Archive for the ‘THE ANCIENT ELAMITES WERE BLACK!’ Category

“THE DESTRUCTION OF BLACK CIVILIZATION” BY BROTHER CHANCELLOR WILLIAMS: A REVIEW BY SAADIQ MANCE FROM EMERGINGMINDS.ORG

October 1, 2007

from emergingminds.org

Book Review: The Destruction of Black Civilization

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Book written by Chancellor Williams
Reviewed by Saadiq Mance

In the past, I have heard several people refer to The Destruction of Black Civilization, by Chancellor Williams as the “Black Bible.” With such a lofty analogy attached to this book, I wonder to this day why it took me so long to read this amazing story of Black history. Well, Black History Month 2007 would be the year my eyes would be open…and all I can say at this point is thank you Chancellor Williams!

All of my life I have questioned why Black people throughout the world have experienced such a plight and why it has been so difficult for us to overcome it. Well The Destruction of Black Civilization is a book of answers, as it answers most of the major questions that people have about the African race. Such as:

“How did such a highly advanced Black Civilization get so completely destroyed that its people have found themselves not only behind other people of the world, but as well, the color of their skin a sign of inferiority, bad luck, and the badge of the slave whether bond or fee?”

“How did all Black Egypt become all white Egypt?”

“What were some of the specific details in the process that so completely blotted out the achievements of the African race from the annals of history?”

“How and under what circumstances did Africans, among the very first people to invent writing, lose this art almost completely?”

“Is there a single African race, one African people?”

“If we are one race or one people, how do you explain the numerous languages, cultural varieties and tribal groupings?”

“Since, as it seems, that there is far more disunity, self-hatred and mutual antagonism among Blacks than any other people, is there a historical explanation for this?”

“How is the undying love of Blacks for their Europeans and Asian conquerors and enslavers explained?”

Chancellor Williams does not just answers these questions as an arm charm scholar either, no not at all. Williams created this book after 16 years of research which included a precise investigation of Africa’s own independently developed civilization by doing a continent-wide field study from the Mediterranean extending southward down the Nile into the “bush” far way from the westernized urban centers, through the tip of the country in South Africa.

That data he uncovered is startling! If you haven’t read this magnificent work yet then I would suggest you stop reading this right now and go pick up the book and start reading it now

A PRELIMINARY GLOBAL AFRICAN PRESENCEBOOK LIST*,COMPILED AND POSTED BY RUNOKO RASHIDI,SUBMITTED BY BROTHER DARRELL DAVIS TO ” BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL”

September 29, 2007

from Brother Darrell Davis

A PRELIMINARY GLOBAL AFRICAN PRESENCE BOOK LIST*

Compiled and posted by RUNOKO RASHIDI

DEDICATED TO DR. JOHN HENRIK CLARKE (1915-1998)

——————————————————————————–

Akbar, Na’im. Visions for Black Men. Nashville: Winston-Derek, 1991.

Ani, Marimba. Yurugu: An African-Centered Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1994.

Armah, Ayi Kwei. Two Thousand Seasons. Poppenguine, Senegal: Per Ankh, 2000.

Begg, Ean. The Cult of the Black Virgin. London: Arkana, 1986.

Ben-Jochannan, Yosef A.A. Black Man of the Nile and His Family. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1989.

Ben-Jochannan, Yosef A.A. African Origins of the Major Western Religions. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1991.

Bennett, Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America. Harmondsworth: 1962.

Browder, Anthony Y. Nile Valley Contributions to Civilizations: Exploding the Myths, Volume 1. Introduction by John Henrik Clarke: Washington, DC: Institute of Karmic Guidance, 1992.

Butweiku I, Nana Ekow. Afrikan Theology, Cosmogony & Philosophy: An Insight on Traditional Afrikan Religion. Introduction by Runoko Rashidi. Hampton: UB & US Communications Systems, 1999.

Bynum, Edward Bruce. The African Unconscious: Roots Ancient Mysticism and Modern Psychology. Foreword by Linda James Myers. New York: Teachers College,

Carruthers, Jacob H. The Irritated Genie: An Essay on the Haitian Revolution. Chicago: The Kemetic Institute, 1985.

Carruthers, Jacob H. Intellectual Warfare. Chicago: Third World Press, 1999.

Carruthers, Jacob H., and Leon Harris, eds. African World History Project: The Preliminary Project. Chicago: Kemetic Institute, 1996.

Chandler, Wayne B. Ancient Future: The Teachings and Prophetic Wisdom of the Seven Hermetic Laws of Ancient Egypt. Introduction by Ivan Van Sertima. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1999.

Chinweizu. The West and the Rest of Us. Lagos: Nok Publishers, 1978.

Clarke, John Henrik. Notes for an African World Revolution: Africans at the Crossroads. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1991.

DeGraft-Johnson, J.C. African Glory: The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations. 1954; reprinted. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1985.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality. Translated from the French by Mercer Cook. New York: Lawrence Hill, 1974,

Diop, Cheikh Anta. The Cultural Unity of Black Africa.: The Domains of Patriarchy and Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity. Introduction by John Henrik Clarke. Afterword by James G. Spady. Chicago: Third World Press, 1978.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology. Translated from the French by Yaa-Lengi Meema Ngemi. Edited by Harold J. Salemson and Marjolijn de Jager. New York: Lawrence Hill, 1991.

Drake, St. Clair. Black Folk Here and There: An Essay in History and Anthropology, Volume 1. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, UCLA, 1987,

Elder, Bruce. Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and Maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians Since 1988. Sydney: New Holland Publishers, 1998.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, 1963.

Finch III, Charles S. Echoes of the Old Darkland: Themes from the African Eden. Decatur: Khenti, 1991.

Finch III, Charles S. The Star of Deep of Beginnings: The Genesis of African Science of Technology. Decatur: Khenti, 1998.

Fraser, Rosalie. Shadow Child: A Memoir of the Stolen Generation. Alexandria: Hale & Iremonger, 1998.

Gnammankou, Dieudonne. Pouchkine et le Monde Noir. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1999.

Guillon, Emmanuel. Cham Art: Treasures from the Da Nang Museum, Vietnam. Bangkok: River Books, 2001.

Harris, Joseph E.,ed. Africa and Africans as Seen by Classical Writers: The William Leo Hansberry Notebook, Volume 2. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1977.

Hilliard III, Asa G. The Maroon Within Us. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1994.

Hilliard III, Asa G. SBA: The Reawakening of the African Mind. Foreword by Wade W. Nobles. Gainesville: Makare, 1997

Houston, Drusilla Dunjee. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire. 1926; rpt. Introduction by W. Paul Coates. Afterword by Asa G. Hilliard III. Commentary by James G. Spady. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1985.

Jackson, John G. Introduction to African Civilizations. Foreword by Runoko Rashidi. Introduction by John Henrik Clarke. New York: Citadel, 2001.

James, George G.M. Stolen Legacy: The Greeks Were not the Authors of Greek Philosophy, but the People of North Africa Commonly Called the Egyptians. 1954; rpt. Introduction by Asa G. Hilliard III. San Francisco: Julian Richardson, 1988.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Atheneum, 1986.

Killens, John Oliver. Great Black Russian: A Novel on the Life and Times of Alexander Pushkin. Introduction by Addison Gayle. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989.

Martin, Tony. Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Dover: The Majority Press, 1976.

McCray, Walter Arthur. The Black Presence in the Bible: Discovering the Black and African Identity of Biblical Persons and Nations. Chicago: Black Light Fellowship, 1990.

Moore, Carlos, ed. African Presence in the Americas. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1995.

Obenga, Theophile. Ancient Egypt and Black Africa: A Student’s Handbook for the Study of Ancient Egypt in Philosophy, Linguistics and Gender Relations. London: Karnak House, 1992.

Rajshekar, V.T. Dalit: The Black Untouchables of India. Foreword by Y.N. Kly. Afterword by Runoko Rashidi. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1995.

Rashidi, Runoko, and Ivan Van Sertima, eds. African Presence in Early Asia. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1995.

Raven, Susan. Rome in Africa. London: Routledge, 1993.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Introduction by Vincent Harding. Postscript by A.M. Babu. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1982.

Rogers, Joel Augustus. Sex and Race. Rogers: New York 1942.

Rogers, Joel Augustus. World’s Great Men of Color, two volumes. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

Sabbioni, Jennifer, Kay Schaffer and Sidonie Smith, eds. Indigenous Australian Voices: A Reader. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Scobie, Edward. Global African Presence. Introduction by Ivan Van Sertima. Brooklyn: A & B Books, 1994.

Sharp, Saundra. Black Women for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1993.

Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America. New York: Random House, 1976.

Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. African Presence in Early Europe. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1985.

Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Egypt Revisited. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1989.

Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1992.

Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Egypt: Child of Africa. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1994.

Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Early America Revisited. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1998.

Van Sertima, Ivan, and Larry Obadele Williams, eds. Great African Thinkers, Volume 1: Cheikh Anta Diop. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1986.

Welsing, Frances Cress. The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors. Chicago: Third World Press, 1991.

Williams, Chancellor. The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. Chicago: Third World Press, 1987.

Wilson, Amos N. Afrikan-Centered Consciousness Versus the New World Order: Garveyism in the Age of Globalism. New York: Afrikan World Infosystems, 1999.

Woodson, Carter G. The Mis-Education of the Negro. Washington, DC: Associated Publishers, 1933.

X, Malcolm. Malcolm X on Afro-American History. New York: Pathfinder, 1970.

“AMERICAN CAL POLY COLLEGE SCHOLAR SAYS JESUS BEYOND A SHADOW OF A DOUBT WAS BLACK”,FROM THE CANADIAN NATIONAL NEWSPAPER,AUGUST 19,2007

August 19, 2007

THE FAMOUS BLACK CHRIST OF MEXICO

THE FAMOUS BLACK CHRIST OF MEXICO

from agoracosmopolitan.com
(The Canadian National Newspaper,Sunday,August,2007)

American Cal Poly College Scholar says Jesus beyond a shadow of a doubt was black

by Legrand H. Clegg II

The earliest gods and messiahs on all the continents were black. Research has yielded an impressive amount of material on the subject… The Messiahs, some of whom lived many centuries before Christ, had lives which so closely paralleled that of Christ that it seems most likely that the story of the latter was adapted from them. Moreover, the word Christ comes from the Indian, Krishna or Chrisna, which means “The Black One.”

J.A. Rogers:

Many of the madonnas painted in the earliest centuries of Christ- iandom were black, according to historians, and it wasn’t until the Renaissance that it became popular to give the mother of Christ the features of a Florentine maiden [a white woman]

Washington Post (Religion) May 4, 1979:

Here in the United States, well over 95% of the 27 to 30 million people of African descent are Christians and they joined most of the rest of the Christian world in observing the birth of Jesus on December 25, Christmas Day. No other historical figure has received the recognition, veneration and unquestioned loyalty of Black people in the Western world that Jesus has. Yet, despite their widespread respect for and worship of Jesus, few Black people in the Americas or elsewhere ever have raised the question of whether He was Black and whether the doctrine He espoused was of African origin. Trained by white theologians or taught in White owned, controlled or financed seminaries, the average Black minister will not only deny that Jesus was a black man and claim that it is sinful to raise the question of His colour, but also will insist that Jesus was colorless and declare that the blue- eyed blond painting of him hovering over the minister’s pulpit is just a White reflection of Christ’s universality. It is quite understandable, then, that the masses of Black Christians, who generally hold their ministers in high esteem, blithely continue to bow before, pray to and worship a blue-eyed blond stranger whom they have come to know as Jesus without ever questioning this image and its impact on them, their families and the Black race as a whole.

Recognizing the historical significance of religion to Black people and observing its present role in their nations and communities the world over, this writer feels that it is high time that the deeply-rooted religious beliefs of Blacks be fully examined by Black scholars with an eye toward freeing the race of false doctrines and misconceptions that were designed to perpetuate Black inferiority and servility.

Since religion plays a key role in moulding Black opinion and guiding Black behaviour in Africa and the diaspora, the specific intent of this article on religion, is to reveal what modern science is proving each day — that the roots of all major religions are traceable to the Black people of ancient Africa and that most of the world’s venerated religious leaders were Blacks. It is hoped that these revelations will instil a sense of pride in Black people, hasten the day when false images will be removed from their houses of worship and free them of the widespread assumption – which is deeply embedded in their individual and collective subconscious – that they are cursed and doomed to failure because they were not created in God’s image.

Professor Locksley D. M. Geoghagen is one of the few black authorities on the origin of the Christian religion. A scholar of African-Jamaican ancestry, he has served as the Associate Director of the Educational Opportunities Program and a teacher in the Education Department at Cal Poly College, San Luis Obispo, California. He is a learning specialist with expertise in brain physiology, especially the cerebral hemisphere, and has teaching credentials on the community college level in psychology, education, political science, counselling and pupil personnel. Professor Geoghagen is also the coordinator of Leadership Programs at Cal Poly College.

A rare pluridisciplinary scholar, Professor Geoghagen has lectured broadly on subjects that range from melanin and the pineal gland to the African roots of civilization. He has often lectured with the distinguished author and scholar, Dr. Donald Cheek, and has traveled extensively, especially in Africa, with the world renowned historian, Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan.

Professor Geoghagen has completed the course requirements for the Ph.D. in education at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and he plans to soon enter the field of Egyptology as an understudy of Dr. ben-Jochannan, Professor Geoghagen’s expertise on early Christianity has been acquired over the past ten years, during which time he has engaged in research, lecturing and writing in the United Sates, the Caribbean and Africa.

The following is an interview with Professor Geoghagen on religion in general and the ancestry of Jesus in particular.

MAAT: Professor Geoghagen, why don’t I just start with the question before us: Was Jesus a Black man?

Geoghagen: Yes, unequivocally and beyond a shadow of doubt, Jesus was a black man and there is much evidence to substantiate this. However, before I discuss this evidence, I would like to consider in some detail who Jesus was and to focus on the history of Christianity because Jesus’ blackness will not be fully understood or accepted without this background.

MAAT: Okay, just who was Jesus?

GEOGHAGEN: That is a very difficult question to answer, for Jesus was and still is many things to many people. To Christians he is a part of the Godhead, the Son of God, the Son of Man, the Prince of Peace, the Word made flesh, the messiah of Jewish expectations. Hence, through his trials, sufferings, temptations, death and resurrection, He provides for the remission of sins, redemption and life eternal for those who follow his teachings and accept him as their personal saviour. To me, he is one of the world’s 16 crucified saviors — the last of them, I might add – whose lives fit an almost identical pattern from the time of Horus in 4100 B.C. (according to the most ancient beliefs, he was the first crucified saviour) to the time of Judas Christas (Christ the anointed) in the pre-Christian era. In essence, the life that Jesus purportedly led, the activities in which he engaged, his teachings, his trials and sufferings and eventual death and resurrection, are identical to those of Horus and Osiris (two ancient Egyptian gods) and the other 14 crucified saviours. This point of view or revelation, though potentially shocking to the mass of believers, is nevertheless common knowledge to scholars.

So, Jesus and the belief system that he represents are thus a reappearance of one of the most beautiful ideas of the ancient black Africans of Ta-Merry – now called Egypt – which represented the eternal Father by the ever- coming Son, as in the Child Horus. This was the child of a mother who was the eternal virgin. The doctrines of the Incarnation, i.e., the word made flesh: the virgin birth, the resurrection, the Father-God who is identical to his own son and other doctrines (believed to be specifically Christian) were Egyptian long before there was even the concept of Adam and Eve, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

MAAT: Are you saying that Christianity as a religion had its origins in ancient Egypt?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes. In addition to what I have just stated, in the Eschatology of the Egyptians is found a trinity and a unity, and the Egyptians believed in punishment as well as everlasting happiness. Not surprisingly, then, the doctrine of everlasting life and the belief in the resurrection of the “Spiritual Body” are, according to Dr. Albert Churchward (author of Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, Origins of Freemasonry, The Origin And Evolution of Religion, The Origin And Evolution of The Human Race, etc.) “the brightest and most prominent features of the Egyptian religion, and this we find was their belief before the time of the first king of the first dynasty.” The general teachings and cosmological world view of the Egyptians eventually filtered down and provided the foundation for later so-called ‘Western Religions,’ i.e., Judaism, Christianity and Islam. This point is thoroughly documented by the brilliant and prolific African scholar, Dr. Josef ben-Jochannan, in an epic work, African Origins of the Major Western Religions. These teachings were handed down to the Essenes (a mythical Jewish sect in pre-Christian times) who were responsible for the development of many of the teachings and concepts attributed to Jesus.

MAAT: Are you suggesting, then, that Jesus was an Essene?

GEOGHAGEN: There is no doubt in my mind that Jesus was an Essene. Essene doctrine is directly traceable to its African-Egyptian roots. In short, Jesus was one of the world’s 16 crucified saviours whose beliefs and teachings were founded on the doctrines and principles of the ancient African Mystery System, and the events of his life directly parallel those of Horus (the first crucified saviour), who lived at least 4100 years before Christ. For example, Horus was born of a virgin (immaculate conception), he disappeared at age 12 and reappeared at 30; he died at age 33 and descended into Hell. On the third day, he arose again and ascended into Heaven to sit on the right hand of his father, etc. Horus was cut into 14 pieces; Jesus was stabbed fourteen times. Horus’ mother could find only one piece of him, his penis, and so she built obelisks in his memory. Jesus had the same phallic symbol associated with him, i.e., he had no sexual relations (at least after the conference of Nicene in 325 A.D.). So as you can see, Jesus and the other world saviours are copies of Horus. Their biographical facts are the same; only the names have changed.

MAAT: Are there parts of Jesus’ life that are generally unknown to the public?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes, much if not most of the facts surrounding his life are absolutely unknown to the general public. To be specific, there is a twenty-one year period of his life that is completely unaccounted for in the Gospel. These 21 years, I would argue, are of critical importance in understanding who Jesus was as well as the source, inspiration and eventual development of his message and ministry. The fact is that not only Jesus but also John the Baptizer and some of Jesus’ disciples were taught, by Egyptian priests, some of the fundamentals of the African Mystery System which later, through adaptations and distortions, became the foundation for what is now known as Christianity in its various forms and manifestations.

The fact that Jesus was an initiate in the African Mystery System; that Jesus was taught and did study at various subsidiary lodges of the Grand Lodge of Luxor in Africa and elsewhere (i.e. Tibet, India, etc.) The fact that it was in Africa that Jesus became acquainted with the Essenes, who were largely responsible for much of the teachings credited to Jesus.

Jesus was a Black man, and there are numerous early paintings, statues and icons that graphically depict both Mary and Jesus as Black people. According to Godfrey Higgins (author of the monumental historical document Anacalypsis), who visited the cathedrals of Europe before the anti-religious period of the French Revolution, all the madonnas and Christ-childs were depicted as black: “In all the Romish countries of Europe, in France, Italy, Germany, etc., the God, Christ, as well as his mother are described in the old pictures to be black.

The infant God in the arms of his black mother, his eyes drapery white, is himself perfectly black. If the reader doubts my words, he may go to the cathedral of Moulins – to the famous chapel of the Virgin of Loretto, to the Church of Annunciata; the Church of St. Lazaro, or the Church of St. Stephen at Genoa, to St. Francisco at Pisa; to the Church of Brixer in the Tyrol, and that of Padua; to the Church of St. Theodore at Munich, etc. This is further supported and documented by the work of J.A. Rogers, Albert Churchward, Yosef ben-Jochannan, C.W. King, J.S. Matthews, Gerald Massey and various other writers who give detailed accounts of the original Black Mary and Jesus.

It was with the advent of Michaelango, who used his family to pose for the paintings that he did of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, etc. – coupled with European white racism – that we begin to see Jesus portrayed as a white man. But how could it be otherwise?

How could a group of people simultaneously proclaim and practice white racism and justify slavery under the guise of bringing the message of Christianity to the ‘heathens’ or ‘pagan black savages’ in Africa – and at the same time tell the truth that Jesus was a Black man and that in fact Christianity started in Africa, where Panteus and Boteus reported that Jesus was born in a cave in Ethiopia? And that it was not until the Nicene conference that Jesus’ birthplace was changed to a stable in Bethlehem.

Basically, the African Mystery System was the educational system of Africa. It was called a ‘mystery’ by E. Budge, the Famous Egyptologist, and other Egyptian scholars; but it was not a mystery to Africans. It encompassed many branches of knowledge, including all of the sciences, philosophy, physics, all of the liberal arts and, of course, religion and metaphysics.

The foundation of that which was later called Greek philosophy comes directly from the African Mystery System. If an individual wants confirmation of this, he can consult such books as G.M. James’ Stolen Legacy, B.D. Alexander’s History of Philosophy, Alfred Weber’s History of Philosophy, William Turner’s History of Philosophy and Zeber’s History of Philosophy.

Included as a part of the ancient African Mystery System were the major beliefs contained in the so-called ‘Western Religions’ of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For those who want a closer look at this, I would recommend the Egyptian Book of the Dead and The Ancient Mysteries by C.H. Vail. Another book which provides great detail is Albert Churchward’s Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. It lays out all of the Hebrew, Christian and Hindu doctrines that come directly from the African Mystery System. A comparable book, also written by Churchward, is Origin And Evolution of Religion.

GEOGHAGEN: There were two councils of the Christian Church held in Nicea (Nice), in what is now northwest Turkey. The most important was called in 325 A.D. by Constantine “the Great” and 219 bishops from all of the powerful Christian regions attended it. It was the intent of Constantine to change Christianity into Christiandom. In other words, religion would now become the vehicle of government control over the people. Achievement of this goal involved changing some of the tenets of Christianity. Anyone who is interested can obtain a copy of the proceedings of the Nicene Conference and see the tremendous political struggle that was going on between the “Men of God.”

One will notice that at least 18 books — including the book of Mary — that were part of the Koin Bible (the original Bible up to that point) were removed from the canons. Furthermore, many of the ancient African teachings, including the concept of reincarnation, were removed from Christianity. And it was at this time that they put into the new Bible the ancient African concept of the Immaculate Conception.

MAAT: Are you literally saying that the original Bible was changed at the Nicene Conference?

GEOGHAGEN: Yes. But this was not the first time that Church leaders had gotten together to fight over what was to be accepted as Christianity. A similar conference was held in Jamnia in A.D. 90, at which time other changes were made.

MAAT: Getting back to the questions of whether Jesus was a Black man: Some scholars, of course, would challenge your position that Jesus was a black man on the ground that he was Jewish and could not therefore have been Black.

GEOGHAGEN: My opinion is that those would be very misinformed scholars because the original Jews were Black people.

MAAT: Some scientists today might also raise the point that the ancient Shroud of Turin, which has been highly touted by the press and which many now claim bears the image of Jesus, does not appear to depict a Black man. What would be your response to this?

GEOGHAGEN: It would be of little consequence as to whether the shroud of Turin appears to be Black, Asian, Caucasian or whatever, because the only thing that scientists are able to determine at this point is that indeed this probably was a shroud that covered a human body and does not appear to be fake.

But no Scientist alive of whom I am aware — racist or nonracist, Christian or non-Christian — can in any way, shape, form or fashion document that the Shroud of Turin is the one that was placed over Jesus’ body at the time of his death.

MAAT: Was Jesus the only great religious leader who was Black?

GEOGHAGEN: Absolutely not. Most of the ancient prophets and saviors of most religions were depicted in their original form as Blacks.

MAAT: If all of these ancient prophets, gods and goddesses were Blacks, does this suggest a universal Black dominance in the ancient world?

GEOGHAGEN: Most certainly, yes. One might read Gerald Massey’s Egypt: The Light of the World, from archaeological and anthropological evidence alone, there is no doubt that the race of Black people was the seed race for humanity. In other words, we were here before anyone else and our presence was felt and known throughout the world.

We not only occupied Africa, but our remains have been discovered from the Fiji Islands to Tasmania, Melanesia, India, China, Japan, Mexico and even Europe. Many scientists have shown that the original race of people in all of these areas was the Black race.

MAAT: Why is it that the facts that you have revealed here are unknown to the general public?

Geoghagen: They are intentionally kept from the public. You take a situation where you have a group of people – namely white people – who have actually taken philosophy, religion, education, science, liberal arts, everything that you can associate with the word “culture” from Black people. They have taken it, distorted it, adopted it and used it against the very people from whom they received it as a justification for slavery. So, it was convenient to enslave Blacks in Africa under the guise of spreading Christianity when it fact the religion as developed in Africa (there were 27 bishops and seven Popes of the North African Church before the first one in Rome — this is documented in the book Libers Pontificals, which, when translated into English, is Book of the Popes).

I should also point out here that few references are made to the fact that three of the earliest fathers of the Christian church were Blacks. St. Augustine (born at Tagaste, Numida, North Africa in 354 A.S.), who set the moral doctrine of the Christian Church; Tutillian and Cyprian. How could white people tell Blacks that they had no history or culture other than that which Europeans gave them and at the same time tell them that Christianity was not only developed by Blacks, but that its master, Jesus, was a Black man? This could not be done.

MAAT: Why do you think that it is important for Black people to know that Jesus was a Black man and that Christianity is of African origin?

GEOGHAGEN: I feel that this information is critical to the self- esteem and future of Blacks around the globe. Our contributions as the originators of high culture or “civilization” have been systematically kept from us. Our inventions, our philosophies, our religious concepts and systems have been stolen, co-opted, distorted, adopted and then used against us. We as a people must begin to assert ourselves and to reclaim our history and our science, and become knowledgeable about who we are, whence we came, and where we are going. Without a thorough knowledge and understanding of African history (including the development of Christianity in Africa), our future as a people is at best bleak.

About the author:

Legrand H. Clegg II is an attorney, historian and producer of the award-winning videotape, “When Black Men Ruled The World: Egypt During The Golden Age.”

ITALIANO # 2

August 12, 2007

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L’origine africana di civilizzazione: Mito o realtà

dal Dott. Cheikh Anta Diop

Egyptology si è sviluppato nell’accordo con lo sviluppo del commercio slave e del sistema coloniale. Era durante questo periodo che l’Egitto è stato preso letteralmente dall’Africa, academically ed ha fatto un’estensione di Europa. In molti sensi l’Egitto è la chiave a storia africana antica. La storia africana è da kilter fino a considerare l’Egitto antico come nazione africana distinta. Il fiume del Nilo ha svolto un ruolo importante nel rapporto nell’Egitto alle nazioni in Africa sudorientale. Durante la storia remota dell’Africa, il Nilo era una strada principale culturale grande su cui gli elementi di civilizzazione sono entrato in e dall’Africa interna. Nel capitolo ha denominato, “nascita del mito del Negro,„ esposizioni del Dott. Diop come la gente africana, di cui le civilizzazioni erano vecchie prima che Europa fosse sopportata, è stata letta sistematicamente dal commento rispettoso di storia umana. Questo esame è continuato nel capitolo denominato, “falsificazione moderna di storia.„ Qui, il Dott. Cheikh Anta Diop si occupa di come gli storici occidentali, dato che i cinquecento anni ultimi hanno scritto o riscritto la storia che glorifica la gente dell’estrazione europea ed hanno storto la storia del resto del mondo. Coloro che legge seriamente questo libro sono dentro per una scossa e un’esperienza ricompensante di imparare. Ciò è un lavoro importante da uno storico africano importante. Infine, la rinascita della storiografia africana da un punto di vista africano ha cominciato e nessun troppo presto.

