especially during the Inquisition) so how dare we expect them to treat us humanely! Scalping was invented by White Men aggressing against Indians. Football originated from White Men kicking around the decapitated heads of Indians for sport. Columbus’ men hunted Indians for sport and used Indian Bodies (ESPECIALLY BABIES) as food for their hunting dogs! Romans fed the early Black Christians to the lions. Atrocities upon new African Slaves by the heartless slave makers were so horrible that the Slave Maker is never mentioned in history books. The Thousands of Black lynching were “executed with a bestiality unknown even in the most remote and uncivilized parts of the world” Black Men were tied down and castrated with knives or axes. In some cases, families of the intended victims were seized and delivered to the site to witness the atrocities in order for Whites to derive sadistic satisfaction. In the 1920s, lynching became popular cultural events like circuses. Hundreds of White Women and Children took part in the festivities. Finger, Ears and other Body Parts Of Black Victims were eagerly seized for Souvenirs. True, not all Whites are devils, just as not all Devils are White but WHITES HAVE OUT DONE ALL OTHER SPECIES!

“Ellijah Muhammad did not improperly refer to the White Man/Woman as the devil; he accurately and truthfully identified him for all to see” writes Dr. Dorothy Fardan (who is White) in her profound Message to the White Man and Woman in America: Yacub & the Origins of White Supremacy. ” if we follow the teaching of Elijah Muhammad o the making of the White Man we understand that the nature of the White Man has been ‘Grafted ” out of the original. It is, therefore , an aberrant genetic construct and thus lies at the base of the errant and malicious way of White rule… Therefore, on this most fundamental level, the ‘salvation’ of white people … lie in grafting back to originality (the righteous nature).. of Original Black People”

Can whites’ “evil” nature can be scientifically & spiritually explained? White skin is a form of Albinism a genetic aberration. As a result, most whites are unable to produce Melanin normally. Your body can’t operate without melanin the absorber of all wavelengths of energy. The biological basis for “evil” begins with deficiency in Melanin and Melatonin, the humanizing hormone produced by the Pineal Gland. Because 60-80% of white adults have Calcified Pineal Glands impairing their Melatonin production, they have a greater propensity for “evil”. A” White ” body does not make Glands Imparing their Melatonin production, they have a greater propensity for “Evil” A ” White body does not make Whites Evil. Rather, Inherently Evil Souls find their Ideal and most natural, comfortable expression in White bodies. Thus, the aberration of skin Whiteness appears to be an outer manifestation of a collective inner spiritual disease. Your body

…[Message truncated]
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To: All
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-1 11:42 PM
Msg 66099.2
Reply to 66099.1

Peace and Respect: Afrikan Family

From: LCason

I see the Racist Trolls along with their uncle toms some I had a run in with had this thread deleted. For what, I wish a Rep from Black Voices would explain to me why. I use sources very good sources this is suppose to be for black people. Two I pay a fee for aol services.

Look My position on White folk is this I belive about less than five percent are good white folk I belive it is safe to say less then three, I give less then five for the benift of the doubt. Yes I do agree with 90% of the content Suzar say in her book. So now my position is out their again like before.

Give your opinion if you have fact show and prove Peorid!


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To: LCason
Posts: 6326

Date: Apr-2 12:19 AM
Msg 66099.3
Reply to 66099.2

I pay a fee for AOL services also. While I had nothing to do with having your rather ridiculous thread deleted, what does you having to pay for AOL have to do with it? Respect the rules of the board and stop starting threads that are absurd and I bet they will stay up. “To have a child is to spend our lives watching our heart walk around outside our body”
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To: LCason
Posts: 629

Date: Apr-2 12:29 AM
Msg 66099.4
Reply to 66099.1

Peace LCason

For those ‘atrocities’ you listed, I’m familiar with them. Could you provide a link with a further explanation? Certainly a touchy subject, but I like suspense, mysteries and sci-fi.

Too bad your other thread was deleted; I hadn’t even read all the responses.

Edited Apr-2 by mentalmarinade
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To: nanato3
Posts: 2263

Date: Apr-2 12:31 AM
Msg 66099.5
Reply to 66099.3

Actually, some of the greatest threads ever posted are routinely deleted. This is because they contain the unadulterated truth.

Offensive Whites/non-blacks:

Whiteynohatey, AvgWhiteGuy,Stamfordrocks*, Nanato3, Aztec8888 Simlegree, Blueyeddiablo11, 13thTribe/, Nashiva Stoveguy2000 Eclecticasian Catstalker, Unlimitedvision/RealTing

Alternate Screennames of Offensive Whites:

Hotnjuicey35, Alexquiraga, Ericamarie309* Lebraat , , Ihfiannow, theafrocentrist, Bilyroby, Kasbrya, Rsantana, jexarianzarn, Notanotherepisode, Nijelone,
Poetic4justic/Latoya Kay blakzombie96 rebelangry nwwes twins4tammy nicole918409 raymaxz Rosetta or Rose qutkenia, DESTEE, KUNJUFU mymic1, deathdealer, immensestream

Perhaps (But Not Necessarily) White:

bigbowlla300x Khestfew tragedy7182 blackmantheobscure1969 Hov Johnshowcase gloryofagoddess tongkissdacat decipherx* cosmiccomic* 1BPM itsmeAWG LadySteele26 Realbrother

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To: nanato3
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:00 AM
Msg 66099.6
Reply to 66099.3

listen racist what I am saying is truth! I follow the rule on this board I have a right to defend myself from attack from racist like yourself! Now I have not done nonthing wrong you are proving my topic to be true so you need to take you half jaw behind on some where lmao!

yes you are being disrespectful

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To: mentalmarinade
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:08 AM
Msg 66099.7
Reply to 66099.4

Peace and Blessings: Mentalmarinade

From: LCason

Sista the afrikans on here were posting and I was responding to them. I put to you like this the weather was bad here so I stay in and responded to the afrikan who posted on my thread this weekend. That how many posted very good conversons came about! You had your haters Tolls who cryed to BV and had my thread deleted.

This is for black people this does not say white voices, what it is I been kicking thier azz since my return. All I ask is for Documentation they run and hide behind the modertor. Their is not a troll on here that can did prove my information not a one.

As for more evidence I will post it up tommrow. futher evidence of what I am saying no I will do it tonight!

Good hearing from you and I will email you soon! Peace and Blessing


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To: name7o7
Posts: 1170

Date: Apr-2 1:09 AM
Msg 66099.8
Reply to 66099.5

much respect goes out to you name 707

and thank you for telling the truth

good to have you back


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To: All
Posts: 211

Date: Apr-4 3:24 PM
Msg 66099.255
Reply to 66099.1

Here is another opinion of the origin of these maniacs:

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To: LCason
Posts: 32

Date: Apr-4 4:31 PM
Msg 66099.256
Reply to 66099.1





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To: nanato3
Posts: 135

Date: Apr-4 4:38 PM
Msg 66099.257
Reply to 66099.162

My point is that your list was directed at one race, so don’t act like it wasn’t. Other people here took the same way and that was your point. It was not to say that all races do crimes cause all the ones you posted were indeed black.

pointing out that serial killers are mostly white, does it do the same thing if I point out that gang members are mostly black?? But your not racist??That is what i mean. You are contradicting yourself. Is this tit for tat? Oh i said that most serial killers are white so therefore you say that most gang members are black(which in case you have not noticed the latinos are more than both races combined so what are you really talking about. And the reason why you had to post hear IS because of the racist connotation….

Edited Apr-4 by miss310elyse
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To: meninarmer
Posts: 135

Date: Apr-4 4:40 PM
Msg 66099.258
Reply to 66099.146

That particular person likes threads like this. SHe is always in the white people….race…..type of topic.

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To: LCason
Posts: 153

Date: Apr-4 5:08 PM
Msg 66099.259
Reply to 66099.207

There are innumerable, objective psychosocial and demographic markers of unprecedented racial integration and peaceful co-existence. Frienship patterns, inermarriage,business relations, mixed communities, etc. We may have problems to ovecome, but no serious person debates the fact that our country is the most successful, diverse and integrated country that has ever existed. Your interesting historical revisionism regarding MLK’s relationship with Farrakhan’s victim and his polygamist ex-associate is without foundation. I am not a scholar on the area, but I am aware of the fact that there is a large body of MLK’s published work as well as his wife’s work that quite clearly speaks to his rejection of the angry, irrational, separtist, divisive, and oppressive Islamic fundamentalist principles Malcolm and EM espoused.

Our nation and our community is in a more positive and stable place now, and we are continuing to work MLK’s dream. However well-intentioned the two you mention may have tried to be at one point in their lives, they were part of an unstable, unproductive, and failed political past.

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To: meninarmer
Posts: 153

Date: Apr-4 5:12 PM
Msg 66099.260
Reply to 66099.210

You are living in an America that no longer, thankfully exists. We may have problems as a nation and in our own community, but we have countless reasons to be positive, optimistic, and hopeful. It’s important to laern from the past, adapt, and move on stronger,-not ruminate on the past and let anger and victimization shackle you. This is one of the many reasons why so many are afraid to leave the false safety and security of the Democrat Plantation Party.
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To: bpq
Posts: 348

Date: Apr-4 5:34 PM
Msg 66099.261
Reply to 66099.260

You are living in an America that no longer, thankfully exists. We may have problems as a nation and in our own community, but we have countless reasons to be positive, optimistic, and hopeful. It’s important to laern from the past, adapt, and move on stronger,-not ruminate on the past and let anger and victimization shackle you. This is one of the many reasons why so many are afraid to leave the false safety and security of the Democrat Plantation Party.

I, and many others have abandoned the America you speak of, as well as the 2-party, single agenda political farce-land. The only real and effective solution to black america’s problem has been accurately identified and demonstrated by several dynamic historical figures to include, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, Malcohm X, and Farrakhan. Any other alternative option is only a setup for future failure.

Why would one wish to set themselves up to fail, by emplying doomed strategies that have been proved wrong, time and time again? I guess, some of us are just slower then others, but hopefully you’ll catch up before the bus leaves you behind. That of course gives the benefit of doubt that you are actually black, which at this point is highly improbable.

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To: LCason
Posts: 3187

Date: Apr-4 5:59 PM
Msg 66099.262
Reply to 66099.234

Brilliant post LCason yes the white man is a devil of Biblical proportions as a matter of fact in Aztec lore The Quetzlcoatl which was a winged serpent rising fromthe ashes was described in its human form as a whiote man with dark hair and a mustache consequently when Cortez and his men arrived in Tenochtitlan, Cortez embraced him as the Quetzlcoatl and did not attempt to thwart his destruction of The Aztecs.. Now another Aztec god is kukulcan which means “divination of the serpent.” Think about the similarities between this word and “ku klux clan.” and you will realize and recognize the origins of the white man, these are not a GOD-fearing people. THey hold GOD in the utmost contempt and pervert or destroy all that GOD has created. Every Empire they have created has been in obeisance to the one downstairs and yes you can watch historians(white) on television attempt to rationalise and explain why the white man is a blood-thirsty pschopath from the pitiful conclusion that The Caesers of Rome were eating bread and drinking wine infested with psylocybins to well they cannot even explain the behavior of white amerikkka towards the native and Black
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April 5, 2007


History Thursday, April 5, 2007

Published: August 12, 2002

By Naiwu Osahon
Leader World Pan-African Movement

Of course, Africans sold their kith and kin into slavery. Yes, the slave merchants found willing accomplices amongst us and in exchange for cheap ridiculous items like a mirror, tobacco, cutlass, gun or a drink, we did their dirty jobs for them.

But if you expect us to feel guilty about our negative role in slavery, you are not being realistic because Africans, like the other species of the human race, have their own greedy ones too. In relative terms though, only a very small minority of Africans benefited commercially from our enslavement considering the quantities of mirrors etc they acquired and they were loathed by the captive majority. Names of such African traitors like the notorious Kosoko of Lagos still invoke hate today in Africans when ever mentioned.

Collectively, Africans did not understand what slavery was really all about . Even including the traitors, we had no idea we would never see our dear ones again or how far the ocean stretched to keep them apart from us. Parents hoped that their children being kidnapped into slavery would be treated no worse than we treat our houseboys today. Houseboys or girls in Africa are slaves in a sense but slavery to an African is like an adoption. Africa is almost a free slavery system, more akin to the Greek or Roman system. A parent who cannot cope with bringing up a child may hand over the child to another parent in a better position to give the child a good home. A parent may give a child to a Chief because usually, Chiefs are well placed to provide food and shelter through the communal tax systems. The slave in an African home often has the rights of the adopted child.

Even now, a hundred years after the supposed end to cross Atlantic slavery, Africans on the continent still do not know the hell enslaved Africans went through in the hands of the slave masters.

You have kept your historical perspective on slavery intact whereas in Nigeria for instance, the only reminder of it is a solitary slave chain preserved as a tourist attraction in a run-down hut in Badagry, a coastal suburb of Lagos. Ghana has more terrifying evidence in their fantastic Castles, but Africans on the continent hardly visit or relate to the evidence. One of the Castles in Ghana has been given over to the African Descendants Association. They have a guest book you sign, and looking through, you see very personal and emotional comments by black visitors from abroad to the Castle. For you, the reaction when faced with damning evidence is painful. It is painful to remember that you were sold here like cattle but for us Africans on the continent, our memory of slavery is completely blank.

We sold you into slavery alright but Africa as a whole was not just waiting to be dismembered without a fight. Names of our warrior nationalists, mostly Kings and Queens abound: Queen Nzingha of Angola, King Nana Kwamena Ansa of Ghana, Nehenda of Zimbabwe, Anowa of Ghana, Ashanti King Prempeh, the Jaja of Opobo, Queen Idah of Benin City, Oba Overamwen Nogbaisi of Benin City, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Queen Amina of Zaria, Behanzin Hossu Bo Willi of Dahomey, Samory Toure of Mali, Moremi of Ile-Ife, Mohammed Ahmed the Mahdi of Sudan, Nefertiti of Nubia, Mohammed Ben Abdulla Hassen the mad Mullah of Somaliland, Chaka the Zulu and many others, gave good account of themselves in our honour. Africans had to be beaten and dragged on board slave ships.

On slave ships, many Africans starved themselves to death, cut their own throats with their fingernails, threw themselves overboard to escape torture and slavery and quite a number of them succeeded in over powering their captors and taking over their slave ships as was the case with AMISTAD or Joseph Cinque, the son of a Mendi King of Sierra Leone.

On Plantations, Africans continued their acts of rebellion through sabotage at work or by running away into hardly accessible swamps, forests and mountains to continue the fight for their freedom. Africans cursed their tormentors in work songs, communicated with each other, even under severe restrictions, with body language and signs, and transformed their religious indoctrination to their advantage by replacing, for instance, ‘Heaven’ with ‘Africa’ in Christian songs about the joys of Heaven. Flying away to Zion and crossing the River Jordan was translated by slaves to mean the joyful return home to Africa through the Atlantic. Death was seen as a welcome means of returning to Africa and with that, African slaves conquered the fear of torture and death.

Amongst the slaves, one of our wicked traits soon began to show. Slaves spied on other slaves to win a lousy cup of porridge. They betrayed confidence to gain small favours from their masters but our finer nature overwhelmed and produced many nationalists and inspirers of freedom in the new world such as: Blyden, Frederick Douglas, Nat Turner, Sam Sharpe, Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vasey, Paul Cuffe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Martin R. Delany and numerous others.

Then came August 1791, when the slaves of the Island of San Domingo revolted under the leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Boukman, Dessalines, and Henry Christophe. The struggle lasted for twelve years, during which time, they defeated in turn, the local whites and soldiers of the French monarchy, a Spanish invasion force, a British expedition of some 60,000 men, and a French expedition of similar size under Bonaparte’s brother-in-law. The defeat of Bonaparte’s expedition in 1803 gave us Haiti, our first independent anti-slavery state.

The revolt is the most successful slave revolt in history and to quote C.L.R James in Black Jacobins,: “The odds it had to over-come is evidence of the magnitude of the interests involved. The transformation of slaves, trembling in hundreds before a single white man into a people able to organise themselves and defeat the most powerful European nations of their day is one of the great epics of revolutionary struggle and achievement.”

Haiti’s revolution inspired other liberation wars and in particular the growth of what Prof. John Henrik Clarke described as ‘intellectual Pan Africanism,’ expressed immediately then through the building of cultural and religious ties across state barriers.

To quote John Henrik Clarke in Pan Africanism, a brief history of an idea: “In 1804, Jacques Dessalines, the Governor-General of Haiti, issued an appeal for American blacks to settle in his Island. In 1819, Henri Christophe, King of Haiti, negotiated for the settlement of 200,000 black Americans who ultimately settled in Liberia. Denmark Vasey sought the assistance of Haiti in his slave conspiracy of 1822. Jean-Pierre Bayer, who later became President of Haiti, pushed for similar emigration and the Maryland Haitan Society was formed in 1921 by free blacks to facilitate emigration.”

In the continent itself, the military Pan-Africanists were reacting to the so called scramble for Africa, which in effect was the transformation of the early nineteenth century system of slavery into the system of colonialism – an extension of slavery. Two new European powers (Germany and Belgium) entered the scene, and with the old colonial powers (mainly England, France and Portugal) began to spread their control from the coastal holding stations to the hinder-land. There was much rivalry amongst the scramblers so, like a bunch of hungry demon butchers, they assembled around a table in Berlin in 1884, carving knives in hand, map of Africa as their prized beef, to chop away to their heart’s content. Vandalising our economic resources beyond recognition to enrich their homelands. Ruining our mind and personality with their religion. Turning us into apes of their decadent culture.

We fought back with, for instance, the Zulu wars in South Africa, the Islamic or Mahdi wars in the Sudan, the Ashanti wars in the Gold Coast and others that will last for the next hundred years.

Intellectual Pan Africanism received a boost with its series of congresses from 1900. Europe grudgingly granted some of us ‘flag independence’ with deafening fanfare to distract our attention while they stayed quietly on in the guise of neo-colonialism. Now their cartels bestride our continent like giant Octopuses, crushing and absorbing all indigenous initiatives thrown in their paths.

The question now is, why has intellectual Pan Africanism, to which Africa surrendered its militancy, not routed our tormentors in a hundred years of organising congresses? Why are you still the underdogs here and I their footmat back in Africa?

A Trinidadian Lawyer called Henry Sylvester Williams, practising in Britain at the time and married to a white woman, convened the first Pan African Conference in 1900.

I am aware of the arguments for and against Henry Sylvester Williams as a major figure in the African consciousness movement and I think being able to call a Pan African Conference at the time ought to confer some honour on Mr. Williams.

This is not to say, however, that the content of this conference should escape the critical judgement of history. Mr. Williams’ Pan African Conference was attended by thirty delegates mostly from the USA and the West Indies. Its aims were to act as a forum of protest against the aggressiveness of white colonialists; to bring people of African descent throughout the world into closer touch with one another; and to start a movement which would secure to all African races living in civilised countries, their full rights and would promote their business interests.

Our Sylvesters of the 1900s obviously did not have a great deal of respect for Africa if they had to describe us as uncivilised. In any case, they did not camouflage the fact that the conference was to promote their individual private business interests in our name.

Actually, the opening address of the conference was given by a white man, the Bishop of London at the time, who supported the needs of Africans: “To be educated into a sense of responsible self-government.” Isn’t that condescending?