Girandosi verso la falsificazione principale della storia dell’umanità, come la mette, i underlines di Cheikh Anta Diop che il tempo è venuto portare a giustizia alla corsa del Negro, danno a gente nera il loro accreditamento del debito per condurre il procedere ed ardere una traccia affinchè l’umanità seguano.
L’Egitto rivisitato: Giornale delle civilizzazioni africane

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)

Una compilazione di molti eruditi grandi che ripartiscono la loro perizia. Questo libro ha molte foto antiche.

Indici:

Corsa ed origine degli Egiziani antichi, i Dynasties neri ed i righelli, la filosofia e scienza degli Egiziani, i saggi vari ed il più.

Gli autori includono: Ivan Van Sertima, Chiekh Anta Diop, basilico Davidson, James Brunson, Bruce Williams, Runoko Rashidi, Chandler del Wayne B., asa G. Hilliard III, Legrand Clegg II, Phaon Goldman (Tarharka), Habib Sy, Theophile Obenga, fringillide del Charles S., Maulana Karenga, Larry Williams, Beatrice Lumpkin ed altri.
Scintilla nera, fuoco bianco: Gli esploratori africani hanno civilizzato Europa antica?

da Richard Poe

In scintilla nera, il fuoco bianco, Richard Poe cerca di oltrepassare le passioni e la politica che circondano questo oggetto. Esamina obiettivamente le edizioni e raggiunge le conclusioni che alcuni possono trovare startling.

Basato su sette anni di ricerca, compreso le interviste approfondite con gli eruditi e gli scienziati principali, la scintilla di nero, fuoco bianco è stata elogiata dagli esperti vari quanto il professor Molefi Kete Asante dell’università del tempiale, lo storico Martin Bernal dell’università de Cornell e l’esploratore norvegese Thor Heyerdahl. Con tutto il suspense di un racconto eccitante di mistero, la scintilla di nero segue una traccia snella degli indizii che conduce dagli altopiani dell’Etiopia alle carriole delle steppe russe. Raduna la storia dimenticata di un’età di esplorazione che si è conclusa quasi 3.000 anni prima di Columbus – un periodo quando l’Egitto ha regolato le onde, l’Africa era la sede imparare e di alimentazione ed Europa una frontiera selvaggia.
Contribuire prego a mantenere i regni neri dell’Africa antica in linea dai libri di acquisto da questa pagina, o potete comprare altri prodotti da Amazon scattandoti su c’è ne dei libri qui sotto. Amazon ha i prezzi eccellenti e servizio veloce.

Compro tutti i miei libri da Amazon, nuovo ed usato.

Wysinger-Redattore del Myra

Gli S.U.A.

Grazie per il vostro supporto.
Prima del pregiudizio di colore: La vista antica dei neri

dal M. franco Snowden

Secondo il Jr. del professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden, (ab, Ph.D.) la Reparto-lettura di Classicist dell’università del Howard delle fonti, la religione “pionieristica a„ dei Ethiopians ed era chiave all’origine ed alla propagazione di molte delle abitudini che hanno esistito nell’Egitto. Gli Egiziani, è stato discusso, era discendenti dei Ethiopians. Snowden dichiara che il termine Kushites, Nubians, o Ethiopians è all’usato a più o meno allo stesso modo come il termine moderno “ha colorato„, “nero, o Negro„. “Le esperienze negli Africani che hanno raggiunto i puntelli stranieri della Grecia e l’Italia ha costituito un capitolo importante nella storia dell’antichità classica,„ scrive. “Usando la prova dalle figure di cotta di terra, pitture e le fonti classiche gradiscono Herodotus e Pliny il Elder, Snowden risulta, al contrario ai nostri presupposti moderni, che Greco-Romans non ha osservato gli Africani con contempt razziale. Molti Africani hanno lavorato nell’impero romano i musicisti, gli artigianale, gli eruditi ed i General come pure gli schiavi e sono stati notati tanto per la loro virtù quanto per la loro apparenza di avere “una faccia bruciata„ (da quale è venuto il Ethiopian nome greco)„.

Il professor Snowden ha ricevuto la medaglia nazionale di studi umanistici in 2003, che honors gli individui o i gruppi di cui il lavoro ha approfondito la comprensione della nazione degli studi umanistici, cittadini estesi’ aggancio con gli studi umanistici, o aiutato la conserva ed espande accesso degli Americani’ alle risorse importanti negli studi umanistici.
Neri nell’antichità: Ethiopians nell’esperienza Greco-Romana

dal M. franco Snowden

Ulteriore sviluppando i temi così eloquente profili nei neri nell’antichità, Jr. franco del M. Snowden continua le sue ricerche sugli atteggiamenti nei confronti degli Africani nelle civilizzazioni classiche di Roma e della Grecia. Snowden identifica i neri africani dall’Egitto, da Nubia (Sudan moderno), dall’Etiopia e da Carthage (Tunisia), discutere loro interazione-compreso intermarriage-con il Greco-Romans. (Inoltre nota che molte delle rappresentazioni artistiche di questa gente assomigliano agli Americani africani attuali.) dalle missioni commerciali dei dynasties egiziani alla loro conquista della rovina mediterranea ed ultima alle mani del Romans, Snowden unravels una storia complessa degli scambi culturali che hanno acceso per parecchi millenni in où il pregiudizio razziale non era un fattore. “Ci era un rispetto definito fra la gente mediterranea per i Ethiopians ed il loro modo di vivere,„ lui scrive, “e soprattutto, i ancients non hanno stereotipato i neri come primitivi difettosi nella religione e nella coltura.„ – Jr. del Eugene Holley.
Donne nere nell’antichità (giornale delle civilizzazioni africane; V. 6)

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)

Rassegna del cliente:

Ciò è un libro ricercato e molto da studioso del pozzo. Ivan Van Sertima così come i contributori a questo lavoro ha prodotto molta comprensione sulle donne africane nella storia del mondo come la regina Nzinga, le regine del candace, Makeda (regina di Sheba) Hatshepsut e molti altri. Ritengo che questo lavoro è di importanza grande e dovrebbe essere letto da tutti che siano interessati nel ruolo delle donne africane nella storia del mondo.
La civilizzazione africana ha rivisitato: Da antichità ai periodi moderni

da Basil Davidson

Dal giornale delle biblioteche:

Questo libro, da uno degli storici di primo ministro dell’Africa, è un’edizione un po’modificata ed ampliata di suo l’Africano oltre. Come prima, consiste degli snippets delle materie grezze storiche dall’Africa occidentale, orientale e del sud, dante risalto ai tempi di secolo di pre-19th. Lo studio su storia dell’Africano nero era relativamente nuovo quando questo libro originalmente è stato pubblicato, in modo da era utile come dimostrazione che l’Africa effettivamente ha avuta una storia. Ora, oltre 25 anni più successivamente, si si domanda se il punto deve essere fatto ancora una volta. Eppure, il relativo uso più grande può essere di precisare agli allievi la varietà di fonti disponibili per lo studio su storia africana. Ciò è suggerita per le collezioni che non hanno l’edizione originale.

Paul H. Thomas, Lib dell’installazione del Hoover., Stanford, caloria.
I Pharaohs neri: Righelli di Nubian dell’Egitto

da Robert G. Morkot

Descrizione del libro:

Un’indagine completa sul regno di Kushite, Sudan del Nord attuale, che brevemente ha controllato BC l’Egitto durante l’ottavo secolo ed ha influenzato gli affari egiziani per le centinaia degli anni. Morkot esamina le percezioni antiche ed antiquarian delle terre esotiche di Nubia e dell’Etiopia e tenta di legare le città di Kush al remains archaeological. Una grande parte dei concentrati del libro sul ruolo del Nubians durante i conflitti dell’Egitto con la Libia ed i Assyrians.
Kush – il gioiello di Nubia: Ricollegamento del sistema della radice di civilizzazione africana

da Miriam Ma’ -Ka-Re Monges

Rassegne editoriali

Dalla copertura posteriore

Il Cheikh grande Anta Diop ha identificato le radici di coltura africana da cui una può seguire i rami. Nessun ricercatore africano poiché, tuttavia, ha fornito un’analisi completa che collega le civilizzazioni antiche della valle del Nilo con l’universo africano. Dalle piramidi dell’Egitto alle pareti grandi dello Zimbabwe, gli eruditi occidentali hanno attribuito i successi di queste civilizzazioni africane indigene prodigious alla gente culturalmente e geograficamente straniero in Africa. Tuttavia, nel caso dell’impero antico di Nubian di Kush, che ha occupato la parte del sud di Kemet (Egitto antico) e tutto il Sudan attuale, si invitare gli eruditi ragionevoli ad attribuire questa coltura africana ad una gente africana. Il lavoro tanto necessario attuale segue le comunanze “culturali„ africane del Diop grandi del matriarchy, del totemism, del kinship divine e del cosmology al nucleo stesso della coltura di Kushite. Questo libro è sul filo di lama di nuova generazione della borsa di Afrocentric di cui mandato è fornire un’immagine più libera della natura allineare dell’Africa, esso genius di s e del relativo contributo genuino alle civilizzazioni del mondo.
Il luogo ha modificato 2007

Gli S.U.A.

Distruzione di civilizzazione nera: Emissioni grandi di una corsa da

4500 B.C – 2000 A.D.

da Chancellor Williams

Questo libro senza dubbio è uno dei libri che il più con attenzione ricercati ho letto mai.

Amo il senso che il sig. Williams con attenzione suddivide la storia dell’africano iniziale e le segue durante la loro storia. Fornisce i particolari competenti circa le realizzazioni ed i guasti della gente africana in anticipo. Ci è un tema di riproduzione in questo libro. Gli Africani indigeni guadagnano l’alimentazione e gli Africani indigeni perdono l’alimentazione. Quella dichiarazione riassume questo libro brevemente. Il sig. Williams entra nel particolare spiegare come l’Egitto nero potrebbe essere osservato dal mondo come essendo bianco. Le risposte a questo problema possono essere trovate cominciando dal capitolo due intitolato figlia più anziana dell’Etiopia: L’Egitto. In questo capitolo, propone “il problema del mulatto„ che ritengo sono chiave nel capire come la faccia dell’Africa in anticipo è stata cambiata. Quando altri gruppi di persone sono entrato dall’est gli Africani li hanno permessi di assimilare nella loro coltura. Ci erano molti sindacati interracial, che hanno tenuto conto una miscela delle parentele. Questa miscela delle parentele è che cosa conducono al demise dell’Africano nero totale dichiarano. Periodo ed il periodo di ancora popolano chi non ha fatto una destra naturale di nascita dichiarare affatto all’Africano si è conceduto fare in modo da è stato basato sull’unione o sul kinship. Ecco perchè lo studio del sig. Williams mostra come controllo africano indigeno di flip-flop di alimentazione così frequentemente. Ogni volta che l’Africano indigeno ha preso il controllo dell’Egitto l’alimentazione era cede dovuto i sindacati interracial o il kinship non accennare la violenza e gli atti della guerra. Di nuovo, in molti sensi questo piano d’azione è una riproduzione loro durante questo libro. L’incapacità africana iniziale di tenere sopra a che cosa era naturale suo ha causa altre da dubitare che dovrebbe essere dato dell’accreditamento affatto. Il sig. Williams segue che cosa accadono e fornisce i particolari eccellenti.
Ethiopians meravigliosi dell’impero antico di Cushite, libro 1

da Drusilla Dunjee Houston

I Ethiopians meravigliosi dell’impero antico di Cushite rappresenta il successo crowning della ms Drusilla Dunjee Houston. Il lavoro originalmente è stato pubblicato nella città di Oklahoma in 1926. È il tentativo in primo luogo conosciuto da una donna nera e forse da chiunque, di produrre un lavoro multi-volume su storia africana detta a da una prospettiva africana.

La ms Houston lei stessa era un educatore, un giornalista e uno storico. Ha speso la maggior parte della sua vita Oklahoma ed in Arizona ed ha soccombuto alla tubercolosi a Phoenix, Arizona in 1941.

Il suo lavoro è vasto e completo ed era abbastanza avanzato per il relativo tempo. Il relativo pubblico non è stato limitato agli eruditi ma al layperson, specialmente gente nera, che era necessitante un tonico esatto per amplificare il self-esteem nero. Mantiene persino oggi un valore potente, più di settanta anni dalla relativa pubblicazione iniziale. – Runoko Rashidi
Athena nero: Le radici Afroasiatic di civilizzazione classica

(Il montaggio della Grecia antica 1785-1985)

da Martin Bernal

Diverso di la maggior parte dei detrattori del Martin Bernal, ho letto tutti e tre le dei suoi libri: Athena nero I, Athena nero II e Martin Bernal risponde ai suoi critici. Bernal è miglia davanti al suo peso leggero, critici male colti e reactionary, che non hanno letto ovviamente suo libri là altamente documentati nell’interezza. I suoi detrattori stanno rispondendo ai loro atteggiamenti razzisti, inculcati in loro attraverso la loro coltura, in questi ultimi cinquecento anni (dato che il commercio europeo dello schiavo quando albini tentati per disumanizzare melanics). Se l’arresto degli albini che nega la verità dell’origine di cosiddetta civilizzazione “occidentale„ (tutta la civilizzazione ha uscito dal cuore dell’Africa) ed ha letto la bibliografia di Bernals, lo vedrà che documenta tutto scrive. Alcuni altri albini del non-razzista tutto dovrebbero leggere chi dicono alla verità sono: Gerald Massey, conteggio Volney, Godfrey Higgins, Schwaller de Lubicz per chiamare alcuni. Un certo melanics dovrebbero leggere chi dicono alla verità sono: Indus Khamit Kush, cancelliere Williams, John G. Jackson, Herodotus (Herodotus era asiatico; e così era Thales, il cosiddetto padre di filosofia “europea„. La filosofia provenuta in Africa era Thales imparato la sua filosofia), George G.M. James, Cheikh Anta Diop e John Henrik Clarke. Ci sono molti altri sia melanic che storici albinic quale Martin Bernal che scrivono la verità. Melanics dovrebbe comprare loro e leggere loro automaticamente tutto il libro che è attacato dagli albini. Non credere che qualche cosa gli storici e gli antropologi razzisti dell’albino scrivano circa il melanics. – George Lawrence da Decatur, GA Stati Uniti
I filosofi egiziani: Voci africane antiche da Imhotep a Akhenaten

da Molefi Kete Asante

Filosofi egiziani antichi di Molefi Asante: Da Imhotep a Akhenaten proviene una riparazione attuale di un’omissione seria nella storia umana – i contributi antiquarian dei filosofi africani alla medicina, alla filosofia, alla scienza ed alla nascita di civilizzazione in se. Cominciando con una cronologia dei filosofi antichi del mondo, questa indagine da studioso e superbly messa copre Imhotep e “l’emersione di motivo„, Ptahhotep e “l’ordine morale„, Merikare “sul buonsenso„, così come i contributi e le comprensioni di Akhenaten, Amenemope ed altri di cui il lavoro sia stato ignorato, soppresso, o semplicemente sconosciuto all’accademia basata sulle fonti Greco-Romane e sui dati storici. Filosofi egiziani antichi: Da Imhotep a Akhenaten proviene altamente la lettura suggerita per gli allievi degli studi neri, della filosofia e della storia della scienza. – Rassegna di libro del Midwest
Volume 1 di Metu Neter: Oracle grande di Tehuti e del sistema egiziano

di coltura spiritosa

da Ra Un Nefer Amen

Ciò è conosciuta come il libro. Ciò è il libro che mette la scienza nello spirituality Africano-centrato. Rivelando l’essenza di più vecchia religione nel mondo, il Ra l’ONU Nefer Amen fornisce le chiavi pratiche a sbloccare “i segreti„ dell’universo. Naturalmente, molto sarà mancato dai lettori, perché leggeranno soltanto il libro, ma non applicare i relativi insegnamenti.

La lettura del libro su spirituality non solleva la sua coscienza. L’applicazione degli insegnamenti in Metu Neter.
Eredità rubata

da George G.M. James

Osservazioni dei lettori:

George James dovrebbe essere lodato per il suo brave e lavoro di chiarimento. L’eredità rubata li sfida a riconsiderare molte delle teorie e le ideologie che sono state impressionate su noi attraverso il sistema educativo americano. Ci diciamo a costantemente che i Greci antichi siano stati i creatori di filosofia, della scienza e di molte teorie matematiche, ma non siamo dati una spiegazione sufficiente di come hanno sviluppato queste idee. Infatti, James offre una spiegazione completamente differente per le origini di filosofia. Sostiene che che cosa è stato passato come di filosofia greca, è realmente filosofia rubata dell’Egitto ed è stato passato giù attraverso il sistema egiziano di mistero. Piccolo si è detto a circa le prove egiziane del sistema, ma del James di mistero per spiegare i principi fondamentali di questo sistema e come si è sparso durante il mondo mediterraneo.

Ciò è a deve leggere. Dà un’altra prospettiva all’idea che i Greci hanno generato la filosofia. L’autore analizza parecchi Greci conosciuti compresi Pythagoras, Aristotle e Platone e le loro dottrine per mostrare come sono realmente egiziani in natura. Persino va per quanto a fare alcune raccomandazioni vive su come mentre la gente di umanità, neri in particolare, può contribuire a cambiare l’idea sbagliata di accreditarle a Greci per le realizzazioni abbiamo imparato dagli Africani. (L’Egitto è stato sempre e sempre sarà una nazione africana.)
Egiziani Exiled: Il cuore dell’Africa

da Moustafa Gadalla

Osservazioni dei lettori:

Ho trovato questo libro per essere molto informativo ed apprezzo particolarmente il fatto che l’autore proviene dall’Egitto. Ho comprato tutti i libri offerte di questo fondamento e tutti vivono fino ad un massimo di questa. Inoltre ho trovato la sua testimonianza per essere uno dei la più corrette ed oneste trattando le origini di civilizzazione egiziana.

Leggere un cliente storico conciso e completo dell’Egitto per i 3.000 anni ultimi. Leggere sugli Egiziani antichi dimenticati, che hanno fuggito le invasioni straniere ed i oppressors religiosi. Leggere come hanno ricostruito il sistema di modello degli Egiziani antichi in Africa, quando l’Egitto in se ha stato bene ad una colonia araba. Leggere sugli Egiziani antichi’ sociali, sistemi economici e e politici e la loro applicazione estesa in secondario-Sahara Africa. Scoprire come i jihads islamici hanno spezzettato e disperso il continente africano in miseria ed in caos infiniti. Scoprire le cause ed il dynamics allineare di slavery africano.
Gli Africani che hanno scritto la bibbia

dal Dott. Nana Banchie Darkwah

Critico:

Qui sono le parti di puzzle

Ciò è un libro grande ma ci sono cose che dovete conoscere. Questo libro è scritto basato sulle somiglianze africane di lingua con quelle dell’Africa attuale, dell’Africa antica e delle parole trovate all’interno della bibbia. Con quello detto, ci sono sitings celebri dalle varie nazioni africane durante l’Africa ad ovest.

La cosa che dovrebbe essere notata è che l’autore dichiara chiaramente che la gente ebrea non è gli ebrei originali. L’autore è sotto l’opinione che la gente ebrea originale era gente africana che a sinistra probabilmente durante il cosiddetto Exodus. La gente oggi ebrea come dichiarata all’interno del libro ancora trasporta i nomi africani. Se leggo questo correctl, quello proviene dalla copertura alla copertura senza pagine di salto, questa è che cosa l’autore ha dichiarato all’interno del libro. Ciò è un lavoro letterario eccellente per tutti i discendenti africani perché fa che cosa tante hanno temuto; collega l’Africa attuale e tradizionale agli Africani antichi ed agli Africani che hanno scritto la bibbia.
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Da Babylon a Timbuktu: Una storia delle corse nere antiche compreso gli Ebrei neri

da Rudolph R. Windsor (introduzione), EL Hagahn (Illustrator)

Un Documentary impressionante di storia Africano-Ebraica antica

Critico:

La scoperta quasi delle informazioni di nonexistence sulle corse africane antiche era un piacere. Essendo quello ho intervistato gli ebrei africani io stesso che so che il sig. Windsor ritrae un cliente esatto di Hebrewisms sparso ai quattro angoli della terra. Inoltre riferisce parecchio il verse della bibbia che sostiene la sua idea. Questo libro legge più come un documentary. Dopo che leggendo il cliente biblico delle circostanze che gli Ebrei prophesied per vivere in uno sappia che non ci è senso che gli ebrei nell’Israele oggi potrebbero venire a contatto della guida di riferimento di prophecy dei periodi antichi. Windsor inoltre precisa l’origine delle corse bianche. Comprarlo questi libro e colloqui della prime terra e gente per esercitarsi nel monotheism. Questo libro awesomely riassume la storia dei Israelites neri ed il loro dio straniero nero.
Origini africane importanti “delle religioni occidentali„

da Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan, Yosef B. Jochannan

Descrizione del libro:

Le origini africane “delle religioni occidentali„ principali in primo luogo pubblicate in 1970, continua ad essere uno degli impianti diprovocazione del Dott. Ben. Questo esame critico della storia, della credenza e dei miti, remains istruttivo e fresco. Evidenziando le influenze dell’Africano e le radici di queste religioni, il Dott. Ben rivela una storia del untold che molti preferirebbero dimenticare.
Futuro antico: Gli insegnamenti e la saggezza Prophetic delle sette leggi ermetiche dell’Egitto antico

da Wayne Chandler

Commento del lettore:

Ho fatto la mia trasformare vita dalle informazioni informative in questo libro. Questo libro è pieno delle perle illuminanti di conoscenza che possono azionare ones anima e spirito attraverso l’universo della realtà ad un livello di consapevolezza e dello sconosciuto spiritosi di chiarimento agli uomini moderni. con questo futuro antico del libro, il chandler del professore ha posto la stampa blu di giorno moderno per la gente di tutte le origini etniche per rinviare ad una coscienza spiritosa che accerterà la loro sopravvivenza dal venire impulso spiritoso ed elettromagnetico di energia che sta circa per essere liberata sugli abitanti della terra. Parla del oltrepassare la negazione e della ricezione dell’impulso positivo di energia elettromagnetica che sparerà con la nostri mente, corpo, anima e spirito. Se non siamo nel giusto telaio della mente queste energia ed attrazione gravitazionale elettromagnetica indurranno l’umanità a perdere il suo destruct di auto e di mente.

Ciò è a deve leggere il libro per tutte le corse del mondo e dovrebbe essere tradotta in tutte le lingue del mondo. Per il tempo è attuale per noi è circa fornire l’età del Aquarius. Questo futuro antico del libro dal sig. Wayne B. Chandler è allineare un libro prophetic di saggezza e la relativa rivelazione attuale non è coincidente da nessuna stirata dell’immaginazione, ma divinely ispirato entro tutto il (o forza creativa dell’universo) questo futuro antico del libro cambierà per sempre il senso che osservate le civilizzazioni antiche e passate. Inoltre li aiuterà a capire il mindset e lo psyche di altre corse mentre appartiene i loro processi pensanti e le loro reazioni causa ed effetto ed anche i loro profili ancestral storici.
L’Egitto in Africa

da Theodore Celenko (redattore)

Un lettore da Oklahoma:

L’Egitto in Africa è un libro grande basato su un’esposizione grande del museo ed è buono da vederla amazon.com diretto disponibile. Il libro evita i due estremi popolari di rifiutare a tutto l’Africano le radici e di regolazione della civilizzazione egiziana e di sostenere che qualche cosa e tutto utili nella civilizzazione occidentale erano africani in origine. (Questo libro indica chiaramente che l’Africa ha contribuito così tanto che è insensata screditare i relativi reclami validi dall’esagerazione.) preferibilmente il libro è una calma, un obiettivo e un incentivo così come lo sguardo readible e libero all’Egitto nel relativo contesto africano. Se desiderate capire “l’immagine grande„ quando viene nell’Egitto antico, realmente avete bisogno di questo libro. Un professore di storia di arte.
Immagine di HereThe di scatto del nero nell’arte occidentale, volume uno: Dai Pharaohs

alla caduta dell’impero romano

dal Jr. franco, ecc. del M. Snowden.

Durante il quindicesimo secolo BC, i pharaohs del diciottesimo Dynasty hanno stabilito un impero che si estende dal Euphrates fino la cataratta di quarto (Nubia). Le conquiste del sud hanno messo gli Egiziani in contatto diretto con le popolazioni di colore che hanno continuato a resistere a e controbattere. Nel nero precedente di millennio i guerrieri ed i prigionieri erano comparso occasionalmente nell’arte dell’Egitto, di Crete e della Cipro. L’immagine del nero nell’arte occidentale li mostra, dal metà di-quindicesimo secolo alla scatola verniciata del Tutankhamun che descrive i neri in Negroes realistichi di arte ed inequivocabili sempre più ritratti egiziani.
L’Africa: La storia di un continente programma 01-02 (1986)

(VIDEO)

Basilico Davidson del presentatore

Basato in gran parte sulle immagini dalle caverne, piramidi e tombe, differenti ma uguali, nel volume 1 della serie Africa del quattro-video: La storia di un continente, presenti una descrizione delle colture africane in anticipo, con un’introduzione nell’Egitto classico e uno studio più dettagliato di Meroë. Una delle tesi principali del Davidson del basilico del presentatore, sostenuto dalle fonti di periodo sia dall’Africa che da Europa, è che il razzismo non era ordinario nelle interazioni classiche o medioevali fra Europa e l’Africa. episodio eccezionale in serie’ secondo, acquistante padronanza dei fuochi del Davidson, del continente su tre società africane contemporanee e dei sensi che differenti si sono adattati per prosperare nei loro ambienti. Caratterizza la siderurgia ed avanzamenti di azienda agricola della gente di Nok in Nigeria e del sistema elaborato di credenza religiosa del Dogon nel Mali. La discussione sulla gente di Pokat di allevamento del bestiame del Kenia del Nord è allineare eccezionale. Davidson fa un lavoro spettacolare di dimostrazione della complessità elaborata di che cosa può da alcuno erroneamente essere considerato una società primitiva. Le interviste personali affascinanti con una donna di Pokat circa il lavoro delle donne e degli uomini e con un uomo di Pokat circa ché uomo ha bisogno di prima che possa sposarsi sono il punto culminante di questo studio antropologico ben cotto. – Cesalpina Chace

Descrizione:

Per i secoli, l’Africa aveva luogo ravished tramite il commercio dello schiavo, che ha storto nostro parere sulla relativa gente. Nel programma uno, Davidson indica che l’Africa ha provocato alcune delle civilizzazioni più grandi del mondo. Nel programma due, Davidson mette a fuoco su tre Comunità differenti per vedere come la gente africana intaglia fuori un’esistenza in un ambiente spesso ostile.
Aprendosi allo spirito: Mettendosi in contatto con l’alimentazione Healing del Chakras e di Honouring Spirituality africano

da Caroline Shola Arewa

Una guida spiritosa dotata e un padrone di yoga illustra la radice comune di molte delle nostre tradizioni spiritose con la mitologia e lo spirituality dell’Egitto antico, dell’India in anticipo e dell’Africa ad ovest. 8 piastre di colore. 40 disegni a tratteggio.

Descrizione del libro:

I chakras sono rotelle di energia all’interno del corpo. Questo sistema antico è spesso thougth emergere dalle tradizioni yogic dell’India, ma nell’apertura allo spirito, Caroline Shola Arewa esplora l’importanza dei chakras agli Africani ed agli Egiziani antichi. Illustra la radice comune di molte delle nostre tradizioni spiritose con la mitologia e lo spirituality dell’Egitto antico, dell’India in anticipo e dell’Africa ad ovest.
Di acqua e dello spirito: Rituale, magia ed inizio nella durata di uno Shaman africano

da Malidoma Patrice alcuni

Durante gli anni recenti ci è stato un impulso di interesse nella vita e nelle pratiche tribali indigene, poichè la gente occidentale comincia ritenere gli stirrings delle loro proprie anime tribali indigene ed andare cercare le risposte a coloro che ancora possiede il collegamento con la terra e lo spirito. Mentre mólto è stato pubblicato circa l’americano natale (sia nord che verso il sud), il tibetano, Altaic, ecc. celtico, la vita tribale, piuttosto piccola è conosciuto circa l’Africa. Malidoma un certo libro quindi fornisce un contributo di ispirazione altamente e di benvenuto.

Tutto il westerner che ha ha desiderato mai sapere un Africano pensa dovrebbe leggere questo libro.
Introduzione alle civilizzazioni africane

da John G. Jackson, Runoko Rashidi, John Henrik Clarke (introduzione)

Osservazioni del cliente:

Ciò è un libro eccellente, esso spiega la storia allineare della gente africana. Si occupa del gran numero di distorsione e come la gente africana è stata scritta di storia. Causa di slavery, di razzismo e di propaganda bianca di supremist. Si occupa dell’Etiopia e dell’origine di civilizzazione, mostrante come il primo umano eretto dall’Africa. Se l’Africa desse alla luce all’umanità allora è logico accettare il fatto che l’Africa ha dato alla luce a civilizzazione. Parla dell’Etiopia, l’Egitto antico e Nubia, il Ghana, il Mali, Songhay, ecc. Lui esposizioni sistematiche come gli Africani persino agganciati in mare voyages con prova e prova ampie. Ciò è un eccellente, un obiettivo e un libro bene arrotondato.

Il sig. Jackson non era giusto un erudito in grado, ma era un produttore notevole. Questo libro, come sono i suoi altri (le ho lette tutte), è molto facile da leggere, mai non superando le teste di quelli appena informati delle molte funzioni di storia africana di cui si occupa. I suoi capitoli “sull’Egitto e sullo sviluppo di civilizzazione„ e “l’Africa e la civilizzazione di Europa„ valgono l’intero prezzo del libro. L’introduzione, dal Dott. ritardato John Henrick Clarke, è una dei la cosa migliore che abbia letto. L’introduzione alle civilizzazioni africane è ben documentata ed è, nel mio parere, un classico scritto da un gigante accademico.
Corsa: Realtà delle differenze umane

dal professor Vincent Sarich & Miele franco

Sarich, un’università di California, antropologo emeritus del Berkeley e Miele, un redattore dello scomparto scettico, non possono resistere a denominare la vista corrente che “la corsa non esiste„ a “dogma del pc.„ Rendono valido, se non convincendo, discussioni del loro caso in tre zone. Corsa come concetto, discutono, considerevolmente antedates Europa coloniale, presentante tali esempi come “tomba egiziana con quattro corse„ (poichè un titolo denomina una pittura della tomba) che può indicare “su consapevolezza„ della differenza, ma se quella consapevolezza correla ai concetti “della corsa„ mentre remains attualmente definito indimostrato. Parecchi capitoli sono continuare pesante DNA-hanno basato la ricerca sull’origine e la differenziazione dei sapiens di Homo, qui interpretata come ramificandosi fuori dagli altri hominids abbastanza recentemente per fare le differenze fra il minore della gente molto ma, punto di vista negli autori’, significativo. Si muovono dal progetto umano del Genome nella loro sezione finale, in cui le differenze nell’intelligenza si dicono per correlare ad un concetto della corsa (ma non si dicono essere una giustificazione per distinzione). Questa ultima discussione è affermata su che cosa sembrerà a molti lettori ch’una fede eccessiva nel quoziente d’intelligenza esamina.

Gli autori accetta la teoria dell’Fuori-de-Africa delle origini umane basate su DNA, mtDNA e

Dati del cromosoma di Y. Mostrano come quei dati sostengono la teoria dell’Fuori-de-Africa.
Scattar qui
Religioni & filosofia africane

da John S. Mbiti

Le religioni e la filosofia africane è uno studio sistematico sugli atteggiamenti della mente e della credenza che si sono evoluti nelle molte società dell’Africa. In questa seconda edizione, il Dott Mbiti ha aggiornato il suo materiale per includere la partecipazione delle donne nella religione e l’unità potenziale da trovare in che cosa si è pensato una volta per essere una massa di religioni abbastanza separate.

Mbiti aggiunge una nuova dimensione alla comprensione della storia, pensare e della vita durante il continente africano. La religione si avvicina a da un punto di vista africano ma è accessibile ai lettori che appartengono alle società non-Africane come sono a coloro che si è sviluppato in su nelle nazioni africane.

Dalla relativa prima pubblicazione, questo libro è stato riconosciuto poichè il lavoro standard nel campo dello studio ed esso è lettura essenziale per chiunque interessato della religione africana, della storia, della filosofia, dell’antropologia o degli studi africani generali.
Concezioni del dio nell’Egitto antico: Quello ed i molti

da Erik Hornung, John Baines (traduttore)

Il libro di Egyptologist Joseph Erik il Hornung suggerito Yurco franco ritardato, concezioni del dio nell’Egitto antico: Quello ed i molti, tradotto da John Baines (Ithaca: Pressa dell’università de Cornell, 1982). Ha spiegato, gli Egiziani antichi hanno creduto che il dio potrebbe rivelarsi o lei stessa in tutta la funzione che hanno scelto. Quindi, il dio, il Re, ha fatto 76 illustrare forme differenti, nelle tombe di Ramesside, ma potrebbe anche essere osservato come il disc solare, con lo scarab e la forma ram-diretta dentro; per un’espressione di Trinitarian del dio del sole, con riferimento, di giorno, Khepri a di mattina; Aten al mezzogiorno; e Re-Harakhti nella sera. Altri deities importanti inoltre hanno avuti forme multiple, per esempio Hathor, che potrebbero essere una mucca piena nella forma, o una donna con gli orecchi della mucca, o una donna completamente umana, o una donna in un albero che offre l’acqua fredda ai defunti. In una storia compare ad un herdsman, con un cappotto furry che lo spaventa dai suoi spiriti, ma il seguente giorno, compare come donna bella, con capelli lunghi.

È questo senso di identificare i deities che hanno dato agli Egiziani la capacità di interscambiare le immagini, tuttavia le vede come uno o più deities, o unisce i deities differenti in uno, per esempio Amun-Re, unendo Amun con i Re. Così ugualmente i goddesses hanno avuti l’alimentazione esprimersi nelle forme differenti. Ecco perché Mut può avere testa del lioness’, o una testa umana, porta la doppia parte superiore, o un disc solare quando nella forma di leonine. Il libro del Hornung pone questo fuori in dettaglio bello.

Un altro libro che il Dott. Yurco ha suggerito quando ha insegnato i corsi sulla religione egiziana antica è Siegfried Morenz, religione egiziana, tradotta da Ann Keep (Ithaca: Pressa dell’università de Cornell, 1976).
Civilizzazioni antiche dell’Africa

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 2)

dal G. Mokhtar

Pubblicato: 1990

Il volume II riguarda il periodo che comincia alla fine dell’era Neolithic, intorno all’ottavo millennio prima della nostra era. Questo periodo di circa nove mila anni di storia si è suddiviso in quattro zone geograophical importanti, dopo il modello di ricerca storica africana. Capitoli 1 – copertura 12 il corridoio del Nilo, dell’Egitto e del Nubia. I capitoli 13 – 16 si riferiscono agli altopiani etiopici. I capitoli 17 – 20 descrivono la zona dell’Africa più successivamente denominata il Maghrib e la relativa retroterra di Saharan ed i capitoli 21 – 20, il resto dell’Africa così come alcune delle isole nell’Oceano Indiano.

La proporzione di volume di gran lunga più grande II è dedicata alla civilizzazione antica dell’Egitto a causa del relativo posto preponderante nella storia remota dell’Africa.
Città perse dell’Africa

da Basil Davidson (autore)

Descrizione del libro:

Unendo la prova archeological e la ricerca da studioso, Davidson illustra lo sviluppo emozionante dei regni ricchi delle città perse dell’Africa, quindici cento anni prima che le navi europee in primo luogo siano venuto ai puntelli africani.

Inganno storico: La storia di Untold dell’Egitto antico

da Moustafa Gadalla

Inganno storico: La storia di Untold dell’Egitto antico fornisce uno studio fresco, emozionante e lettore-amichevole su storia egiziana antica – una storia che ha sofferto dai pregiudizi ingrained degli eruditi religiosi (cristiano, ebreo, musulmani) che negano che l’Egitto è la fonte delle loro dottrine religiose (particolarmente monotheism); ed eruditi rationalist che negano l’esistenza di scienza e di filosofia prima dei Greci. L’inganno storico è una correzione tanto necessaria a moltissime distorsione, soppressione e smentita storiche. L’inganno storico è un vivace, un aggancio, una stimolazione, una lettura provocatoria, lle facili da leggere e difficile posare.

Commento dei lettori:

Questo testo presenta le informazioni storiche bene basate che bene-sono ricercate e chiaramente comprensibile concernente la cronologia degli eventi biblici e dei partecipanti. Citando le fonti quali il Koran, il Torah, il Talmud, il testo ebraico di Massoretic di vecchio testamento ed il testo greco di Septuagint di vecchio testamento, con un gran numero di riferimenti agli impianti storici più moderni, l’autore fornisce una spiegazione realistica e ragionevole per molti puzzle biblici e contraddizioni apparenti.
L’età dorata di attracco (giornale delle civilizzazioni africane,

Volume 11, caduta 1991)

da Ivan Van Sertima (redattore)

Brani:

Chi sono questi attraccano? Attracca sono gente nera indigena in Mauritania. “Il sig. Chandler ci dice che di una corsa differente di attracchi chi sono stati conosciuti come Garamantes/Caucasians, intermarried con il nero attracca, così si è trasformato in nel tawny del `attracca’ o il bianco del `attracca’.„

Secondo l’antropologo, Dana Reynolds, il Berbers nero originale, che è stato denominato attracca, era gli antenati africani del nord della gente oggi scuro-marrone e scuro-nera del Sahara e del Sahel, pricipalmente quelli ha denominato Fulani, il Tuareg, Zenagha del Marocco del sud, Kunta e Tebbu dei paesi del Sahel così come altri arabi neri ora che vivono in Mauritania e durante il Sahel, includono Trarza della Mauritania e del Senegal, il Mogharba così come le dozzine di altre tribù sudanesi, il Chaamba del Ritaglio e dell’Algeria. Oltre al suo studio molto dettagliato sulle origini e sulle affiliazioni di varie tribù, precisa che gli Africani coinvolgere nell’occupazione Moorish di Iberia non hanno sviluppato appena le cose notevoli in Europa ma anche nelle loro terre natali. Hanno fondato e costruito molte città industrious e prosperose dappertutto il nord dell’Africa e come estremo verso il sud come Timbuktu. Le rovine dei loro molti castelli possono essere viste tanto in Africa del Nord quanto in Andalusia.

Il Westerners ha scelto concentrarsi sul mondo più recente dell’arabo e della gente Berber-parlante e presentarlo come se fosse un mondo che è stato sempre. “È come paragonare il Aztecs di cinquecento anni fa alla miscela etnica dell’America oggi,„ ha scritto Reynolds. “La storia di quando l’Africa del nord era Moorish e l’Arabia, la terra di Saracens, ha ancora dirsi a.„
Oromia: Un’introduzione alla storia della gente di Oromo

da Gadaa Melbaa

Descrizione del libro:

Un cliente della lotta della gente di Oromo per affermare il loro posto nella storia. Il Oromo compone una parte significativa del corno della popolazione dell’Africa. Oromia è un titolo usato per riferirsi al Oromo come entità politica, culturale e sociale. Vivendo nelle nazioni africane orientali, la gente di Oromo è in gran parte sconosciuta a la maggior parte del mondo; questo lavoro alza in su la gente, la loro coltura e le loro lotte.

All’interno del libro di Petrie, una storia dell’Egitto (1896) accennano un gruppo di persone nell’Egitto antico dal nome del Galla Oromo anche denominato. Petrie ha scritto: “Lungamente è stato fa rilevato che gli sphinxes neri, più successivamente appropriati dal Hyksos, avvicinato al tipo del Galla di Abyssinia„.

“Questo inizia un’inchiesta come il collegamento del Galla potrebbe comparire così sui monumenti. Nella distanza e nella progettazione delle tombe della roccia a Qau, Antaeopolis, il programma particolare di quelle tombe, con i corridoi grandi e piccoli gli alloggiamenti annessi, sono stati osservati per essere molto attentamente paralleli a quello delle tempie successive di Nubian. In sia tomba che tempiale il lavoro principale è nella roccia compatta, mentre il forecourt è della massoneria costruita davanti esso. Un’altra caratteristica era martello-funziona uno scavo di una tomba, che evidentemente era stato fatto con le sfere di pietra, come nel funzionamento del granito di Aswan e questa implica un collegamento del sud. Questa gente non compare in alcune annotazioni e tutti i loro monumenti sono stati reappropriated. Hanno andato, tuttavia, uno stile il più notevole della scultura, negli sphinxes che più successivamente sono stati rimossi a Tanis, ma sembra originalmente venire dal EL Kab, dove una parte di un tal sphinx è stata trovata. Il tipo è molto attentamente come quello del Galla. La prova che tutte le sculture più in anticipo di Tanis sono state raccolte là da Ramessu II sembra chiara; e che questi sphinxes sono più in anticipo di il Hyksos è determinato da quei re che li appropriano. Nessun periodo sembra così probabile per loro come il settimo – i decimi dynasties. Il tipo era pesante barbuto, con capelli folti„. Petrie, 1896
L’Africa dal settimo all’undicesimo secolo

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 3)

dal I. Hrbek

Pubblicato: 1992

Il periodo coperto nel volume III è dominato da due movimenti del maggiore e da importanza lating nella storia dell’Africa. L’influenza di Islam stava aumentando di nord e di ovest; stava interagendo con coltura africana tradizionale. Nel sud ci era l’espansione Bantù.

Il libro primo dispone l’Africa nel contesto di storia del mondo all’apertura del settimo secolo, prima di esaminare l’effetto generale della penetrazione islamica, l’espansione continua della gente Bantù-parlante e lo sviluppo delle civilizzazioni nelle zone di Sudanic dell’Africa ad ovest.

Capitoli dettagliati che discutono i dynasties islamici successivi dell’Africa del nord e dei loro contatti più larghi, Nubia cristiano, le civilizzazioni dei savannas, delle foreste e del litorale dell’Africa ad ovest, il corno dell’Africa e dello sviluppo interno e dei contatti internazionali del Madagascar.

Tre capitoli concludenti seguono il diaspora africano in Asia, esaminano i rapporti internazionali e la diffusione di tecnologia e delle idee in Africa e valutano l’effetto generale del periodo su storia africana.
Il congresso generale dell’organizzazione educativa, scientifica e culturale di Nazioni Unite (Unesco) alla relativa sedicesima sessione ha insegnato al Direttore Generale ad intraprendere la progettazione di una storia generale dell’Africa. L’operazione enorme di effettuare il progetto è stata affidata a ad un comitato scientifico internazionale che è stato istituito dal bordo esecutivo in 1970. Il comitato ha deciso presentare il covering del lavoro in tre milione anni di storia africana in otto volumi, ciascuno che contengono circa quattrocento pagine di testo con le illustrazioni, le fotografie, i programmi ed i disegni a tratteggio. La storia generale dell’Africa inoltre mette chiaramente in evidenza i rapporti dell’Africa con l’Asia del sud attraverso l’Oceano Indiano ed i contributi africani ad altre civilizzazioni con gli scambi reciproci.

La storia generale dell’Africa è, in una larga misura, una riflessione fedele del senso in cui gli autori africani osservano la loro propria civilizzazione. Con la nomina del comitato scientifico internazionale dei 39 membri, due terzi africano ed un terzo non-Africano, che assume la responsabilità intellettuale della storia generale dell’Africa.
“Uno dei progetti accademici più ambiziosi da intraprendere in questo secolo.„
L’Africa nel diciannovesimo secolo fino al 1880s

(Storia generale dell’Africa, volume 4)

dal J.F. Ade Ajayi

Pubblicato: 1998

Coperture del volume VI la storia dell’Africa dall’inizio del diciannovesimo secolo all’inizio “dello scramble„ europeo per il territorio coloniale nel 1880s.

Nonostante un commerciale europeo crescente, la presenza religiosa e politica durante il secolo, influenze esterne è stata ritenuta indirettamente dalla maggior parte delle società africane ed hanno fatto una varietà dei tentativi culturalmente distintivi di modernizzare, espandersi e svilupparsi. Due serie di eventi influenti – il Mfecane in Africa del sud con le relative ramificazioni centrale ed in Africa orientale ed i movimenti dei reformers musulmani in Africa ad ovest – dovuti piccolo o niente ad influenza ed alle figure straniere prominente in otto dei capitoli.

The book opens with four thematic chapters examining the major forces at work in African society at the beginning of the century; Africa’s changing role in the world-economy; new trends and processes; and the effects of the abolition of the slave trade. These are followed by twenty-three chapters detailing developments in the various regions. Two concluding chapters trace the African diaspora and assess the state of the Continent’s political, economic and cultural development on the eve of the European conquest.
Daily Life of the Nubians

by Robert Steven Bianchi

Published: 2004

Description:

Until recently little was known about ancient Nubia and day-to-day lives of the Nubian people aside from knowing it was a civilization contemporary with, distinct from, and living under the shadow of Ancient Egypt. Nubia existed from about 3500-300 BCE, close to 3,000 years. Thanks to recent massive archeological surveys, we now have a much clearer picture of Nubian civilization, what they ate, how they dressed, how they cared for their dead, their military triumphs and defeats, where their cities were built, and what they looked like. Of course they underwent dramatic changes over time, and these are noted where appropriate. Though often confused with the Ethiopians of Greek lore, little doubt remains that Nubians were in fact black African peoples, and their civilization has been claimed by many as proof of a sophisticated and ancient black African society.

For ease of use by students, the work is organized chronologically. Each chapter is divided into convenient subheads that detail military and warfare, government, language, relations with neighboring civilizations; work and the economy, engineering and architecture, housing, transportation, family life, life cycle events, women’s roles, art, music and dance, literature, science, and religion. It includes a historical timeline of Nubian history, a glossary of Nubian terms, and a bibliography for further reading. Throughout the work, Bianchi, an expert on the Nubians, shows how the modern world has little by little come to discover and recognize the distinctiveness and importance of Nubia in ancient history. This work will replace all earlier resources on Nubian life and will provide school and public librarians with the most up-to-date and historically correct information on the Nubians.
Greater Ethiopia : The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society

by Donald N. Levine

Published: 2000

Editorial Reviews:

Greater Ethiopia combines history, anthropology, and sociology to answer two major questions. Why did Ethiopia remain independent under the onslaught of European expansionism while other African political entities were colonized? And why must Ethiopia be considered a single cultural region despite its political, religious, and linguistic diversity?

Donald Levine’s interdisciplinary study makes a substantial contribution both to Ethiopian interpretive history and to sociological analysis. In his new preface, Levine examines Ethiopia since the overthrow of the monarchy in the 1970s.

“Ethiopian scholarship is in Professor Levine’s debt. . . . He has performed an important task with panache, urbanity, and learning.”–Edward Ullendorff, Times Literary Supplement

“Upon rereading this book, it strikes the reader how broad in scope, how innovative in approach, and how stimulating in arguments this book was when it came out. . . . In the past twenty years it has inspired anthropological and historical research, stimulated theoretical debate about Ethiopia’s cultural and historical development, and given the impetus to modern political thinking about the complexities and challenges of Ethiopia as a country. The text thus easily remains an absolute must for any Ethiopianist scholar to read and digest.”-J. Abbink, Journal of Modern African Studies

Culture and Customs of Egypt (Culture and Customs of Africa)

by Molefi K. Asante

Book Description:

Modern Egypt blends African history and geography with Arab culture and religion. With its position at the crossroads of Africa, its status as a major Islamic nation, and continuing interest in its ancient monuments, Egypt makes for fascinating study. This volume provides an accessible, up-to-date overview of a society that greatly evolved, yet retains traces of attitudes and behaviors from the days of the Pharaohs.

About the Author:

Molefi Kete Asante is Professor, Department of African American Studies, Temple University. He is the author of more than 50 books, including The Egyptian Philosophers (2000).

Upper Egypt: Life Along the Nile

by Nicholas S. Hopkins (Editor)

Book Description:

Upper Egypt. Life along the Nile describes life in the southern part of Egypt in the twentieth century. The book represents some of the most recent social and cultural research in the area, and it focuses on aspects of Egypt that tend to disappear in the background of the attractions that tourists see. The authors have done field research in Upper Egypt. This is one of the few recent books contributing to our understanding of this neglected region, which is based on first hand knowledge of local conditions. The book contains articles on agriculture and irrigation, language, religious life among Muslims and Christians, Sufism, customary law, crafts and craftsmen, and tribalism.

Book has lots of photos of modern Egyptians.
Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

Excellent coffee table book: 12.5 x 9.4 x 1.4 inches; Sudan possesses, among other things,

223 pyramids. This book has 400 pages of color photos of Nubian Kings & Queens, and their artifacts and treasures. Nubian photos you will not find on the internet.

Contents: The Prehistory of Sudan; 6,000 years ago; A-Group and Pre-Kerma; The First Kingdoms;

C-Group; The Kingdom of Kerma; Egypt in Sudan; The Image of the Nubian in Egyptian Art; Napata and the Kushite Dynasty; Kings of the Sacred Mountain; Napata and the Kushite Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt; The Kingdom of Napata and Meroe; The Kingdom of Meroe; Meroitic Writing and Language; The Meroitic Pantheon; Meroitic Treasure; Meroitic Ceramics; Meroe and Hellenism;

Late Meroitic Culture; Meroitic Architecture

Authors: Salah Mohamed Ahmed; Charles Bonnet; Fredrich Hinkel; Hassan Hussein Idris; Timothy Kendall; Lech Krzyzaniak; Jean Leclant; Karl-Heinz Priese; Jacques Reinold; Dietrich Wildung
Early Art and Architecture of Africa (Oxford History of Art)

by Peter Garlake

“There is nothing else like it. A sure guide to the Africa of ancient marvels and scenes of confrontation in times and places long forgotten or unknown.” Basil Davidson

This new history of over 5000 years of African art reveals its true diversity for the first time. Challenging centuries of misconceptions that have obscured the sophisticated nature of African art, Peter Garlake uses the latest research and archaeological findings to offer exciting new insights into the period between 20,000 BC and 1500 AD. All the main regions are covered: southern Africa, Nubia, Aksum, the Niger River, West Africa, Great Zimbabwe, and the East African coast.

Acknowledging the universal allure of the African art object, this book restores it to its original social and historical context, helping us to understand more about the ways in which this art was produced, used, and received.

• 112 illustrations with 64 in full colour

• Invaluable guides to museums, galleries, and websites
The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan

by David N. Edwards

348 pages

Routledge (October 30, 2004)

In this book David Edwards, a distinguished specialist in Sudanese archaeology, provides the readers with a very useful and exhaustive outline of the history of the Sudan during the Holocene (from c. 10,000 BC to the present), mainly on the basis of the archaeological evidence which has been brought to light in the last thirty years.

The book is divided into nine chapters about the following topics: Nubia, the Sudan and

Sudanic Africa; Hunters, fishers and gatherers (c. 10,000–5000 BC); The Neolithic (c. 5000–3000 BC);

Kerma and Bronze Age Kush; The Kushite Revival (XXV Dynasty and kingdom of Napata);

Meroitic Kush (c. 300 BC–AD 350); Post-Meroitic transitions (c. AD 350–550); Medieval Nubia

(c. AD 500–1500); and Post-medieval Sudan and Islam (c. AD 1500–1900).

The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance Between Hebrews

and Africans in 701 B.C.

(Paperback – 444 pages – Soho Press (April 1, 2003)

by Henry T. Aubin

From Library Journal:

Aubin argues that the Kushite rescue of Jerusalem from certain annihilation in 701 B.C.E. instigated the Jewish concept of being God’s “elect” and was therefore a seminal event in the development of Zionism. Dealing competently with the biblical and historical sources despite what some might see as a lack of formal training in this area (he is a journalist instead of a historian, though he did do graduate work in history at the University of Strasbourg), Aubin asserts that the Kushites black Africans who ruled Egypt at this time saved the city from destruction by the Assyrians. According to Aubin, historians accepted this view until the late 19th century, when colonialism impinged on the European perception of these events; suddenly, the theory that an epidemic weakened the Assyrian army rose to prominence. Aubin asserts that this was one of the most important battles in history; had the Assyrians wiped out Jerusalem, there would have been no Christianity or Islam. Whether or not one accepts his conclusions, this work is a wonderful exercise in historiography. Recommended for all academic libraries. Clay Williams, Hunter College Library, City University New York
The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile

by Dominique Valbelle & Charles Bonnet

Product Details:

Hardcover; 216 pages

Published: February 2007

Description:

In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tanoutamon, the last two pharaohs of the ‘Nubian’ Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile.

The seven statues, with their exquisite workmanship, transform our understanding of the art of this period. In particular, the colossal statue of Taharqa–almost certainly done by an Egyptian sculptor–is a masterpiece of stone artwork. Beautifully illustrated with over 170 color photographs, The Nubian Pharaohs illuminates the epic history of this little-known historical era, when the pharaohs of Egypt came from Sudan. In this major new book, which combines the latest archaeological research with stunning photography, Charles Bonnet and Dominique Valbelle narrate the incredible story of their discovery–one that will change our understanding of Egypt and Africa in the ancient world.
Genesis of the Pharaohs

by Toby Wilkinson

Product Details: 208 pages; (2003)

Peer Review Excerpt:

Genesis of the Pharaohs: Genesis of the ‘Ka’ and Crowns?

by Timothy Kendall, Archaeologist

In his Genesis of the Pharaohs, Toby Wilkinson shines new light on the Predynastic by demonstrating that the majority of rock drawings in the Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt date to Naqada I (c. 4000–3500 BC). Since the petroglyphs depict wild African fauna, hunters with bows and dogs, and men herding cattle, it is clear that the now nearly lifeless region up to 100 km east of the Nile between Quft and Hierakonpolis was at this time a well-watered, well-populated, game-rich savanna. That the rock artists were not mere isolated pastoralists but also part-time Nile dwellers is evident because their works commonly include boats. This implies that the artists probably moved from river to range in seasonal cycles. Because of this, and the fact that so many of the drawings echo subjects in later Egyptian art, Wilkinson makes a compelling case that the rock artists were the ancestors of the dynastic Egyptians. His conclusion: “the heavy reliance of these people on herding and hunting rather than agriculture suggests that their roots — and indeed the roots of Egyptian civilization — lay not so much along the Nile but in the pre-arid Sahara.”
Learn to read hieroglyphics

Egyptian Language Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics

by E. A. Wallis Budge (The father of Egyptology)

This remains the classic introductory volumn for beginners.

also purchase:

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Vols 1 & 2 by E. A. Wallis Budge

This should be on every students shelf.