The conference addressed a petition to Queen Victoria through the British Government protesting against the treatment of Africans in South Africa and Rhodesia at the time. The petition, in a nutshell, could be interpreted in modern idiom as follows:

Our mighty and generous Queen,
The mother of the Universe,
The great one without blemish,
Whose forgiveness
we are not worthy of,
But whose mercy we seek all the same
being your meek and dutiful servants,
Nurtured and civilised
in the warmth of your matronly kindness.
We beg your majesty on our bended knees
to spare a thought, however small,
For those we left behind in the jungles of Africa.
To which the all conquering white goddess replied:
“Okay boys, I will see what I can do.”

Do not quote this as the reason why Mr. Williams’ conference is not counted amongst our Pan African Congresses today, but I would be surprised if other reasons are stronger.

Dr. W.E.B DuBois attended that first conference and seems to have been greatly influenced by it. A great deal has been written and said about Dr. DuBois. That he was the brightest star ever to have graced our firmament of ideas or words to that effect. I am too inconsequential to even begin to challenge such a reputation in any way. So, if you will pardon me, I will take nothing away from this intellectual colossus. But I have problems accepting that he served me any better than poor Henry Sylvester Williams did. I am talking about how DuBois relates to me as an individual. I know that DuBois wrote some thought provoking books in his life time and called four Pan African Congresses between 1919 and 1927 that set in motion the tradition that has brought me to this point now in the history of Pan Africanism.

But DuBois himself never claimed to have been the indispensable focus in our chequered journey. After all, he admits in his essay: Four congresses, that he, through his congresses, was not on our behalf: “seeking control of our economic and social life nor our independence.” So, we might be tempted to ask: What was this brilliant man seeking in our name then?

We know, for instance, that DuBois was half black and never tired of reminding everyone who cared to listen to him about his aristocratic white half. Mind you, his was very much the era of the darker you are the further down the social ladder of progress you were confined. So, DuBois had no respect for Garvey, not because Garvey was dark hopefully.

DuBois’ congresses dissociated from the patriotic Pan African posture of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) of Marcus Garvey, opting instead, for the rather tame tactics of begging Europeans politely to be nice to their African servants. Garvey wanted African progress through self development and self efforts. DuBois insisted that co-operation with whites was vital to our struggle. In fact, the opening speech at DuBois’ first Pan African congress claimed that European governments were not the enemies of Africans, a sentiment that flavoured all his resolutions afterwards on our behalf.

Whites responded by assisting DuBois’ programmes while vehemently opposing and discrediting Garvey’s and banning Garvey’s newspapers throughout Africa.

But did ordinary Africans forget Garvey? May be a little story from my past can help provide a possible answer. It is a true story about my mother. I have never told anyone the story before and I hope my mother would forgive me for exposing her so far away from home. I don’ t know if you can guess my age but my mother is over seventy years old and she has never been inside the four walls of any school. It is not something to boost about but that is the position. She never had the opportunity to go to school. She is the picture of ancient African motherhood, the type white television thinks they are taunting us with. My mother does not watch white television and does not miss it.

One evening after a busy weekend of reading publications on Dr. DuBois and Marcus Garvey, I felt like teasing my mother a little. I asked her on the spur of the moment, half expecting a rebuff, if she had ever heard of a man called Marcus Garvey? My mother, without appearing to have seriously thought about my question said in my native language, Bini: “Is that not our son who lived abroad?”

I was her only son who had lived abroad until that time so obviously she did not mean me. I prodded her further and found that by calling Garvey son, my mother was not only appropriating Garvey, she was showing her pride in him as a dedicated African son.

Encouraged by my discovery, I asked her about DuBois: “I have never heard of that one,” she said promptly but innocently. I have still not been able to figure out how my illiterate mother who had never travelled more than twenty kilometres from our home base could relate to Garvey and not DuBois. I have not tried to influence her on the matter since either. I do not think she knows about my activities in the Pan African Movement yet. I am saving my shock for when I hope to ask her in about ten years time, what she knows about her real son.

If at that point, my activities in the Pan African Movement have still not directly touched the lives of the likes of my mother, then it would be difficult for me to claim to have been relevant.

I don’t want you to go away thinking that I have no respect for Dr. DuBois. Of course, he was a great man, only that he never managed to win my illiterate mother over to his side like Garvey did and that is what has been bothering me really about intellectual Pan Africanism.

The fifth Pan African Congress was the first serious one in the redeeming sense. Without its bold features, the need to continue the congresses would have been lost forever.

The congress, held in Manchester in 1945, coincided with the second conference of the World Federation of Trade unions, thus enabling several trade union delegates from the African world to attend and broaden the narrow intellectual base of the Pan African Congress for the first time. It, of course, also helped to lock Pan Africanism more firmly into the Marxist – socialist politics of the unionists, thereby diverting us witlessly from our original goal of racial emancipation, to a formless, rhetorical and tedious sin-song about the working class uniting to over throw the nebulous bourgeois. The truth of the matter is that traditional African politics is not homogeneous and there is no reason why the fortunes of a whole race of people should be condemned to the status of the working class for ever. A billion virile, determined and ambitious people scattered all over the economies of the world can not and must not be restricted from reaching even beyond the stars.

That fortunately is the kind of positive and forthright posture that informed the broad activities of the team of George Padmore, C.L.R. James, Kwame Nkrumah and others at the fifth congress on the issue of our independence. They not only demanded immediate independence for all African countries, they threatened to use every means, including violence if necessary, to achieve their aims. Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Nnamdi Azikiwe who was represented and many other potential African leaders left the congress determined to do battle with our colonisers. Out-break of mass anti-colonial struggle followed throughout Africa. Armed uprising in Kenya and Algeria, mass nationalist parties in Zaire, Ghana and Nigeria etc. This phase of the struggle led to Ghana’s independence in March, 1957, under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah. Ghana’s example electrified the African world resulting in scores of free African countries between 1960 and 1963.

Ghana’s independence also provided intellectual Pan-Africanism with its first real foothold on the continent. Nkrumah, in collaboration with Padmore, consolidated this by convening the first Conference of Independent African States (CIAS), in furtherance of their Pan-Continental ideas, in Accra in April, 1958. The participants of this historic conference were Ghana, Ethiopia, Libya, Liberia, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and the United Arab Republic. These were the then independent African states except South Africa which was actually invited but refused to come because the colonial powers were not also invited.

Other meetings followed until a broader conference of independent African states took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in June 1963, establishing for the continent, the OAU, a loose interstate arrangement.

The OAU, of course, did not fulfil the ambition of Kwame Nkrumah for a strong political union of all African states but it opened the Pan-African ideology institutionally to non-blacks. This is how George Padmore defended the trend at the time: ” In our struggle for national freedom, human dignity and social redemption, Pan-Africanism offers an ideological alternative to communism on the one side and tribalism on the other. It rejects both white racialism and black chauvinism. It stands for racial co-existence on the basis of absolute equality and respect for human personality.”

I have no quarrel with all that, but I think we needed to have asked Uncle Padmore:

(1) Why other races can join our institutions and would not let us join theirs?

(2) Why we are the only race of people in the world striving desperately to tag on to others. We have Black-Arabs, Black Marxists, Black-Muslims, Black-Eskimos. Isn’t that saying something for our self esteem?

(3) Whether having a union of our own necessarily makes us any more racist than the EU, the Jewish World Congress, the Arab League etc?

(4) If our propensity to be seen to be identifying with our oppressors has helped to solve our being the racial underdogs of the world?

(5) And whether we do not need to tackle our peculiar racial problems first before contributing our wonderful expertise at problem solving to the rest of the world?

After all, charity ought to begin at home.

Also, Nkrumah and Padmore needed to have been asked to explain how their Pan-Continental politics was going to solve the deteriorating problems of the African Diaspora? 40% of the Black world do not live in Africa and are, as a result, ignored by the OAU.

The overall success of the 5th Pan African Congress blinded us to some of its not so sound pre-occupations. The 5thPAC set off many half-baked diversionary ideas which unfortunately led to the failure of the 6th Pan African Congress. The convenors of the 6thPAC did not reckon, for instance, with the selfish interest of the newly independent African governments of the time so:

(a) They let government delegations dominate the congress,

(b) Who in turn prevented leading Pan Africanists from participating.

(c) Non-Africans, without obvious commitment to Pan African ideals, were able to attend as delegates.

(d) The regular negative ideological division between our pseudo socialists and capitalists occupied centre stage.

(e) And, of course, University dons, as usual, were able to use congress to enhance their CVs and show off their borrowed language facilities and richly embroidered danshikis.

And yet, the 6th Pan African Congress succeeded in filling a yearning vacuum and keeping the movement alive, at least, in academic circles, 29 years after the 5th congress. More papers than ever before, were submitted or read at the 6thPAC and a great deal more resolutions were left behind for scholars to pore over till eternity as to their motives etc. The 6thPAC piled considerably more library materials, and gathered more delegates and observers, some 600 of them at one count, than all congresses before it, put together. To the extent that the 6thPAC achieved these feats administratively, therefore, it deserves to be recognised.

But did the congress touch the lives of ordinary Africans in the streets? No. Was the 6thPAC any better than the jamborees called first, second, third and fourth congresses? No.

Ask any African in the streets of Europe and America about the 6thPAC and you would draw a blank. Ask any grassroots African on the continent about Pan Africanism today and he would think you are speaking Greek. The 6thPAC has not stopped the continued racial rape and murder of our people in the Diaspora nor has it educated Africans on the continent, sixteen years later, to think beyond the severely circumscribed OAU.

Only the 5th congress was able to make immediate direct impact on our lives with its independence fire sweeping rapidly across colonial Africa soon after the congress. The 5thPAC set the standard by which to measure the success of all future PACs. The 6thPAC, therefore, was no more than a boring charade and if Pan Africanism is to be saved now, it must be moved beyond the constraining walls of our Ivory Towers, the deadly hold of our narrow-minded political leaders and deposited squarely on the laps of virgin Africans.

These were precisely the sources of my motivation when I began the campaign in 1982, as a private initiative, for the 7th Pan African Congress to convene within three years in a liberated African country. My principal ambition was to use the congress to institutionalise the Pan African Movement and unite the black world. I was building a farm house facility (I called the Monument to African civilisation), at Ilogbo-Eremi in the Badagry local government area of Lagos State in Nigeria, at the time, as venue for the 7th Pan- African Congress. The idea was to set up a possible meeting place that would be grand and yet rural in setting and relatively cost free to participants, to avoid recourse to government subvention or sponsoreship and, therefore, influence. At the time, I thought that the congress could hold in Nigeria in 1985. A picture of the still being constructed ‘Monument’ was eventually published in the Guardian newspaper of Nigeria, on Saturday February 4th 1984, with the following caption:

” This is the house Mr Naiwu Osahon is building. When completed, it would be one of the most unique, artistically designed houses ever built any where, says Mr Osahon of the house located on a suburban farmland. Mr. Osahon, ……………on the proposed retreat for local and visiting artistes says: ‘Discussions are already being held abroad about holding the next Pan African Congress at the Craftfarm House in 1985.”

Obstacles which I considered were mainly responsible for our disunity and lack of focus as a family included:

(1) Foreign religions and ideologies (which in all respects treat us as inferior human beings). These pull us in all sorts of directions to keep us divided despite our being the most marginalised people on the face of the earth right now. It is not in the interest of any dominating ideology for victims to unite or have a common focus. Peculiar spirituality serves to bind and encourage claims of ownership and birthright. Religion or spirituality is the greatest mobilising strategy available to man and we have nothing of our own as a rallying force like Islam is to the Arabs or Judaism to the Jews.

(2) Allowing colonisers (particularly Arabs who do not consider themselves even remotely as Pan Africanists) to participate in and sponsor our congresses. Arab occupiers of Northern Africa continue to exploit and dominate original African native owners of the land. The war in Sudan is ethnic cleansing against our race and is funded massively by the Arab League through Libya and Saudi Arabia. Arabs have their League but do not want blacks to have one. We as a race have not been able to focus on how to liberate Northern African blacks as we have done against white racists in Southern Africa because Northern Africa Arabs are equal partners with blacks in the OAU.

(3) Allowing our ‘Movement’ to be hijacked by reactionary African political leaders running our governments. These are leaders tied to the apron strings of our colonial masters for hand-outs which our leaders promptly divert to their individual private accounts abroad for personal gains. They are too busy enriching themselves at our expense to care about our collective welfare.

I strongly believed that while we could excuse the OAU perhaps, to serve the interest of all and sundry as a continental contraption, our ‘Movement’ cannot afford such a luxury. Not when there is liberation, reparations and repatriation wars still to be fought and won world-wide. Our Movement must aggresively tackle racism and our marginalisation if we are ever to collectively make progress as a people. And our ‘Movement’ must remain permanently on the alert thereafter. The best guarantee of this is a civil society controlled ‘Movement’ with grassroots Africans from the continent linking with the grassroots black Diaspora to wrestle power from our opportunistic political elite controlling our governments. The grassroots black world need to take their collective destiny into their own hands through an institutionalised ‘Movement’ that gives equal treatment to both governments and individual delegations. I was implacable over the 7thPAC institutionalising the Pan African Movement as a vibrant civil society compliment or challenge to the lame-duck OAU.

To keep rancour to the barest minimim at congresses, I insisted that decisions and resolutions of the ‘Movement’ must be fine-tuned and worked out at preparatory conferences and workshops etc in advance, with congress being used only to endorse. The preparatory activities of the 7thPAC were, therefore, to focus principally on the following three planks:

(a) To agree a body of resolutions and decisions to be known as THE BLACK AGENDA which could be up-dated now and again at regional and state conferences to become the bible or focus of activities of the black race, including black governments and individuals.

(b) To chisle out a strong and dynamic constitution for the institutionalised ‘Movement’ wielding together, black governments and black civil societies in a symbiotic relationship with leadership resting solely in the hands of civil society. The ‘Movement’ would have to develop a peculiar spirituality for such a leadership (or moral leadership of the black race) not to be controversial.

(c) To set up a ‘Foundation’ to ensure that the ‘Movement’ or Black League’ would never have to beg for financial support from anyone, particularly from extraneous sources. The philosophy of the ‘Foundation’ (called PANAF at the time), being that every black person in the world, alive or yet un-born, owes PANAF a hundred units of his or her local currency once in a life-time.

These pre-occupations were embodied in the first set of documents written and distributed lavishly by me around the world from 1982 to announce the convening of the 7thPAC in Africa in 1985.

Responses to my ‘CALL’ were generally enthusiastic, over the convening of 7thPAC which was described as overdue, but lukewarm on Nigeria (which at the time was under the jackboot of a vicious military dictatorship), serving as host. C.L.R. James, who was one of the first renown Pan Africanists at the time to received our delegation in London was full of support for an African country hosting the congress. He was not too fussy about the politics of the possible host African government. However, the series of letters addressed to Babangida, the self-proclaimed Military President of Nigeria at the time to provide 7thPAC with logistic support in the area of easy visas and adequate security for delegations were ignored. President Dos Santos of Angola wrote us the most inspiring letter of the time but was sorry he could not play host because of the debilitating civil war in his country. Zimbabwe was more interested in hosting the Commonwealth Heads of State Conference at the time and Ghana complained of poor financial resources.

While we were still shopping for a possible host country, the Foreign Minister of Nigeria, Professor Bolaji Akiyemi, out of the blues in 1987, announced the Nigerian government’s interest in convening the 7thPAC. A failed coup de’tat caused some changes in the Nigerian government with Brigadier Ike Nwanchukwu replacing Prof. Akinyemi as Foreign Affairs Minister. The Brigadier was not interested in the 7thPAC and wanted to know what it meant and who it was affiliated to. Apart from abysmal ignorance about self history, South African PAC added to the confusion. However, the earlier announcement of the Nigerian government’s interest increased focus on 7thPAC and my efforts which were independent all along of the Nigerian government’s attempted hijack.

The make shift leadership arrangement we had relied upon was formerly structured in 1987 involving a two-tier arrangement with the 7thPAC International Secretariat located in Lagos. The ultimate leadership committee was called the International Co-ordinating Committee (ICC) and had as pioneer members, Professor Kwesi Prah, a Ghanaian working in Kenya at the time, B.F.Bankie, a Ghanaian-Gambian living in London then and Naiwu Osahon, based in Lagos, as the Convernor/Chairman.

Reporting to the ICC was the International Steering Committee (ISC), which had as members: Ayi Kwei Armah; Nee Kwati Owoo; Robert Hayfron-Benjamin Beye and Boutros Boutros Ghali.

By January 1989, the ISC had been scrapped due to lack of perfomance by its members perhaps because of the cumbersome two-tier system in operation and was replaced by an expanded ICC comprising of Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Prof. Antonio Neto, Angola; Tau Napata, Jamaica; Prof. Alfred Opubor, Nigeria; Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, Egypt (who wrote trying to discourage us from institutionalising the Pan-African Movement but stayed on as committee member even when he became the Secretary General of the UN); Eunice Neto Foreid, Portugal; Dr. Ona Ekhomu, USA; Prof. H. Cunha Jr. Brazil; H. E. Dr. Henri Bangou, Guadeloupe; Dr. Laura M. Torres Souder, Guam; Amar Bentoumi, Algeria (who later withdrew because of the focus of the ‘Movement’); Dr. Joycelyn Loncke, Guyana; Dr. Digna Castaneda Puerta, Cuba; Pauulu Kamarakafego (Roosevelt Brown who still represents us now at the UN and was the pioneer sponsor of the 6thPAC, Bermuda; Hon. Mr. Bernard Narokobi, Papua New Guinea; Dr. Cyril. E. Griffith, USA; Grace Mera Molisa, Vanuatu; Prof. Mary Frances Berry, USA.

By 1990, we had received several letters of support from the likes of Leopold Sedar Senghor living in France at the time; C.L.R. James, before he died, insisting that the congress must be convened in an African country. The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Bahamas; the President of the United Republic of Tanzania; The Minister of Justice of Papua New Guinea; the governments of the Republics of Cote D’ Ivoire, Liberia, Togo, Angola, Zaire, Ghana, Guadeloupe Senator in France, Boutros Boutros Ghali as Minister of State for Foreign affairs in Egypt. We had influenced Chief Abiola of Nigeria sufficiently to try to steel our thunder by embarking on a ‘Reparations’ programme of his own, which was eventually sold to the OAU with our active lobby.

By 1992, we had established national branches or committees of the Pan-African Movement in the following countries; Angola, Australia, Barbados, Belize, Benin Republic, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Dominica, Equartorial Guinea, Fiji, France, Gambia, Germany-Benelux, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guinea, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Portugal Senegal, South Africa, St. Kitts, St Lucia, St. Maarten, Surinam, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad, UK, USA, Zaire, Zimbabwe and several new national representatives were being cultivated.

The UK national branch was the very first committee of the 7thPAC to be set up by Naiwu Osahon. It was launched on the 10th of October, 1988 at Flat 69, Schomberg House, Vincent Street, Westminster, London, S.W.1 occupied at the time by Prof. Antonio Neto. Founding members of the UK committee included Neto, Bankie, Babu, Pepukayi, Napata, Gotzmore and Bing who was elected the protem secretary.