King Solomon & the Queen of Sheba

by Blu Greenberg, Linda Tarry, Avi Katz (Illustrator)

Reading level: Ages 4-8

Reviewer:

I picked up this book at the library as reading material for my 17-month-old son. He (and I) loved the illustrations. I appreciated it being a real Bible story, and a history lesson–marvelously illustrated in 48 pages; but this books goes where most authors and illustrators don’t. You won’t see this version of the story in movie theatres. I did additional research to verify the accuracy of its’ contents and I discoverd everything to be valid. This book should be read by all African-American children (and adults). They won’t read about their kings and queens in textbooks as others are portrayed–which is a dis-service to their culture. I purchased three copies for myself and will be purchasing more as gifts.

Sudan Ancient Treasures: An Exhibition Of Recent Discoveries

From The Sudan National Museum

by Derek A. Welsby (Editor), Julie R. Anderson (Editor)

Published: 2004

Hardcover: 336 pages; Over 300 color photos of artifacts

Description:

A comprehensive survey of Sudanese ancient cultures, the history of archaeology in Sudan, current work and recent trends. The Sudan is the largest country in Africa. For millennia it has been the zone of contact between the peoples of Central Africa and those emanating from the Mediterranean world. The National Museum in Khartoum houses one of the finest collections of antiquities from the Nile Valley and is of international importance; however, the vast quantity of material is in store and has rarely if ever been seen by the public. This exhibition will seek to display some of the finest objects produced during all phases of human settlement from the Palaeolithic through to the Islamic period.
Ancient African Metallurgy: The Sociocultural Context

by Michael S. Bisson, S. Terry Childs, Philip De Barros, Augustin F. C. Holl, and

Joseph O. Vogel (Foreword, Editor)

Book Description:

Gold. Copper. Iron. Metal working in Africa has been the subject of both public lore and extensive archaeological investigation. In this volume, four leading archaeologists attempt to provide a complete synthesis of current debates and understandings: Where how and when was metal first introduced to the continent? How were iron and copper tools, implements, and objects used in everyday life, in trade, in political and cultural contexts? What role did metal objects play in the ideological systems of precolonial African peoples? Substantive chapters address the origins of metal working and the technology and the various uses and meanings of copper and iron. An ethnoarchaeological account in the words of a contemporary iron worker enriches the archaeological explanations. This book provides a comprehensive, timely summary of our current knowledge. This volume will be of great value to scholars and students of archaeology, African history, and the history of technology.

This entry was posted on Wednesday, April 11th, 2007 at 6:50 pm and is filed under THE DRAVIDIANS WERE(ARE) BLACK!, THE ANCIENT ELAMITES WERE BLACK!, THE SUMERIANS WERE BLACK!, BLACKS IN CUBA, BLACKS IN MELANESIA, BLACKS IN MEXICO, BLACK CIVILIZATIONS, BLACKS IN FRANCE, BLACKS IN EUROPE, THE OLMECS WERE BLACK!, BLACK BOOKS YOU MUST READ!, BLACKS IN INDIA, BLACK CHILDREN, BLACK MEN, BLACK CULTURE, BLACK PEOPLE, BLACK WOMEN, THE BLACK RACE, THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WERE BLACK!, THE ANCIENT JEWS WERE BLACK!, BLACK RELIGION, BLACK NATIONALISM, AFRICA. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

One Response to “GREAT BOOKS ON BLACK CIVILIZATIONS FROM HOMESTEAD.COM”
Mary Ann Says:

July 5th, 2007 at 3:10 pm
I am wanting to purchase the book: Melanin: The Chemical Key To Black Greatness The Series

Please respond to this email address if you know where copies can be purchased: mm3038thrives@aol.com

Thanks

“IT WAS BLACK HEBREWS WHO LIVED IN THE ORIGINAL ISRAEL OF THE BIBLE” BY STEWARTSYNOPSIS.COM

July 27, 2007

from stewartsynosis.com

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it was Black Hebrews who Lived in the original Israel of the bible

The European Jew–A Question of Identity! What! European Jews?
What! European Jews? The African Jews of the Bible!

The current State of Israel was set up by the US, Britain and the United Nations in 1948.

The Scriptures tell us who they are: Most people have come to incorrectly associate the term Jew with Israel. While all Jews are Israelites, most Israelites are not Jews. It’s clear in the Scriptures, yet it is one of the greatest misconceptions Christians have. An Israelite is a descendant of Jacob, whom God named Israel (Gen. 32:28). Jacob (Israel) had twelve sons, of which only one was named Judah. The term Jew is the English translation of the Hebrew Yehewdiy means “descendant of Judah”–The Tribe of Judah–the Ethiopian Jews are descended from Jews who accompanied Menelik, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, from Jerusalem to Ethiopia.

Israel included the city of Jerusalem and was named after Judah. In fact, Judah became the name of the southern kingdom when Israel divided into two kingdoms about 2900 years ago. The ancestry of Joseph is traced back to Judah. So is the ancestry of King David. In Jacob’s blessing of his 12 sons, in Genesis 49, he described Judah as a lion cub, saying that he would have his hand on the necks of his enemies and that he would be praised by his brothers. Jacob’s blessing of Judah, in Genesis 49:8-12, includes a passage that is traditionally understood by Christians to mean that Judah’s descendants would rule over the land of Israel, culminating with Jesus.

Christians believe the Jewish homeland was given to the Jews in perpetuity by God Himself. The Bible says that whoever blesses Jewish people shall be blessed and whoever curses them shall be cursed. The original Israel of the Bible was encompassed up to Egypt and through Syria and part of Iraq. That is what the Middle East dispute is about. That is why the Arab world is rebelling.

The Tribe of Judah–the Ethiopian Jews are descended from Jews who accompanied Menelik, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, from Jerusalem to Ethiopia. More scientific theories place the Falasha in the Agau family of tribes. Isaiah 11:11 strongly implies that there was an established Ethiopian Jewish community in the days of that prophet, approximately 740 BC. European Jews and others in different parts of the world were barely aware of the Falasha for many years. The Falasha thought they were the only remaining Jews. They continued to follow Judaism as it was practiced before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Most Westerners and Protestant churchmen learned of the existence of the Ethiopian Jews from James Bruce’s five-volume work, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, published in Edinburgh in 1790.

The Garden of Eden was located in the Tigris-Euphrates Region of Africa. Ham had four sons, and his sons are the people of the African Continent–the Ancient Egyptians, Ethiopians, Somalia’s, Canaanites. Genesis Chapter 50 Verses 7-11, scripture describes ALL the Hebrews as looking like the ancient Egyptians.

Genesis 2:10 – “And a River went out of Eden to water the Garden; and from thence it was parted and became four heads.”

Genesis 2:13 – “And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole Land of Ethiopia.” Rishon and Gihon are located in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. The Pishon and Gihon Rivers mentioned in Genesis 2: 11-13, wind and turn through the Land of Havilah, somewhere in the Persian Gulf. Today the names of the rivers are the Great Zab (South of Nineveh), and the Little Zab; the Diyala River flows into the Tigris at Baghdad, Iraq.

There were two Ethiopian nations in ancient times–Eastern and Western Ethiopia. There was an Ethiopian civilization in Southern Mesopotamia (Babylon), and the Ethiopian Tribes called themselves Babylonians.

Genesis 10:8 – “Cush begat Nimrod. The word Cush means Ethiopia. Cush is the father of Ethiopians. Nimrod ruled over the cities of Babylon, Erech, Accad (Akkad). The cities are situation in the Land of Shinar (Sumer).

In Genesis 11:26-26 Abraham was one of the fathers of the 12 tribes of Israel. Abraham’s father (Terah) came from the Land of Ur or the Chaldees. The Chaldeans are a Cushite Tribe. The Sumerians/Ethiopians/Mesopotamians (Elamites) settled from Mesopotamia to Europe. Currently this area now includes: Southern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northwest India.

Webster’s Dictionary (Gazetteer Section, p. 849) defines Sumerian as: The pre-Semitic population of the Lower Euphrates Valley. Sumer preceded Babylonia. The dictionary says there is a blood relationship between Dravidian Tribes of India and Ethiopian Sumerians (Elamites). Archeologists have found skeletons of the ancient Dravidian and Nedda types in Ur and Kish. Examples of Negrito types below: From http://andaman.org

Yemeni Negritoid

“Arab” man
(1950’s)
Negrito of the Great

Andaman group
(1890s)
Andamanese Negrito

of the
Jarawa group (1960s)

Yemeni Veddoid

Man
(1950s)
Vedda from Sri Lanka
(1890s)

Black Hebrew Facts – There are Jews throughout Africa. (Do you believe those Jews who fled to Europe converted the African Jews left behind before Hitler went on his rampage)?

Black Jews of Dahomey – (Benin)

Black Hebrews of Egypt and Ethiopia – Ethiopian Jews are better known the world over as Falasha, a Ge’ez (ancient Ethiopic) term meaning “stranger” or “exile.”

Tabiban Kamant & Wasambara Jews

Jews of Malagasy Republic

North African Black Jews

Black Jewish Empire of Ghana

The Moorish Empire (Hannibal)

Black Jews of Angola

Jewish Ashantees

Yorba Jews of Nigeria

The Book of Exodus describes a Hebrew (Jewish) presence in Egypt in the former Kingdom of Kush.

In the 9th and 10th Centuries B.C.E. Kings David and Solomon sought to expand Hebrew (Jewish) influence and trade throughout the Mediterranean, Egypt, the Arab Peninsula, the Horn of Africa and Persia.

The Bantu tribes of Southern Africa (where 40,000 members of the Lemba Tribe) still claim Jewish roots.

Jewish tribal groups in Senegal are the descendants of the Tribe of Dan. The Ethiopian Jews can trace their ancestry to the tribe of Dan. The trans-migrants established communities in renowned places as Gao, Timbuktu (where UNESCO still maintains notable archives containing records of its old Jewish community), Bamako, Agadez, Kano and Ibadan.

Jewish tribes have been situated in the heart of Africa since the dawn of recorded history. Ethiopia is mentioned in the beginning of the Biblical Book of Genesis, and there is no time in history when there were not Jews living there. From Ethiopia, they went west and south into the heart of Africa. Other Jews also migrated directly west from Egypt, entering Africa along the northern coast of the continent.

Starting about 300 AD, the Kingdom of Ghana began to be ruled by a dynasty of Jewish Kings known as the Za Dynasty. The founder of the Dynasty was a man named Za el Yemeni, who was descended from Jews of Yemen. He established his capital city at Gao on the Niger River, in what is now the nation of Mali.

According to the writings of Eldad the Danite, a famous Algerian Jewish author of the ninth century, Ghana was a Hebrew nation which followed the Law of Moses. The people of Ghana traced their roots to Jews of the First Diaspora of 600 BC, who were forcibly expelled from Israel by the Assyrians. In support of this, Eldad reported that the Ghanans possessed the Torah, which was compiled before the Diaspora, but not the Talmud, which was compiled in Jerusalem and Babylon much later, during the early centuries of the Christian era.

In the seventh century AD, the whole of Africa north of the Sahara desert was conquered by the armies of Islam. Subsequently, an extremely lucrative trade system developed with the Sub-Saharan Kingdom of Ghana. The commodities first traded were gold and salt. This led to the appearance of regular caravan routes across the Sahara Desert to various cities in Ghana. These cities became wealthy.

Shortly after the year AD 1000, the Kings of Ghana converted to Islam. Initially, the conversions were mainly for the purpose of fostering trade with the powerful Muslim states of North Africa, and had little to do with faith. But once Islam took root in the area, its impact grew inexorably.

The current Jewish homeland was set up on May 14, 1948, by the UN

“What I am trying to do is make the whole world safe for Jews,” Harry Truman wrote as he wrestled over the decision to recognize a Jewish state in Palestine. Deeply affected by the Holocaust, Truman sympathized with Jewish aspirations for a homeland. In November 1947 he lobbied for the U.N. resolution that divided Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Britain announced it would hand authority over Palestine to the U.N. by May 14, 1948.

After the death of Solomon Israel was broken up into 2 kingdoms. Judah – which consisted of Benjamin, Judah and the Levitical Priesthood (Levi). The southern kingdom was the remaining 10 tribes – they eventually scattered throughout the (world). These were the Jews that Yahshua (Jesus) prepared his disciples to gather. They are the Lost sheep of the House of Israel.

The modern Ashkenazim Jew–converts (from Eastern Europe) has tried to absorb all the nations and say they are whole again and living in Israel – but that is not true…the 10 tribes of millions of people that are still scattered – (the U. S., the American Indians, the Chinese, the Indian Dalits, the Ethiopians, the Jamaicans…on and on).

The European Jew is a convert….the converts run the Nation of Israel. They converted 1100 years ago, some may have been from the tribe of Judah (Jews) but it is a small minority. The name Sephardim was attributed to the Jews who were forced to leave Spain and Portugal in 1492. Many of these settled in North Africa, other parts of Europe and the Ottoman Empire.

Kristina Lord Comments

Genesis 15: Since I was a young child in the church, I remember the story of Abraham. I remember having read these very chapters and having sung the Sunday School song about Father Abraham. “Father Abraham, had many sons, many sons had Father Abraham, I am one of them and so are you, so let’s just praise the Lord…” But the truth did not click for me then as it did today when I read Genesis 15 with the wealth of knowledge that I now have.

Genesis 15:13-14 from the King James Version of the Bible reads “And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.”

After having read this I said to myself, “I don’t remember anytime in history where ‘Jews’ were enslaved for four centuries. The only people that I know of who were enslaved for four hundred years are American blacks who were taken from Western Africa.” history that says that the blacks who are now inhabitants of North America are actually the descendants of Abraham. God will deliver black America as he promised Abraham.

If Jews were enslaved by the Romans for 4 centuries as blacks were, then either 1) there is a strong connection between today’s Jews and American Blacks, 2) there was a conversion by some Europeans to Judaism, 3) there was a mixture with some Europeans with blacks to create white Jews with “kinky hair”, or 4) some other conclusion. The other question I have is what is the span in years of a generation? I am referring to a generation because in Genesis 15:16 (Kings James Version) it reads:

“But in the fourth generation they (Abraham’s descendents) shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.” In the Contemporary English Version it reads: “Four generations later, your descendants will return here (this bible notes that Amorites refers to a name sometimes used of the people who lived in Palestine before the Israelites) and take this land, because only then will the people who live here be so sinful that they deserve to be punished.”

The European Jew–A Question of Identity! What! European Jews?
What! European Jews? The African Jews of the Bible!

References

Williams, Joseph J., Hebrewisms of West Africa, New York: The Dial Press, 1930.

Windsor, Ralph R., From Babylon to Timbuktu: A History of the Ancient Black Races Including the Black Hebrews, Atlanta, GA: Windsor Golden Series, 2003.

http://www.ark-of-salvation.org/whoever_order.htm

M. Stewart.
Copyright © 2002 – 2007. All rights reserved.
Revised: 01/01/07.

BLACKED OUT THROUGH WHITEWASH,PART 1,BY SUZAR.COM

April 24, 2007

from: stewartsynosis.com

[Home] [Site Index] [Synopsis 1] [Synopsis 2] [Synopsis 3] [Synopsis 4] [Synopsis 5] [Synopsis 6] [Africans’ Bible] [Warren G. Harding] [High Tech Jesus] [DNA a M Fu#$%&] [New White Race] [ME Booksellers] [Beheaded] [Author’s Notes] [Feedback Form]

Blacked Out Through Whitewash (1992)

Part I:
Exposing the Greatest Cover- ups in “His-Story”

by: Suzar

(Because the need is critical this book may be copied and distributed. Sections of this book may be copied as long as credit is given to the book or author).
Like Christ, ALL founders of world religions on ALL continents were BLACK and “woolly” haired, including the earliest gods.
Buddha was Black! That’s why his woolly hair is always shown in small tight curls, peppercorn style or cornrows. Early sculptures of him clearly reveal his Aficoid features …wide nose and full lips. So was Zaha of Japan, Fu-Hsi of China, Tyr of Scandinavia, Quetzalcoatl of Mexico, Sommonacom of Siam and Isis of Egypt and Rome. Krishna of India was “blue-black,” in fact his means black, or the Black One! (See dictionary). He is always portrayed with blue or blue-black skin.

Mohammed, founder of Islam was also ‘bluish’ in color with ‘frizzy’ hair. His grandfather was “black as the night.”

Moses was Black according to Mohammedan tradition and early portraits. His hand would turn white, then back to his “other flesh” when God wished to give him a sign. (Ex. 4:6,7).

Lao Tse of Taoism was “a divine incarnation …born of a virgin black in complexion and as beautiful as jasper.” (Thorton: History of China Vol. 1) The chief title of Osiris, the greatest of Egyptian gods means “Lord of the Perfect Black.” He was also called “The Great Black,” similar to Krishna. The chief title of Zeus, greatest of the Greek gods was “Ethiops” which means, “burnt faced.” Early statues of gods in India have Africoid features and woolly or locked hair. The name of the Mexican god Ixtliton means “blacked faced.” In fact, many ancient Mexican gods are portrayed jet black with Africoid features.

Once banned, The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors, by Kersey Graves reveals remarkable knowledge on this subject, along with Anacalypis by Godfrey Higgins and African Origins of the Major World Religions by Amon Saakana, (Editors).

Nappy hair is ‘divine’ – The choice of God!
Like Christ, “His son” and all the founders of world religions, God Himself has kinky, nappy hair -according tot he Bible, where God or the “Ancient of Days” is described as having “hair like the pure wool.” (Dan. 7:9) The Power that causes galaxies to spiral, and planets & atoms to spin; that causes the double helix spiral of the DNA molecules -this same spiraling power causes spiraling hair… otherwise known as NAPPY, kinky, curly, frizzy, wavy, WOOLLY hair!

The words, SPIN, SPIRAL, and SPIRITUAL have common roots! The Supreme Power spins; spirals; it is spiritual. It moves or spirals the universe! The entire universe dances in spirals and rotations; everything in it reflects the “SPIRaling, SPIRitual” essence out of which it is made! The “SPIRal,” especially the Golden Spiral, is simultaneously the most profound motion and design in the universe -built into all life forms, from seashelss to man, to spiraling nappy hair! Your blood spirals through your veins! Plants spiral up from the soil! And nappy hair spirals out from the hair roots! Ball your hand into a fist and slowly extend each finger.

Did Jesus have dreadlocks?

Jesus was a Nazarite: a vow of Nazarites was to never cut his hair but “let the locks of the hair of his head grow.” (Nm. 6:2,5, Lev. 19:27; 21:5) The word Nazarite is from nazar, meaning unshorn. Woolly nappy hair, if simply washed & dried but never combed or brushed, will naturally entwine into long locks as it grows. Samson, the most famous example of locked hair, had seven locks. (Jg. 13:5, 16:17,19)

Hair is a really antenna that can receive and transmit energy! A Rastafarian explains that dreadlocks are a quality of Black people; they “are high-tension wires,” which transmits divine energy and inspiration from Jah [God], the creator, to Rasta, the mirror.” (Nicholas/Sparrow: Rastafarian -A Way of Life) As Blacks awaken to true self-knowledge and self-acceptance this brings, the negative racist conditioning with respect to their natural spiraling, nappy hair as “bad” and straighter hair as “good” will cease!
Ancient Egypt was a Black African Civilization. The word itself means Black!
The ancient Egyptians called themselves Kam or Kam-Au (Black people/ Black God-people), and their country Kamit (or Khemit), both meaning land of the Blacks and the Black Land. The word Egypt is derived from the Greek word Aigyptos (or Aiguptos) that means Black! Europe’s first historian, Herodotus said, “the Egyptians, Colchians, and Ethiopians have thick lips, and broad nose, woolly hair and they are of burnt skin.” Egyptian civilization evolved from the Ethiopians. The Bible equates Ham (Africans) with Egypt. (Ps. 78:51; 105:23, 27; 106:21, 22)

The Black identity of Egyptian mummies is proven by their high melanin content. Also, Egyptians made wigs from sheep wool to match their woolly hair! A superb summary of the first Egyptians, their culture & achievements is documented in Legrand Clegg’s video Egypt During the Golden Age. Other great works include Gerald Massey’s scholarly Egypt, Light of the World, and James Brunson’s Predynastic Egypt. Ra Un Nefer Amen presents a powerful synthesis of the esoteric sciences of ancient Egypt, India & Canaan, in Metu Neter.

Whites blew off the Africoid nose of the Sphinx! And destroyed much ancient Africoid art.

Carved from a single rock, the Sphinx was a portrait of the Black Pharaoh Khafre (Cephren). The blatant, undeniable evidence of Black African achievement blew off the Africoid nose and part of the lips with cannon fire! Reporting on the “riddle” of the racial identity of the ancient Egyptians, Count C. Volney, a distinguished French scholar who visited Egypt in the late 1700’s, wrote with astonishment “…when I visited the Sphinx, its appearance gave me the key to the riddle. Beholding that head typically Negro in all its features…” He later added “…the Egyptians were true Negroes of the same type as all native-born Africans.” The Sphinx’s broad nose and full lips are evident in an early drawing of the Sphinx as it was found in the 19th century.

The willful and systematic destruction of Africoid art has also occurred in the Americas, Asia and India: Inscriptions and hieroglyphics are defaced or bleached, noses are shot off or chiseled down, confusing nomenclatures are pasted over the evidence, photos are taken from misleading angles or filters, and some evidence is outright destroyed. Europeans replaced the African inscriptions with new ones that credited themselves for the achievement.

Western (white) civilization was founded on a Black African civilization.
You may recall being taught in school that Western (white) civilization is founded upon the ancient Greek civilization that seemed to suddenly appear. What European historians are trying to hide or deny is that the Greek civilization was primarily the offspring of the advanced Black African civilization of ancient Egypt that preceded it by thousands of years. Greek legends relate that Egyptian & Phoenician conquerors ruled all or parts of Greece until the 14th or 15th century B.C.

Books about Western civilization’s African origins include Cheikh Anta Diop: The African Origin of Civilization – Myth or Reality and Martin Bernal: Black Athena Vol. 1, 2.

The earliest Greek & Roman gods were all Black, including the Trojan heroes!
The early Greek-Roman gods & goddesses such as Apollo, Zeus, Hercules, Athena, Venus, were all Black, being renditions of the Black Egyptian gods. The historian Herodotus himself wrote “the names of nearly all the gods came to Greece from Egypt.” The Aeneid, like the Iliad, Odyssey and all the other great epics of the world, is a poetic story dealing with Black people! Aeneas, the Trojan hero of Virgil’s Aeneid, was in direct descent from Dardanus, the African founder of Troy.

Africans gave us Math, Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry! -Including the Arabic Numbers! Africans also originated the world’s first known universities.
The falsely credited Pythagoras and Euclid learned their knowledge from Egypt’s “Sacred Mystery Schools,” which were the first universities known to man (with branches in other parts of the world, including China!) Estimated by computer analysis to have approached a mile in length, the temple-university of Luxor housed an elite faculty of priest-professors and catered to some 80,000 students at all grade levels! Temples were at the center of religion, politics and education.

The Ethiopians and Egyptians originated Mathematics and Trigonometry. The African Moors originated Algebra and developed Trigonometry into a science. The word Algebra is derived from “Al-Jabr wa’l Muqabala,” the title of the first textbook on the subject. From the name of the Black author, “Al-Khowarizmi.” We get the word algorithm (a math procedure). The Arabic numbers we use today came from he ancient Arab people who were originally Black Africans! And many of them still are!

Chemistry & the word itself is from Black Egypt. And where would the world be without PAPER and ALPHABET?
Africans gave us both! The words Chemistry/ Alchemy are from the word Kam or Khem, the name that the ancient Egyptians called themselves that means BLACK. Africans invented paper and papermaking. Paper was made from papyrus, hence the name. Before this, writing was done on stone tablets. The alphabet used by Western civilization originates from the Black Phoenicians who copied the principles from the Africans of the Nile Valley.

The real ‘Father of Medicine’ was the African multi-genius Imhotep of ancient Egypt, not Hippocrates who lived 2000 years later. Imhotep brought the knowledge of medicine to Greece and Rome. He was a world famous physician, architect, high priest, diplomat, economist, poet, philosopher, sage, magician, astronomer, engineer, and designer of the Step Pyramid of Sakkara. He was so revered that he was deified while still living and worshipped as the Great God of Medicine. The Greeks renamed him Aesclepios, the God of Healing. The phrase “drink and be merry…” is traced to him.

The symbol of the medical profession, the caduceus (a winged staff entwined by two serpents), was the insignia found on his temples. Imhotep temples in fact were the first hospitals known to man! Stlen from Africa, his many volumes are at Karl Marx University in Leipzig, Germany “From Egypt comes the earliest medical books, the first observatory for anatomy – human and comparative – the first experiments in surgery and pharmacy, the first use of splints and bandages, compresses and other appliances, and the first anatomical and medical vocabulary, and an extensive one at that.”

(S. Glanvile: The Legacy of Egypt p196) European medicine is founded on the works of Imhotep and Black Muslims, Avicenna and Rhazes. For rich details, see Llaila O. Afrika: African Holistic Health.

This race of black men… is the very race to which we owe our arts, our sciences, and even the use of speech!”

Wrote the amazed, distinguished French scholar, Count C. Volney in 1787. Later he wrote Ruins of Empires, a book which so delighted scholars of the day that it was translated into English with a ‘special edition’ for the racist Americans, in which the following quotation was left out: “There are a people, now forgotten who discovered while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. The Black man is rejected now for their black skin and woolly hair founded, on the study of the laws of Nature, those civil and religious systems which still govern the universe.”

The name by which whites are known -Caucasian- originated from Africans -and is from Caucasus, which is derived from the Ethiopian words “Caer Cush Aur.” (Bryant’s Ancient Mythology Vol. III, p158 [1807]). Ancient African civilizations flourished while Europeans were living as barbarians in the caves of the Caucasus mountains.

Whites stole the word “Aryan” from the Sanskrit language of India’s Blacks where it meant noble cultivator or the holy.

Europe is named after the Black Phoenician princess, Europe! (See dictionary) who was kidnapped by Black Zeus.

“Slave” is from “Slav.” So many Slavic people of Europe were enslaved that the word “Slav” came to mean, “slave.”

Paris is named after the Egyptian goddess, Isis!–From an early temple of Isis (Pari Isidos). At the site of this temple is the Cathedral of Notre Dame; the Grande Dame referred to Isis herself!

The heroes & people of the Bible were primarily Black African people. Moses was an Egyptian priest whose hand turned white under special circumstances. (Ex. 4:6,7) Black Samson had dreadlocks. Solomon declares, “I am black” as does Job; “My skin is black…” (Sol. 1:6, Job 30:30) Simon was a Canaanite. (Mt. 10:4) Paul is mistaken for an “Egyptian.” (Acts 21:37-39)

The early church fathers, persecuted Christians and martyred saints were also Black, such as St. Barbara – a female saint after which Santa Barbara city is named, St. Augustine, St. Maurice, Clement of Alexandria and five popes, including St. Peter! (Rogers: Nature Knows No Color Line) For details McCray: The Black Presence in the Bible. Dunston: The Black Man in the Old Testament & its World; and Barashango: God, The Bible & The Black Man’s Destiny.

Seeking to further discredit African legacy, white historians try to displace Egypt from Africa by classifying it as part of Asia, but the ancient people of West Asia were also Black! The original people of West Asia were the Sumerians, who called themselves the “Black-Heads.” They founded the rich Black cultures of Mesopotamia that included the ancient Babylonians, Chaldeans, Canaanites, Phoenicians and Elamites (original Persians).

Cush or Nubia means Ethiopia. The Biblical table of nations (Gen. 10) tells us that Cush and Canaan were brothers (sons of Ham), and that Sumer (Shina) is descended from Cush. Old Testament compilers assign Ham (father of Africans) to Egypt, Canaan, Cush and Phut (Libya). The Bible refers to Egypt as Ham. (Ps. 78:51; 105:23, 27; 106; 21,22)

The original Biblical Jews were a Black African people.

The original Jews in Africa 2000 years ago were a Black African people as an ethnic group. (Massey: Egypt Light of the Word p501) Many of them still are Black, in northern Africa such as the Falasha Jews of Ethiopia. A New York Times editorial (3/2/84) described them as “a lost tribe that has kept it identity for more than 2,000 years in a remote corner of Africa.”

Abraham, ancestor of the Hebrews, was from Chaldea; the ancient Chaldeans were Black. In fact, Africa takes it name from Ophren, a son of Abraham by his wife, Keturah (Whiston: The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus p50) Like Jesus, Mary and Joseph, the lineage of Ethiopian Emperor, Haile Selassie also goes back to Judah -through Solomon/Queen of Sheba and King David. Roman historian Tacitus wrote that many of his time believed that the Jews “were a race of Ethiopian origin.”

The Bible classifies the Ethiopians & Jews together, “Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, “O children of Israel? Saith the Lord.” (Amos 9:7) Black Paul is mistaken for an “Egyptian” and declares he himself to be a “Jew.” (Acts 21:37-39, 22: 2,3)

The Jews got their language, religion & culture from the Canaanites & Sumerians through Babylon is well documented by historians. The original ancient Hebrew alphabet was identical to that of the Phoenicians. “Semitic languages” are really dialectical variants of African languages.

The word Semite is from semi that means half. Half what? Half BLACK! (Mulatto!) Semite refers to the descendants of Shem, one of Noah’s sons. The word originates from the Latin prefix semi that means half. “Half Black and half white… therefore Black (since Black is genetically dominant)” points out Dr. Cress Welsing.

Historian Cheikh Anta Diop also points out that the “Semitic” arises in the 4th millennia B.C. from crossbreeding between Black inhabitants of the holy land and white northern invaders. While many Semites (such as Jews & gypsies) have mixed so much with whites that they’ve forgotten or deny their African roots, racism (white supremacy) will never let them forget this no matter how light-skinned they become, as proved by Hitler, who mandated their destruction because they were classified by whites as “non-white” people originating in Africa. The very word gypsy means “out of Egypt.”

African Americans are largely descendants of the original Black Jews! The original Biblical Jews were Black African people who were ruthlessly persecuted by the white man (Romans). The prophet Jesus was a Black Jew who was born during this time. The Roman-Jewish War in A.D. 66 marked the peak of this persecution and the end of the original Black Jews (Hebrew-Israelites) as a nation. As predicted by Jesus, in this war Jerusalem was overthrown, the Temple was destroyed and the Black Hebrews were scattered. (Mat. 24:15-21, Luke 21: 5,6, 20-24)

The loss of life was appalling. So many Hebrews were slain that the whole lake of Galilee was red with blood and covered with corpses. The noted historian, Osephus estimated that one million one hundred thousand perished in the siege of Jerusalem alone, reports Hugh Schonfield in his book The Passover Plot p192-195, which describes this massive genocide.

Seeking to escape destruction, millions of original Black Biblical Jews fled into AFRICA!

Centuries later, their descendants were captured and sold into slavery in the Americas!

Ella Hughley’s remarkable booklet The Truth About Black Biblical Hebrew-Israelites exposes and summarizes important details of this suppressed subject. She writes “Many of the Israelites… who managed to escape their persecutors during the Roman-Jewish War subsequently migrated to West Africa, and 6000 years later their descendants were captured and brought to America in chains by cruel slave-traders.”

She quotes the noted Jewish historian, Josephus from his book The Great Roman-Jewish War: 66-70, where he writes about this Jewish dispersion and captivity. “General Vaspasian and his son Caesar Titus fought against the Jews. Millions of Jews fled into Africa, among other places, fleeing from Roman persecution and starvation during the siege.” In African Origins of Major Western Religions p75, Dr. Yusef ben-Jochannan writes: “There were many Hebrew (Jewish) tribes that were of indigenous African origin. These African Jews were caught in a rebellion in Cyrene…during 115 C. E. This rebellion also marked the beginning of a mass Jewish migration southward into Sudan of West Africa.” Arab historian, Ibn Battuta writes of finding Jews scattered across North and West Africa during his travels. The Hebrewisms of numerous tribes, especially in West Africa is well documented.

Khazar Jews & Original Jews

If the original Jews were Black, where did white Jews come from? There are two main types of white Jews the Edomites and the Khazars. Edomites are the descendants of Esau, who was born ruddy (red) and hairy according to the Bible. (Gen. 25:25) This describes the “white” man; he is red (all shades) and hairy. Esau was the albino, fraternal twin brother of Jacob, the father of the original Black Israelites. The white Edomites and Black Israelites were constantly in strife against one another. In fact, the Edomites fought the Black Jews in the Roman-Jewish War. At a later period in history, the Edomites (Idumeans) were conquered and forced to become “Jews.” The European Khazars became “Jews” in 740 A.D. (see below) Neither groups are descended from the house of Israel!

Khazars make up over 90% of the so-called “Jews!” (Hatonn) The world’s best kept secret? Hugley writes “These groups… [Khazars esp., plus Edomites & other ethnic groups] make up modern Jewry today. Although the black Hebrew-Israelites are the real descendants of ancient Israel, this truth is not known by many and it is ‘the world’s best kept secret.’

Because of slavery and scattering, the Hebrew-Israelites are not known to the world as true Israel… Some scholars, teachers and ministers teach that God has completely cast them away, but God said, ‘I have chosen thee, and have not cast thee away.’ (Isa. 41:9, last part.) [& Rm. Ch. 11]

Although the children of Israel went into captivity, a remnant has returned as was predicted. The prophecy of Ezekiel 37th chapter tells of the spiritual resurrection of the people of Israel, who will be perpetually betrothed to their God in truth and in righteousness.” There are numerous Black-Hebrew congregations in America. “Temple Bethel” is the largest & oldest (in Belleville, VA). “Jews” were a heavy part of the African slave trade in the America! Compiled from Jewish documents, The Secret Relationship Between Blacks & Jews by the Nation of Islam reveals the vast Jewish involvement in the Atlantic slave trade. “Jews” were also major slave sellers during the Middle Ages. (Van Sertima: African Presence in Early Europe, p161)

These “Jewish” slave-sellers were probably not “real Jews” at all but Khazars. (See below) Counterfeit Jews: the hated, white “Khazars” who have usurped the real Jews! Historians are now recognizing that the majority of eastern so-called “Jews” are actually “Khazars” and have NO Semitic roots whatsoever! The Khazars are impostors: well-suppressed knowledge is emerging about this war-like tribe of whites that rose to power in Eastern Europe and were hated by the other whites they conquered due to there severe, exploitative treatment of them.

The Khazars all converted to Judaism as a political ploy during the Middle Ages. It appears that they learned all they could from he real Hebrews before usurping them, selling them into slavery (or killing them) and taking over in their place, using the corrupted form of Judaism to hide behind while continuing their treachery right into modern times. Much of Europe’s historical hate for “Jews” is hate for the ruthless Khazars who continued to be hated in spite of becoming “Jews.”

In fact, the word “Jew” originated during the 1700s to label them! (Hatonn: p3, 17) Counterfeit Blessings – The Anti-Christ by Any Name: Khazars by G. C. Hatonn, exposes that the Khazars are the real “anti-Semites” who have labeled themselves as Zionists and “Jews” to deceive the world in furthering their own plans for global & political conquest. (See pages 22-24 in this document) In the 13th Tribe. Arthur Koestler traces the history of the Khazars and their rise to power.

The African Moors sparked the European Renaissance! Ruling Spain, southern France, much of Scotland & North Africa during the middle ages for 700 years, the Black African Moors gave Europe one of its finest civilizations. The word Moor is from the Greek word mauros, meaning scorched. In the introduction of The Story of the Moors in Spain by Stanley Lane-Poole, John Jackson writes: “Eurocentric historians argue that Europe gave civilization to Africa, which is a complete inversion of the truth. The first civilized Europeans were the Greeks, who were chiefly civilized by the Africans of the Nile Valley.

The Greeks transmitted this culture to the Romans, who finally lost it, bringing on a dark age of five hundred years. Civilization was restored to Europe when another group of Africans, the Moors, brought this Dark Age to an end… During the Golden Age of Islam, the Moorish Empire… was the most advanced state in the world… Cordova was the most wonderful city of the tenth century; the streets were well paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians… Public baths numbered in the hundreds… at a time when cleanliness in Christian Europe was regarded a sin… Moorish monarchs dwelt in splendid palaces, while the crowned heads of England, France, and Germany lived in big barns, lacking both windows and chimneys, with only a hole in the roof for the emission of smoke.”

The Moors had an insatiable lust for knowledge, and acquired it from East and West, translating into Arabic all they could find, even ransacking monasteries for rare books. One king had a private library of 600,000 books! In Moorish Spain education was available to the most humble, while in Christian Europe 99% of the populace were illiterate, including kings.

The incredible city of Cordova had 800 public schools! The Moors made great advances in mathematics, physics, astronomy, medicine, botany, and chemistry. The Moors also introduced the first shooting mechanisms or rifles known as fire sticks! -Which revolutionized European military science, ultimately causing their downfall when their enemies used gunpowder to drive them back into Africa.

Their contributions to European civilization are vast – with no credit given to them. For more details, Ivan Van Sertima, Ed: The Golden Age of the Moors, and Samuel Scott: The History of the Moorish Empire in Europe. The white Founding Fathers built America on Black Egypt’s knowledge.

As revealed in Anthony Browder’s fascinating From the Browder File, the Founding Fathers sought to recreate in America the same energies which guided the Africans of the Nile Valley by using African science, architecture and symbols (with no credit to them) as shown:

The Founding Fathers and all the U.S.

presidents were Masons (except Lincoln and Kennedy).

Masons and other secret orders such as the Rosicrucian’s 7 Illuminati are patterned after the Sacred Mystery Schools (universities) of ancient Egypt.

The word ‘Mason’ means ‘child of the sun’ and is derived from the African terms Sons 7 Daughters of Light (or Children of the Sun).

The sun symbolizes enlightenment; hence these metaphors mean ‘enlightened people.’ The Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution are Masonic documents, written in the Masonic code and have different meaning to members of the Masonic order.

Look on the back of the dollar bill and see for yourself how the Founding Fathers composed the Great Seal of America with African symbols: The Eye of Horus/God, pyramid, six-pointed star (made up of 13 stars), and the eagle -their imitation of Egypt’s sacred sun Falcon, a symbol for Horus. Stan Deyo’s provocative Cosmic Conspiracy provides more insights.

The Washington monument, a symbol of America, is an African obelisk! The obelisk was the symbol of the very Black Egyptian god, Osiris who represented the regenerative powers of God and was worshiped as the impregnating force of the universe. The obelisk later became part of the worship of the Egyptian Sun God, “Ra,” from which we get the words “ra, radiation.” The obelisk is also found at the Vatican in St. Peter’s square and in every major city in the world. It is the origin of church steeples!

Egyptian Design: The Lincoln Memorial is patterned after an Egyptian temple honoring the pharaoh, Ramsese II. Meridian Hill Park (AKA Malcolm X Park) was designed to align Washington D.C. to the same meridian (pathway to the sun) which passes through Egypt. So-called European architecture (like the Capitol, Parthenon, cathedrals) is copied from African architecture! (Mosques, obelisks, temples)

A Black scientist designed the city. The layout and design of Washington D.C. was accomplished by America’s first Black man of science, Benjamin Banneker – astronomer and mathematician.

Albinos: Why do whites seek to hide their origins?

Are whites the albino offspring of Black Africans? White skin is a form of albinism. It appears that whites have “come into being” through a number of ways: In The Isis Papers p123, Dr. Frances Cress Welsing states “whites are undoubtedly a genetic mutant albino population… from the original Black (hue-man) beings.” The story of ‘Snowflake’ dramatically illustrates how it is possible for whites to come into being from blacks: Born of coal black parents, this albino gorilla named “Snowflake” has platinum blond hair, white (pink) skin, and blue eyes! (National Geographic: Mar. 67, Oct. 70). Similarly in Panama, particularly among the San Blas Indians are albino natives that also have blond hair and blue eyes!

They are often indistinguishable from blond Northen Europeans! In the Bible, Edomites are whites that descended from an albino named Esau who was born ruddy (red) & hairy. (Gen. 25:25) The Bible refers to white skin as leprosy (Num. 12:10-12, Lev. 13) and reports that a race of people (Gahazites) was born white due to being cursed! (II Kings 5:27) Bible scholars credit Japheth (a son of Noah) as fathering a (Black) people who settled in the north, ultimately becoming the Caucasian Race.

Similarly, other scholars theorize that Africans who migrated to Europe and were caught in the Ice Age, gradually lightened until their genes mutated to adapt to the scant sunlight, thus producing a race of whites.

Interestingly, the ancient Egyptians recorded the Tamahu, which means created white people. Egyptian writings also refer to whites as Typhonians or People of Seth, both meaning “the devils.” After these “white devils” were first released into the Black community of the Near East 6000 years ago, they caused sever strife, thus the Africans rounded them up, stripped them of everything and exiled them to the caves and hills of the Caucasus Mountains. This explains the sudden appearance of white people in this region. To prevent their escaping Africans installed a series of guarded walls blocking all exits along that area from one sea to the other!

Thus “roping” them off (hence the word Europe). These walls have been witnessed and recorded by many European writers, including Pliny. Thus, totally cut off from civilization, the whites degenerated into uncivilized, nomadic savages. They remained this way for 2000 years until ‘Allah mercifully sent an Egyptian priest named Musa or Moses to civilize them.’

This explains the otherwise unknown reason why suddenly about 2000 B.C., vast hordes of these white barbarians left the Caucasus region and stormed all the (Black) centers of civilizations throughout Mesopotamia, the Near East, Africa and India, destroying and usurping them. Thus, the Whiteman’s arrival signaled destruction for all these civilizations and the beginning of the Whiteman’s rise to power.

Whites proclaim their origin is Greek. Whites can avoid confronting the true meaning of skin whiteness as a mutation and genetic deficiency state from the Black norm – the ‘hue-man’ norm’… Deep within the unconscious psyche of the white collective is an awareness; of their origin amongst Blacks, that Blacks were their parents and that they (whites) were the offspring of Blacks who suffered from the skin condition of Albinism.”

http://suzar.com

M. Stewart.
Copyright © 2002 – 2007. All rights reserved.
Revised: 01/01/07.

GREAT BOOKS ON BLACK CIVILIZATIONS FROM HOMESTEAD.COM

April 11, 2007

from: homestead.com

The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality

by Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop

Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that Egypt was literally taken out of Africa, academically, and made an extension of Europe. In many ways Egypt is the key to ancient African history. African history is out of kilter until ancient Egypt is looked upon as a distinct African nation. The Nile River played a major role in the relationship to Egypt to the nations in Southeast Africa. During the early history of Africa, the Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa. In the chapter called, “Birth of the Negro Myth,” Dr. Diop shows how African people, whose civilizations were old before Europe was born, were systematically read out of the respectful commentary of human history. This examination is continued in the chapter called, “Modern Falsification of History.” Here, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop deals with how Western historians, for the last five hundred years wrote or rewrote history glorifying the people of European extraction and distorted the history of the rest of the world. Those who read this book seriously are in for a shock and rewarding experience in learning. This is a major work by a major African historian. At last, the renaissance of African historiography from an African point of view has begun, and none too soon.

Turning to the major falsification of the history of mankind, as he puts it, Cheikh Anta Diop underlines that the time has come to bring justice to the Negro race, to give black people their due credit for leading the march, and blazing a trail for humanity to follow.
Egypt Revisited: Journal of African Civilizations

by Ivan Van Sertima (Editor)

A compilation of many great scholars sharing their expertise. This book has many ancient photos.

Contents:

Race and Origin of the Ancient Egyptians, Black Dynasties and Rulers, Philosophy and Science of the Egyptians, Miscellaneous Essays and more.

Authors include: Ivan Van Sertima, Chiekh Anta Diop, Basil Davidson, James Brunson, Bruce Williams, Runoko Rashidi, Wayne B. Chandler, Asa G. Hilliard III, Legrand Clegg II, Phaon Goldman (Tarharka), Habib Sy, Theophile Obenga, Charles S. Finch, Maulana Karenga, Larry Williams, Beatrice Lumpkin and others.
Black Spark, White Fire: Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe?

by Richard Poe

In Black Spark, White Fire, Richard Poe seeks to transcend the passions and politics surrounding this subject. He examines the issues objectively and reaches conclusions that some may find startling.

Based upon seven years of research, including in-depth interviews with leading scholars and scientists, Black Spark, White Fire has been praised by experts as varied as Temple University professor Molefi Kete Asante, Cornell University historian Martin Bernal and Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl. With all the suspense of a mystery thriller, Black Spark follows a slender trail of clues that leads from the highlands of Ethiopia to the barrows of the Russian steppes. It pieces together the forgotten story of an Age of Exploration that ended nearly 3,000 years before Columbus — a time when Egypt ruled the waves, Africa was the seat of learning and power, and Europe a savage frontier.
Please help to keep Ancient Africa’s Black Kingdoms online by purchasing books from this page, or you may purchase other products from Amazon by clicking on any of the books below. Amazon has excellent prices and fast service.

I buy all my books from Amazon, new and used.

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USA

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Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks

by Frank M. Snowden

According to Professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden Jr., (AB, AM, Ph.D.) Howard University Classicist Department–reading of the sources, the Ethiopians “pioneered” religion, and were key to the origin and propagation of many of the customs which existed in Egypt. The Egyptians, it was argued, were descendants of the Ethiopians. Snowden states that the term Kushites, Nubians, or Ethiopians is to used in much the same way as the modern term “colored”, “black, or Negro”. “The experiences of Africans who reached the alien shores of Greece and Italy constituted an important chapter in the history of classical antiquity,” he writes. “Using evidence from terra cotta figures, paintings, and classical sources like Herodotus and Pliny the Elder, Snowden proves, contrary to our modern assumptions, that Greco-Romans did not view Africans with racial contempt. Many Africans worked in the Roman Empire as musicians, artisans, scholars, and generals as well as slaves, and they were noted as much for their virtue as for their appearance of having a “burnt face” (from which came the Greek name Ethiopian)”.

Professor Snowden received the National Humanities medal in 2003, which honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation’s understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens’ engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans’ access to important resources in the humanities.
Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience

by Frank M. Snowden

Further developing the themes he so eloquently outlines in Blacks in Antiquity, Frank M. Snowden Jr. continues his investigations into attitudes towards Africans in the classical civilizations of Rome and Greece. Snowden identifies the African blacks from Egypt, Nubia (the modern Sudan), Ethiopia, and Carthage (Tunisia), discussing their interactions–including intermarriage–with the Greco-Romans. (He also notes that many of the artistic representations of these people resemble present-day African Americans.) From the trade missions of the Egyptian dynasties to their conquest of the Mediterranean and ultimate downfall at the hands of the Romans, Snowden unravels a complex history of cultural exchanges that went on for several millennia in which racial prejudice was not a factor. “There was a clear-cut respect among the Mediterranean peoples for Ethiopians and their way of life,” he writes, “and above all, the ancients did not stereotype blacks as primitives defective in religion and culture.” — Eugene Holley Jr.
Black Women in Antiquity (Journal of African Civilizations; V. 6)

by Ivan Van Sertima (Editor)

Customer Review:

This is a well researched and very scholarly book. Ivan Van Sertima as well as the contributors to this work have produced much insight on African women in world history like Queen Nzinga, the candace queens, Makeda (Queen of Sheba) Hatshepsut and many others. I feel that this work is of great significance and should be read by all who are interested in the role of African women in world history.
African Civilization Revisited: From Antiquity to Modern Times

by Basil Davidson

From Library Journal:

This book, by one of the premier historians of Africa, is a slightly revised and expanded edition of his The African Past. As before, it consists of snippets of historical source materials from western, eastern, and southern Africa, emphasizing pre-19th century times. The study of black African history was relatively new when this book was originally published, so it was useful as a demonstration that Africa indeed had a history. Now, over 25 years later, one wonders if the point needs to be made yet again. Still, its greatest use may be to point out to students the variety of sources available for the study of African history. This is recommended for collections not having the original edition.

Paul H. Thomas, Hoover Inst. Lib., Stanford, Cal.
The Black Pharaohs: Egypt’s Nubian Rulers

by Robert G. Morkot

Book Description:

A comprehensive investigation of the Kushite kingdom, present day northern Sudan, which briefly controlled Egypt during the 8th century BC and influenced Egyptian affairs for hundreds of years. Morkot examines ancient and antiquarian perceptions of the exotic lands of Nubia and Ethiopia and attempts to tie the towns of Kush to archaeological remains. A large part of the book concentrates on the role of the Nubians during Egypt’s conflicts with Libya and the Assyrians.
Kush – The Jewel of Nubia: Reconnecting the Root System of African Civilization

by Miriam Ma’At-Ka-Re Monges

Editorial Reviews

From the Back Cover

The Great Cheikh Anta Diop identified the roots of African culture from which one can trace the branches. No African researcher since, however, has provided a comprehensive analysis connecting the ancient Nile Valley civilizations with the African universe. From the pyramids of Egypt to the great walls of Zimbabwe, Western scholars have attributed the achievements of these prodigious indigenous African civilizations to people culturally and geographically alien to Africa. However, in the case of the ancient Nubian Empire of Kush, which occupied the southern part of Kemet (ancient Egypt) and all of present-day Sudan, one expects reasonable scholars to attribute this African culture to an African people. The present much-needed work traces Diop’s great “African cultural commonalities” of matriarchy, totemism, divine kinship, and cosmology to the very core of Kushite culture. This book is on the cutting edge of a new generation of Afrocentric scholarship whose mandate it is to provide a clearer picture of Africa’s true nature, it s genius and its genuine contribution to World Civilizations.
Site modified 2007

USA

Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from

4500 B.C to 2000 A.D.

by Chancellor Williams

This book without a doubt is one of the most carefully researched books I have ever read.

I love the way that Mr. Williams carefully breaks down the history of the early African and traces them throughout their history. He gives proficient details about the accomplishments and failures of the early African people. There is a reoccurring theme in this book. Indigenous Africans gain power and indigenous Africans lose power. That statement sums up this book briefly. Mr. Williams goes into detail to explain how a black Egypt could be viewed by the world as being white. The answers to this question can be found starting with chapter two entitled Ethiopia’s Oldest Daughter: Egypt. In this chapter, he proposes “the mulatto problem” which I feel is key in understanding how the face of early Africa was changed. When other groups of people came in from the east the Africans allowed them to assimilate into their culture. There were many interracial unions, which allowed for a mixture of kin. This mixture of kin is what lead to the demise of the total black African state. Time and time of again people who did not have a natural birth right to any African state were allowed to do so based on marriage or kinship. This is why Mr. Williams study shows how indigenous African flip-flop control of power so frequently. Whenever indigenous African took control of Egypt the power was relinquish due to an interracial unions or kinship not to mention the violence and acts of war. Again, in many ways this scenario is a reoccurring them throughout this book. The early African inability to hold on to what was natural his has cause others to question whether he should be given any credit at all. Mr. Williams traces what happen and he gives excellent details.
Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire, Book 1

by Drusilla Dunjee Houston

Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire represents the crowning achievement of Ms. Drusilla Dunjee Houston. The work was originally published in Oklahoma City in 1926. It is the first known attempt by a Black woman, and perhaps anyone, to produce a multi-volume work on African history told from an African perspective.

Ms. Houston herself was an educator, journalist and historian. She spent most of her life in Oklahoma and Arizona and succumbed to tuberculosis in Phoenix, Arizona in 1941.

Her work is broad and comprehensive and was quite advanced for its time. Its audience was not confined to scholars but the layperson, particularly Black folk, who were in need of a accurate tonic to boost Black self-esteem. It retains a powerful value even today, more than seventy years since its initial publication. –Runoko Rashidi
Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization

(The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985)

by Martin Bernal

Unlike most of Martin Bernal’s detractors, I read all three of his books: Black Athena I, Black Athena II, and Martin Bernal Responds to His Critics. Bernal is miles ahead of his light weight, poorly read, reactionary critics, who obviously have not read his highly documented books in there entirety. His detractors are responding to their racist attitudes, inculcated in them through their culture, over the past five hundred years (since the European Slave Trade when albinos attempted to dehumanize melanics). If albinos stop denying the truth of the origin of so-called “Western” Civilization (all civilization came out of the heart of Africa), and read Bernals bibliography, they will see that he documents everything he writes. Some other non-racist albinos everyone should read who tell the truth are: Gerald Massey, Count Volney, Godfrey Higgins, Schwaller de Lubicz to name a few. Some melanics they should read who tell the truth are: Indus Khamit Kush, Chancellor Williams, John G. Jackson, Herodotus (Herodotus was Asian; and so was Thales, the so-called Father of “European” Philosophy. Philosophy originated in Africa were Thales learned his Philosophy), George G.M. James, Cheikh Anta Diop, and John Henrik Clarke. There are many others both melanic and albinic historians such as Martin Bernal who write the truth. Melanics should automatically purchase and read any book about them that is attacked by albinos. Do not believe anything racist albino historians and anthropologists write about melanics. — George Lawrence from Decatur, GA United States
The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten

by Molefi Kete Asante

Molefi Asante’s Ancient Egyptian Philosophers: From Imhotep To Akhenaten is a timely redressing of a serious omission in the human history — the antiquarian contributions of African philosophers to medicine, philosophy, science, and the birth of civilization itself. Beginning with a chronology of Ancient World Philosophers, this scholarly, superbly crafted survey covers Imhotep and the “emergence of reason”, Ptahhotep and the “moral order”, Merikare on “common sense”, as well as the contributions and insights of Akhenaten, Amenemope, and others whose work was ignored, suppressed, or simply unknown to the academia based on Greco-Roman sources and histories. Ancient Egyptian Philosophers: From Imhotep To Akhenaten is highly recommended reading for students of Black Studies, philosophy, and the history of science. — Midwest Book Review
Metu Neter Vol. 1: The Great Oracle of Tehuti and the Egyptian System

of Spiritual Cultivation

by Ra Un Nefer Amen

This is known as THE Book. This is the book that puts the science in African-centered spirituality. By revealing the essence of the oldest religion in the world, Ra Un Nefer Amen gives the practical keys to unlocking the “secrets” of the universe. Of course, much will be missed by readers, because they will only read the book, but not apply its teachings.

Reading a book about spirituality does not raise one’s consciousness. Applying the teachings in Metu Neter will.
Stolen Legacy

by George G. M. James

Readers Comments:

George James should be commended for his brave and enlightening work. Stolen Legacy challenges us to reconsider many of the theories and ideologies that have been impressed upon us through the American education system. We are constantly told that the ancient Greeks were the originators of philosophy, science, and many mathematical theories, but we aren’t given an adequate explanation of how they developed these ideas. In fact, James offers a completely different explanation for the origins of philosophy. He claims that what has been passed of as Greek philosophy, is actually stolen Egypt philosophy and was passed down through the Egyptian Mystery System. Little has been told about the Egyptian Mystery System, but James tries to explain the basics of this system and how it spread throughout the Mediterranean world.