We started having problems with London right from its take off because, as things turned out, the branch was dominated by self-declared Marxists. They wanted to take over the leadership of the ICC and move its International Secretariat to London because according to them, communications were easier from there. Besides, they were not comfortable with my anti-Marxism or foreign ideology posture and attempt to institutionalise the ‘Movement’. Also my determination to exclude Arabs of Northern Africa from the union was a headache. One of their staunchest supporters at the time was Prof. Kwesi Prah who wrote that: “We can not bind the next generation to an institutionalised ‘Movement.” My answers at the time were to ask why that should stop us from trying? And how did other races achieve their institutions and union without some first steps? No answer to these questions ever came from Prah or London or may be it came through their gradual withdrawal from our fold to encourage and team up with Uganda eventually. They tried desperately to gain access to our International Secretariat’s address list before they finally dropped out of our hold three years after their launch. Our (ICC) impression of them at the time was that they were on an ego trip desperate to etch their names on posterity for convening a Pan African Congress regardless of quality of the congress.

My criticism of DuBois for bequeating to us the culture of jamboree congresses appeared also to have alienated some supporters of the intellectual icon, including his son who took offence and started looking for opportunities to scuttle our efforts. Nkrumah’s son too soon became less active on the ICC because his father, along with Padmore were blamed for diluting the spirit of Pan-Africanism with their defence of all comers’ congresses that welcomed Arab colonisers and Marxist domination all in one breath.

Preparatory conferences of the 7thPAC around the world included;

(a) Hamilton Bermuda (From July 20 – 22, 1990)

(b) Bridgetown, Barbados (From 21 – 22 September, 1991)

(c) Solidarity with Cuba (Saturday 7th December, 1991, Bridgetown, Barbados)

(d) Port-of Spain, Trinidad (Second regional conference of the Caribbean Pan African Movement (From 27 – 28 August, 1993).

(e) Savannah, Georgia, USA (From 1 – 3 May, 1992)

(f) Toronto, Canada (where ZAWADI KWAFRICA was launched for the first time in the world by Naiwu Osahon (From June 23 – 27, 1993).

The inaugural meeting of the BLACK THINK TANK (BTT) of the Pan-African Movement, now known as THE THINK TANK OF THE BLACK WORLD (TTB) took place from 1 – 8 August, 1992, at ASCON, Topo, Badagry, Lagos Nigeria. The BTT was attended by: Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Catherene Acholonu, Nigeria; Denese Bradford, USA; Duane Bradford, USA; Tom Dalgety, Guyana; Viola Davis, Barbados; C.M. Eya-Nchama, Equatorial Guinea; Diane Forte, USA; Malinali Meza Herrera, Mexico; Onwuchekwa Jemie, Nigeria; Owei Lakemfa, Nigeria; Olusegun Maiyegun, Nigeria; Rudy Mattai, USA; Kinja Mulegwa-Migabo, Zaire; T.C Nwosu, Nigeria; Osagie Obayuwana, Nigeria; Yinka Ogunsulire, Nigeria; Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade, Nigeria; Charles C. Roach, Canada; Gbenga Sonuga, Nigeria. Two members who could not get to the venue of the BTT, but who had paid to attend were: Joycelene Loncke, Guyana and G. Mawa-Kiese Mawawa, Congo.

The BTT examined the issues: “Why are we so blessed and yet so poor?” “Why are we not benefiting as a people from the civilisation we pioneered and what are we to do to get back on our feet again as one family?” THE BLACK AGENDA is a product of the BTT’s deliberations and it lays down the rules to guide the activities of black governments, individuals, organisations, communities, family units, institutions. The BTT also produced the CONSTITUTION of the Pan African Movement and approved ZAWADI KWAFRICA (ZA) as the name of the Pan-African Foundation. Zawadi Kwafrica are Swahili words meaning gifts of and from the people of Africa.

Members of the ICC in 1993 included: Naiwu Osahon, Chairman; Charles C. Roach, Vice Chair; Pauulu Kamarakafego, Vice Chair; H. E. Dr. (Senator) Henri Bangou, Guadeloupe; Dr. Thomas Cornell Battle, USA; Gerlin Bean, Jamaica; John Benjamin, Anguilla; Prof. Mary Frances Berry, USA; Farika Birhan, Maroons; Dr. Michael L. Blakey, USA; Duane Bradford, USA; Musa Cham, Gambia; Bobby Clarke, Barbados; Dr. John Henrik Clarke, USA; Tom Dalgety, Guyana; Viola Davis, Barbados; M.K. Dingake, Botswana; Babacar Diop, Senegal; Robert M. Dossou, Rep. du Benin; Noel Dossou-Yovo, Rep. du Benin; Prof. Quince Duncan, Costa Rica; Louise Edimo, Cameroon; C.M. Eya-Nchama, Equatorial Guinea; Januario Garcia Filho, Brazil; Eunice Neto Foreid, Portugal; Dianne Forte, USA; Roderick Francis, Jamaica; Major-General J. N. Garba, President of the UN General Assembly at the time; Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, (UN Secretary-General at the time); Siegfried Hazel, Curacao; Malinali Meza Herrera, Mexico; Dr. Byron R. M. Hove, Zimbabwe; Eddie Iroh, UK; Onwuchekwa Jemie, Nigeria; Senator Irvin Stephen Knight, Dominica; Pontiff His Grace Srila Bhakti-Tirtha Swami Krsnapada, USD/USA; Joan Lucas, Belize; Dr. Joycelynne Loncke, Guyana; Dr. F. L. Lwanyantika Masha, Tanzania; Kae Matundu-Tjiparuro, Namibia; G. Mawa-Kiese Mawawa, Grenada; Kinja Mulegwa-Migabo, Zaire; James Mutambirwa, PCR/WCC; Hon. Bernard Narokobi, Papua-New Guinea; Abdias do Nascimento, Brazil; Michel Ndoh, Switzerland; Prof. Anthonio Neto, Angola; Felipe Noguera, Trinidad; T.C. Nwosu, Nigeria; Frantz Obas, Haiti; Clement O’ Garro, St. Kitts; Prof. Omolara Ogundipe-Leslie, Nigeria; Placide Prosper, St. Lucia; Dr. Digna Castaneda Puertas, Cuba; Mtra Araceli Reynoso, Mexico; Omowale Satterwhite, USA; Mr. and Mrs Savane, Senegal; Bania Mahamadou Say, Niger; Dr. Jean Sindab, USA; Ghenga Sonuga, Nigeria; Dr. Laura M. Torres Sounder, Guam; Andre France de Sousa, Portugal; Hassan A. Sunmonu, OATUU; Cheikh Tidiane Sy, PANA; Dr. Robert B. Sykes, Australia; Terrel Thomas, Suriname; Charles Pascal Tolno, Rep. du Guinea; Stewart M. Tsela, Swaziland; Siteri V. Tuilovoni, Fiji; Prof. Theo Vincent, Nigeria; Amelia Ventura, Mozambique; Alvin Williams, Bermuda; Emmanuel York, St. Maarten.

Out of frustration for not finding a suitable host country for 7thPAC, we pursued Uganda, more for President Museveni’ s gorilla war credentials than for any recognisable record of achievement in the realm of Pan Africanism. The man would not even tolerate dissent from within Uganda let alone from outside. Museveni’s Uganda is in the pockets of the Arabs that are marginalizing our kith and kin in Northern Africa.

Our first letter to Museveni was in January, 1990 followed by another in September, 1990 and a third one in June, 1991, inviting his government to be a possible host of 7thPAC without pre-conditions. At the end of March, 1991, a number of documents arrived at our International Secretariat in Lagos from Kwame Ture stating that Kwame Ture of the All African Peoples Revolutionary Party (AAPRP), Col. Otafiire, the personal assistant to the Uganda Head of State and four others had met in Tripoli, Libya on December 10, 1990 and decided to constitute themselves into a pre-preparatory committee which is to be enlarged to become the preparatory committee to convene a conference to create a mass Pan African organisation.

Among the documents sent was an invitation to Naiwu Osahon to attend a preparatory meeting of their proposed conference in March, 1991, in Uganda. Obviously that meeting did not hold because according to another notice from them later, the invitations were sent out too late and got to their destinations well after the March date of the proposed meeting.

Three further attempts were made, up to the 27th of January, 1992, to put their preparatory meeting together without success but further documents were sent to the International Secretariat of the 7thPAC in Lagos and addressed as such. The documents specified that they were putting together:

(a) A conference focusing on anti-Zionism and

(b) To be called ” All African People’s Conference.

Since the title of their conference was not in conflict with our own, we were not entirely opposed to co-operating with Uganda although we wrote back to say: “While we are not uncomfortable with your anti-Zionist focus, we also want anti-Arab and anti-West focus for your proposed conference.”

On the 7th August, 1991, we received a letter from Col. Otafiire, calling their group, the 7th Pan African Congress Committee with Col. Otafiire as convenor and Chairman and President Museveni as their Patron, thereby constituting a direct challenge to the International Secretariat of the Pan African Movement in Lagos. On the 7th August, 1991, we addressed a comprehensive letter of our objection and discomfort on the matter to President Museveni. After waiting for a while without response, we wrote on the subject to all our committees around the world. Several activities followed around the world after the Uganda bombshell culminating in a long awaited first ever meeting between me and Kwame Ture in my office in Lagos on Saturday 27 March, 1993. It was an extremely warm and inspiring meeting lasting nearly four hours from about 4.45 p.m. The Secretary General of the 7thPAC national committee for Nigeria, Dr. Osagie Obayuwana was in attendance mainly as an observer.

Several issues concerning the way forward were discussed and the highlights of our agreement were:

(1) That everything humanly possible should be done to keep us and the black world united. We felt strongly that our detractors must not be given any comfort on this issue. That we needed to close ranks and give purposeful direction at this critical point in our history otherwise posterity would judge us harshly.

(2) That no African government, not even the OAU, under any disguise, should finance or host the 7th Pan African Congress or any other Pan African Congress. They can participate at congress meetings but as equal partners with the rest of the black world. Congress definitely does not need the authority of the OAU to hold since the OAU is a child of congress.

(3) That non-black sources should not finance or host any Pan-African Congress.

(4) That the 7th Pan African Congress should be held in Africa, preferably in a country where:
(a) Blacks would have no problems obtaining visas to attend,
because no black person, for ideological, religious, or any other
reason should be prevented from attending or speaking his
or her mind freely on any issue as affects the black world at
the congress.
(b) The lives of delegates and others attending congress would be
safe and largely guaranteed.

(5) We did not discuss congress date in details but felt that the December, 1993 Uganda date might be too soon considering the enormous task of preparing adequately (especially in area of fund-raising) for a meaningful congress. The August, 1994 date proposed by the International Secretariat in Lagos, we felt was feasible, particularly for the launching of the institutionalised ‘Movement.’

(6) We felt that there was a strong need to ensure qualitative attendance at congress and agreed that while the mass movement dimension of congress should not be hindered, it is necessary for the movement to be led by recognisable Pan-Africanists. In other words, there is a need to identify and agree on who serious Pan Aricanists are right now, around the black world, and either split congress dates to accommodate them or find ways to ensure that congress direction and decisions are controlled by them. If congress date is to be split, the institutional dimension of congress could be held first, say in August, 1994, as already scheduled, followed immediately by the Pan African leaders congress.

After further consultations on the above issues through correspondence with Kwame Ture and other blacks of diverse interests world-wide, it was agreed that the Uganda conference slated for December, 1993 should be a preparatory one for the 7thPAC of the International Secretariat in Lagos in August, 1994. The Uganda team ignored our recommendation and announced that they were going ahead with their December 1993 7thPAC charade. With US$300,000 blood money from Gaddafi, Museveni was not only well fortified to play the devil’s advocate, he was poised to launch his personal ambition to become the Emperor of a new Tutsi Hema Empire annexing Rwanda and mineral rich Zaire (now DRC) under the behest of America. We immediately began circulating a strongly worded message warning the patriotic black world not to go to Uganda.

On January 3 1994, we received a phone call in Lagos from one of our deputy leaders, Pauulu Kamarakafego in Bermuda, informing us that the December, 1993 Uganda make-believe congress failed to hold. It was cancelled in the last minute because of the non-arrival of quality delegations. Several ordinary, innocent black folks from the Diaspora, unaware of the high wire politics being perpetrated in the name of Pan-Africanism and hoping to touch base perhaps for the first time in their lives with mother Africa were turned back at the Kampala airport. A Uganda team, led by Col. Otafiire then set out on a tour of the black world to deliver Museveni’s invitation and offers of free return travel tickets and free accommodation in Uganda to government delegations and renown intellectuals who attend their rescheduled April 1994, 7thPAC. They had to move fast to nullify our pending August 1994 7thPAC date. They arrived Nigeria on January 5 1994 to deliver their invitation to the Nigerian government without visiting the 7thPAC International Secretariat.

And yet, no head of state attended the Uganda 7thPAC debacle. Not even Nyerere who had received our warning message earlier on and who was the principal host of the 6thPAC in Tanzania, would grace Uganda with his presence at least to demonstrate continuity. As predicted, the Uganda exercise turned out to be an attempt to be a convenor of congress regardless of the outcome to the black race. A lot of bravado prevailed, loads of resolutions were passed and delegates were feted lavishly before returning to their various countries no better off than they were before the congress. In fact, the average black person in the world today does not know that the 7thPAC has taken place in his or her name. Another jamboree has passed, one of the many failed attempts that litter our chequered history but Uganda achieved ‘a me too.’ Uganda succeeded in helping us waste another decade, another generation while Museveni rides on his high visibility profile to destabilise his neighbouring countries to annex and exploit their mineral resources.

The Uganda 7thPAC set up a Pan-African office in Kampala as a propaganda tool of Museveni’s Empire building machinery. That done, his hit man, Paul Kagame, a CIA protege with US military school training brought down a plane carrying the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi over their countries’ common border with Uganda. The Presidents’ death launched Rwanda’s sack and pogrom resulting in the death of over half a million Rwandans and the displacement of millions of others. Then they replaced the dreaded Mobutu with Laurent Kabila as President of the DRC.

Kabila, a Lumumbist refused to play along so Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda occupied the mineral rich regions of the DRC in 1999 with America’s technical backing. They massacred over two and a half million Congolese while looting and plundering the DRC’s mineral wealth. But for the meddlesome intervention of the armies of Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe, Emperor Museveni was only a hair’s breath away from his dream of usurping what potentially would have been the largest and richest modern Empire in Africa. Surprisingly, the failed Emperor apparently had the tacit support of South Africa’s President Nelson Mandela who was waiting on a ship off the coast of Kinshasha to crown Wamba Dia Wamba as Laurent Kabila’s replacement for Emperor Museveni’s new surrogate in the DRC.

The latest version of the African Union concept started from a totally discredited non-black source with an OAU’s special meeting bankrolled by Muamar Gaddafi in Sirte, Libya in 1999. Gaddafi, as we all know is the rascal or Satan behind all the modern civil wars in Africa. From Chad to Liberia to Sierra Leone, Gaddafi had his fingers on the rotten, smellie pie. He financed and trained Museveni’s gorilla adventure and he is the leading sustainer of Arab pogrom against Africans in the Sudan right now. After failing to build his, the United States of the Arab world dream, he turned to halpless Africa for relevance in international politics. His interest in the African Union is fiendish and totally opportunistic and was designed to lead to the setting up of the AU’s headquarters in Sirte, Libya with Muamar Gaddafi as the United States of Africa’s first President.

At first, Gaddafi’s dream project was opposed by Presidents Obasanjo of Nigeria and Thabo Mbeki of South Africa in what may have been no more than a power struggle between the personalities involved. President Obasanjo and Abdoulai Wade of Senegal opposed the Reparations for Slavery and Colonialism strategy of the black world at the 2001 UN World Conference against Racism in South Africa. Mbeki, of course, is pocketed by apartheid architects in South Africa. General Abacha’s regime in Nigeria, during a moment of discomfort with Mbeki, described Mbeki’s government as a structure with white skin and black head. He probably believed the tail wags the head.

During our struggle to assert our 7thPAC variance in the 1990’s, one of our most formidable foes in Senegal was Abdoulai Wade. Wade who had strong links with the anti-African ‘Labour International,’ in collaboration with Pierre T. Sane of Amnesty International and a Senegalese based in Canada tried to prempty 7thPAC to convene what they called PANAF ’92 to deliver the black world on a platter to their French government cohorts. Wade as the leader of the P.D.S party was reputed for creating confusion and mayhem in the ranks of opposition political parties in Senegal before he became the country’s President. His antecedence is decidedly Western oriented so it was no surprise that along with Gaddafi, Obasanjo and Mbeki they crafted a constitution that delivers the AU as a neo-colonial appendage of the West. These leaders are not Pan-Africanists and do not love Africa or the black world. They are in all these for selfish personal gains (crumbs), from under the tables of their Western benefactors.

The Obasanjo-Mbeki cabal went down on their knees to beg the West for a $64 billion handout but instead got $6 billion spread over a period of years. A Pan-Africanist friend, Lester Lewis, believes that, that is where the NEEEEPAD name comes from. Obviously, the $6 billion bailout is to enable us continue to buy the loads of KNEEPADS we are going to need from the West. The deputy leader of the World Pan African Movement, Charles C. Roach who is based in Canada, describing the African leaders begging scene at the 2002 G8 conference in Canada, said: “There is an amusing photograph of Prime Minister Chretien of Canada sitting astride a kneeling camel on his recent trip to Algeria and five other African countries over the NEPAD issue. The Prime Minister is entreating the camel not to stand up and this is understandable, because the way a camel gets up, unfolding its long legs is a roller-coaster ride for anyone on its back. Symbolically, Chretien was telling the African camel to stay on its knees while he perches on its back.”

Earlier this year, President Moi of Kenya, said in a speech in Blantyre, Malawi that Africa was doomed to perpetual poverty and backwardness unless African leaders free themselves of egocentricity. That “no country in the West had an obligation to baby-sit and spoon-feed independent African nations. African leaders must accept this fact, however unsettling, and rethink about their development strategies.” Recently too, President Yahya Jammeh of the Gambia was reported to have described NEPAD as a charter for beggars. Hear him: “NEPAD would not work. ….Africa is the richest continent in terms of mineral resources, but because of ignorance, Africa in economic terms, is the poorest continent and we Africans are the laughing stock of humanity. We have failed because some of us are agents of the same people we are supposed to fight against. We produce the bulk of the world’s raw materials so why are we still poor? Some of us are fighting proxy wars in Africa for the benefit of others. Africa has never colonised anyone. Some people who prolonged apartheid are now waving the flag of democracy and freedom. The African debt is not globalised, it is Africanised.”

At a forum in Addis Ababa in March 2002, Prof Shadrack Gutto of South Africa’s University of the Witwaterstrand asked why NEPAD was presented first to the G8 before African governments had a chance to discuss it. Mr. Wiseman Nkuhlu, the South African president’s special adviser on NEPAD, provided the not so wise answer at the forum that it is because African governments have been pre-occupied with building the AU. In answer to another question at the forum, Mr. Nkuhlu admitted that consultation with civil society “is not where we would like it.”

If the Obasanjo-Mbeki cabal, set up by the West to perpetuate our developmental pains would not consult with even their colleagues in African governments before inflicting the culture of the begging bowl on Africa all over again, does the African civil society have a right to expect a miracle from the AU? Where does that leave the black Diaspora in the scheme of things? What about ‘Reparations’ and Repatriation’?