This is a must read. It gives another perspective to the idea that the Greeks created Philosophy. The author analyzes several known Greeks including Pythagoras, Aristotle and Plato and their doctrines to show how they are actually Egyptian in nature. He even goes so far as to making some strong recommendations on how we as people of humanity, Blacks in particular, can help change the misconception of crediting Greeks for accomplishments they learned from Africans. (Egypt always has been and always will be an African nation.)
Exiled Egyptians: The Heart of Africa

by Moustafa Gadalla

Readers comments:

I found this book to be very informative and I especially appreciate the fact that the author is from Egypt. I have purchased all of the books this foundation offers and they all live up to this one. I also found his testimony to be one of the most correct and honest in dealing with the origins of Egyptian civilization.

Read a concise and comprehensive historical account of Egypt for the last 3,000 years. Read about the forgotten Ancient Egyptians, who fled the foreign invasions and religious oppressors. Read how they rebuilt the Ancient Egyptians model system in Africa, when Egypt itself became an Arab colony. Read about the Ancient Egyptians’ social, economical, and political systems, and their extended application into sub-Sahara Africa. Find out how the Islamic jihads fragmented and dispersed the African continent into endless misery and chaos. Discover the true causes and dynamics of African slavery.
The Africans Who Wrote the Bible

by Dr. Nana Banchie Darkwah

Reviewer:

Here Are the Puzzle Pieces

This is a great book but there are things you need to know. This book is written based upon the African language similarities with those of present-day Africa, ancient Africa and words found within the bible. With that said, there are sitings noted from various African nations throughout West Africa.

The thing that should be noted is that the author clearly states that the Jewish people are not the original Jews. The author is under the opinion that the original Jewish people were African people who left probably during the so-called Exodus. The present day Jewish people as stated within the book still carry African names. If I read this correctl, that is from cover to cover without skipping pages, this is what the author stated within the book. This is an excellent literary work for all African descendants because it does what so many have feared; connects present and traditional Africa to the ancient Africans and to the Africans Who Wrote the Bible.
No. 1 top seller on this web site!
Editor Choice
From Babylon to Timbuktu: A History of the Ancient Black Races Including the Black Hebrews

by Rudolph R. Windsor (Preface), El Hagahn (Illustrator)

An Awesome Documentary of Ancient African-Hebrew History

Reviewer:

Discovering almost nonexistence information on the ancient African races was a Delight. Being that I have interviewed African Jews myself I know that Mr. Windsor portrays an accurate account of Hebrewisms scattered to the four corners of the earth. He also references several Bible verse that support his idea. This book reads more like a documentary. After reading the Biblical account of the conditions that the Hebrews were prophesied to live in one would know that there is no way that the Jews in Israel today could meet the prophecy guidelines of ancient times. Windsor also points out the origin of the white races. Buy this book and he talks of the first land and people to practice monotheism. This Book awesomely sums up the history of the Black Israelites, and their Black alien god.
African Origins of Major “Western Religions”

by Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan, Yosef B. Jochannan

Book Description:

African Origins of the Major “Western Religions” first published in 1970, continues to be one of Dr. Ben’s most thought-provoking works. This critical examination of the history, beliefs and myths, remains instructive and fresh. By highlighting the African influences and roots of these religions, Dr. Ben reveals an untold history that many would prefer to forget.
Ancient Future: The Teachings and Prophetic Wisdom of the Seven Hermetic Laws of Ancient Egypt

by Wayne Chandler

Reader comment:

I have had my life transformed by the informative information in this book. This book is full of illuminating pearls of knowledge that can propel ones soul and spirit through the cosmos of reality to a level of spiritual awareness and enlightenment unknown to modern men. with this book ancient future, professor chandler has laid the modern day blue print for people of all ethnicities to return to a spiritual consciousness that will ensure their survival from the coming spiritual and electromagnetic surge of energy that is about to be unleashed upon the inhabitants of the earth. He talks about transcending the negative and receiving the positive surge of electromagnetic energy that will shoot through our mind, body, soul and spirit. If we are not in the right frame of mind this energy and electromagnetic gravitational pull will cause mankind to lose his mind and self destruct.

This is a must read book for all races of the world and it should be translated in all languages of the world. For the time is at hand for we are about to enter the Age of Aquarius. This book Ancient Future by Mr. Wayne B. Chandler is truly a prophetic book of wisdom and its timely unveiling is not coincidental by no stretch of the imagination, but divinely inspired by the all (or creative force of the universe) this book Ancient Future will change forever the way you view ancient and past civilizations. It will also help you understand the mindset and the psyche of other races as it pertains to their thinking processes and their reactions to cause and effect and also their historical ancestral profiles.
Egypt in Africa

by Theodore Celenko (Editor)

A reader from Oklahoma:

Egypt in Africa is a great book based on a great museum exhibit and it’s good to see it available through amazon.com. The book avoids the two popular extremes of denying all of the African roots and setting of Egyptian civilization and of claiming that anything and everything worth while in western civilization was African in origin. (This book makes it clear that Africa contributed so much that it’s foolish to discredit its valid claims by exaggeration.) Instead the book is a calm, objective, and persuasive as well as readible and clear look at Egypt in its African context. If you want to understand the “big picture” when it comes to ancient Egypt, you really need this book. A professor of art history.
Click HereThe Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume One: From the Pharaohs

to the Fall of the Roman Empire

by Frank M. Snowden Jr., etc.

During the fifteenth century BC, the pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty established an empire extending from the Euphrates to the Fourth Cataract (Nubia). The southern conquests brought Egyptians into direct contact with black populations who continued to resist and counterattack. In the previous millennium black warriors and captives had occasionally appeared in the art of Egypt, Crete, and Cyprus. The Image of the Black in Western Art shows us, from the mid-fifteenth century to Tutankhamun’s painted box depicting blacks in Egyptian art increasingly portrayed realistic and unmistakable Negroes.
Africa: The Story of a Continent Programs 01-02 (1986)

(VIDEO)

Presenter Basil Davidson

Based largely on images from caves, pyramids, and tombs, Different but Equal, in volume 1 of the four-video series Africa: The Story of a Continent, presents an overview of early African cultures, with an introduction to classical Egypt and a more detailed study of Meroë. One of presenter Basil Davidson’s main theses, supported by period sources from both Africa and Europe, is that racism was not commonplace in classic or medieval interactions between Europe and Africa. In the series’ outstanding second episode, Mastering a Continent, Davidson focuses on three contemporary African societies and the different ways they have adapted to thrive in their environments. He features the iron working and farming advances of the Nok people in Nigeria and the elaborate system of religious belief of the Dogon in Mali. The discussion of northern Kenya’s cattle-raising Pokat people is truly exceptional. Davidson does a spectacular job of demonstrating the elaborate complexity of what may by some be mistakenly considered a primitive society. Fascinating personal interviews with a Pokat woman about men and women’s work and with a Pokat man about what a man needs before he can marry are the highlight of this well-done anthropological study. –Tara Chace

Description:

For centuries, Africa was ravished by the slave trade, which has distorted our view of its people. In Program One, Davidson shows that Africa gave rise to some of the world’s greatest civilizations. In Program Two, Davidson focuses on three different communities to see how African peoples carve out an existence in an often hostile environment.
Opening to Spirit : Contacting the Healing Power of the Chakras and Honouring African Spirituality

by Caroline Shola Arewa

A gifted spiritual guide and a yoga master illustrates the common root of many of our spiritual traditions through the mythology and spirituality of Ancient Egypt, Early India and West Africa. 8 color plates. 40 line drawings.

Book Description:

The chakras are wheels of energy inside the body. This ancient system is often thougth to have emerged from the yogic traditions of India, but in Opening to Spirit, Caroline Shola Arewa explores the importance of the chakras to the ancient Africans and Egyptians. She illustrates the common root of many of our spiritual traditions through the mythology and spirituality of Ancient Egypt, Early India and West Africa.
Of Water and the Spirit: Ritual, Magic, and Initiation in the Life of an African Shaman

by Malidoma Patrice Some

In the recent years there has been a surge of interest in indigenous tribal life and practices, as Western peoples start to feel the stirrings of their own indigenous tribal souls and go looking for answers to those who still possess the connection with the Land and the Spirit. While a lot has been published about Native American (both North and South), Tibetan, Altaic, Celtic etc., tribal life, rather little is known about Africa. Malidoma Some’s book therefore provides a welcome and highly inspiring contribution.

Any westerner who has ever wanted to know how an African thinks should read this book.
Introduction to African Civilizations

by John G. Jackson, Runoko Rashidi, John Henrik Clarke (Introduction)

Customer Comments:

This is an excellent book, it unfolds the true history of African people. It deals with the multitude of distortion and how African people have been written out of history. Cause of slavery, racism and white supremist propaganda. He deals with Ethiopia and the origin of civilization, showing how the first human being erected from Africa. If Africa gave birth to mankind then it is logical to accept the fact that Africa gave birth to civilization. He talks about Ethiopia, Ancient Egypt, and Nubia, Ghana, Mali, Songhay, etc. He systematical shows how Africans even engaged in sea voyages with ample proof and evidence. This is an excellent, objective and well rounded book.

Mr. Jackson was not just an able scholar, but he was a notable writer. This book, as are his others (I’ve read them all), is very easy to read, never going over the heads of those hardly acquainted with the many aspects of African history with which he deals. His chapters on “Egypt and the Evolution of Civilization” and “Africa and the Civilizing of Europe” are worth the entire price of the book. The introduction, by the late Dr. John Henrick Clarke, is one of the best I’ve read. Introduction to African Civilizations is well-documented, and is, in my opinion, a classic written by an academic giant.
Race: The Reality of Human Differences

by Professor Vincent Sarich & Frank Miele

Sarich, a University of California, Berkeley emeritus anthropologist, and Miele, an editor of Skeptic magazine, cannot resist calling the current view that “race does not exist” a “PC dogma.” They make cogent, if not convincing, arguments of their case in three areas. Race as a concept, they argue, considerably antedates colonial Europe, presenting such examples as an “Egyptian tomb with four races” (as one caption calls a tomb painting) that may point up “awareness” of difference, but whether that awareness correlates to concepts of “race” as currently defined remains unproven. Several chapters are heavy going on DNA-based research into the origin and differentiation of Homo sapiens, here interpreted as branching off from the other hominids recently enough to make differences among people very minor but, in the authors’ view, significant. They move from the Human Genome Project into their final section, in which differences in intelligence are said to correlate to a concept of race (but are not said to be a justification for discrimination). This last argument is predicated on what will seem to many readers an excessive faith in IQ tests.

The authors accepts the Out-of-Africa theory of human origins based on DNA, mtDNA, and

Y chromosome data. They do show how that data supports Out-of-Africa theory.
Click here
African Religions & Philosophy

by John S. Mbiti

African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions.

Mbiti adds a new dimension to the understanding of the history, thinking, and life throughout the African continent. Religion is approached from an African point of view but is as accessible to readers who belong to non-African societies as it is to those who have grown up in African nations.

Since its first publication, this book has become acknowledged as the standard work in the field of study, and it is essential reading for anyone concerned with African religion, history, philosophy, anthropology or general African studies.
Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many

by Erik Hornung, John Baines (Translator)

The late Egyptologist Frank Joseph Yurco recommended Erik Hornung’s book, Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, translated by John Baines (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982). As he explained, the ancient Egyptians believed that god could reveal himself or herself in any aspect they chose. Thus, the God, Re, had 76 different forms, illustrated in the Ramesside tombs, but he could also be viewed as the solar disk, with the scarab and ram-headed form within; for a Trinitarian expression of the sun god, Re, in the daytime, Khepri in the morning; Aten at noon; and Re-Harakhti in the evening. Other major deities also had multiple forms, for instance Hathor, who could be a full cow in form, or a woman with cow’s ears, or a totally human woman, or a woman in a tree offering cool water to the deceased. In one story she appears to a herdsman, with a furry coat that scares him out of his wits, but the following day, she appears as a beautiful woman, with long hair.

It is this way of identifying deities that gave the Egyptians the ability to interchange images, yet see them as one or more deities, or combine differing deities into one, for instance Amun-Re, combining Amun with Re. So too the goddesses had the power to express themselves in differing forms. That is why Mut can have a lioness’ head, or a human head, wear the double crown, or a solar disk when in leonine form. Hornung’s book lays this out in beautiful detail.

Another book that Dr. Yurco recommended when he taught courses on ancient Egyptian religion is Siegfried Morenz, Egyptian Religion, translated by Ann Keep (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976).
Ancient Civilizations of Africa

(General History of Africa, Vol. 2)

by G. Mokhtar

Published: 1990

Volume II covers the period beginning at the close of the Neolithic era, from around the eighth millennium before our era. This period of some nine thousand years of history has been sub-divided into four major geograophical zones, following the pattern of African historical research. Chapter 1 to 12 cover the corridor of the Nile, Egypt and Nubia. Chapters 13 to 16 relate to the Ethiopian highlands. Chapter 17 to 20 describe the part of Africa later called the Maghrib and its Saharan hinterland, and Chapters 21 to 20, the rest of Africa as well as some of the islands in the Indian Ocean.

By far the largest proportion of Volume II is devoted to the ancient civilization of Egypt because of its pre-eminent place in the early history of Africa.
Lost Cities of Africa

by Basil Davidson (Author)

Book Description:

Combining archeological evidence and scholarly research, Davidson traces the exciting development of the rich kingdoms of the lost cities of Africa, fifteen hundred years before European ships first came to African shores.

Historical Deception: The Untold Story of Ancient Egypt

by Moustafa Gadalla

Historical Deception: The Untold Story Of Ancient Egypt provides a fresh, exciting and reader-friendly study of ancient Egyptian history — a history which has suffered from the ingrained prejudices of religious scholars (Christian, Jewish, Moslem) who deny that Egypt is the source of their creeds (especially monotheism); and rationalist scholars denying the existence of science and philosophy prior to the Greeks. Historical Deception is a much needed correction to a great deal of historical distortion, suppression and denial. Historical Deception is a lively, engaging, stimulating, provocative reading, easy to read and difficult to put down.

Readers comment:

This text presents soundly based historical information that is well-researched and clearly understandable relating to the chronology of biblical events and participants. Citing sources such as the Koran, the Torah, the Talmud, the Hebrew Massoretic text of the Old Testament, and the Greek Septuagint text of the Old Testament, along with a multitude of references to more modern historical works, the author provides a realistic and reasonable explanation for many biblical puzzles and apparent inconsistencies.
The Golden Age of the Moor (Journal of African Civilizations,

Vol 11, Fall 1991)

by Ivan Van Sertima (Editor)

Excerpts:

Who are these Moors? The Moors are black people indigenous to Mauretania. “Mr. Chandler tells us of a different race of Moors who were known as Garamantes/Caucasians, they intermarried with the Black Moors, thus became the ‘tawny Moors’ or ‘white Moors’.”

According to Anthropologist, Dana Reynolds, the original Black Berbers, who were called Moors, were the North African ancestors of the present day dark-brown and dark-black peoples of the Sahara and the Sahel, mainly those called Fulani, Tuareg, Zenagha of Southern Morocco, Kunta and Tebbu of the Sahel countries as well as other black Arabs now living in Mauretania and throughout the Sahel, they include Trarza of Mauretania and Senegal, the Mogharba as well as dozens of other Sudanese tribes, the Chaamba of Chad and Algeria. Apart from her very detailed study of the origins and affiliations of the various tribes, she points out that the Africans involved in the Moorish occupation of Iberia did not just build remarkable things in Europe but also in their native lands. They founded and constructed many industrious and prosperous towns all over the north of Africa and as far south as Timbuktu. The ruins of their many castles can be seen as much in Northern Africa as in Andalusia.

The Westerners have chosen to concentrate on the most recent world of the Arab and Berber-speaking peoples and present it as if it is a world that has always been. “It is like comparing the Aztecs of five hundred years ago with the ethnic mix of America today,” wrote Reynolds. “The story of when North Africa was Moorish and Arabia, the land of Saracens, has yet to be told.”
Oromia: An Introduction to the History of the Oromo People

by Gadaa Melbaa

Book Description:

An account of the struggle of the Oromo people to affirm their place in history. The Oromo make up a significant portion of the Horn of Africa population. Oromia is a title used to refer to the Oromo as a political, cultural, and social entity. Living in East African nations, the Oromo people are largely unknown to most of the world; this work lifts up the people, their culture, and their struggles.

Within the book by Petrie, A History of Egypt (1896) he mentions a group of people in ancient Egypt by the name of Galla also called Oromo. Petrie wrote: “It has long been ago been remarked that the black sphinxes, later appropriated by the Hyksos, approximated to the Galla type of Abyssinia”.

“This starts an enquiry how the Galla connection could thus appear on monuments. In the clearance and planning of the rock tombs at Qau, Antaeopolis, the peculiar plan of those tombs, with great halls and small chambers annexed, was observed to be closely parallel to that of later Nubian temples. In both tomb and temple the chief work is in the solid rock, while the forecourt is of masonry constructed in front of it. Another peculiarity was the hammer-work excavation of one tomb, which had evidently been done with stone balls, as in the Aswan granite working, and this implies a southern connection. These people do not appear in any records, and all their monuments have been reappropriated. They left, however, a most striking style of sculpture, in the sphinxes which were later removed to Tanis, but seem originally to have come from El Kab, where a piece of such a sphinx has been found.The type is closely like that of the Galla. The evidence that all the earlier sculptures of Tanis were collected there by Ramessu II seems clear; and that these sphinxes are earlier than the Hyksos is certain by those kings having appropriated them. No period seems so likely for them as the 7th to the 10th dynasties. The type was heavily bearded, with bushy hair”. Petrie, 1896
Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century

(General History of Africa, Vol. 3)

by I. Hrbek

Published: 1992

The period covered in Volume III is dominated by two movements of major and lating significance in the history of Africa. The influence of Islam was increasing in the north and west; it was interacting with traditional African culture. In the south there was the Bantu expansion.

The book first places Africa in the context of world history at the opening of the seventh century, before examining the general impact of Islamic penetration, the continuing expansion of the Bantu-speaking peoples, and the growth of civilizations in the Sudanic zones of West Africa.

Detailed chapters discussing the successive Islamic dynasties of North Africa and their wider contacts, Christian Nubia, the civilizations of the savannas, forests and coast of West Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Madagascar’s internal development and international contacts.

Three concluding chapters trace the African diaspora in Asia, examine international relations and the spread of technology and ideas within Africa, and assess the overall impact of the period on African history.
The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) at its 16th Session instructed the Director-General to undertake the drafting of a General History of Africa. The enormous task of implementing the project was entrusted to an International Scientific Committee which was established by the Executive Board in 1970. The Committee has decided to present the work covering over three million years of African history in eight volumes, each containing about four hundred pages of text with illustrations, photographs, maps and line drawings. The General History of Africa also clearly brings out Africa’s relations with southern Asia across the Indian Ocean and the African contributions to other civilizations through mutual exchanges.

The General History of Africa is, in large measure, a faithful reflection of the way in which African authors view their own civilization. With the appointment of the 39-member International Scientific Committee, two-thirds African and one-third non-African, which assumes intellectual responsibility for the General History of Africa.
“One of the most ambitious academic projects to be undertaken in this century.”
Africa in the Nineteenth Century Until the 1880s

(General History of Africa, Vol. 4)

by J. F. Ade Ajayi

Published: 1998

Volume VI covers the history of Africa from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the onset of the European “scramble” for colonial territory in the 1880s.

In spite of a growing European commercial, religious and political presence during the century, outside influences were felt indirectly by most African societies, and they made a variety of culturally distinctive attempts to modernize, expand and develop. Two influential sequences of events – the Mfecane in Southern Africa with its ramifications in Central and East Africa, and the movements of Muslim reformers in West Africa – owed little or nothing to foreign influence and figures prominently in eight of the chapters.

The book opens with four thematic chapters examining the major forces at work in African society at the beginning of the century; Africa’s changing role in the world-economy; new trends and processes; and the effects of the abolition of the slave trade. These are followed by twenty-three chapters detailing developments in the various regions. Two concluding chapters trace the African diaspora and assess the state of the Continent’s political, economic and cultural development on the eve of the European conquest.
Daily Life of the Nubians

by Robert Steven Bianchi

Published: 2004

Description:

Until recently little was known about ancient Nubia and day-to-day lives of the Nubian people aside from knowing it was a civilization contemporary with, distinct from, and living under the shadow of Ancient Egypt. Nubia existed from about 3500-300 BCE, close to 3,000 years. Thanks to recent massive archeological surveys, we now have a much clearer picture of Nubian civilization, what they ate, how they dressed, how they cared for their dead, their military triumphs and defeats, where their cities were built, and what they looked like. Of course they underwent dramatic changes over time, and these are noted where appropriate. Though often confused with the Ethiopians of Greek lore, little doubt remains that Nubians were in fact black African peoples, and their civilization has been claimed by many as proof of a sophisticated and ancient black African society.

For ease of use by students, the work is organized chronologically. Each chapter is divided into convenient subheads that detail military and warfare, government, language, relations with neighboring civilizations; work and the economy, engineering and architecture, housing, transportation, family life, life cycle events, women’s roles, art, music and dance, literature, science, and religion. It includes a historical timeline of Nubian history, a glossary of Nubian terms, and a bibliography for further reading. Throughout the work, Bianchi, an expert on the Nubians, shows how the modern world has little by little come to discover and recognize the distinctiveness and importance of Nubia in ancient history. This work will replace all earlier resources on Nubian life and will provide school and public librarians with the most up-to-date and historically correct information on the Nubians.
Greater Ethiopia : The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society

by Donald N. Levine

Published: 2000

Editorial Reviews:

Greater Ethiopia combines history, anthropology, and sociology to answer two major questions. Why did Ethiopia remain independent under the onslaught of European expansionism while other African political entities were colonized? And why must Ethiopia be considered a single cultural region despite its political, religious, and linguistic diversity?

Donald Levine’s interdisciplinary study makes a substantial contribution both to Ethiopian interpretive history and to sociological analysis. In his new preface, Levine examines Ethiopia since the overthrow of the monarchy in the 1970s.

“Ethiopian scholarship is in Professor Levine’s debt. . . . He has performed an important task with panache, urbanity, and learning.”–Edward Ullendorff, Times Literary Supplement

“Upon rereading this book, it strikes the reader how broad in scope, how innovative in approach, and how stimulating in arguments this book was when it came out. . . . In the past twenty years it has inspired anthropological and historical research, stimulated theoretical debate about Ethiopia’s cultural and historical development, and given the impetus to modern political thinking about the complexities and challenges of Ethiopia as a country. The text thus easily remains an absolute must for any Ethiopianist scholar to read and digest.”-J. Abbink, Journal of Modern African Studies

Culture and Customs of Egypt (Culture and Customs of Africa)

by Molefi K. Asante

Book Description:

Modern Egypt blends African history and geography with Arab culture and religion. With its position at the crossroads of Africa, its status as a major Islamic nation, and continuing interest in its ancient monuments, Egypt makes for fascinating study. This volume provides an accessible, up-to-date overview of a society that greatly evolved, yet retains traces of attitudes and behaviors from the days of the Pharaohs.

About the Author:

Molefi Kete Asante is Professor, Department of African American Studies, Temple University. He is the author of more than 50 books, including The Egyptian Philosophers (2000).

Upper Egypt: Life Along the Nile

by Nicholas S. Hopkins (Editor)

Book Description:

Upper Egypt. Life along the Nile describes life in the southern part of Egypt in the twentieth century. The book represents some of the most recent social and cultural research in the area, and it focuses on aspects of Egypt that tend to disappear in the background of the attractions that tourists see. The authors have done field research in Upper Egypt. This is one of the few recent books contributing to our understanding of this neglected region, which is based on first hand knowledge of local conditions. The book contains articles on agriculture and irrigation, language, religious life among Muslims and Christians, Sufism, customary law, crafts and craftsmen, and tribalism.

Book has lots of photos of modern Egyptians.
Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

Excellent coffee table book: 12.5 x 9.4 x 1.4 inches; Sudan possesses, among other things,

223 pyramids. This book has 400 pages of color photos of Nubian Kings & Queens, and their artifacts and treasures. Nubian photos you will not find on the internet.

Contents: The Prehistory of Sudan; 6,000 years ago; A-Group and Pre-Kerma; The First Kingdoms;

C-Group; The Kingdom of Kerma; Egypt in Sudan; The Image of the Nubian in Egyptian Art; Napata and the Kushite Dynasty; Kings of the Sacred Mountain; Napata and the Kushite Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt; The Kingdom of Napata and Meroe; The Kingdom of Meroe; Meroitic Writing and Language; The Meroitic Pantheon; Meroitic Treasure; Meroitic Ceramics; Meroe and Hellenism;

Late Meroitic Culture; Meroitic Architecture

Authors: Salah Mohamed Ahmed; Charles Bonnet; Fredrich Hinkel; Hassan Hussein Idris; Timothy Kendall; Lech Krzyzaniak; Jean Leclant; Karl-Heinz Priese; Jacques Reinold; Dietrich Wildung
Early Art and Architecture of Africa (Oxford History of Art)

by Peter Garlake

“There is nothing else like it. A sure guide to the Africa of ancient marvels and scenes of confrontation in times and places long forgotten or unknown.” Basil Davidson

This new history of over 5000 years of African art reveals its true diversity for the first time. Challenging centuries of misconceptions that have obscured the sophisticated nature of African art, Peter Garlake uses the latest research and archaeological findings to offer exciting new insights into the period between 20,000 BC and 1500 AD. All the main regions are covered: southern Africa, Nubia, Aksum, the Niger River, West Africa, Great Zimbabwe, and the East African coast.

Acknowledging the universal allure of the African art object, this book restores it to its original social and historical context, helping us to understand more about the ways in which this art was produced, used, and received.

• 112 illustrations with 64 in full colour

• Invaluable guides to museums, galleries, and websites
The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan

by David N. Edwards

348 pages

Routledge (October 30, 2004)

In this book David Edwards, a distinguished specialist in Sudanese archaeology, provides the readers with a very useful and exhaustive outline of the history of the Sudan during the Holocene (from c. 10,000 BC to the present), mainly on the basis of the archaeological evidence which has been brought to light in the last thirty years.

The book is divided into nine chapters about the following topics: Nubia, the Sudan and

Sudanic Africa; Hunters, fishers and gatherers (c. 10,000–5000 BC); The Neolithic (c. 5000–3000 BC);

Kerma and Bronze Age Kush; The Kushite Revival (XXV Dynasty and kingdom of Napata);

Meroitic Kush (c. 300 BC–AD 350); Post-Meroitic transitions (c. AD 350–550); Medieval Nubia

(c. AD 500–1500); and Post-medieval Sudan and Islam (c. AD 1500–1900).

The Rescue of Jerusalem: The Alliance Between Hebrews

and Africans in 701 B.C.

(Paperback – 444 pages – Soho Press (April 1, 2003)

by Henry T. Aubin

From Library Journal:

Aubin argues that the Kushite rescue of Jerusalem from certain annihilation in 701 B.C.E. instigated the Jewish concept of being God’s “elect” and was therefore a seminal event in the development of Zionism. Dealing competently with the biblical and historical sources despite what some might see as a lack of formal training in this area (he is a journalist instead of a historian, though he did do graduate work in history at the University of Strasbourg), Aubin asserts that the Kushites black Africans who ruled Egypt at this time saved the city from destruction by the Assyrians. According to Aubin, historians accepted this view until the late 19th century, when colonialism impinged on the European perception of these events; suddenly, the theory that an epidemic weakened the Assyrian army rose to prominence. Aubin asserts that this was one of the most important battles in history; had the Assyrians wiped out Jerusalem, there would have been no Christianity or Islam. Whether or not one accepts his conclusions, this work is a wonderful exercise in historiography. Recommended for all academic libraries. Clay Williams, Hunter College Library, City University New York
The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile

by Dominique Valbelle & Charles Bonnet

Product Details:

Hardcover; 216 pages

Published: February 2007

Description:

In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tanoutamon, the last two pharaohs of the ‘Nubian’ Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile.

The seven statues, with their exquisite workmanship, transform our understanding of the art of this period. In particular, the colossal statue of Taharqa–almost certainly done by an Egyptian sculptor–is a masterpiece of stone artwork. Beautifully illustrated with over 170 color photographs, The Nubian Pharaohs illuminates the epic history of this little-known historical era, when the pharaohs of Egypt came from Sudan. In this major new book, which combines the latest archaeological research with stunning photography, Charles Bonnet and Dominique Valbelle narrate the incredible story of their discovery–one that will change our understanding of Egypt and Africa in the ancient world.
Genesis of the Pharaohs

by Toby Wilkinson

Product Details: 208 pages; (2003)

Peer Review Excerpt:

Genesis of the Pharaohs: Genesis of the ‘Ka’ and Crowns?

by Timothy Kendall, Archaeologist

In his Genesis of the Pharaohs, Toby Wilkinson shines new light on the Predynastic by demonstrating that the majority of rock drawings in the Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt date to Naqada I (c. 4000–3500 BC). Since the petroglyphs depict wild African fauna, hunters with bows and dogs, and men herding cattle, it is clear that the now nearly lifeless region up to 100 km east of the Nile between Quft and Hierakonpolis was at this time a well-watered, well-populated, game-rich savanna. That the rock artists were not mere isolated pastoralists but also part-time Nile dwellers is evident because their works commonly include boats. This implies that the artists probably moved from river to range in seasonal cycles. Because of this, and the fact that so many of the drawings echo subjects in later Egyptian art, Wilkinson makes a compelling case that the rock artists were the ancestors of the dynastic Egyptians. His conclusion: “the heavy reliance of these people on herding and hunting rather than agriculture suggests that their roots — and indeed the roots of Egyptian civilization — lay not so much along the Nile but in the pre-arid Sahara.”
Learn to read hieroglyphics

Egyptian Language Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics

by E. A. Wallis Budge (The father of Egyptology)

This remains the classic introductory volumn for beginners.

also purchase:

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Vols 1 & 2 by E. A. Wallis Budge

This should be on every students shelf.

King Solomon & the Queen of Sheba

by Blu Greenberg, Linda Tarry, Avi Katz (Illustrator)

Reading level: Ages 4-8

Reviewer:

I picked up this book at the library as reading material for my 17-month-old son. He (and I) loved the illustrations. I appreciated it being a real Bible story, and a history lesson–marvelously illustrated in 48 pages; but this books goes where most authors and illustrators don’t. You won’t see this version of the story in movie theatres. I did additional research to verify the accuracy of its’ contents and I discoverd everything to be valid. This book should be read by all African-American children (and adults). They won’t read about their kings and queens in textbooks as others are portrayed–which is a dis-service to their culture. I purchased three copies for myself and will be purchasing more as gifts.

Sudan Ancient Treasures: An Exhibition Of Recent Discoveries

From The Sudan National Museum

by Derek A. Welsby (Editor), Julie R. Anderson (Editor)

Published: 2004

Hardcover: 336 pages; Over 300 color photos of artifacts

Description:

A comprehensive survey of Sudanese ancient cultures, the history of archaeology in Sudan, current work and recent trends. The Sudan is the largest country in Africa. For millennia it has been the zone of contact between the peoples of Central Africa and those emanating from the Mediterranean world. The National Museum in Khartoum houses one of the finest collections of antiquities from the Nile Valley and is of international importance; however, the vast quantity of material is in store and has rarely if ever been seen by the public. This exhibition will seek to display some of the finest objects produced during all phases of human settlement from the Palaeolithic through to the Islamic period.
Ancient African Metallurgy: The Sociocultural Context

by Michael S. Bisson, S. Terry Childs, Philip De Barros, Augustin F. C. Holl, and

Joseph O. Vogel (Foreword, Editor)

Book Description:

Gold. Copper. Iron. Metal working in Africa has been the subject of both public lore and extensive archaeological investigation. In this volume, four leading archaeologists attempt to provide a complete synthesis of current debates and understandings: Where how and when was metal first introduced to the continent? How were iron and copper tools, implements, and objects used in everyday life, in trade, in political and cultural contexts? What role did metal objects play in the ideological systems of precolonial African peoples? Substantive chapters address the origins of metal working and the technology and the various uses and meanings of copper and iron. An ethnoarchaeological account in the words of a contemporary iron worker enriches the archaeological explanations. This book provides a comprehensive, timely summary of our current knowledge. This volume will be of great value to scholars and students of archaeology, African history, and the history of technology.

“WHEN BLACK PEOPLE RULED THE WORLD” FROM THE CLEGG SERIES AT MELANET.COM

April 11, 2007

from: melanet.com

1-800-788-CLEGG

A MESSAGE FROM THE MODERATOR
The Clegg Series site was established in December of 1996 to provide an opportunity for people of African descent and others to present uncensored information about Black History and culture. Our intention was to create a forum for a broad, provocative and respectful exchange of ideas.

Unfortunately, over the past month the entries into our popular guestbook have degenerated into rude, vulgar and racist name-calling. While we certainly encourage controversy, we don’t believe that personal or racial insults are appropriate. Let us continue our dialogue on a constructive level.

During the existence of our site, the major point of contention has been whether the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans. It is quite understandable that this issue would stir up heated passions. For nearly two hundred years now, White scholars have removed Black people from Egypt, Egypt from Africa and Africa from world history. They have always taught that Egypt is in the Near East, the Middle East, the Mediterranean and even the Fertile Crescent. They have never informed the world that Egypt is and always has been on the Continent of Africa.

While White publishers controlled everything written and taught about Africa – – and often published books stating that the Ancient Egyptians were White – – no one, except Black people, complained. However, since Black people began publishing their own work and using the internet to tell our story, suddenly everyone is interested in setting Black people straight by insisting that the Ancient Egyptians were neither Black nor white, but Arabs, like the Arabs of today.

We disagree. Arabs invaded Egypt in the 7th Century AD, long after Ancient Egyptian civilization had declined and faded away. Arabs have no more connection to Ancient Egypt than Europeans have to Ancient America.

Many have argued that, even if the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans, modern African Americans, who lay claim to Egyptian civilization, are not akin to them because their ancestors were West Africans. This reflects a lack of knowledge about African history. Virtually all West African people trace their ancestry to the northeast and ultimately to the Nile Valley. A number of Black scholars have revealed evidence of the ancient migratory trail from the Nile across the continent to West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, modern African Americans do indeed have a direct link to the Ancient Egyptian people.

We understand that most White people and Arabs have great difficulty imagining Black Africans to have laid the foundation of civilization. We sincerely regret that Western racist propaganda has so narrowed their worldview. But, at this site we deal with evidence – – not propaganda, not passion, not preconceived notions or white supremacy.

In our bi-monthly MA’AT newsletter, we present evidence that the main-stream media will not touch, because it would destroy racist myths that have been embraced as inviolable truths by millions around the world. If you find this site to be at variance with your sacred belief system, please avoid visiting us. After all contrary opinions prevail in most other forums. Why not express your views on those sites where you may comfortably reassure people of like mind?

In the meantime, for those of you who chose to study, evaluate and critique the Africentric perspective on the origin of the Ancient Egyptians, we invite you to visit the February, 1997 issue of MA’AT. This monumental document presents a substantial body of evidence that conventional scholars, both Arab and European, choose to ignore.

Many Black scholars have presented the Africentric view on the “race” of the Ancient Egyptians. Their research has triggered a reevaluation of certain assumptions. For example, most Black Africans do not have thick lips and broad noses. There are four distinct Black African physical types. All were part of the Ancient Egyptian population. Secondly Ancient Egyptian drawings were largely conventional. This means that they clearly had a symbolic meaning that was not true to form. For example, the traditional reddish brown color used to portray all men (no matter what their true skin tone) may have represented the African “blood of life” concept. For religious purposes, Black Africans have painted their bodies red or reddish brown from time immemorial.

Therefore, one should not reach hard and fast conclusions about Egyptian ethnicity based on the color used in the tomb and pyramid drawings. Furthermore, even if the colors are accurate depictions of the people, a number of indigenous, unmixed Africans, like the Pygmies, have reddish brown skin tone. Yet no one would deny that these are “Black” African people. In light of this, if the Ancient Egyptians were indeed of reddish brown skin color, they were of the same color as modern Pygmies.

As many writers in the guestbook have attempted to explain, the original Black Egyptians were mixed with invading Libyans, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, Arabs and Western Europeans. This explains the genetic status of the modern Egyptian, who does not resemble his Black African forebears.

To truly determine the Ancient Egyptian “race,” one must consider the full range of linguistic cultural, anatomical, archaeological and genetic evidence. One recent, nonblack scholar, Richard Poe (“Black Spark: White Fire: Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe”) (Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA), has done just that and has reached the following conclusion: “Were the Egyptians black? That is entirely up to up to you. But were they biologically African? It would seem that they were.”

We, of course, believe that the Ancient Egyptians were Black Africans and the following is a synopsis of some of the evidence that supports our view:

Evidence from Physical Anthropology
The skeletons and skulls of the Ancient Egyptians clearly reflect that they were a Negroid people with features very similar to those of modern Black Nubians and other people of the Upper Nile and of East Africa.

Melanin Dosage Test
Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop invented a method for determining the level of melanin in the skin of human beings. When conducted on Egyptian mummies in the Museum of Man in Paris, this test indicated that these remains were of Black people.

Osteological Evidence
“Lepsius canon,” which distinguishes the bodily proportions of various racial groups categories the “ideal Egyptian” as “short-armed and of Negroid or Negrito physical type.”

Evidence From Blood Types
Diop notes that even after hundreds of years of inter-mixture with foreign invaders, the blood type of modern Egyptians is the “same group B as the populations of western Africa on the Atlantic seaboard and not the A2 Group characteristic of the white race prior to any crossbreeding.”

The Egyptians as They Saw Themselves
“The Egyptians had only one term to designate themselves =kmt= the negroes (literally). This is the strongest term existing in the Pharaonic tongue to indicate blackness; it is accordingly written with a hieroglyph representing a length of wood charred at the end and not crocodile scales,” singular. ‘Kmt’ from the adjective =kmt= black; it therefore means strictly negroes or at the very least black men. The term is a collective noun which thus described the whole people of pharaonic Egypt as a black people.”

Divine Epithets
Diop demonstrates that “black or negro” is the divine epithet invariably used for the chief beneficent Gods of Egypt, while the evil spirits were depicted as red.

Evidence From the Bible
The Bible states that “…[t]he sons of Ham [were] Cush and Mizraim [i.e. Egypt], and Phut, and Canaan. And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah and Sabtechah.” According to Biblical tradition, Ham, of course, was the father of the Black race. “Generally speaking all semitic tradition (Jewish and Arab) class ancient Egypt with the countries of the black.”

Cultural unity of Egypt With The Rest of Africa
Through a study of circumcision and totemism, Diop gives detailed data showing cultural unity between Egypt and the rest of Africa.

Linguistic Unity With Southern and Western Africa
In a detailed study of languages, Diop clearly demonstrates that Ancient Egyptian, modern Coptic of Egypt and Walaf of West Africa are related, with the latter two having their origin in the former.

Testimony of Classical Greek and Roman Authors
Virtually all of the early Latin eyewitnesses described the Ancient Egyptians as Black skinned with wooly hair.
WE WELCOME YOUR RESPONSE TO THIS MESSAGE
Enter Your Comments Here!

Read Guestbook Archives for previous comments.

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NOTICE TO OUR GUESTS
Please be advised that, since Saturday, November 6, 1999, the guestbook at The Clegg Series has not been open for comment. We are making adjustments on the site which should be completed by Thursday, November 11. Until that time, feel free to read the recent entries as well as those in the archives. We look forward to resuming receipt of your entries after our project is completed.

Legrand H. Clegg, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT newsletter
Age: r, USA – Tuesday, November 09, 1999 at 08:18:49 (EST)

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our brothers and sisters…. LET GET IT OVER NOW!!!!! DON’T FIGHTINH YOUR OWN BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF AMERICA ONLY.. IF YOU WERE STRANGERS IN A LAND AMERICA. YOU ARE STILL STRANGER AND I AM STRANGER IN THIS AMERICAN LANDS..BECAUSE WE WERE THE CHILDREN OF HEBREW SLAVES CAME INTO THIS NORTH AMERICA FOR SLAVE.. WE ARE THE SAME STRANGERS TO GET TOGETHER…. JUST JUST LET THEM GO AND FORGET ABOUT THEM WHO THE ENEMY UNTO US. THEY KNEW THAT YOU AND ME ARE THE SLAVES OF THE MOST HIGH GOD AND THEY KNEW THAT THERE IS A ONLY PROPHET IN AMERICA HERE TO GLORY OVER THIS WORLD… WHY YOU FORGETTEN ABOUT US AND LOOKING ON EGYPT.. YOU {THE BLACKS} KNOW THAT YOU AND OUR WERE SLAVES IN EGYPT THE HOUSE OF BONDAGE … WE REALLY NEEED YOU OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS IN THIS BLACK NATION ONLY WHO WERE SLAVES IN AMERICA… YOU JUST FIGHT AGAINST WHITE WHO ENEMIES US FOR OUR THE BLACK NATION COULD BE FREE FROM THIS EMEMIES OF THE BLACK NATION … LET FORGET THIS NOW AND LET IT GO FOR OUR SAKE .. JUST JION WITH OUR THE BLACK NATION ….. LIKE WE BUILDING THIS RE- BLACK NATION JUST ALIKE BUILDING OUR TEMPLE THAT WHITE COULDN’T AGAINIST US.. LET US CREATE THIS THE NEW BLACK NATION IN OUR OWN IMAGE THEIR SPIRIT. THIS WILL BE COME SOON TO BORN A NEW BABY TO BLACK NATION .. DONT WORRY ABOUT EGYPT AND LET THEM [ WHITE OR HISPANICS] TO TAKE CARE OF CRAPS ABOUT EGYPT …. GOD GIFTED YOU AND OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS BY BIBLE WORD IN YOUR MIND …. BECAUSE YOU AND YOUR FOREFATHERS WERE SLAVES FOR A THOUSAND YEARS. AND YOU KNEW THAT WE ARE THE ONLY NATION THIS AMERICA HERE UNLIKE OTHER NATION IN WORLD.. LET COME AND JOIN WITH US TO CREATE THIS NEW NAME AND THE SIGN OF BLACK NATION OF GOD WILL NOT SCATTER OVER THIS COUNTRY [AMERICA]LIKE IN GENESIS 11:1-9… LET GO AND FORGET ABOUT THEM … THINKING OF US AND OUR THE BUILDING NATION FOR BLACK COMMUNITY IN NORTH AMERICA LIKE THE RE-RISE OF THE BLACK MESSIAH LIGHT TO WORLD IN THE END OF ALMIGHTY GOD. AMEN PRIASE THE LORD GOD OF ISRAEL’S RIGHT HAND ON OUR HEAD SEPARATE FROM THEM CALLED LIES AND ENEMIES….. I AM NOT GOING TO SPEAK TO THE WORLD BUT GOD COMMANDED ME TO SAYING TO OUR OWN BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF THE ONLY NATION SLAVE IN AMERICA….. JUST GET IT OVER NOW ….. MY FRIEND… I AM PROUD AN ANCERTORS OF SLAVES CAME FROM THE ANCIENT NATION ISRAEL THIS OUR ETERNAL LIFETIME! AMEN …
the Night Prophet
Jer-USA-lem the Heavenly city of the America, CA USA – Saturday, November 06, 1999 at 05:57:54 (EST)

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Dear Bryan, You and so many white people are insecure because of your genetically recessive albino mutant status. Everyone knows that in the animal kingdom albino rabbits, tigers, lions, monkeys, mice, etc. are inferior to the original stock. Just as your forefathers who lynched black men and then took their penises home with them (to eat them, I presume, so they could pretend that they were REAL men), you feel terrified by the very thought of black African majesty. “GET OVER IT!!!” As Mr. Clegg pointed out in one of the old News letters, black people are the genetically dominant parents of the human family. They laid down the foundation of civilization all over the world (for example you mentioned China, in China the earliest Shang Dynasties were black and they have found pyramids in China associated with them). Also, you claim that Chinese civilization may be the oldest in the world, but new information shows that the black Sphinx of Egypt may be 12,000 years old. Now try to beat that! White people do not represent evolution, they represent devolution. You say that black people are ape-like. Apes have thin lips, flat bottoms and hairy bodies. That sounds white to me. Also, you claim that the Egyptians referred to the people of Kush as wretched. Why don’t you study your own European history? The Greeks, Romans and other Europeans all referred to Western Europeans and Nordics (who now claim to be the ancestors of the Greeks and Romans) to have been wild, barbaric savages. Does this mean to you that since the Greeks and Romans hated Northern Europeans, that the Southern Europeans and Northern Europeans were different races. Get it through your thick skull that Africa was and always has been the land of the blacks. The Egyptians and the people of Kush may have been bitter enemies, as you say, but they were also of the same racial group. Why don’t you stop insulting black people, take your racist butt to another site, and get a life?
Ramses The Black
Age: 42, USA – Saturday, November 06, 1999 at 01:14:48 (EST)

——————————————————————————- OUR MISSION IS TO EDUCATE BLACK PEOPLE. Part of our education must be to free ourselves of the false paradigms and self-serving Eurocentric constraints that even we have fallen victim to. For example, most indigenous people do not view history in the linear fashion that Europeans do. The Western view is that primitive Blacks evolved in Africa, civilization emerged in the Mediterranean and finally, following the age of Enlightenment and Imperialism, we have reached the last word in human achievement with our modern bombs, toothpaste and pornography. In Africa, Asia, Australia, the New World, etc., people of color view the world as having experienced several great ages of cultural emergence, evolution, maturity and destruction. For example, according to Maya tradition, the Fourth Age or Sun was destroyed by a great flood and the current, Fifth Age, will end, perhaps by cataclysmic earthquakes, on December 23, 2012. Virtually all indigenous people insist that there was a very great Golden Age that existed on the earth thousands of years ago and that this age was destroyed, as the Maya tradition holds, by a great flood. Many also insist that this age was far more technologically advanced than the world is today. Western scholars, as a whole, reject all of this and suppress, distort or ignore any and all evidence that confirms it. We believe that the reason for their myopia is because they do not want the people of the planet to know that human beings have exceeded the current so-called pinnacle of civilization in the past. Nevertheless, there are some White authorities who have broken ranks with tradition. They include Graham Hancock, Richard Hoagland, Colin Wilson, Zecharia Sitchin, Rand and Rose Flem-Ath, Robert Schoch and others. If one studies the history of this planet and closely observes its people, you will see the widespread presence of Blacks. The Grimaldis of prehistoric Europe, the Elamites and Chaldeans of Western Asia, the Davidians of India, the Australoids of Southern China, Southeast Asia and Australia and the variety of pre-Columbia Blacks, such as the Olmecs, who occupied the New World in antiquity. We believe that there was indeed a great flood in antiquity and that the world it destroyed was a vast Black empire that had reached extraordinary technological heights worldwide. Evidence of these people, their culture and achievements may be found in the Journals of African Civilization published over the past 20 years by Professor Ivan Van Sertima at Rutger University. Another point, which is gradually gaining ground today, is the likelihood that ancient people were advanced enough to engage in extraterrestrial or space travel. This may sound fantastic, but it is not. As NASA knows, may ancient people have left records of flying machines and numerous people also have traditions of extraterrestrial origins. Our interest in this was kindled by a tradition of the Hopi Indians that during the Third World or Sun their people visited the Moon. Investigating the possibility that ancient people may have engaged in space travel, we found that Soviet Scientists take this issue very seriously and that some Western authorities have documented it. (See “We Discovered Alien Bases On The Moon,” by Fred Steckling, 1981). It appears that obelisks and other monuments have been found on the Moon and that they are mathematically synchronized with the monuments on the Gizen plateau in Egypt. The following article, which sheds light on this subject, was published in the April, 1998 issue of the MA’AT newsletter. Before you shrug your shoulders and walk away, please read this information so that you will see the lengths to which Western scientists will go to suppress BLACK HISTORY-even when such knowledge would be of immeasurable benefit to the human race. Suppression of this and other startling evidence allows racists to gather at our site and smugly prate about their alleged superiority. Our MA’AT readership is comprised of a highly educated, well read, open minded, conscious group of truth seekers. Bearing this in mind, we carefully investigate information on Black history and culture that we think will be of interest to our subscribers. We are keenly aware that the Western academic, scientific and media establishments have consciously suppressed, distorted or ignored the true history of African people and their descendants in the diaspora. So much so that revelations of today, which were widely known and acknowledged in antiquity, are often dismissed as exaggerations, tall tales and “feel good history.” In other words, the Black truths of yesteryear have been swept away by the White lies of today; and the latter are so entrenched, ubiquitous and respected that, in the modern world, TRUTH must prove itself to an often skeptical and even hostile public. Hence, to a world accustomed to viewing African people as genetically inferior, steeped in squalor, starvation and internecine warfare, and light years behind the march of civilization — the ancient Egyptians could not have been Black, Africans did not sail to the New World thousands of years before Columbus and the medieval Blackamoors, who civilized Western Europe, were “not Negroes.” Well, if the skeptics have felt that we have been brash in resurrecting the ancient tradition of the Black origin of civilization, this issue of MA’AT will give them even greater cause for astonishment and disbelief. In light of NASA’s recent effort to cover-up evidence of the African face on Mars (in spite of a barrage of calls, letters and protests from around the world challenging their conclusions) and their apparent ignoring of other monuments on the Red Planet, we believe that it is time to introduce a new dimension of Black history to our readership. Mounting geological, archaeological, astronomical, anthropological and testimonial evidence indicates that a very great civilization flourished on this planet as late as twelve thousand years ago, and was destroyed by a cataclysmic event, universally referred to as “The Flood,” between 11,000 and 9,000 B.C.3 Furthermore, compelling data suggest that this civilization was Black, centered in Upper Egypt and may indeed have been interplanetary in its scope and influence.4 The foregoing theory, in one form or another, has garnered the support of a broad cross-section of scientists, scholars and other authorities. In this issue of MA’AT, we shed further light on this view by presenting startling evidence, long suppressed in this country by NASA, of what appear to be very ancient man-made structures on the moon! In the August issue of MA’AT, we revealed that a growing number of professionals in physics, engineering, cartography, mathematics, systems science, anthropology, architecture, art, history, theology and other fields have done massive research and published thought-provoking articles and books on what appear to be pyramids, a sphinx (“the face”) and other structures on Mars. Since the August issue of MA’AT, a new book, “The Case For The Face” A compilation of papers by a number of scientists, has been published on the Martian face.5 We now know that Mars is not the only celestial body that appears to have evidence of “man-made” structures. The Moon does too. What’s more, scientists in the former Soviet Union first published this information in the 1960’s and it was a hot topic of discussion on college and university campuses in their country at the time. While the Soviets revealed the discoveries, NASA also photographed them but refused to publicize their findings. Hence, even today, over thirty years later, NASA is mute about the apparently unnatural structures on the moon. Fortunately, there are two books that provide photographs of these extraordinary structures on the Moon (See drawings at our website) and give some insight as to their discovery, location and dimensions. David H. Childless, Extraterrestrial Archaeology: Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, Stelle, Illinois, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1994. Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries, New York, Marlowe & Company, 1997. The publisher of “Psychic Discoveries” has granted MA’AT permission to reprint an excerpt from the book in this issue of the newsletter. We would highly recommend that our subscribers obtain Psychic Discoveries, which is an updated edition of Psychic Discoveries Behind The Iron Curtain, first published in 1970. This extraordinary book is promoted as “The Iron Curtain Lifted — all new revelations of long suppressed, explosive secrets and discoveries from Prague to Moscow to Siberia.” The revelations in Psychic Discoveries range from medical breakthroughs, superlearning programs and mind control techniques to “Eyeless sight,” Kirlian photography and time machines. Ostrander, Schroeder and other scholars are urging us to view history from a broader, more conventional perspective, just as our ancestors did before the rise, spread and triumph of Western thought. Author William Fix provides a succinct recapitulation of the traditional view of world history: “The legends of humanity the world over are remarkably consistent in describing the oldest peoples and nations as having what seemed godlike powers. Consistently we hear of vanished nations and gods who could travel and build at will, who lived in another age of the earth terminated by disaster, and who set cultural patterns that endured for thousands of years. Long con- sidered by western anthropologists as the fantasies of children, the substance of the ancient legends has been increasingly supported by discoveries in many fields.4” Is it possible that a very advanced, worldwide, antediluvian civilization, centered in Upper Egypt and Nubia, sent astronauts to the moon? Increasing evidence suggests that such voyages did take place in remote antiquity. The following excerpt from Psychic Discoveries lends credence to this theory. Footnotes 1 Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries, Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, New York, Marlowe & Company, 1997, Illus. 25 (caption). 2 David H. Childless, Extraterrestrial Archaeology: Incredible Proof We Are Not Alone, Stelle, Illinois, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1994, p. 33. 3 D.S. Allan & J.B. Delair, Cataclysm: Compelling Evidence of a Cosmic Catastrophe in 9500 B.C., Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1997. Paul LaViolette, Earth Under Fire: Humanity’s Survival of the Apocalypse, Schenectady, New York, 1997. 4William R. Fix, Pyramid Odyssey, Urbanna, Virginia, Mercury Media, Inc. 1984. The Search For Lost Origins, edited by Atlantis Rising, Livingston, Mt. Atlantic Rising Books, 1996. (Special attention should be devoted to parts two, three and six of the book). 5 We do not yet have information regarding the publisher of this book; however, specifics regarding this may be obtained by calling 1-800-228-8381. 6 Fix, Op. cit., p. 212. ——————————————————– Excerpted From: Psychic Discoveries by Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder (Marlowe & Company: New York, 1997) http://www. superlearning.com WHO ELSE WENT TO THE MOON? “There’s something very odd on the moon. Russia’s Luna 9 first photographed what seemed to be artificially-made structures. America’s Orbiter 2 photographed them too. In Russia, space engineer Dr. Abramov gave us pictures and a complex mathematical analysis of these bizarre ‘ruins.’ He thought they were of startling importance. Today, new archaeological and scientific discoveries make these egnimatic? photos even more compelling. To check their authenticity we consulted our friend, Dr. Ivan Sanderson, UFO expert, former British intelligence officer, and science editor of Argosy. Sanderson’s space-agency sources confirmed the photos were genuine. (Only later did we discover that NASA had classified hundreds of lunar photos of certain locations and refuses to release them to this day.) The photos taken by Orbiter 2 on November 20, 1966, over the moon’s Sea of Tranquility show eight pointed spires shaped like the Washington Monument and Cleopatra’s needle – the ancient Egyptian obelisk now in Central Park in New York. The sun was eleven degrees above the horizon so scientists could calculate the height of the structures from their shadows. The tallest “obelisk” is the size of a fifteen story building! The smallest of the group is the height of a large fir tree. In America, William Blair of the Boeing Institute of Biotechnology analyzed the arrangement of the strange structures and concluded that they were in triangular alignments with each other. The obelisks formed six isosceles triangles. That certainly couldn’t have just happened by chance, he figured. Situated beside them, he noted a rectangular “depression” that looked like an excavation whose walls had eroded. It all looked like the work of intelligent beings. Blair called for an archaeological assessment to help unveil the mystery of what were dubbed “the Blair Cuspids.” In Russia, Alexander Ambrov already had the archaeological approach in hand. Besides being a space engineer, he was also steeped in Egyptology and the geometry of the pyramids. When he looked at the configuration of the strange objects photographed by the lunar orbiters, bells went off. He began calculating. The configurations of the pyramids at Gizeh near Cairo can be set out precisely on something called in ancient Egypt, an “abaka” – a grid or table of forty-nine squares. Pyramids are arranged on this grid in a very specific way. Abramov applied the grid to the lunar structures. And felt the flush of discovery. The obelisks on the moon are arranged on this grid in the exact same pattern as the pyramids. The distribution of these lunar objects, states Abramov, is like the plan of the Egyptian pyramids Cheops, Chephren, and Mankura at Gizeh. The tips of the obelisks in this lunar ‘abaka’ occupy precisely the same points as the tops of the three great pyramids.” This is the discovery Abramov pressed on us. Structures on the moon and the pyramids outside Cairo are built on the same precise geometric pattern! It was hard to imagine this was by chance. It was also hard to imagine what that might mean. With Sanderson, in Argosy (August 1970), we broke the news in the West. Abramov continued corresponding with Sheila for years. Then, more recently, a couple of bells went off in our heads. A few years ago, NASA consultant Richard Hoagland and his team brought wide attention to the supposed “Face On Mars.” The Face isn’t alone on Mars, Hoagland reported. There are other seemingly artificial structures. Articles and photos began circulating saying that these structures were arranged on the same pattern as monuments in ancient Egypt, and Britain. It sounded familiar. A bigger bell went off when Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert unveiled secrets about the pyramids hidden for thousands of years. In The Orion Mystery, they published results of a ten year investigation which makes a convincing case that a specific plan for the arrangement of the pyramids was created before the first was built, and was carried forward through the years by the great pharaohs. What’s the plan? With great astronomical precision, the three pyramids are arranged to form a map of the three bright stars in Orion’s belt. If they are right, and Ambrov’s right, then the mystery is cloning. The pyramids in Egypt form a map of Orion. The obelisks on the moon in the same arrangement then also form a map of Orion- from earth’s point of view. Is there a message? IS IT GETTING CROWDED ON THE MOON? Soviet probe Luna 9 landed at the Ocean of Storms on February 4, 1966. Ivan Sanderson examined the Luna photos we’d obtained. “There are two straight lines of equidistant stones that look like markers along an airport runway.” he observed. “These circular stones are all identical, and are positioned at an angle that produces a strong reflection from the sun.” Even stranger, each stone is incised with two perfect circles, one on each side. Luna shifted as it photographed so the Society had a double set of photos at different angles, allowing investigators to set up a 3-D stereoscopic view of the long “stone runway.” One of the U.S.S.R.’s most prestigious scientists, Dr. S. Ivanov, inventor of stereo movies in the U.S.S.R. and winner of the Laureate State Prize (the Soviet equivalent of the Nobel Prize), and engineer A. Brukonenko published a startling analysis of these photos along with Abramov’s data on the mysterious moon monuments in the Soviet magazine Technology for Youth (November 5, 1969). To their surprise the stone markers were spaced at precise, regular intervals. “The objects as seen in 3-D seem to be arranged according to definite geometric laws.” Ivanov concluded. They were unquestionably “planned structures,” and the pointed spires (obelisks), he said, were not natural formations but “Artificial structures of alien origin.” “The moon’s stones shout a message to mankind!” declared the Soviet analysts. The discoveries attracted serious attention in Russian universities, our professor friends told us. Sanderson speculated: “Is the origin of the obelisks on the earth and those on the moon the same?” What is the purpose of an obelisk anyway, and why did the ancients go to all the trouble of making them? We added our own wonderings. Could obelisks be some form of psychotronic generator related to flight? Recently translated Sanskrit astronautics texts reveal ancient humans had developed saucerlike flying craft call “vimanas.” Could the ancients have reached the moon? Or did ancient astronauts travel to both moon and earth, leaving their unique signature and even guide maps on both locations? In his many years of correspondence with us, Dr. Abramov repeatedly emphasized, “The solutions to the mysteries of the moon, UFOs, and the early monuments of Britain like Stonehenge, can all be found in ancient Egypt.” “This discovery [of alien moon structures] must be heralded as among the most important discoveries made by either the American or Soviet space program!” says David Hatcher Childless of the Russian analysis of these moon photos in his book Extra-terrestrial Archaeology. “But strangely enough . . . they have been ignored.” Or have they? The enigma deepens. Childless’s 1994 book makes public hundreds more Soviet and American space-agency and astronomical photos of the moon that reveal dozens of strange artifacts: Seeming pyramids, tunnels, bridges, moving objects that appear and disappear. And there’s more — official NASA photos of large cigar-shaped and saucer-shaped, glowing UFO’s traveling near the moon in and out of its craters. Soviet cosmonauts are not the only ones seeing UFO’s. American astronauts took many of these photos and films during Apollo missions. The first Apollo mission landed at the Sea of Tranquillity where the mysterious moon obelisks are located. Based on Russian space sources, Dr. Vladimir Azhazha claims, “Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large, mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module. But this message was never heard by the public – because NASA censored it.” Armstrong denies ever seeing UFO’s. Maurice Chatelain, former Chief of NASA Communications Systems, who has appeared in numerous UFO documentaries, was quoted in Nexus Magazine — “Armstong saw two UFO’s on the rim of a crater.” He added,” . . . all Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes quite closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin . . . The astronauts informed Mission Control, who then ordered absolute silence.” Nexus reports that Chatelain, in April, 1996, dropped the “bombshell revelation” that the Apollo Moon Mission found “several mysterious geometric structures of unnatural origin on the moon.” It’s hard to unravel the claims and counterclaims about UFO’s. Some American astronauts speak readily to sighting UFO’s as jet pilots. But they deny seeing them in space. All except one, perhaps. Former astronaut, Dr. Brian O’Leary, speaking at the International Forum on New Science in Fort Collins, Colorado, September 18, 1994, declared flatly, “We have contact with alien cultures . . .” He believes the suppression of fifty years of data was orchestrated by the secrecy apparatus of interlocking intelligence and security agencies. “The Cosmic Watergate” he said, “of UFO, alien, mind-control, genetic engineering, free-energy, antigravity-propulsion, and other secrets will make Watergate and Irangate appear to be kindergarten exercises. But,” he asserts, “the truth will and must be known eventually.” Is the moon a UFO base for earth reconnaissance? Were Apollo astronauts, while collecting moon rocks, actually extraterrestrial archaeologists examining “ruins?” Is this the most explosive secret of all — half a century of suppressed evidence of alien encounters and activities? Could the big Soviet-American push into psi research have another facet-motivated not only by the Cold War, but also by the urgent need to cope with ETs? In 1966, Dr. Courtney Brown claimed in his book Cosmic Voyage that for years, U.S. intelligence and defense agencies have been using remote-viewing clairvoyants to try to track UFOs visiting earth. Could the costly Soviet Tesla projects and the U.S.’s HAARP– which use the ionosphere for surveillance of space around the planet and deep inside the earth and oceans – have another, more covert defense purpose? With the Cold War over and many missiles dismantled, could these tracking systems also be monitoring UFOs? Could the hypersecret Soviet development of psychotronic weapons have been not only for defense against Westerners, but against the superior technology of ETs? On March 21, 1996, a briefing was held at Washington’s National Press Club, about thirty-year old “suppressed evidence” of manufactured artifacts on the moon. Richard Hoagland and a panel of scientists revealed that photos and film of lunar artifacts have undergone four years of sophisticated analysis and enhancement by the latest scientific and computer technologies — methods that did not exist thirty years ago when the photos were taken. “These official mission films provide compelling scientific evidence for the presence of ancient artificial structures on the moon,” says Hoagland. Computer-enhanced photos of Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean on the moon supposedly show he’s actually standing in front of a huge domed tier — a “ruin” towering above and behind the lunar module Intrepid. NASA has been airbrushing photos, according to Hoagland. The basic purpose of the Apollo program, he claims, “was to send Americans directly to these ruins, to record them on film and to bring back physical evidence (including manufactured artifacts) for analysis on earth.” If that’s true, why was there such a massive cover-up? Hoagland believes thirty years ago people weren’t ready to digest the news about the moon’s surface- “Hard physical ruins left by a race of obviously superior beings,” he says, would have “collapsed civilization.” As we speed toward the millennium, there’s a growing consensus from a host of sources that humanity is heading for a rendezvous with destiny – heading toward acknowledging the wondrous and terrifying news. “We are not alone” – heading towards the shift to “galactic consciousness.” Recent archaeological discoveries, revelations of Native American spiritual leaders, chronicles of many ancient cultures from India to South America – all point to centuries-old visitations by extraterrestrials. And the prediction that the time has come for them to return here again. Humanity’s own origins are shrouded in mystery….”
Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news
USA – Friday, November 05, 1999 at 00:47:40 (EST)