The answer is for African civil society to link up with the black Diaspora civil society to impose a vibrant, uncompromising institutionalised ‘ Movement’ on the black world, independent of African governments’ control. The two priority areas of activities of the institutionalised ‘Movement’ would be: (a) To pressurise the AU to produce a Pan-African Passport (PAP) to enable any black or African, regardless of nationality, return home to Africa at will without let or hindrance. (b) To compel the West and Arabs, by any means necessary, to pay Reparations to the black world. This is, therefore our ‘ CALL’ to all Africans, African organisations, institutions and NGO’s of goodwill, wherever they may be in the world, to nominate their representatives to the 8thPAC International Co-ordinating Committee working to convene the Eight Pan-African Congress within the next three to five years in Africa to launch the Institutionalised Pan-African Movement.

By Naiwu Osahon
The World Pan African Movement
7th August, 2002.

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April 5, 2007


Take, Take, Take
House Negros
June 20, 2008 in History, Japan, Japanese
X says it straight:

To understand this, you have to go back to what [the] young brother here referred to as the house Negro and the field Negro — back during slavery. There was two kinds of slaves. There was the house Negro and the field Negro. The house Negroes – they lived in the house with master, they dressed pretty good, they ate good ’cause they ate his food — what he left. They lived in the attic or the basement, but still they lived near the master; and they loved their master more than the master loved himself. They would give their life to save the master’s house quicker than the master would. The house Negro, if the master said, “We got a good house here,” the house Negro would say, “Yeah, we got a good house here.” Whenever the master said “we,” he said “we.” That’s how you can tell a house Negro.

If the master’s house caught on fire, the house Negro would fight harder to put the blaze out than the master would. If the master got sick, the house Negro would say, “What’s the matter, boss, we sick?” We sick! He identified himself with his master more than his master identified with himself. And if you came to the house Negro and said, “Let’s run away, let’s escape, let’s separate,” the house Negro would look at you and say, “Man, you crazy. What you mean, separate? Where is there a better house than this? Where can I wear better clothes than this? Where can I eat better food than this?” That was that house Negro. In those days he was called a “house nigger.” And that’s what we call him today, because we’ve still got some house niggers running around here.

This modern house Negro loves his master. He wants to live near him. He’ll pay three times as much as the house is worth just to live near his master, and then brag about “I’m the only Negro out here.” “I’m the only one on my job.” “I’m the only one in this school.” You’re nothing but a house Negro. And if someone comes to you right now and says, “Let’s separate,” you say the same thing that the house Negro said on the plantation. “What you mean, separate? From America? This good white man? Where you going to get a better job than you get here?” I mean, this is what you say. “I ain’t left nothing in Africa,” that’s what you say. Why, you left your mind in Africa.

On that same plantation, there was the field Negro. The field Negro — those were the masses. There were always more Negroes in the field than there was Negroes in the house. The Negro in the field caught hell. He ate leftovers. In the house they ate high up on the hog. The Negro in the field didn’t get nothing but what was left of the insides of the hog. They call ‘em “chitt’lin’” nowadays. In those days they called them what they were: guts. That’s what you were — a gut-eater. And some of you all still gut-eaters.

The field Negro was beaten from morning to night. He lived in a shack, in a hut; He wore old, castoff clothes. He hated his master. I say he hated his master. He was intelligent. That house Negro loved his master. But that field Negro — remember, they were in the majority, and they hated the master. When the house caught on fire, he didn’t try and put it out; that field Negro prayed for a wind, for a breeze. When the master got sick, the field Negro prayed that he’d die. If someone come [sic] to the field Negro and said, “Let’s separate, let’s run,” he didn’t say “Where we going?” He’d say, “Any place is better than here.” You’ve got field Negroes in America today. I’m a field Negro. The masses are the field Negroes. When they see this man’s house on fire, you don’t hear these little Negroes talking about “our government is in trouble.” They say, “The government is in trouble.” Imagine a Negro: “Our government”! I even heard one say “our astronauts.” They won’t even let him near the plant — and “our astronauts”! “Our Navy” — that’s a Negro that’s out of his mind. That’s a Negro that’s out of his mind.

Just as the slavemaster of that day used Tom, the house Negro, to keep the field Negroes in check, the same old slavemaster today has Negroes who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms, 20th century Uncle Toms, to keep you and me in check, keep us under control, keep us passive and peaceful and nonviolent. That’s Tom making you nonviolent. It’s like when you go to the dentist, and the man’s going to take your tooth. You’re going to fight him when he starts pulling. So he squirts some stuff in your jaw called novocaine, to make you think they’re not doing anything to you. So you sit there and ’cause you’ve got all of that novocaine in your jaw, you suffer peacefully. Blood running all down your jaw, and you don’t know what’s happening. ‘Cause someone has taught you to suffer — peacefully.

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10 Replies
June 21, 2008 at 9:13 pm
he says something straight but i’m not sure what it is. not sure we can take this conjecture of all “house negroes” being loyal and all “field negroes” as being revolutionaries as fact though. some of the “house negroes” ended up being key leaders to assist the cause of the north in the civil war. and, as such have every reason to say “we” when saying they are americans. without folks with a willingness to reconcile the differences between white and black we don’t have an obama for president or a chris rock doing comedy.

i can appreciate x for his positions in their context of the 60’s and the newly escaped jim crow laws of the south. in today’s context, we got lots of work to do in making the cooperation work. it’s working better than the 50’s but lots of room for improvement.

June 22, 2008 at 3:23 am
MLK…what an asshole.

June 22, 2008 at 8:11 am
I’m relating this to teaching English in Japan. Ain’t nobody more critical of X than me.

June 22, 2008 at 10:54 am
The post suddenly assumes a great truth. I must remember to read the tags.

Colin Doyle
June 22, 2008 at 10:59 am
You can’t relate it to teaching English in Japan unless you can find some earlier paragraphs which tell how the slaves got on the boats themselves, sailed to America and *asked* the white folks to *make* them slaves.
Nothin’ like a jug of sweet self-pity on a warm summer’s night on the ol’ plantation…

June 22, 2008 at 11:02 am
There seems to be a great number of field slaves who are painting their faces white… I guess you refused to be such a coward (all matters of prudence aside)?

Life is full of reconciling contradictions. This, I guess, is the other side of “When in Rome”.

June 22, 2008 at 1:25 pm
More specific: This reminds me of my current situation in which a gaijin in authority is trying to enforce an unfair contract meant to exploit foreigners who are unaware of Japanese law and who is doing it more vigorously than the Japanese in authority.

June 22, 2008 at 2:24 pm
fight the power my friend.

colin’s comments made me laugh though. so true. i guess it’s the difference between forced slavery and indentured servitude.

Colin Doyle
June 22, 2008 at 3:26 pm
Ah. You’re referring to your employer, not yourself.Now it (kind of) makes sense. Well, there are plenty of those about, it’s true. Strained analogy, though.

June 23, 2008 at 1:58 am
Ah yes, the painted slave is whiter than the white man. : ) I could allegorize all day.

Really, though, this is a definite type. I was always fortunate never to encounter it in a superior though.


April 5, 2007

Malcolm X: “Message To The Grass Roots”

delivered on 10 Nov, 1963 in Detroit, MI

Audio mp3 of Address

[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio.]

…And during the few moments that we have left, we want to have just an off-the-cuff chat between you and me — us. We want to talk right down to earth in a language that everybody here can easily understand. We all agree tonight, all of the speakers have agreed, that America has a very serious problem. Not only does America have a very serious problem, but our people have a very serious problem. America’s problem is us. We’re her problem. The only reason she has a problem is she doesn’t want us here. And every time you look at yourself, be you black, brown, red, or yellow — a so-called Negro — you represent a person who poses such a serious problem for America because you’re not wanted. Once you face this as a fact, then you can start plotting a course that will make you appear intelligent, instead of unintelligent.

What you and I need to do is learn to forget our differences. When we come together, we don’t come together as Baptists or Methodists. You don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Baptist, and you don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Methodist. You don’t catch hell ’cause you’re a Methodist or Baptist. You don’t catch hell because you’re a Democrat or a Republican. You don’t catch hell because you’re a Mason or an Elk. And you sure don’t catch hell ’cause you’re an American; ’cause if you was an American, you wouldn’t catch no hell. You catch hell ’cause you’re a black man. You catch hell, all of us catch hell, for the same reason.

So we are all black people, so-called Negroes, second-class citizens, ex-slaves. You are nothing but a [sic] ex-slave. You don’t like to be told that. But what else are you? You are ex-slaves. You didn’t come here on the “Mayflower.” You came here on a slave ship — in chains, like a horse, or a cow, or a chicken. And you were brought here by the people who came here on the “Mayflower.” You were brought here by the so-called Pilgrims, or Founding Fathers. They were the ones who brought you here.

We have a common enemy. We have this in common: We have a common oppressor, a common exploiter, and a common discriminator. But once we all realize that we have this common enemy, then we unite on the basis of what we have in common. And what we have foremost in common is that enemy — the white man. He’s an enemy to all of us. I know some of you all think that some of them aren’t enemies. Time will tell.

In Bandung back in, I think, 1954, was the first unity meeting in centuries of black people. And once you study what happened at the Bandung conference, and the results of the Bandung conference, it actually serves as a model for the same procedure you and I can use to get our problems solved. At Bandung all the nations came together. Their were dark nations from Africa and Asia. Some of them were Buddhists. Some of them were Muslim. Some of them were Christians. Some of them were Confucianists; some were atheists. Despite their religious differences, they came together. Some were communists; some were socialists; some were capitalists. Despite their economic and political differences, they came together. All of them were black, brown, red, or yellow.

The number-one thing that was not allowed to attend the Bandung conference was the white man. He couldn’t come. Once they excluded the white man, they found that they could get together. Once they kept him out, everybody else fell right in and fell in line. This is the thing that you and I have to understand. And these people who came together didn’t have nuclear weapons; they didn’t have jet planes; they didn’t have all of the heavy armaments that the white man has. But they had unity.

They were able to submerge their little petty differences and agree on one thing: That though one African came from Kenya and was being colonized by the Englishman, and another African came from the Congo and was being colonized by the Belgian, and another African came from Guinea and was being colonized by the French, and another came from Angola and was being colonized by the Portuguese. When they came to the Bandung conference, they looked at the Portuguese, and at the Frenchman, and at the Englishman, and at the other — Dutchman — and learned or realized that the one thing that all of them had in common: they were all from Europe, they were all Europeans, blond, blue-eyed and white-skinned. They began to recognize who their enemy was. The same man that was colonizing our people in Kenya was colonizing our people in the Congo. The same one in the Congo was colonizing our people in South Africa, and in Southern Rhodesia, and in Burma, and in India, and in Afghanistan, and in Pakistan. They realized all over the world where the dark man was being oppressed, he was being oppressed by the white man; where the dark man was being exploited, he was being exploited by the white man. So they got together under this basis — that they had a common enemy.

And when you and I here in Detroit and in Michigan and in America who have been awakened today look around us, we too realize here in America we all have a common enemy, whether he’s in Georgia or Michigan, whether he’s in California or New York. He’s the same man: blue eyes and blond hair and pale skin — same man. So what we have to do is what they did. They agreed to stop quarreling among themselves. Any little spat that they had, they’d settle it among themselves, go into a huddle — don’t let the enemy know that you got [sic] a disagreement.

Instead of us airing our differences in public, we have to realize we’re all the same family. And when you have a family squabble, you don’t get out on the sidewalk. If you do, everybody calls you uncouth, unrefined, uncivilized, savage. If you don’t make it at home, you settle it at home; you get in the closet — argue it out behind closed doors. And then when you come out on the street, you pose a common front, a united front. And this is what we need to do in the community, and in the city, and in the state. We need to stop airing our differences in front of the white man. Put the white man out of our meetings, number one, and then sit down and talk shop with each other. [That’s] all you gotta do.

I would like to make a few comments concerning the difference between the black revolution and the Negro revolution. There’s a difference. Are they both the same? And if they’re not, what is the difference? What is the difference between a black revolution and a Negro revolution? First, what is a revolution? Sometimes I’m inclined to believe that many of our people are using this word “revolution” loosely, without taking careful consideration [of] what this word actually means, and what its historic characteristics are. When you study the historic nature of revolutions, the motive of a revolution, the objective of a revolution, and the result of a revolution, and the methods used in a revolution, you may change words. You may devise another program. You may change your goal and you may change your mind.

Look at the American Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For land. Why did they want land? Independence. How was it carried out? Bloodshed. Number one, it was based on land, the basis of independence. And the only way they could get it was bloodshed. The French Revolution — what was it based on? The land-less against the landlord. What was it for? Land. How did they get it? Bloodshed. Was no love lost; was no compromise; was no negotiation. I’m telling you, you don’t know what a revolution is. ‘Cause when you find out what it is, you’ll get back in the alley; you’ll get out of the way. The Russian Revolution — what was it based on? Land. The land-less against the landlord. How did they bring it about? Bloodshed. You haven’t got a revolution that doesn’t involve bloodshed. And you’re afraid to bleed. I said, you’re afraid to bleed.

[As] long as the white man sent you to Korea, you bled. He sent you to Germany, you bled. He sent you to the South Pacific to fight the Japanese, you bled. You bleed for white people. But when it comes time to seeing your own churches being bombed and little black girls be murdered, you haven’t got no blood. You bleed when the white man says bleed; you bite when the white man says bite; and you bark when the white man says bark. I hate to say this about us, but it’s true. How are you going to be nonviolent in Mississippi, as violent as you were in Korea? How can you justify being nonviolent in Mississippi and Alabama, when your churches are being bombed, and your little girls are being murdered, and at the same time you’re going to violent with Hitler, and Tojo, and somebody else that you don’t even know?

If violence is wrong in America, violence is wrong abroad. If it’s wrong to be violent defending black women and black children and black babies and black men, then it’s wrong for America to draft us and make us violent abroad in defense of her. And if it is right for America to draft us, and teach us how to be violent in defense of her, then it is right for you and me to do whatever is necessary to defend our own people right here in this country.

The Chinese Revolution — they wanted land. They threw the British out, along with the Uncle Tom Chinese. Yeah, they did. They set a good example. When I was in prison, I read an article — don’t be shocked when I say I was in prison. You’re still in prison. That’s what America means: prison. When I was in prison, I read an article in Life magazine showing a little Chinese girl, nine years old; her father was on his hands and knees and she was pulling the trigger ’cause he was an Uncle Tom Chinaman, When they had the revolution over there, they took a whole generation of Uncle Toms — just wiped them out. And within ten years that little girl become [sic] a full-grown woman. No more Toms in China. And today it’s one of the toughest, roughest, most feared countries on this earth — by the white man. ‘Cause there are no Uncle Toms over there.

Of all our studies, history is best qualified to reward our research. And when you see that you’ve got problems, all you have to do is examine the historic method used all over the world by others who have problems similar to yours. And once you see how they got theirs straight, then you know how you can get yours straight. There’s been a revolution, a black revolution, going on in Africa. In Kenya, the Mau Mau were revolutionaries; they were the ones who made the word “Uhuru” [Kenyan word for “freedom”]. They were the ones who brought it to the fore. The Mau Mau, they were revolutionaries. They believed in scorched earth. They knocked everything aside that got in their way, and their revolution also was based on land, a desire for land. In Algeria, the northern part of Africa, a revolution took place. The Algerians were revolutionists; they wanted land. France offered to let them be integrated into France. They told France: to hell with France. They wanted some land, not some France. And they engaged in a bloody battle.

So I cite these various revolutions, brothers and sisters, to show you — you don’t have a peaceful revolution. You don’t have a turn-the-other-cheek revolution. There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution. [The] only kind of revolution that’s nonviolent is the Negro revolution. The only revolution based on loving your enemy is the Negro revolution. The only revolution in which the goal is a desegregated lunch counter, a desegregated theater, a desegregated park, and a desegregated public toilet; you can sit down next to white folks on the toilet. That’s no revolution. Revolution is based on land. Land is the basis of all independence. Land is the basis of freedom, justice, and equality.

The white man knows what a revolution is. He knows that the black revolution is world-wide in scope and in nature. The black revolution is sweeping Asia, sweeping Africa, is rearing its head in Latin America. The Cuban Revolution — that’s a revolution. They overturned the system. Revolution is in Asia. Revolution is in Africa. And the white man is screaming because he sees revolution in Latin America. How do you think he’ll react to you when you learn what a real revolution is? You don’t know what a revolution is. If you did, you wouldn’t use that word.

A revolution is bloody. Revolution is hostile. Revolution knows no compromise. Revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way. And you, sitting around here like a knot on the wall, saying, “I’m going to love these folks no matter how much they hate me.” No, you need a revolution. Whoever heard of a revolution where they lock arms, as Reverend Cleage was pointing out beautifully, singing “We Shall Overcome”? Just tell me. You don’t do that in a revolution. You don’t do any singing; you’re too busy swinging. It’s based on land. A revolutionary wants land so he can set up his own nation, an independent nation. These Negroes aren’t asking for no nation. They’re trying to crawl back on the plantation.

When you want a nation, that’s called nationalism. When the white man became involved in a revolution in this country against England, what was it for? He wanted this land so he could set up another white nation. That’s white nationalism. The American Revolution was white nationalism. The French Revolution was white nationalism. The Russian Revolution too — yes, it was — white nationalism. You don’t think so? Why [do] you think Khrushchev and Mao can’t get their heads together? White nationalism. All the revolutions that’s going on in Asia and Africa today are based on what? Black nationalism. A revolutionary is a black nationalist. He wants a nation. I was reading some beautiful words by Reverend Cleage, pointing out why he couldn’t get together with someone else here in the city because all of them were afraid of being identified with black nationalism. If you’re afraid of black nationalism, you’re afraid of revolution. And if you love revolution, you love black nationalism.

To understand this, you have to go back to what [the] young brother here referred to as the house Negro and the field Negro — back during slavery. There was two kinds of slaves. There was the house Negro and the field Negro. The house Negroes – they lived in the house with master, they dressed pretty good, they ate good ’cause they ate his food — what he left. They lived in the attic or the basement, but still they lived near the master; and they loved their master more than the master loved himself. They would give their life to save the master’s house quicker than the master would. The house Negro, if the master said, “We got a good house here,” the house Negro would say, “Yeah, we got a good house here.” Whenever the master said “we,” he said “we.” That’s how you can tell a house Negro.

If the master’s house caught on fire, the house Negro would fight harder to put the blaze out than the master would. If the master got sick, the house Negro would say, “What’s the matter, boss, we sick?” We sick! He identified himself with his master more than his master identified with himself. And if you came to the house Negro and said, “Let’s run away, let’s escape, let’s separate,” the house Negro would look at you and say, “Man, you crazy. What you mean, separate? Where is there a better house than this? Where can I wear better clothes than this? Where can I eat better food than this?” That was that house Negro. In those days he was called a “house nigger.” And that’s what we call him today, because we’ve still got some house niggers running around here.

This modern house Negro loves his master. He wants to live near him. He’ll pay three times as much as the house is worth just to live near his master, and then brag about “I’m the only Negro out here.” “I’m the only one on my job.” “I’m the only one in this school.” You’re nothing but a house Negro. And if someone comes to you right now and says, “Let’s separate,” you say the same thing that the house Negro said on the plantation. “What you mean, separate? From America? This good white man? Where you going to get a better job than you get here?” I mean, this is what you say. “I ain’t left nothing in Africa,” that’s what you say. Why, you left your mind in Africa.

On that same plantation, there was the field Negro. The field Negro — those were the masses. There were always more Negroes in the field than there was Negroes in the house. The Negro in the field caught hell. He ate leftovers. In the house they ate high up on the hog. The Negro in the field didn’t get nothing but what was left of the insides of the hog. They call ’em “chitt’lin'” nowadays. In those days they called them what they were: guts. That’s what you were — a gut-eater. And some of you all still gut-eaters.

The field Negro was beaten from morning to night. He lived in a shack, in a hut; He wore old, castoff clothes. He hated his master. I say he hated his master. He was intelligent. That house Negro loved his master. But that field Negro — remember, they were in the majority, and they hated the master. When the house caught on fire, he didn’t try and put it out; that field Negro prayed for a wind, for a breeze. When the master got sick, the field Negro prayed that he’d die. If someone come [sic] to the field Negro and said, “Let’s separate, let’s run,” he didn’t say “Where we going?” He’d say, “Any place is better than here.” You’ve got field Negroes in America today. I’m a field Negro. The masses are the field Negroes. When they see this man’s house on fire, you don’t hear these little Negroes talking about “our government is in trouble.” They say, “The government is in trouble.” Imagine a Negro: “Our government”! I even heard one say “our astronauts.” They won’t even let him near the plant — and “our astronauts”! “Our Navy” — that’s a Negro that’s out of his mind. That’s a Negro that’s out of his mind.

Just as the slavemaster of that day used Tom, the house Negro, to keep the field Negroes in check, the same old slavemaster today has Negroes who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms, 20th century Uncle Toms, to keep you and me in check, keep us under control, keep us passive and peaceful and nonviolent. That’s Tom making you nonviolent. It’s like when you go to the dentist, and the man’s going to take your tooth. You’re going to fight him when he starts pulling. So he squirts some stuff in your jaw called novocaine, to make you think they’re not doing anything to you. So you sit there and ’cause you’ve got all of that novocaine in your jaw, you suffer peacefully. Blood running all down your jaw, and you don’t know what’s happening. ‘Cause someone has taught you to suffer — peacefully.

The white man do the same thing to you in the street, when he want [sic] to put knots on your head and take advantage of you and don’t have to be afraid of your fighting back. To keep you from fighting back, he gets these old religious Uncle Toms to teach you and me, just like novocaine, suffer peacefully. Don’t stop suffering — just suffer peacefully. As Reverend Cleage pointed out, “Let your blood flow In the streets.” This is a shame. And you know he’s a Christian preacher. If it’s a shame to him, you know what it is to me.

There’s nothing in our book, the Quran — you call it “Ko-ran” — that teaches us to suffer peacefully. Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. That’s a good religion. In fact, that’s that old-time religion. That’s the one that Ma and Pa used to talk about: an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, and a head for a head, and a life for a life: That’s a good religion. And doesn’t nobody resent that kind of religion being taught but a wolf, who intends to make you his meal.

This is the way it is with the white man in America. He’s a wolf and you’re sheep. Any time a shepherd, a pastor, teach [sic] you and me not to run from the white man and, at the same time, teach [sic] us not to fight the white man, he’s a traitor to you and me. Don’t lay down our life all by itself. No, preserve your life. it’s the best thing you got. And if you got to give it up, let it be even-steven.

The slavemaster took Tom and dressed him well, and fed him well, and even gave him a little education — a little education; gave him a long coat and a top hat and made all the other slaves look up to him. Then he used Tom to control them. The same strategy that was used in those days is used today, by the same white man. He takes a Negro, a so-called Negro, and make [sic] him prominent, build [sic] him up, publicize [sic] him, make [sic] him a celebrity. And then he becomes a spokesman for Negroes — and a Negro leader.

I would like to just mention just one other thing else quickly, and that is the method that the white man uses, how the white man uses these “big guns,” or Negro leaders, against the black revolution. They are not a part of the black revolution. They’re used against the black revolution.

When Martin Luther King failed to desegregate Albany, Georgia, the civil-rights struggle in America reached its low point. King became bankrupt almost, as a leader. Plus, even financially, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was in financial trouble; plus it was in trouble, period, with the people when they failed to desegregate Albany, Georgia. Other Negro civil-rights leaders of so-called national stature became fallen idols. As they became fallen idols, began to lose their prestige and influence, local Negro leaders began to stir up the masses. In Cambridge, Maryland, Gloria Richardson; in Danville, Virginia, and other parts of the country, local leaders began to stir up our people at the grassroots level. This was never done by these Negroes, whom you recognize, of national stature. They controlled you, but they never incited you or excited you. They controlled you; they contained you; they kept you on the plantation.

As soon as King failed in Birmingham, Negroes took to the streets. King got out and went out to California to a big rally and raised about — I don’t know how many thousands of dollars. [He] come [sic] to Detroit and had a march and raised some more thousands of dollars. And recall, right after that [Roy] Wilkins attacked King, accused King and the CORE [Congress Of Racial Equality] of starting trouble everywhere and then making the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] get them out of jail and spend a lot of money; and then they accused King and CORE of raising all the money and not paying it back. This happened; I’ve got it in documented evidence in the newspaper. Roy started attacking King, and King started attacking Roy, and Farmer started attacking both of them. And as these Negroes of national stature began to attack each other, they began to lose their control of the Negro masses.

And Negroes was [sic] out there in the streets. They was [sic] talking about [how] we was [sic] going to march on Washington. By the way, right at that time Birmingham had exploded, and the Negroes in Birmingham — remember, they also exploded. They began to stab the crackers in the back and bust them up ‘side their head — yes, they did. That’s when Kennedy sent in the troops, down in Birmingham. So, and right after that, Kennedy got on the television and said “this is a moral issue.” That’s when he said he was going to put out a civil-rights bill. And when he mentioned civil-rights bill and the Southern crackers started talking about [how] they were going to boycott or filibuster it, then the Negroes started talking — about what? We’re going to march on Washington, march on the Senate, march on the White House, march on the Congress, and tie it up, bring it to a halt; don’t let the government proceed. They even said they was [sic] going out to the airport and lay down on the runway and don’t let no airplanes land. I’m telling you what they said. That was revolution. That was revolution. That was the black revolution.

It was the grass roots out there in the street. [It] scared the white man to death, scared the white power structure in Washington, D. C. to death; I was there. When they found out that this black steamroller was going to come down on the capital, they called in Wilkins; they called in Randolph; they called in these national Negro leaders that you respect and told them, “Call it off.” Kennedy said, “Look, you all letting this thing go too far.” And Old Tom said, “Boss, I can’t stop it, because I didn’t start it.” I’m telling you what they said. They said, “I’m not even in it, much less at the head of it.” They said, “These Negroes are doing things on their own. They’re running ahead of us.” And that old shrewd fox, he said, “Well If you all aren’t in it, I’ll put you in it. I’ll put you at the head of it. I’ll endorse it. I’ll welcome it. I’ll help it. I’ll join it.”

A matter of hours went by. They had a meeting at the Carlyle Hotel in New York City. The Carlyle Hotel is owned by the Kennedy family; that’s the hotel Kennedy spent the night at, two nights ago; [it] belongs to his family. A philanthropic society headed by a white man named Stephen Currier called all the top civil-rights leaders together at the Carlyle Hotel. And he told them that, “By you all fighting each other, you are destroying the civil-rights movement. And since you’re fighting over money from white liberals, let us set up what is known as the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. Let’s form this council, and all the civil-rights organizations will belong to it, and we’ll use it for fund-raising purposes.” Let me show you how tricky the white man is. And as soon as they got it formed, they elected Whitney Young as the chairman, and who [do] you think became the co-chairman? Stephen Currier, the white man, a millionaire. Powell was talking about it down at the Cobo [Hall] today. This is what he was talking about. Powell knows it happened. Randolph knows it happened. Wilkins knows it happened. King knows it happened. Everyone of that so-called Big Six — they know what happened.

Once they formed it, with the white man over it, he promised them and gave them $800,000 to split up between the Big Six; and told them that after the march was over they’d give them $700,000 more. A million and a half dollars — split up between leaders that you’ve been following, going to jail for, crying crocodile tears for. And they’re nothing but Frank James and Jesse James and the what-do-you-call-’em brothers.

[As] soon as they got the setup organized, the white man made available to them top public relations experts; opened the news media across the country at their disposal; and then they begin [sic] to project these Big Six as the leaders of the march. Originally, they weren’t even in the march. You was [sic ] talking this march talk on Hastings Street — Is Hastings Street still here? — on Hasting Street. You was [sic] talking the march talk on Lenox Avenue, and out on — What you call it? — Fillmore Street, and Central Avenue, and 32nd Street and 63rd Street. That’s where the march talk was being talked. But the white man put the Big Six [at the] head of it; made them the march. They became the march. They took it over. And the first move they made after they took it over, they invited Walter Reuther, a white man; they invited a priest, a rabbi, and an old white preacher. Yes, an old white preacher. The same white element that put Kennedy in power — labor, the Catholics, the Jews, and liberal Protestants; [the] same clique that put Kennedy in power, joined the march on Washington.

It’s just like when you’ve got some coffee that’s too black, which means it’s too strong. What you do? You integrate it with cream; you make it weak. If you pour too much cream in, you won’t even know you ever had coffee. It used to be hot, it becomes cool. It used to be strong, it becomes weak. It used to wake you up, now it’ll put you to sleep. This is what they did with the march on Washington. They joined it. They didn’t integrate it; they infiltrated it. They joined it, became a part of it, took it over. And as they took it over, it lost its militancy. They ceased to be angry. They ceased to be hot. They ceased to be uncompromising. Why, it even ceased to be a march. It became a picnic, a circus. Nothing but a circus, with clowns and all. You had one right here in Detroit — I saw it on television — with clowns leading it, white clowns and black clowns. I know you don’t like what I’m saying, but I’m going to tell you anyway. ‘Cause I can prove what I’m saying. If you think I’m telling you wrong, you bring me Martin Luther King and A. Philip Randolph and James Farmer and those other three, and see if they’ll deny it over a microphone.

No, it was a sellout. It was a takeover. When James Baldwin came in from Paris, they wouldn’t let him talk, ’cause they couldn’t make him go by the script. Burt Lancaster read the speech that Baldwin was supposed to make; they wouldn’t let Baldwin get up there, ’cause they know Baldwin’s liable to say anything. They controlled it so tight — they told those Negroes what time to hit town, how to come, where to stop, what signs to carry, *what song to sing*, what speech they could make, and what speech they couldn’t make; and then told them to get out town by sundown. And everyone of those Toms was out of town by sundown. Now I know you don’t like my saying this. But I can back it up. It was a circus, a performance that beat anything Hollywood could ever do, the performance of the year. Reuther and those other three devils should get a Academy Award for the best actors ’cause they acted like they really loved Negroes and fooled a whole lot of Negroes. And the six Negro leaders should get an award too, for the best supporting cast.


Also in this database: Malcolm X – The Ballot or the Bullet

Also in this database: Malcolm X: Photo Gallery and Final Speech

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April 5, 2007




Professor Molefi Kete Asante
Temple University
I am pleased that you have come to hear my lecture tonight and I want to thank the organizers of this event for their diligence and generosity. In particular I would like to publicly thank Dr. Kofi Anyidiho, and Executive Director Moore, the staff and the Board of the DuBois Center for making this occasion possible. I give praise to Nyame, Asase Yaa, and the Nananom nsamanfo for whatever clarity I am able to share with you.

I shall begin my lecture with a conclusion: Until an African leader publicly acknowledges, honors and prays to an African God, we Africans will continue to be viewed as pathetic imitators of others, never having believed in ourselves.

So powerful is the concept of religion when we discuss it in connection with civilization that to deny the validity of one’s religion is to deny the validity of one’s civilization. Indeed to deny one’s religion as valid is to suggest that the person is a pagan, a heathen, uncivilized, and beyond the sphere of humanity. So to talk about religion is to talk about our views of ourselves, our understanding of our ancestors, and our love of our culture.

To establish my argument that we have a crisis in civilization because we have a crisis in religion I will make several points dealing with the themes of tradition, history, religion, and human action.

There are no people without traditions and traditions are the lifeblood of a people. A people who refuse to express its love and appreciation for its ancestors will die because in traditions, if you are not expressing your own, you are participating in and expressing faith in someone else’s ancestors. No person is devoid of an attachment to some cultural fountain. Whose water are we drinking?

Our African history has been a recent orgy of forgetfulness. We have often lost our memories and accepted the gods of those who enslaved and colonized us. This is something the Chinese and the Indians have fought hard to keep at bay. While we have often embraced our enemies gods they have found those gods to be anathema to their interests. Show me the gods we Africans worship and I will show the extent of our moral and ethical decay.

Those who speak to us of Christian or Islamic morals have often been the very ones who had defiled our ancestors’ memories and called out sacred rites paganism. Malcolm X once said that the world pushes the African around because we give the impression that we are chumps, not champs, but chumps, weaklings, falling over ourselves to follow other people rather than our own traditions.

The distribution of religion represents the distribution of power. African distribution is minimal and exists in a few places in the diaspora like Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica and the American South. The religion that people practice is based on the influences that have captured their imaginations. In the American South and the Caribbean and in South America one will often find the Yoruba religion. It is Africa’s most powerful religious export to the Americas, but this is still a minimal influence when one considers the fact that others have imposed their religions on us and we have accepted the imposition often without a fight from our traditional leaders. Indeed our traditional religious leaders have often been hijacked by the material goods offered by the purveyors of these migrating gods.

The great African pharaoh, Menes, united the two lands (TAWY) bringing 42 clans or nomes under one government around 3100 B.C. By this time already Africans had formulated the first human response to the unknown. If anything we knew God befor anyone else, not because we were wiser but because we were first to be civilized.

If you take any of the scientific reports we know that the first hominids were from Africa. Australopithecus afarensis is 4,200,000 years old and Australopithecus ramidus, 3,800,000. When Richard Johnason discovered Dinqnesh, later called Lucy, by the Europeans, he claimed to have found the earliest example of a hominid in Ethiopia. Until 75,000 years ago all humans were black. Did they have an appreciation for the Almighty? Did they formulate a response to the unknown? Of course they did; they were human and human before anyone else.

Our ancestors brought forth the first civilizations and gave the world the oldest organized cosmological explanations. Thus, Ra as Ptah, Atum, Amen, Khepera, Khnum – the many names of the one, the Supreme, created Shu and Tefnut, air and moisture, Geb and Nut, earth and sky. Then came Ausar, Auset, Nebhet, and Set. Ausar was killed by his brother Set and Auset put him back together with the assistance of her sister, Nebhet and her son, Heru, who avenged his father by killing Set. This is the story of good over evil. The purpose was to create Maat, balance, harmony, justice, righteousness, reciprocity, order. These are the key concepts in any ethical system and the fact that they emerged first in the Nile Valley of Africa suggests that other ideas, related to these ideas, found their way into the very practices and beliefs of our people throughout the continent. The deliberate attempt by the European to separate Africans from the classical civilizations of the Nile is one of the biggest falsifications in history. Only when we reclaim our history will we be able to see that the origins of many religious ideas are African. How is it that the parent has become the child?

Thus, not only do we have the earliest emergence of God, we have the first ethnical principles, reinforced by proverbs, and refined in the oral and artistic traditions of our narratives.

The ancient name of Egypt was Kemet and it was the culmination of classical Africa’s achievements in science, art, architecture, medicine, astronomy, geometry, and religion. The Greeks honored the Africans as the originators of the science and art practiced by the Greeks themselves. It would be the Europeans of the 15th through 19th centuries that wouild try to divorce Europe from its African origin and deny Africa any role in civilizing the world.

The early Greek historian, Herodotus claims that nearly all of the Greek gods came from Africa. We know that the Greeks worshipped Imhotep as Aesclepius, the God of Medicine, and that the name Athens, Athena, is from Aten.

When Constantine in 325 A.D. took ideas from African spirituality and created a control mechanism at Council of Nicea he was trying to organize a system for using African spiritual ideas. The early Christian church had to deal with the fact that Christians had used many African ideas, the son of God, eternal life, and the resurrection, in their religion. The sad fact is that since we have forgotten so much we do not know that we are the originators of religion.

The abandonment of our history, indeed the abandonment of our gods, the gods of our ancestors, have brought us deep into the quagmire of misdirection, mis-orientation and self pity. When the missionaries forbade our shrines and punished us in the Americas when we called the names of our gods and sounded our mighty drums they were looking for the Pavlovian reaction they finally got in millions of Africans: African is bad, it is inferior, it is pagan, it is heathen. We often hear others cursing our ancestors in ways the Chinese, the Lebanese and the British would never allow. Why is this? Are we truly shamed by our military defeat? Can we no longer think about how right our ancestors were in exploring human nature and positing ways to combat the unknown? Cannot we create new forms out of the old mold or must we throw away the mold?

What would be anymore pagan than the wanton willful destruction of millions of Africans, Jews, Native Americans, and Chinese by Christians Europeans? How could white men pray to a god on the second floor of a slave dungeon while on the first floor they held our ancestors, yours and mine, in horrible bondage? What kind of religion denied our humanity at the same time they were raping our women, brutalizing our children, and demanding our wealth and our souls?

It is true that the idea of Christian names or Muslim names promotes and advances those cultures. Why must you change your name even if you chose to buy into a foreign religion? What is wrong with your name? Any religion that asks you to do what others do not have to do is asking you to abandon your mother. The question is, why would you abandon your mother?

Religion in General
What is religion but the deification of ancestors, the making sacred of traditions within the context and history. How can we honor any god who was used against us? The only people who accept alien gods are defeated people;
all others honor and accept their own name for the Almighty. We must learn to appreciate ourselves and our traditions. What is wrong with the African God?

What would we think of a Yoruba who accepted Chinese ancestors as his own? We would find it quite interesting and wonder how it came to be. But what of Africans’ acceptance of others’ gods? Is there no tradition with these alien gods? Of course there is tradition with these gods! To accept the Jews’ god or the Arabs’ god or the Hindu’s god and so forth is to valorize those histories above your own. Indeed, it is to honor the names in those myths and stories higher than your own stories, it is to love the language, the places in their stories above your own. Why is Mecca, Rome, or Jerusalem more sacred that Bosumtwi? Quite simply, it is imperialism, not by force of arms, but by force of religion which sometimes comes

Joel Kotkin’s Tribes – a book about people ready for the 21st Century claims that only Jews, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and British are ready. These groups have some commonalities which include (1) strong sense of identity, (2) international network, and (3) a passion for technology.

He does not include any African community or ethnic group. In fact, he believes that the African people were best organized under the leadership of Marcus Garvey who believed that Africans were not only capable of achieving without the whites; Africans had to achieve without whites in order to be seen as fully participating in the drama of history. Kwame Nkrumah believed in much the same idea.

Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations claims that there are six major civilizations: Chinese, Japanese, Orthodox, Hindu, Western, Islamic. He says each one has a nation that is vanguard, deeply committed to its religion and history. Africa has no such vanguard nation and furthermore Africa has yet to emerge from under the cloaks of its interventionists. Of 53 nations only one nation is more African in religion than either Christian or Muslim. That nation is small Benin.

Benin is 87% popular traditional African Religion. But it is a small nation with limited influence in a propaganda fashion. As such we do not expect African traditional religion to play a major part in the civilization of Africa for a long time to come, but we can begin to examine the questions, to raise the issues, and to interrogate our practices.

Let me explore African Religion with you to provide some common understanding.

African Religion
In the first place it is important that we call popular traditional African Religion everywhere by a common acronym, Ptare. This means that Akan, Yoruba, Igbo, Zulu and Shona are the same religion with different branches. Just as Christians may be Baptists, Methodists, and Catholics, and just as Muslims may be Mourrides, Sunni, or Shiities. There is no difference in speaking of Ptare as one religion and speaking of Christianity or Islam as one religion.

I believe that Popular Traditional African Religion everywhere (Ptare) is as old as civilization, indeed, it is much older than either Christianity or Islam. The major characteristics of Ptare are found in all of the traditions from East to West and from North to South. The fact that we have often misunderstood the legacy we have inherited is not the fault of those who left it; it is our fault for preferring the oppressors’ legacy over that of our own ancestors.

The characteristics of Ptare include:

Creator God
Domicile of Gods – Presence, Shrine
Priest/Priestess of God
Devotee of God – medium (Noc??)
Herbalist – Pharmacist
Psychiatrist – mental harmonizer
Diviner – scientist, Hunter’s/explorers
All ritual in Ptare seek a return to Maat.
Everything is one – we are a part of the whole and nothing is disconnected from the Almighty. That is why we recognize Mother Earth as well as Nyame.
What Europe sees and teaches as limitations in Ptare are really advantages:
No vast interpretative literary corpus to say what is and what is not – Ptare’s interpretations are often dependent on a multitude of situations that demand attention.

No concentration on the material manifestations of the God’s house. All temples started as shrines and from the shrine place people build other edifices. Buildings should have some historical or religious significance.

Advantages of Ptare
The ethical principles are more conducive to community, not so geared toward individualism. Some religions demonstrate their power by showing what they can build but this is only a matter of financial not moral wealth. Are you more civilized because you can build a nuclear bomb?

We must not be impressed by the things which can be created because we are human and have the same capacity and can create the same things out of our own minds. But our African gods do not advance destruction. They have never been gods of death, but of life.

The material manifestations of religion are not the wisest standard of how good god is unless your god is money. The new religions seem to bring schools and hospitals but we have always had those institutions without calling them by those names. Now it is time that the practitioners of Ptare explain the interrelationship of the traditions of ordinary life in the context of institutions. Our entire existence is religion. Our shrines are sacred places on sacred land given by the ancestors. Our health is interconnected to our spirituality.

We Africans have always believed in a supreme deity
whether the name was Nyame, Oludumare, Abasi, Nkulunkulu, Woyengi, Chukwu, Mawu and Lisa. This is true although others have said we did not. They have confused a lot of us.

When the white missionaries translated the bible in our languages, they asked our ancestors for the name of the Almighty and they used the names our ancestors had always used for the Almighty and then told us that we did not have a belief in the Supreme.

But we now know that our priests were no less wise in their observations than the Greek sophists, the Hebrew prophets, the Arab ulema, or the Chinese literati.

Our ancestors believed in pluralism without hierarchy — many expressions of God without saying mine is right, or the only one, and yours is bad, pagan, and heathen. Perhaps had we done that we would have stopped the alien religions at the shore, but we are the world’s first humanists and we allowed others to come with their goods and their gods.

They came with a political ideology in the name of religion. It was imperialism. Imperialism brings destruction, obliteration. How could we fall for it for so long? The introduction of a book or a gun caused us to lose our
footing, to stumble on our way, to denounce our fathers and mothers.

There are no other people on the earth who have had to denounce their ancestors in order to become better people. Is it because our ancestors are so strong that we are forced to denounce them before our conquerors? This is one thing you shall never find me doing because I know too much about my African contribution to history.

Contributions of Ptare
The first naming of the divine, netcher, god, or netcheru divinity from which some say the English word nature is ultimately derived.
The first trinity: Ausar, Auset, Heru which has been repeated by Amen, Mut, Khonsu and then God, the father, God the son, God the holy
spirit. The Christians took out the mother who represented Auset -and gave Christians a virgin Mary, but she was no god. Asase Yaa is Mother Earth, but no one can have a son without a mother
The first idea of a son of god or a daughter of God. Sa Ra or Sat Ra.
The first black stone altars – long before the Kaaba was revealed at Mecca.
The first example of the resurrection from the dead Ausar. This is also where we find that the Neb Ankh – Lord of Life was not a sarcophagus, that is, not a flesh eater, but something that spoke of life.
The name of god Amen now used by others in their prayers.
The idea that your good should outweigh your evil, that your soul should be lighter than a feather, that perfection is not what is sought after, but overwhelming goodness.
The complementarity of males and females, different roles but not subjugation, Mawu and Lisa, male and female – Auset and Ausar, complementarity.
The first records of ancestors’ wisdom. The books of Ptahhotep, Kagemni, Duauf
The idea of heaven and earth, Nut , Geb, Auset is called, Lady of Heaven
Here in Africa humans have prayed to God longer than on any other continent. When the pyramids were finished, Europe had given the world not one organized civilization, even Asia was just stirring. Just look at a broad chronology:
2500 B.C. – The African people along the river valleys of the eastern highlands floated stones down the Nile to help monuments to God.
2500 Hsia Dynasty rises in China
2200 BC. Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro were found in India
800 BC Homer is the first voice of the Greeks
500 Romans come to power in Europe.
639 A.D. Arabs are able to cross into Africa with force under General El As from Arabia-Yemen.
Africans made the idea of the beautiful and the good one world nfr – nefer
Ptare gave the world its first ethical system: Maat – balance, harmony, justice, righteousness, reciprocity, order – Maat was the only major deity without priesthood since all were priests of Maat.

The idea of eternal life – Ankh neheh was African

The first libations, offerings and burning of incense as ritual forms

The ten commandments were preceded by the 42 confessions in the Egyptian Book of the Dead or more accurately the Egyptian Book of the Coming Forth By Day.

Ptare gave the idea of collective and communal salvation rather than a rampant individualism which says save me and the rest of the world go to hell.

The Future
All futures are made by human beings. But the begin with consciousness which precedes Afrocentricity.

A few days ago I walked into a Kumasi restaurant and found that I could get Ghanaian food only by pre-arranged request. But western food was immediately available. Imported. Are African Gods only on request? We determine
this by how we live.

The Wolof and Senegal say wood may remain in water for ten years but it will not become a crocodile. We live Africa by living its tried and true values and customs –
this is a credit to our gods. Almost all of the disarray in Africa can be traced to the disruption of the traditional religion. In fact, one can go from country to country and find that the cause of the problems can be laid at the feet of alien civilizations. This is not a wild statement; it is based on deep reflection and study.

I believe in the African gods and believe that just as we have exported our cultural forms in music, art and science, the world needs a more sane and sensible ethic.

What Must Be Done
We must talk honestly to our elders — those who have not abandoned the traditions – consult the priests, learn from them, and discover the source of our problems.

Remove all images of a white Jesus. This is not correct even if one is Christian. The historical Jesus had be black in color despite the missionaries’ attempt to paint him English and Swedish.

We must believe that our names are as sacred as Arabic or European names.

We must understand that when others extend their values, religion and institutions they are penetrating our traditions with the poison of alien power that teaches us to hate ourselves and to love our oppressors. Meanwhile, they never follow the prescriptions they leave for us.

We must enhance the economic, political and military power of African states because a lack of such power creates self doubt, identity crisis, and a search for the material gods of the west who seem to produce these things. But spirit is greater if we use it and we can only use it if we practice.

We need boldness from our leaders to accomplish this transformation.

The British called Harry Lee the best Englishman east of the British Isles when he finished Oxford. He changed his name, converted to Confucianism and they wondered what happened to him.
He learned Mandarin Chinese and became Lee Kuan Yew, a leader who rejected Western values.

Asians are calling for Confucianism as they emphasize tradition. The Japanese are calling for Nihonjinron, Japanese values. Why must we be stuck with the attitudes and values of the European, so-called Christian values, particularly since they have shown themselves to be bankrupt on many fronts.

We can achieve our aims not so much by modernizing African traditions as Africanizing modernity itself. We are the modern people. Our ecological values, relationships values, respect for others values are the keys to the future.

I recognize that humans cannot advance without answering some basic questions like, Who Am I? Why am I here? What is the purpose of existence? Who are we as humans, Africans, Ghanaians, Gas, Ewe, Guans, Akans, African Americans?

Religion provides compelling answers and often small communities of others who believe like we do. African deities and the Almighty God of Africa do that for us. They give us identity and direction.

We are the children of the Supreme God sustained by our ancestral connections, formed to glorify the best values of Maat, encouraged to assume responsibility for each other in a community of consciousness.

Failure to do this is a deviation, an abomination and we can only re-connect through rites of ablution— making, doing or sacrificing time, money, energy in the name and interest of Africa. The concept of the gift is the idea, not what we give.
This may change given education, science, sensibility, scarcity, etc., but we need to sacrifice for Africa.

But our God must not be one of exploitation, egocentrism, conservatism and westernization. If so, we shall go to hell.

We must create our African personality and identity in art, dance, medicine, education, science, and religion and if we cannot do it here in the land of Okomfo Anokye, Nkrumah and Du Bois, then it cannot be done in Africa.

If we do not do it here in the land of Yaa Asantewaa, then we can never be the hope of the hopeless.

If Africa cannot find its way, then I fear the prospects of the world.

But Africa will rise to throw off the vestiges of mental enslavement and there shall be rejoicing among the Nananom nsamanfo. The ancestors will say: Rejoice! Rejoice! Let the Gods of Africa Rejoice!

Note: Dr. Molefi Kete Asante is the author of 42 books, more than 200 articles, the father of Afrocentricity, and the creator of the first doctoral program in African American Studies.


March 25, 2007


The roots of “Western” civilization, culture, science, technology and religion are to be found not in Greece, but in Black Egypt and Nubia-Kush. From as early as 10,000 B.C. to 1500 A.D., Blacks were in the forefront in the development of science, culture and technology. Black empires and civilizations from the prehistoric Zingh Empire of 15,000 B.C. of Mauritania to ancient Khemet (Egypt) and Nubia-Kush, which existed about 17,000 years ago, experimented in various aspects of science and technology. Some of these sciences and technologies were so advanced that stories of flying machines and the invention of advanced machines has been passed down through ancient writings. Later Black civilizations such as Khemet and Mali experimented and created various sciences and technologies such as the chemical and mystery sciences of ancient Khemet and the surgical sciences of Mali, in West Africa. As early as about 400 B.C., a Black Pharaoh named Pi Di Amen built a model glider to conduct experiments in flight. Centuries before, the Black Egyptians had already invented gunpowder for use in their temples and mystery schools.

The mathematical and astronomical sciences necessary for high technologies such as those used in space technology and industries were first began by Blacks in Khem (Egypt) and Kush (Sudan). These sciences and high technologies were then passed on to the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites (all originally Black civilization), Greeks, Hebrews, Romans and Arabs In fact, it was the Black Sabeans of South Arabia, members of the Kushitic branch of the Black African race who established the first civilization in the Arabian Peninsula…thousands of years before the emergence of the Bedouin Arabs

Black medicinal sciences began in Khemet (ancient Black Egypt) and led to later Greek medicinal sciences. These ancient African sciences were copied by the Greeks and others from the ancient Papyrus texts composed by the ancient Khemites and Nubians.

From about 711 A.D. when the Moors, a Black people from Senegal, West Africa and Morocco, invaded Europe. They introduced Black Moorish science, technology, civilization and education to Europe and raised the Europeans from the Dark Ages of about 400 A.D. to 711 A.D. The Black Moors introduced advanced learning to Spain, similar to what had been taking place in Ghana, and at the university city of Jenne in Mali for hundreds of years. They introduced advanced learning to the cities of Toledo, Seville and Cordoba. These cities became centers of Black Moorish and European scholarship, science and culture, where Europeans and others learned new and advanced sciences, arts and technologies. That led to the European Renaissance of later years. The Black Moors introduced art, architecture, sciences, medicines, animal husbandry and other advanced disciplines to Spain and the rest of Europe. This was the catalyst which led to the European Renaissance

Compared to Africa and East Asia where the Europeans learned more technology from the Chinese such as the making of gunpowder and guns, Western and Eastern Europe, (excluding Rome, Greece, etc.) have very little history of great civilization and achievements before the Middle Ages. Africans and the Blacks of India, have had thousands of years of great contributions to world culture and civilizations. The British, French, Spanish, Dutch, Scandinavians, Germanics, Celts, Russians, Poles and many of these groups who claim “superiority” to Blacks and others, were from prehistoric times until the 1500’s A.D., much less advanced economically, culturally, intellectually and scientifically as well as socially than most Black nations, kingdoms and empires during that period. From the time of the Roman conquest of Europe about 400 B.C. to the about 1200 A.D., much of Northern and Western Europe was in a stage or barbarism and backwardness. The Roman settlements and cities built by the Romans were the only areas of advanced culture

The claim by some people of racial superiority over Blacks is based on recent developments The introduction of gunpowder to Europe from China via the Arabs played a major part in elevating the Europeans to a level of military superiority. This advantage over some Africans made colonialism and the theft of African lands as well as the defeat of some African armies easier than in past eras. When the Europeans fought with sword and lance against sword and lance, their victories against Africans were few. For example, Hannibal, the African from Carthage defeated Rome’s legions with as little as 15,000 men and ruled Italy for many years.
However, even with modern weapons during the modern era, Europeans were sometimes soundly defeated. Nations such as the Zulus, Mossi States, Ashanti, Dahomians, Ethiopians, Herrerros and others defeated the Europeans in a number of wars and battles.

Black people were the original inventors of the disciplines that helped bring the world into the technological age. Mathematics, physics, astronomy, building in stone and bricks, metallurgy and all the root subjects that were necessary to push the world into today’s modern age, were begun by Blacks in Egypt, Nubia-Kush, Mesopotamia, Sabea and Black Naga India. Therefore, even if people of European origins have made improvements in ancient technologies and ancient inventions, such as rocketry, computer technology, aerodynamics and others, the basic mathematical formulas and ancient prototypes were invented by Africans and Chinese. For example, the Africans invented the binary system which is still used in the Yoruba oracle and was copied by German scientists and applied to computer programming. Many ancient formulas in trigonometry, calculus and physics as well as chemistry (Khem mysteries) came from the scientific discoveries of Blacks in Egypt and Nubia-Kush.

Most Western European scientific discoveries or rather copies of the original discoveries of Africans and Chinese were put to use during the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. It was during this crucial period that some of the great scientific and technological discoveries and inventions were made. Yet, these discoveries and inventions were and are merely improvements on ancient discoveries made by Africans, Chinese and Black Kushite Arabs. For example, gunpowder was invented by the ancient Egyptians and Nigerians who used the cola nut to make gunpowder. The Chinese reinvented it and used it in fireworks and explosives. Steel was invented by Africans in ancient Tanzania, where ancient cone-like blast furnaces with bellows still exist to this very day and are still used. The hydraulic pump for lifting water and irrigation was invented by Africans in Egypt

Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth

The greatest book ever written on the history of Africans and others from prehistoric times to the 1600’s. Susu Economics is a complete history of African civilizations, the prehistory of planet earth and how the ancients developed civilizations throuigh trade and commerce. All the cultures listed and previewed in the “Black History Chart are included in this book and a thorough history is given. This book will inform, delight and impart knowledge. It is a fabulous work that deserves to be read and cherished. There are no pictures in this work, yet some of the pictures on this website are the only examples of the cultures and civilizations discussed in this great book.

Published by 1stbooks Library,

500,000 to 150,000 B.P. (Before Present)
Homo erectus develops in Africa.

150,000 B.C. to 100,000 years ago

The first Homo sapiens who were of the Black Africoid race appear at Omo region in Ethiopia.

100,000 to 70,000 B.C.

Africans initiate a cultural renaissance in the Congo Region and South Africa. Well crafted tools of stone and bone are created. Writing and the etching of stone is done. Red ochre is used for body paint and body decoration. Migrations to other parts of the world begin around this period.

No Homo sapiens in Asia

Negroid migrations to Australia begins

No Homo sapiens in Europe

No Homo sapiens in the Americas


80,000 to 50,000 B.C.

Development of advanced toolmaking in parts of Africa (evicence found in Congo; 1994: South Africa 2001: age range 100,000 to 70,000 B.C.)
Homo erectus enters Europe from Africa
Neanderthals thrive in Africa. They migrate to Europe and Asia

African “Adam and Eve,” (per Mitochondrial DNA), are the first modern-like humans to migrate out of Africa. They include the various types of Black peoples:
Black Australoids, Pygmoids and Negroids enter Europe, Asia, Siberia, Australia, Melanesia and the Americas

Culture begins in Africa, migrations of Africans to other parts of the world

First Homo sapiens occupy Asia, Europe and the Americas from Africa.

50,000 B.C.

Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe with advanced African culture called the Aurignacian Culture. Arts such as paintings, cloth making, advanced tool making and other advanced crafts from Africa is brought to Europe, the Americas, Australia and the South Pacific/Melanesia.

African Paintings of animals and scenery in Upper Paleolithic Period about 30,000 years ago.

Black Australoids from Australia and proto African Blacks from the South Pacific reach South America (Brazil) and spread to the rest of the Americas.

Early horticulture practiced in the Sahara. Pastoralism and hunting also practiced.


40,000 B.C.

Iron ore mined in Swaziland about 40,000 years ago for the purpose of making red ochre for decoration and body paint.

Black Grimaldi Negroids migrate to the Middle East and Asia bringing the Aurignacian culture from Africa to Europe as well

Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe bringing in the Aurignacian Culture. They later evolve into the Cro-magnon People after about twenty thousand years of living in the cold, damp ice and loosing the need for dark black skin.

Ancestors of Black Australoids, Pygmies and Melanesians from the Sahara and East Africa migrate to Australia about 100,000 to 60,000 thousand years ago. Descendants of Tasmanian Blacks arrive thousands of years before. Melanesians arrive from the coast of East Africa They establish cultures throughout Asia and are the only Homo sapiens in the region. Many occupy China, India, South East Asia.

30,000 B.C.

Negroid type dominates all Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East. This type is said to have been a more Negroid Cro-magnon, who had not been affected as yet by the Ice Age conditions which led to the change in skin complexion.

Blacks bring horticulture and early agricultural practices from Africa to Melanesia, Papua New Guinea and the Region.


20,000 B.C.

First ‘white” Cromagnon types appear in Europe among a Black population in much of the warmer parts of Europe and Asia.

Pacific Blacks sail to the Americas after sailing from East Africa.

First Black cultures and civilizations called the Aqutic Civilizations developin the Sahara.
First evidence of a more advanced culture in the region.

Blacks from Sahara sail to the Americas across the Atlantic


First “white” Cromagnoids appear in Europe. These homosapiens evolved from the Black Grimaldi Negroids who migrated from Africa



17,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C..

Beginning of Nile Valley cultures and prehistoric civilizations. Civilizations begin in Sudan and spreads down-river to the middle part of Egypt. The Delta is still covered with water.


Black cultures in SW Asia, India, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, the South Pacific and Southern China thrive. Ice Age still affects northern Asia.
15,000 B.C.

Zingh Empire exists in West Africa while part of Sahara is still covered with Lakes and an insland sea that supports boats and a maritime culture.
Zingh Empire spreads its influence over much of the Sahara, tropical Africa and the Middle East, and establish their standard, the red, black and green flag over the entire region, (Blisshords Communications)


Blacks controle much of Europe especially southern and central part. Ice still in Northern Europe, Cromagnon and early Cacausoids in the far northern regions and north Central Europe.

10,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.

Kingdom of Ta-Seti (Nubia) reaches a peak of culture. Glass is produced, astronomy is studied, observatories are built, trade and commerce is established.

Sahara and Nile Corridor continue to develop. Painting, carving, homes, monuments, early disciplines, the horse and chariot, building in stone. Neolithic culture moves on. Agriculture develops further. Some forms of metal working, making of jewelry and decorations. Buildings of towns, villages and cities begin in the Sahara and elsewhere.

Sphinx built about 10,000 B.C., Year of Leo 6280 B.C.

Towns and cities spread throughout Ethiopian Empire (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Libya, Somalia, Isreal, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Mesopotamia, South Arabia, India).

Mongoloid race develops from combination Negroids and Caucasoids in Mediterranean region, during the Mesolithic Age. First evidence of Brachycephalic (trait found among Mongoloids and Semites.round-headed races).

Trade and travel between West Asia and Africa.

10,000 B.C.
Great Black civilization exists in Southern India. Culture is Africoid and part of what was a great cultural region that connected the Ethiopian Empire with India.

Black Matrilineal cultures in Sothern Europe. Worship of Black female diety (Black Virgin) in Europe. Africoids occupy vast areas of Europe. Caucasians in the Northern regions of Europe.

Blacks continue to build culture and civilization in the Americas. Washitaw Moundbuilders of the South-western U.S.

Black Giants inhabit the Mississippi Region. These Africans are engaged in agriculture and maritime activity as well as trade and commerce.

8000 to 4241 B.C.

Khemetic Calendar invented 6786 B.C.
Civilizatons of Ta-Seti in Nubia. Natufian and Badarian Culture in Egypt, Abacus invented in Ishongo, Congo (Central Africa)

Horse, elephant, donkey used in early transportation.

Khemite New Year established in 4241 B.C.
Improvements made in sciences, mathematics, technology, agriculture.

Cities expand, trade with world and colonies established around the Mediterranean.

African Khemetic New Year established in the City of On (Iunu), Egypt. Many great cities exist Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti Continues to thrive and prosper. Colleges, temple universities, laws and religion improves. Manufacturing trade and commerce advances.

Nok Culture develops further in West Africa

Africans with West African and Nile Corridor connections sail to the Americas and carry their calendar dated 3113 B.C., to Mexico.

West African civilizations build industries trading in gold and salt, textiles, with the the Sahara and Egypt. Age-grade system of education, trade guilds and secret societies connected with trades and religions develop further.

Mongoloids develop further in the Northern part of Asia. Southern China occupied by Black Negritoes, Negroids and Black Australoids.

Black cultures continue to develop in Mississippi Valley, particularly Washitaw Nation. America’s population consists of Black straight-haired Australoids ( as those of India and Australian Aborigines ) see
Black Pygmoids and Africoids from West Africa.

3500 B.C. to 3000 B.C.

Nubian Dynasty at Qustul 3400 B.C. to 3200 B.C., War of Unity (Northern and Southern Egypt).
Khemet and Nubia united. Narmer Pharaoh.
Memphis (Ineb-hedj) as capital.
Large magnificent temples built to Ptah at Memphis, Niet at Sau (Sais).
Books on the body composed
Pharaoh Edimu improves stone construction. Industries, trade with Mesopotamia, India.

West African civilizations expand. Gold, terracotta industries, trade, towns in Ghana, Mali areas.

Black Cushitic civiliztion of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley of India.

Black Cushitic civilization in Mesopotamia, India, East Asia. Sumerians consisting of Black Cushites and Black Semitic Speakers from Ethiopia dominate region.

Groups of Africans sail to Fiji and other areas of South Pacific, continuing a tradition that is tens of thousands of years old.

Mongoloids and Oceanic Blacks mix in SE Asia to create Polynesian People. They spread to the Pacific Islands, a region that had already been occupied by Black nations.

3000 to 2000 B.C.

Caucasian Sythians spread throughout Europe from North Central Eurasia, after horses are tamed and introduced by Khemites (Black Egyptians, (see Michael Bradley, “The Black Discovery of America,” also the works of Herodotus).

Whites still concentrated around the Caspian Sea Region, but continue to spread westward and southward in what would be called the Aryan migrations. Gold craftswork in Southeastern Europe continues after being established about 4000 B.C.

Black matrilineal system continues to thrive among whites. Worship of female Goddesses, and Black virgin mothers continue.

Black cultures in the Americas continue to thrive. Races up to about 2000 B.C. continue to be Black Australoid and other Black nations.
Black Olmec or Shi culture carried to Mexico from West Africa.
Black Olmecs establish first calendar about 3113 B.C. (see Sitchin )
Olmec civilization contains features in race, religion and cultural practices identical to the Nok Culture of West Africa, including scarification marks, cornrows, Black African racial reatures, and even an alphabet identical to the Mende script of West Africa.

Wave of Mongoloids from Siberia enter the Americas.
Fishing, hunting and early agriculture practiced by Mongoloids. Some conflict between the Mongoloids and the Negro-Austroloids. Mixing of races occur in parts of North America, however Blacks in places like the Mississippi Valley, the South Eastern U.S., California, Mexico, Central America and South America resist mixing and remain distinctly Black. (see pictures of such groups “Black Civilizations of the Americas.”

3000 TO 2000 BC.

Sun temples built.
Shabaka Inscriptions:
Influence and power of men like Sahure.
Coffin texts written.
Hennu, Snefru sail to Puntite kingdom, trade, commerce with towns cities along East African coast all the way to S. Africa.

Books written by philosophers Kagemani, Ptahotep, Pyramid Texts written.
Book of the Dead (Book of the Coming Forth by Night) written about 2300 B.C.

Nok Civilization thrives over West Africa and parts of Southern Sahara. Art, bronze casting, trade, government and culture strengthened.

Great flourishing of Khemite/Nubian civilization.
Wars between Khem and Nubia as well as Libya.
Zoser bulds step pyramid. Imhotep mproves architecture, medicine, science, the priesthood is world’s first scientist/doctor.
Khemite troops guard Sinai against red-haired barbarians.
Pyramid built at Sakkara and Dashur. Eleven pyramids built during the period.
Khemite trade with Fenkhu (Phoenicia). Sahure sails to Asia and may have established contact with people in China.

Black Elamites, Sumerians and Mesopotamians rule in the Fertile Crescent.
Black Elamites conquer Ur. Babylonian Dynasty formed; Hammurabi is king; he writes codes, conquers Sumeria and Elam.

Mohenjo-daro flourishes in India,

Black Xia Dynasty of China 2800 B.C. to 2200 B.c.

Black Shang Dyasty of China; 2200 B.C. to 1100 B.C.
Shang Dynasty Blacks develop first Chinese civilization introducing culture from the Cushite regions of Mesopitamia and Khemet as well as Black Cushite India.

Series of Mongoloid Dynasties and rulers such as: Fu Hsi, Sheng Nung, Yao, Shun, Yu.

Khemite/Nubian, and Black Kushite Dravidian influences enter China and influences culture further.

Golden Age of Ur; Semitic speakers invade Black Canaan from Arabian deserts. Black Cushite civilizations develop in Sabea and South Arabia. Sargon of Akkad as first Semite King. Sumeria united

Barbarians dominate Northern and Central Europe.

Black Egyptians occupy Greek Isles, including Crete (Khepra)

Barbarians sweep into Eurasia. Aryan speakers migrate into India and Southern Europe.

Barbarian horsemen spread over wide area of Europe. Blacks lose control of Crete to invaders from the northern lands. Black cultures in Southern Europe begins to be overwhelmed by northern peoples. Khemites and Phoenicians mine tin in Cornwall, England, Iberia and parts of Western Europe. Black colonies established in Britain, including Black giants called Formorians, who migrate from North Africa.

New group of Mongoloids enter North America from the China/Japan region of Asia. These types are related to the Algonquin (see African Presence in Early America,” by Ivan Van Sertima)

Conflicts with Blacks occur, yet Black sedentary and agricultural communities remain intact in the Southern, Western and Eastern U.S., as well as the Mississippi Valley, while most Mongoloids pursue a lifestyle of hunting and nomadic movements, fishing and agriculture in the North-Eastern U.S.

Maya Indians live north of Black Olmec areas in Central America and Mexico. Indians cultures develop.

2000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.

Khemites/Kushites invade S.W. Asia; barbarians from Europe defeated in the Delta;
Internal conflict occurs in Khem. Waset (Thebes) becomes the most important city in Khemet (Egypt) as well as capital.
Improvements in religions and schools. Asiatics are forced out of the Delta.
Hyksos invade from Arabia. Sea Peoples invade and are defeated by Ahmose 1.
Ahmose the Scribe copies math formulas on papyrus.

Invaders control northern Egypt
Blacks rule south. Amenophis composes “hymn to Atum.” Hyksos driven out. Reunification occurs.

Collossi of Memnon constructed (Menes?)
More naturalistic art.

Nok civilization flourishes in West Africa and continues trade with Sahara, Egypt, Kush and the Americas. Trade between Egypt and Mexico continues from ancient times (Mexico may have been the “Manu” of Egyptian texts).
Sailing across Atlantic by Nubians, West Africans and Egyptians as well as Phoenicians. Cities in West Africa (Mauritania region). Gold and salt trade with coastal kingdoms.

Famine in Khemet (Egypt); food prices rise.
Chemistry highly advanced, books kept; Nubians build first ever massive domes, reservoirs, pyramids.
Nubian ships dominate parts of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean as well as Atlantic Ocean.

Nubians control both army and government of Egypt from 1100 B.C. to about 650 B.C.

Egyptians (Khemites) use iron by 1500 B.C.. Nubians use iron during same period but not for weapons, since Bronze is more popular. Khem becomes rich and powerful. Egyptian Capital at Pi-Ramses.

Tale of Two Brothers written.

Revolting Nubians defeated by Khemites.
Phoenicians spread from Canaan.
Ethiopians develop Sabean civilization.
Makeda is Queen of Sheba; other kings rule.

Black Shang Dynasty rule China for 643 years, up to 1122 or 1123 B.C. Book of Changes rewritten from the original Cushite Book of Changes from Mesopotamia.

Chou Dynasty, first purely Mongoloid Dynasty starts rule from 1122 B.C. Laws of Chou written;
Indo-Aryans invade Black India. Blacks defeat Aryans but floods destroy Harappa and Mohenjo daro, making it easy for the invaders to sweep into India.

Ancient Vedas composed by Black Negro-Australoids of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and copied later by invaders.

Black Babylonian Dynasty and civilization thrives
Hittities in Turkey; Black Canaanites flourish in what is today Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon

Mongoloid Chinese Dynasties continue to rule in northern China. Black Dynasties rule southern part, mainly descendants of Shang Dynasty who were pushed out of their capital city, An-Yang about 1100 B.C.

First Mongoloids arrive in Japan from Korea. Mongols mix with Blacks, Polynesians and Ainu, who were the original inhabitants of Japan.

Black Melanesians and Polynesians sail over Pacific Ocean, occupying islands and reaching parts of South America.

Mixed Black/Semitic race rules Assyria.
Shamshi Addad II is King; Black Sabean civilization in South Arabia. Black civilization in South Pacific, India, Australia, Hebrews in Egypt.

Hebrews invade Black Canaan (present-day, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Saul and David become Kings of new Israelite nation.

Phoenicians continue their maritime activities are hired by both Egyptians and Nubians for commercial purposes.

Solomon Israelite King establishes relations with Abbysinia.

Middle Minoan to 1180 B.C. Egyptian Blacks continue civilization in Minoa Crete. Etruscans develop. Black colonies in Spain, England. Indo-Europeans such as the Dorians and Latins invade Italy from north-Central Europe and Asia

Barbarians roam over Central Europe; Indo-Europeans established in parts of Europe. Greeks under Black Khemite influence, some are mercenaries in Khem. Parts of Western, Southern Brit. Isles occupied by Blacks; Myceneans destroy Crete; Black colonies formed in Spain including Black Phonecians.

Rise of Greek City-States
Greek culture adopts Khemitic styles; Minoans no longer a power.

Mayans in Meso-America; Khemites, Nubians and West Africans begin settlement in Mexico by 1200 B.C.

Heads of basalt carved, temples, pyramids, religious centers are built. Mayan city of Kaminaljuyu established. Thousands of Blacks in Vera Cruz, South Mexico. Cities of San Lorenzo built by Black Olmecs. Black Olmec culture starts in 3113 B.C. and continues to about 400 A.D.

Black Olmec-Nubian Dynasties continue their rule. Blacks are at all levels of Olmec society. They spread their culture to the rest of Central America.

Both Mayas and Black Olmecs continue to build in Central America, each group controlling their own areas and yet having trade and commercial contact.

Black Olmec centers built in San Lorenzo. New wave of Black shamans arrive from West Africa and introduce the Venus worship and thunder God religions.

Indian civilizations develop in South America. First Mongoloid Indians move into the Caribbean Island region.

1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.


Journey by Wenamen to Canaan composed.
Herihor is first Prophet of Amen.
Civil war betwen Khemites; Sheshonk is Pharaoh for 52 years.
Relations with Spain. Libyan Dynasty rules Egypt (Khemet) from 1000 B.C. to 725 B.C.
Khemite Dynasties from 850 B.C. to 745 B.C.
Nubian Dynasty rules Egypt from 745 B.C. to 685 B.C.

Nubians revive Egyptian culture, build monuments, cities, temples; rebuild country.
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh encourages use of demotic script.

720 B.C. to 658 B.C.

Piankhi – 720 B.C.
Shabaka – 713 B.C.
Shibitku – 701- 698 B.C.
Shabataka – 698-690 B.C.
Tarharka – 690-664 B.C.
Tunoutamon – 664 to 658 B.C.


Atlanarsa – 653 to 643 B.C. (Before Christ)
Senkamanisken – 643 to 623
Anlamani – 623- 593
Aspelta – 593 – 568
Amani-nete-yerike = 431 to 45 B.C.
Harsiotef – 404 to 369
Natasen – 335 to 310
Ergamenos – 250 to 125 B.C. Ergamenos abolished the practice of royal suicide, eliminating the Pharaohs after a period of about ten to 20 years of rule
Taniydamani – Between 200 to 100 B.C.

Nubian Queens and Queen-Mothers;

Queen Mother Nasalsa – Mother of Pharaohs Aspelta and Anlamani = 593 B.C.
Queen Mother Pelekhs = 335 to 310
Queen Sakhakh wife of Natasen – 335 to 310
Queen Shanakdakhete = 170 B.C. o 160 B.C.
(starts female Pharaoh rule which lasts for three generations to about mid 100’s A.D.

Pharaoh Natakamani and Queen Amanitere, 12 B.C. to 12 A.D. Great builders of cities monuments, temples. They rebuilt Napata after the Roman (Petronius) destruction of the Kushite Capital. They Build Naga Lion Temple.
Queen Amenitere
Queen Sherakerer
Queen Amanisheketo

Pharaoh Tegorideamani – 246 A.D. to 266 A.D.

The Nubian-Kushite civilization and system of Kingship extends back to the time of Ta-Seti (8,000 B.C. to about 4500 B.C. followed by the Nubian-Kushite Kingdom about 4500 B.C. to 1500 A.D. The Nubian Monarchy still existes today and their present King is the oldest line of kingship by any culture on earth today. THIS IS THE CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE THAT NUBIANISTS AND PAN-AFRICANISTS AROUND THE WORLD ARE SUPPORTING. Nubia-Kush is the core, the heart and soul of Pan-African culture and CIVILIZATION) Nubian civilization is over ten thousand years, according to excavations and findings carried out in Sudan in the year 2000 (see Time Magazine)

Assyrians Invade About 685 B.C.: Series of European and West Asian invaders rule Egypt, including the Assyrians, Saites, Babylonians, Persians, Jews, Greeks, Romans until about 30 A.D.

1000 B.C. t0 500 B.C.

Feudal Age begins in China: Chou takes over from Black Shang Dynasty.

Sargon King of Assyria; Babylon burned by Sennacherib.

Assyrians invade Khem in 671 B.C., They destroy Memphis;
Chou Dynasty is first Mongoloid dynasty. They rule from 771 B.C. to 256 B.C.
Remnants of Black Shang found Black (Nahkhi) Dynasties in Southern China
Chinese use coins, build drainage projects.

Black kingdoms in Southern India:
Greeks, Romans occupy parts of Asia; wars between Persians and Indians.

660 B.C., Jimmu forms first Japanese state.


Illyad, Homers epics written
Lydians use coins;
Khemites (Egyptians) recruit Greek warriors
Celts dominate Central Europe
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh invades Spain, Nubians ( also known as Ethiopians) dominate Atlantic and Mediterranean
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh, occupies Spain
Greeks, Persians, Egyptians, Phoenecians, Nubians meet in Mediterranean. Trade and conflict in the region


Journey of Nubians and West Africans to Mexico, possibly under Tarharka.
Black Olmecs establish another Calendar in 747 B.C. New Year celebrated on April 26th. Mayans build more settlements away from Black Olmec areas.

Black Olmecs or Xi rule in Mexico till about 400 A.D. (3113 B.C. to 400 A.D.)

Chavin and other cultures in South America.
Black Washitaw build ceremonial sites throuighout Southern and Midwestern U.S. Black Tribes in California and South-Eastern U.S. thrive through trade and commerce.

500 B.C. to 1 A.D.

Plato studies in Egypt under Black Egyptian priests. Manetho writes History of Egypt;
Alexandrian library built and founded by African named Eratosthenes, a scholar and librarian. He charts earth’s circumference and also composed Canon of Kings of Thebes.

Nubia flourishes under female Pharaohs called Ka’andakes (Candaces).
Ethiopia (Axum) in Golden Era, relations with Jews

Massinissa rules Numidia (200 B.C. to 148 B.C.)
Trade continues between West Africa and Americas and between West Africa and Mediterranean; East Africa to Zimbabwe develops city states and trades with Asia and Mediterranean, the rest of Africa.

Hannibal defeats and occupies Rome.
Stone cities built in Southern Africa.

Black kingdoms in South India; cultures in the Pacific, Nakis Kingdom flourishes in Southern China.

New Period of Philosophers and poets.

Han Dynasty begins 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.

Romans occupy Israel. Jewish religion has offshoots and sects, Christianity develops out of Jewish religion.
Armenia flourishes.

Romans build Empire in Europe, North Africa.
Pax Romana or Roman Peace is established; Romans occupy much of Europe and dominates territories. Roman influence spreads to parts of India.

Pastoralists in Central Europe; Barbarians occupy large areas of Central Europe.

Barbarian conflicts with Roman ambitions. War breaks out.

The Black Olmecs continue to rule in parts of Mexico. Africans continue to sail to Mexico/Central America from Africa and possibly the Pacific Region. Olmecs and Mayas create great cultures, stone monuments, hieroglyphic writing,

Mayans adopt Black Mende Olmec (Xi) cultural forms, including pyramid building, which the Mayans develop into another style.

Cultures in South America and other parts of the Americas continue to develop.

Contacts from Africa and the Pacific Islands.
Black groups and nations form throughout the Americas from Olmec Empire. Choco People in Columbia, Afro-Darienite in Panama, Black Californians of California and the South-West (see Legend of Queen Calfia), Jamassee in Georgia and Washitaw of Louisiana are all existing groups of pre-Columbian Black nations who still exist or are blended in with the later slave-era African arrival to the Americas.

Mayas thrive in Yucatan; Toltecs in Central Mexico; Totonac culture.

500 BC. TO 1 A.D.


Nok-Wagadu Kingdom trades with Phoenicians( see Herodotus detail about Hanno’s trip around Africa to the Cameroon region, (Nok Culture 3000 B.C. to 500 A.D. Most Africans kingdoms in the Sahel and forest kingdoms of West Africa, such as Benin, Ashanti, Oyo, existed earlier than 1200 B.C. according to African sources).

People in Nok region continue ancient contact with the Americas. Shaman and worshippers of Shango and the Venus Complex migrate to Mexico from West Africa. Migrations began about 725 B.C. and continues to 400’s A.D. (see picture of ancient figurine of Oni or Priest-King of ancient West Africa at )


In 525 B.C., Nubians defeat Persian King Cambysis at Batn-al-Hadjar

Aspelta is Nubian-Kushite Pharaoh
Queen Mother is Nasala
Sacred Temple of Amun at Jabel Barkel is rebuilt and refurnished 593-568

Two years after the reign of Nubian Pharaoh Aspelta, Psamtik II of Egypt invades Kush with Greek and Carian mercenaries under command of Amasis and Potasimto. Napata, the Nubian-Kushite capital is captured.

Nubian-Kushites transfer capital from Napata and move southward to Meroe.

Phoenicians and Carthaginians continue trade with West Africa: Hanno sees evidence of Harvest Festival (Kwanzaa) in Cameroon in 450 B.C. (see “The Histories, by Herodotus).
Trade in gold, salt. African gold, iron, bronze industries thrive in West Africa.

400 B.C.; Ghana Empire spread over large area of West Africa particularly in what is today Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea and other parts of West Africa.

Trade across Sahara continues. Agriculture well established in the region. Cities built.

Greeks and Persians kept out of Kush (Nubia) Ptolemy V attempts to Invade Kush.
Meroe made Kushite (Nubian) capital. Nubians, East Africans (pre-Swahili Africans of Punt) and Abbysinians trade with China and India.

Ethiopians (Sabeans) create large empire which extends from Ethiopia, through Arabia, all the way to Armenia and Southern Russia. Black Ethiopian Jews thrive in Ethiopian Highlands.

Greeks, Jews, Europeans and others study in Egyptian Temple Universities (eg Ipet-Uset)

Last Black Khemite (Egyptian) Dynasty 378 to 341 B.C. Nectanebo 1 is Pharaoh. Nectanebo is defeated by Persian Ataxerxes 111, in 343 B.C.

Alexander the Great invades Khemet (Egypt) 322 B.C.

Aspelta is Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush in 525 B.C.

Amanoteyerike is Pharaoh in 400 B.C. He is a warrior-king, builder of cities and temples. He improves Nubian -Kushite culture.

Phonetic alphabet developed further about 170 B.C.

Nubians sack Aswan, in Roman occupied Egypt and carry off statue of Augustus.

Roman Prefect Petronius captures Napata, Nubian capital in 23 B.C. A peace treaty is signed and the Romans withdraw in 20 B.C.

Queen Amanishaketo rules with Natakamani, Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush from 12 B.C. to 12 A.D.

Golden Era of Nubian-Kushite civilization, including the development of an Industrial Age in which the use of iron and the manufacture of iron goods was very important and widespread. That period was from about 600 B.C. to 325 A.D.

Buddha teaches in India. Buddha is believed to be of Black Kushitic stock, similar to the Negroid peoples who still inhabit many parts of India today. Buddha comes from the Sakya Clan.

Confucius, Chinese philosopher teaches in China.
Bureaucratic system peaks in China.
Persians dominate West Asia eastern Mediterranean from 500 B.C. to 300 B.c.
Persian Kings include, Cyrus, Darius, Cambisis, Xerxes, Ataxerxes:

Greeks invade India with Alexander the Great.
Black Indians dominate South India.
(Negro-Australoid Kushitic speakers).
Wars between Chinese states.
Black Nakhi Kingdom, remnants of ancient Shang People exist in Southern China/Indo China.

Melanesian cultures develop in South Pacific, Papua New Guinea, including development of agriculture/horticulture, boatbuilding, the building of large settlemtns, sea trading and travel including contacts and trade with East Africans.

Ashoka is King in India. He changes in outlook after a war in which about 100,000 lives are lost.

273-232 B.C. Tang Dynasty influences Japanese culture, including writing, art, religion and language (some African historians point out that the core of Japanese language is East Africa).

Period of Philosophers and Poets
Han Dynasty 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.

Romans occupy Israel
Christians emerge from Jewish religion
Armenia flourishes

Romans in Europe
Conflict between Romans and various European Tribes
Nubian and North African troops in Europe and Britain. Rise of Bodacia, British Queen who leads struggle against Roman occupiers.
Spread of Christianity in the Mediterranean

Black Olmec Civilization continues to flourish in Mexico, Central America and elsewhere.
Mayas and other groups of Mongoloid “Indians,” gain prominence.
Teotihuacán culture prospers in Central Mexico

Nomadic and coastal Indian peoples inhabit parts of the Great Plains and both the Eastern and Western U.S. Migrations from Siberia trickles into the American Continent from Alaska.

Black nations continue to trade by sea and by land in the Mississippi Valley region, California and the South-Eastern U.S.

Arawak and Mongol Carib Indians conflict in Caribbean Islands.

1 A.D. to 1000 A.D.

Egypt under Roman occupation. Black Khemitic culture still dominant in Egypt except in places where descendants of Jews, Greeks and others live.

Romans bring in people from the Arabian region into Egypt.

Nubian civilization continues to flourish : Natahamani is Pharoh from 12 B.C. to 12 A.D.

Period of about 400 B.C. to 200 A.D., African priests from Nubia and Khem (Egypt) teach science, art, technology and history to Demetrius of Phalere, Diodorus Cronos Hegesias, Eculid, Manethon, Aristachus of Somos, Archimedes, Sextus, Plutarchus, Plato, Aristius, Erathosthene, Claudius Maximus, St. Agustine and many others.

Thousands of ancient books written by Nubian Ethiopian and Khemite priests over thousands of years were copied during this period at Alexandria
Golden Era of Nubian civilization; large cities built. Temples, colleges and schools improved. Highly advanced arts and crafts. Nubians continue their maritime trade and commerce. Build strong army with expert archer regiments on horseback.

Nubia invaded by Axumites led by Azana in 325 A.D.
Axumite Empire is established in Ethiopia from about 200 B.C. to 800 A.D., as a continuation of the Black Sabean Empire of ancient times.
Ethiopia sees a Golden Age of culture, religion, trade, commerce from about 300 A.D. to 1100 A.D. During that period, huge churches carved out of solid cliff rock in the Lilebella Region of Ethiopia.
Ethiopians carry out trade and commercial activities with Nubians, other Africans, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, East Indians, South Africans, Swahili, Arabians and others.

Christianity officially established in Nubia and Ethiopia between 300 A.D. to 500 A.D. Christianity in its early forms reached Nubia and Ethiopia as early as the time of the Apostles and Ethiopian Eunuch. Judaism reached Ethiopia about the time of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, 950 to 1000 B.C.

Swahili city-states grow rich and powerful and continue an ancient tradition in trade and commerce that extends back to the time of Hatshepsut and Queen Ati of Punt. Swahili cities stretch from Somalia to Mozambique. Many are more than two thousand years by the time the Arabs and Persians arrive to trade in the Region (see Egyptian paintings of Hatshepsut’s expedition to Punt about 300 A.D. to 1000 A.D.)

Zimbabwe Empire spreads in Southern Africa. First stages of building of Zimbabwe stone enclosures begins about 300 B.C. Vakaranga People continues to expand buildings over much of Zimbabwe during the 1000’s to 1100’s A.D.
Shona People add to construction later on.

Zimbabwe Empire trades with Swahili, Chinese, coastal and interior Africans and other peoples.
Commodities traded include steel (the world’s first steel and the blast furnace to create steel was invented by the East Africans in Kenya about 200 B.C.). The trade in Zimbabwe also included gold, ivory, iron tools and weapons, rice, jewelry, cloth and manufactured products. Products were sold to China, India, Europe, the Middle East, Arabia (the famous “Damascus steel,” was created in Zimbabwe.


The ancient kingdoms of West Africa and West African culture itself has existed since prehistoric times. In fact, the earliest civilizations on earth, the Aquatic civilizations of the South western Sahara began over 20,000 years ago. They were master ship builders and practiced agriculture. They also may have made significant contributions to the building of advanced civilizations in the Americas, such as the Olmec and the Washitaw of the Mississippi, both ancient American cultures that show African influence from the West Africa/Sahara region.

Great kingdoms established as early as 3000 B.C., By 1500 B.C. kingdoms that gave rise to empires such as Oyo, Benin, Ashanti are established. They trade with Egyptians and other Africans as well as with people in the Americas.

West Africa enters a golden era between 400 B.C. to 1600 A.D.A number of kingdoms reemerge. They include Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem Bornu, Kongo, Angola, Ashanti and others.

West African Kings

Tenkamenin King of Ghana 1000th Century
Tenkamenin was one of the Kings of Ghana who reigned when Ghana was going through another cultural renaissance.

Sunni Ali Ber 1464 to 1492.

He built the Songhai Empire into a large and powerful empire in West Africa and one of the richest on earth. He had a large army of full-time professional soldiers including horse and camel cavalry units. He captured Timbuktu (a magnificent city where books were manufactured, bought and sold and where students from all over the world studied) and the university city of Jenne, after a seven-year siege on the city of Jenne.

Askia Muhammed Toure 1493 to 1529

Askia Muhammed was a great leader and king. He was an honorable man and was righteous. During his reign, he created provinces out of his vast country and established an efficient system of administrators and judges. He lowered taxes making it easier for the common people to pay.

Affonso I, King of Kongo 1506 to 1540

Affonso I was the first African leader to begin the process of modernizing Africa. He encouraged the learning of a number of skills and subjects and established the most modern school system in Africa. Affonso ‘s objective was to create a powerful state that excelled in technology and knowledge. Affonso was against the slave trade and worked to stop it in his kingdom.

Idris Alooma Sultan of Bornu 1580 to 1670

The Kingom of Kanem-Bornu, near present-day Chad, was created through the union of two states, Kanem and Bornu. Aloma united these two states. He was a strong leader and had a large army with a cavalry of knights on horseback in armor. He also used muskets as one of his weapons.

Shamba Bolongongo (1600 to 1620)

King Shamba as one of the Greatest kings of the Congo region. His main objective was making sure peace was kept throughout his kingdom/
Shamba believed in the most highly cherished aspects of African religion, that being the right to live.
He created a very effective system of government, using the traditional system of African democratic traditions including checks and balances. Shamba’s government included sections such as the military, judicial, and administrative branches. During his reign, Shamba Bolongongo contributed to making the arts and crafts of the highest quality and level through his promotion and support.

Osei Tutu, Ashanti King; Ghana 1680 to 1717

The Ashanti are also remnants of people who lived in West Africa as well as people who migrated from the Sahara. Osei Tutu united the Ashanti People and established a strong military and trading nation. Ashantis were successful in defeating the British during the late 1800’s and they like the Dahomey (Benin) trained women soldiers in their armies. The British were able to defeat the Ashanti after many ears of warfare.

Powerful Nubian Christian Kingdoms of Mukuria, Nobadia and Alwa emerge from Nubian Empire.
Nubia enters crusades on side of Christians. Arabs defeated in Nubia by Emperor Kalydosos during the 600’s A.D., yet their attempt to infiltrate Nubia continues

Treaty holds till 1500’s A.D. until Arabs attack Funj Empire.

End of Nubian Kingdom after 10,000 years of existence.

Ethiopians in the Crusades while a religious renaissance takes place in the Ethiopian kingdom. They create rock-hewn churches, monastic traditions, writing of encyclopedias, books, scrolls, a tradition that extends earlier than the 500’s A.D.

Ethiopians defeat Gallas and Arabs; Turks defeated at Asmara during the 1500’s. Portuguese defeated.

Black African population dominant before Arab invasions:
Black population in Egypt is supplanted with people from the Arabian region. Mixed races dominate northern part of Egypt, Blacks dormant in the southern part. Islam gains a foothold in Egypt after invasion of 600’s. Coptics continue Christian tradition.

Malians send ships to the Americas between 1200 to 1300’s

Mali becomes powerful maritime trading empire: Abu Bakari sends 2000 ships to the Americas in 1305 to 1308.

More on West African Civilization, see “African Glory,” by J.C.deGraft-Johnson, pub. Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD.

712 A.D., Africans and Arabs conquer Sind, India; Black kings from the Ethiopian region rule the region.

Ganges, Ethiopian emperor, establishes an empire that stretches from Ethiopia to Ganges River in India.

Abraha Al-Ashram, ex-slave becomes emperor of Yemen and Ethiopia. He defends Yemeni Christians against Jews in 569 A.D.

Golden Era of Black Civilization (Khmer) in Cambodia (for more see )

From about 800 A.D. to 1300 A.D. Black Negroid Black Negro-Austaloid (also found in Bangladesh and other parts of India) and Negrito kingdoms dominate Cambodia and South East Asia. They include:

Chenla, 802 A.D. to 850 A.D.
Anghkor, 802 A.D. to 1431 A.D.
Champa 100 a.d. to 1200 A.D.
(see also the book, “African Presence in Early Asia,” by Ivan Van Sertima; Transaction Publishers)

Blacks of SE Asia trade with East Africa, India,

500 A.D. to 1185 A.D. Yamato Clan rules Japan; Reforms in Japanese government around 645 A.D.
700 a.d. to 1000 A.D., Classic Age of Japanese culture, art, literature.

Feudal Age in Japan
Samurais take power
Chinese use gunpowder
1274 – Mongol invasion of Japan repelled.

1404 Chinese trade with Asia and
with Africa continues

Onin War; feudalism in Japan 1467 to 1477
Portuguese visit Japan in 1543
Other Europeans visit Japan

Chinese Admiral Chengo Ho visits East Africa in a great fleet of Chinese ships. African ships from Mediterranean Region continue 3000 years of trade and visits ot China.

Marco Polo in India 1288 to 1293 A.D.; He visits China in 1269 A.D.
Mongol Dynasty of China 1260 to 1328
Portuguese visit Canton 1517

400’s A.D. Romans withdraw troops from parts of Europe. The fall of the Roman Empire commences in the West.

Europe enters Dark Ages (400’s to 711 for Spain/Iberia) 400’s to 1000’s rest of Europe.

711 A.D. Black Moors from Senegal led by their General Gabel Tarik, invade Spain and Portugal.
They introduce science, art, technology, agricultural sciences, animal husbandry, the university and college system, new methods of maintaining hygiene.

First Arab invasion (white Semitic Arabs) of Spain occurs in the 1000’s

Black Moors make Spain Europe’s most advanced nation and sets the seeds for the renaissance in Spain. Spain declines after 1492, when Black Moors and Arabs, Jews are expelled to Africa and the Americas.

Black Moorish noblemen begin many European aristocratic families (their heads are usually on the family crests of names such as Moore).

Astrology, mechanics, chemistry, geology, early robotics, optics and many sciences are introduced by Black Moors.

Charlemagne’s Empire in Western Europe begins in 814 A.D.

1066 A.D. Normans conquer England.
Crusades against Muslims in the Palestine
Black Moors still in Spain, they spread over Europe and contribute to European cultural development.
Moors build universities in Toledo and Salamanca, Spain.

Moorish Spain flourishes along with Italy. Various massive buildings, cities, castles, forts are built using African Moorish architecture (still common in Senegal, Mauritania and Morocco)

1488 Portuguese sail to Africa
Conflicts between Goths and Moors.
Conflicts between Black Moors and Arabs in Spain.

Italian city-states grow in power. They trade with other nations and build their wealth.

European Renaissance

European Renaissance takes place around 1400 to 1600’s A.D. due to Black Moorish technological input and scientific contributions to Spain and the rest of Europe.

Moors expelled from Spain; many went to southern France and other parts of Europe, the vast majority return to Africa, others go to the Americas or are shipped there as slaves.

Columbus hears of African voyages to Americas from Moors . In 1492, he sails to Cape Verde Region (near Senegal) stocks his ships and sails to the Americas led by his ship’s captain, the Christianized Black Moor named Alfonso Nino

Africans from West Africa sail to the Americas and trade with American Indians of the Caribbean, South America, Mexico and the Southern U.S.

Africans and Aztecs establish trade during the reign of Quaquapitzuak (African Presence in Early America: Van Sertima)

Trade in almaizer cloth, iron and glass beads, vegetables and fruits including corn and cotton, trade in guanin (gold, copper silver alloy.

Africans trade with South America, Colombia and Panama on the very day that Columbus arrives in the West Indies.

Mandinkas and other Africans continue their centuries-old trade with Indians. Trade bases in South America, Caribbean , Mexico, California, S.W. United States, Cahokia region of South East U.S.

Arawak Indians of Caribbean and the Black Kalifunami (ancient Mandinkas seafarers who sailed to the Americas) unite in West Indies and bring about new group of people called “Black Caribs.

Inca civilization in Peru; various American Indian kingdoms including Cahokia, Pueblo culture, Black Washitaw Moundbuilders.
Black Jamassee Nation of the South-eastern U.S.
African ships trade with Peru.

1200’s A.D. Mongol Caribs attack Arawaks in South America initiating a period of attacks on Arawaks that lasts until the coming of Columbus in 1492.

Columbus in Bahamas looking for gold; Indians tell him that African merchants were selling gold and cloth in the region and had come to the region from the Southwest.



1. Civilization or Barbarism, by Cheikh Antah Diop, pub. by Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, IL.

2. Egypt Revisited, by Ivan Van Sertima; pub. by Transaction Publishers, New Bruinswick, NJ

3. The African Origin of Civilization, by Cheikh Antah Diop; pub. by Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, Il. U.S.A

4. Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth: pub. by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A.

5. A History of the African-Olmecs; pub by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A.

6. The Black Untouchables of India; pub. by Clarity Press, Atlanta Georgia U.S.A.

7. African Glory by J.C. deGraff-Johnson; afterword by John Henrik Clarke: pub. by Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD. U.S.A

8. African Presence in Early America; by Ivan Van Sertima: Transaction Publishers, New Bruinswick, New Jersey U.S.A.

9. Pillars of Ethiopian History by William Leo Hansberry: published by Howard Univ. Press
Washington D.C., U.S.A.

10. Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization, by Anthony T. Browder; pub. by Institute of Karmic Guidance, Washington D.C. U.S.A

11. General History of Africa Ancient Civilizations of Africa Vol. II, Edt. by James Curry and M. Mokhtar; UNESCO; University of California Press

12. The Columbus Conspiracy, by Michael Bradley: pub. by A&B Book Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

13. The Black Discovery of America, by Michael Bradley: pub by Personal Library, Toronto, Canada

14. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Kushite Empire, by Drucilla Dunjee Houston: published by Black Classis Press, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A

15. Susu and Susunomics: The Theory and Practice of Pan-African Economic, Racial and Cultural Self-Preservation: pub by also available at California, U.S.A.

16. 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro, With Complete Proof, by J.A.Rogers: Helga Rogers Publishers, St. Petersburg, Florida, U.S.A.

See also Return to Glory

A Response: PBS “Race”: A History Of Racism


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