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READ THIS: Se alafia ne? One thing I have seen is the incessant barage of characters on this website posting nothing more than mere opinion…White Supremacist opinions at that. I can tell by the words of such Anti-Black Egyptian proponents that they either exist in a state of ignorance or in a realm of biased denial and conscious neglect. To present credible information to support a theory is one thing, but to engage one’s self in a child’s play game of immature insults, name-callings and character assasinations is a horse of a different nature. As my beloved brothers Shekem aka Menes and X-Dude have pointed out, when one runs dry on supporting evidence…one seeks to support bullshxt. This is what this guestbook has been cluttered with lately. Some time ago, I, like others here, defended the Black Egyptian stance with supportable evidence from OUTSIDE of Kemet, notably from the rest of African. However, those only bent on bravado and “bashing illerate negroids” have conveniently overlooked such claims and statements like an elephant would the world and reality of bro. ant. Eventhough, I believe outside evidence is valuable to concluding as to what realm and plane Kemet and the Kamau (Egyptians) fall in. Africa provides us with substantial material to connect Kemet with the African world and reality; so much proof does Africa hands that proposing a cultural diffusion theory would seem too elementary and simple to resolve the issue. This bulk of evidence is usually spoken by Euro-centric “scholars” in a casual, roundabout and tongue-in-the-cheek way, I guess either they are aware of the potential of such a linkage and are afraid of recognizing it or they are so biased in thought that Africa seems like the least likely place to look. Yet, the fact remains, as I was talking to an elder of mine, that there is a “new blood” of African researchers, scientists and scholars whom, in the next millenium, will become more aggressive and creative in expressing the true African experience. This vanguard of ancestor-inspired warrior/scholars will redefine our scientific theories and methods, in accordance with the senses of their forebearers, and initiate a renaissance in thought, study and most importantly, RECLAMATION. Aware of these young and brash upstarts, the Western academia is launching a new initiative to nip at the bud the productive flowering which is inevitable. Yes, “Ivy League” and company, knowing their backs are ever more forced against the wall and that they are being put into a unknown defensive posture, figure that a new offensive move is the most feasible tactic, which is what we are witnessing here with this un-educated group of propogandists invading African sanctity. Have you ever wondered why Skip Gates is now all of a sudden motivated to produce a “tourist guide” of Africa, which in content attempts to separate Kemet, Nubia (Kush) and Ethiopia from Africa, while at the same time, tries to demonize and scrutinize those Africans you can not put a “white-face” on? What was Mr. Gates trying to prove, and much subtly, trying to imply? Is this not a Euro-centric ruse of using a Negro to stop the rise of Black Reclamation intellectuals? The new millenium is approaching and interest in African is increasing as the Western world shifts into high gear its Globalization plans. Young Black minds like those who visit this website are dramatically becoming a serious threat to these Western globalized hegemony plans and they MUST not be afforded the luxury to proliferate! This is what the invaders in here are saying. To further the cause of our Liberation, we must stop being “rote” learners and become radical poineers listening to the ancestral drums that beat in our hearts and minds as we search for more innovative ways to our Redemption. It is up to us! We need more effective Black renegade archeologists (who will explore West Africa and other places), tenacious anthropologists ( who research the world’s end to tell humanity story in a true light), intuitive historians (who can present the facts in a TIMELINE fashion), brilliant mathematicians (who can redefine the concept of time and document the mathematical genius of Africa), skilled metaphysicians (who are capable of telling African cosmologies and hero-stories) and we need ad infinitum. Understand these needed people can not perform effectively, efficiently and progressively without the Proper Funding for their endeavors, so therefore, we need ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT on a collective level to address the affairs relevant to African survival and resurrection. What do Europeans have to lose in remaining adamant to a subconsciously professed African (Negro) inferiority, that is preached symbolically. You didn’t catch it. If these Negroes began to band together and channel their research and resources collective into a coherent fusion, all plans of our imposed hierarchy is null and void. Blacks will began to bring the yoke of Euro-centric orientation such as the Mercator map with its special emphasis of placing Europe in centralized location as the sun is in this helio-centric “SOLAR” system. The Negroes will not call next year the year 2000, in agreement with our Euro-centric structuring of time, but it will be for Diasporan Africans…the next year 441 M.P. (Maafa Period). They overthrow us like the Visigoths did Rome with the rest of the northern “dumb blond” barbarians. Our standards of civilization, our method of name things into existence, our process of paper ordained codes, our priviledge status in this global apartheid caste system, our rape of natural resources to further our aims, our institutionalized concept of progress of Third World countries, our ideas of literacy, our explanation of the world and our very life blood will all be forever a nasty memory. This what Europeans would lose, but it is impossible for Europeans to overstand this fact since the world is nice and “right” as it now is. Odabo! My people be strong and continue to hear the ancestors.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 20:49:28 (EST)

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They just don’t get it! The trailer trash just don’t get it! We know you are afraid! You are a tiny minority that is in “psychological control” through the use of terror and systems of oppression. This makes you extremely vulnerable! We know you are afraid of the FACT that your system of racism white supremacy is coming to an end. That is why they come here absolutely paranoid about “WHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES AND OUR OWN ANCESTORS”. I do not hate all white people, and anybody that does is making a mistake. I do hate the white system of oppression, exploitation, and all those that support it (Black Uncle Tom SAMBOs and white alike). My comments are directed to them and them alone (regardless of their numbers). The main thing these white supremist “SLIMEING” this site and the Earth don’t understand is that WE DON”T CARE WHAT THEY THINK. This site is for us to discuss our people alone. There is nothing these savages can do to effect how we think of ourselves once we have been exposed to the truth. I am a witness to this for I can say the I was an unconscious uncle tom at one time. Now, I will give my life for my Black people. Now, enough with the blonde hair blue eye mummy….we have laughed enough! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 16:01:46 (EST)

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Correction in the third sentence: And it is fear of the end of their vicious system of exploitation that keeps them from admitting that the Egyptians were BLACK.
Shekem
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 14:40:02 (EST)

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Devil’s Advocate: First of all Sherry claimed that the Egyptians were Nordics with Blonde Hair and Blue eyes. Secondly, Arabs are considered “dark whites”. And it is fear of the end of their vicious system of exploitation that keeps them from admitting that the Egyptians were white. As long as they can say that the Egyptians were “dark whites” they will always maintain the false idea of racial superiority with which they have fooled so many people. And yes they have fooled many people. The evidence that was presented clearly indicates that the Egyptians were black. Had this not been a racist world, and we were truly interested in classifying the differences in humans, we would have to reach the conclusion that the Egyptians were Black. By white people owns standards they are Black. Why is it that the white “scholars” are now changing the criteria for racial identification when they realize that it could mean that we started civilization. Lastly, ever heard of the saying that says you must love yourself before you can love someone else. Well, we (I know I) don’t teach hate, I teach love for self. If this world were not turned into a world filled with racism where a group of people are forcefully subjugated socially and worse psychologically, for the the economic benefit of another, we could just go on and focus on the betterment of human kind. Right now it is one step at a time. Had this not been a racist world everyone would acknowledge their debt to their ancestors and the original people of this earth. This is where we are going. Believe me the process has begun and it won’t be long now. All the efforts of the racist are doing nothing but prolonging the inevitable!
Shekem
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 14:36:46 (EST)

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Raping the earth, polluting the air, destroying animal species not because it was needed but because it was wanted. You call that civilized. Isn’t circumcision sexual mutalation? Would you call the legal murder of thousands of people on death row every year civilized? How about the fact that you kill thousands through second hand smoke? You think you’re more civilized because you don’t have to see the people you kill? How about the sanctions on Iraq that kills millions of man, women and children. Death by starvation of millions to appease your unlimited want. Are you great because you stole land and had others build the nation you now benefit from? Are you great because you build weapons of mass destruction? Or maybe because you’ve caused diseases that are unknown to many.All those who wrote derogatory remarks about the original people, I know you are AFRAID. This is why you are here. This is why you want to put in words to discourage our efforts. Your numbers are dwindling to nothing, you have effectively ensured your death by depleting the ozone. The End of Western Civilization is near and you can see it. Babylon will fall. If you think about it, spiritualy, you are the equivalent of the devil. According to the Bible, who is now in charge of the world? But not for long. The devil has done a lot of things that blind ones see as being great. But you see the TRUTH has returned. You are like a virus that has infected the earth, we are the here with the medication that will purge you from this earth. For almost 200,000 years we had peace. You see, building monuments doesn’t define the greatness of humans. Civilization is living harmoniously, working with nature, ensuring balance, being spiritually entuned. As for Advocate, Sherry, Iskander, Brian, PRO TRUTH, and whoever else wrote anything against us, I make you a promise. I guarantee your children will one day regret that their ancestors so evil and they will honor, respect, and love the original people to whom their debt is immeasurable!!! We can put a wager on it that our children’s children will have to pay. We both know your downfall is inevitable!!!
Shekem
Age: 20, USA – Thursday, November 04, 1999 at 01:07:26 (EST)

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http://www.nbufront.org/html/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/Contemporaries/CheikhAntaDiop.html
X-Dude
USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 20:35:47 (EST)

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To Sherry: SHAME ON YOU!!! While you are so busy trying to respond to the barrage of Black intellectuals’ comments, you have failed in English 101. Your statement “you will never get no where” is grammatically incorrect, in that you use a double negative. I thought you White folk learned that as early as the 11th grade. SHAME ON YOU!!!
The Englishman
USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 12:32:28 (EST)

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The Sherry thing is BACK! Or should we call it Harman, Advocate, white trash, etc. The Sherry thing (is back from its Neo Nazi sh-t kicking Aryan white supremist hate site). Back with more stories about blonde hair blue eyed mummies. Funny how all these people sound the very same. More white supremist minority strategies of making themselves bigger and more together than they are. Sounds like a “B” horror movie. Blond hari blue eyes …..these mummies must have been neo nazi white supremist mummies! Back to the caves of the Caucausus mountains where you were sexually abusing animals. Neo nazi mummies! I needed a good laugh this morning Sherrie thing…..thank you. You are the joke of the internet! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 10:42:07 (EST)

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To: white Harmon and white Advocate person: In case you can’t read, I would like to inform you that the moderator (brother Clegg) has just given you both another “LEGENDARY” kick in the ass! You have made fools of yourself with your blonde mummy antics. I think this would be an appropriate time and opportunity for the both of you white boys to repent and appologize. You have disgraced yourselves and your white race! PATHETIC!!!!!!! OH by the way Mr. white Harman person, brother Cheikh Anta Diop did not just have some sort of degree in physics as you attempted to distort the truth (typically). Brother Diop was a Physicist, a Linguist, a Carbon Dater, Anthropologist, etc. This man is renouned by Black and white scholars worldwide. You should lick the boots of every Black person you pass for this folly. When you come here, come in honesty not slander. We will meet you on any level you want to play. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, November 03, 1999 at 02:12:12 (EST)

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TO: Bryan Harmon: This is a brief response to your comments. First in his book “Black Spark: White fire, Fire: Did ancient Black navigators civilize Europe?” White journalist Richard Poe devotes several chapters to the work of bioanthropologist Dr. Shomarka Keita. Dr. Keita’s conclusion regarding the ancient Egyptians was that the indigenous Egyptians, who laid the foundation of civilization, were blacks. Poe also does an excellent critique on Frank Snowden and his distorted views. For years Whites refused to publish Snowden’s work, so he finally decided to compromise himself. Yes the Egyptians were lighter than the Nubians, just as the Toucouleur are lighter than the Nigerians, but they are both of the same racial stock. Why is it that White people can accept dark Sicilians and Nordics as extremes of the White race, but they can’t apply this reasoning to Africans. The bust of Nefertiti has no insignia on it whatsoever. There is no evidence as to whom it belongs. On the other hand, scores of temple carvings of her and her husband in the City of Akhetaton show them both to have been very Negroid. Some carvings even show her wearing her hair in cornrows. As for the physical types of the ancient Egyptians, I recommend that you read an article, “The Biological Relationship of The Ancient Egyptians to Other Populations,” by Dr. Keith Crawford of Howard University. It appears in the new Journal of Pan African Studies that can be obtained by calling: (818) 677-3311. After presenting a diversity of data, the author concludes: “Studies of linkage disequilibrium and allelic variation at a mini-satellite locus suggests that Hamitic Africoids are descended from sub-Saharan Africans, the differences in trait probably due to genetic drift and environmental selection. Ancient Egyptian populations with ‘non-Negroid” facial features are most similar to these modern Hamitic (Elongated Africoid) populations of Northeast Africa. Preliminary studies with Mitochondrial DNA also suggest affiliations with sub-Sharan Africans for ancient Egyptians and some modern Egyptian groups. Within an evolutionary paradigm, differences between Upper and Lower Egyptians once thought to be racially-influenced differences, can now be alternatively interpreted as clinal variation, an expression of environmental selection. The ancient Egyptians have limb proportions and other features of their stature that are the same as all other African populations but different from Caucasoids in Europe and Asia. These adaptations indicate a long period of evolution in tropical regions. Since Egypt is not in tropical Africa, these observations reinforce sub-Saharan Africa as the region of origin for the ancient Egyptians. Collectively, all of these data strongly support an African bio-historical affiliation for the ancient Egyptians and their closest relationships with other Africoids. The ancient Egyptians were most similar to populations inhabiting Northeast Africa, which included variants with Broad (Negroid), Elongated (Hamitic) and Nilotic facial traits.” The following statement that we posted on October 13 provides responses to some of the other issues that you raised. A more scientific response was posted here on October 19, by “Blackfacts.” It would also be worth reading: To Carl and Sherry: Most of our Black colleagues refuse to respond to White people who passionately condemn our contention that the ancient Egyptians were Black Africans. They believe that to attempt a debate with Caucasians on this issue is a useless dialogue of the deaf. We, on the other hand, believe that most White people are victims of a vast conspiracy promoted by scholars, scientists and politicians who have developed a “civilization” based on fiction. Part of this fiction is that Whites have been the harbingers of civilization since time immemorial, and that Blacks and other people of color have been their subordinates throughout history. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Hence, when you come to this site with your racist views, we are certain to respond. We believe that the falsification of history by White scientists and scholars has remained unchallenged for far too long. And we certainly will not tolerate it here. So, let’s get it on! We’ll start with you, CARL: It is absurd for you to claim that “no one denied Egypt is in Africa…just not Black Africa.” I challenge you to find 10 books written by White Egyptologists who mention that Egypt is in Africa. They are in such denial that they cannot even tell the truth about geography. Why? Because they know that to mention Africa would suggest Blackness and the real origin of all African people, including the Egyptians. Secondly, you claim that the Egyptians “mixed with blacks” during the late period and that this was responsible for the decline of the country. This, too, is untrue. The Egyptians themselves traced their origin to the BLACK SOUTH- the land of Punt, modern day Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Even racist white Egyptologists will admit that the early fossils and skulls of the predynastic Egyptians are “Negroid.” The Black Egyptians later mixed with Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Roman, etc.-all of whom brought nothing but destruction and desecration of monuments, traditions and human beings. Finally, if Egypt were indeed a white (you say “blonde”) civilization, why did White people cross the mountains and hills of Europe, sail across the Mediterranean into Africa and then cross miles of hot desert sands to begin civilization on another continent, yet they left no evidence of their brilliant civilization in Europe! Why? Because this never happened! The truth is that Black people founded Egypt long before Europeans even existed in the world. White journalist Richard Poe has said the following about the earliest White Egyptians: “Why is the racial identity of ancient Egypt such a sensitive issue? Perhaps because it touches on the question of who invented civilization: Whites or Blacks? When the pyramids were built, Europe was still a wilderness, peopled by cannibals and headhunters.” We are not “inventing proof,” Carl, White scholars and scientists have been doing so for two hundred years, and we, as Black people, are simply not going to tolerate this degradation of our people and our history any more. It must stop, now, as we enter the 21st Century. Now, as for you, Sherry: You stated that you do not understand what White people would gain from claiming the ancient Egyptians were White, if this were not so. Why would they lie about history? White scientists and scholars would lie about history for the perpetuation of the illusion of White supremacy. White supremacy dominates everything in this society (i.e., economics, education, labor, law, politics, religion, etc.) The distortion of history is just one component of this longstanding practice and tradition. The Egyptians had many slaves, some of whom were Black people from the south-the very south to which the Egyptians traced their origin. In centuries passed Europeans enslaved other Europeans, and no one questioned the fact that some White people enslaved other Whites. But, if Egyptians enslaved Nubians they must have been of a different race. This is nonsense. Both the Egyptians and Nubians were African people. As you will see below, in my brief reference to Egyptian mummies, the remains that you make reference to are totally inconclusive. There is no proof of the true identity of the mummies of Ramesis II and Queen Hatshepsut. Furthermore, Queen Hatshepsut was the granddaughter of the unquestionably Black queen Ahmose Nefertari, co-founder of the 18th dynasty. Hatshepsut’s entire family was of Nubian origin. Moreover, have you seen the wall paintings of Queen Hatshepsut’s expeditions to the African nation of Punt. The king and queen of Punt are clearly Black Africans. The peaceful relationship between the Egyptians and the Puntites resulted from the fact that the Egyptians traced their origin to Punt. We are well aware of the on again/ off again conflict between the Negroid Egyptians and the Black Nubians. Breasted, as most other racist Egyptologists, has erroneously defined the word Nahasi as “Black,” when it meant no such thing. So all of that nonsense that you have quoted about “Blacks” not being able to cross into Egypt, etc. is a farce. Nahasi was a geographical name applied to certain peoples, tribes and nations south of Egypt. Remember, the people of Punt (modern day Somalia, Kenya & Uganda) were also south of Egypt and Black, but the Egyptians did not refer to them as Nahasi because they were in a different location (in East Africa and on the horn of Africa). In this vein, Cheikh Anta Diop has written: “Because of this inscription which marked off the border between the Meriotic Sudan and Egypt after the troubles of the Twelfth Dynasty, it is often concluded that this separated two distinct races, that the stela barred ‘Blacks’ from entering Egypt. Such a conclusion is a grievous error, for the term “Black” was never used by the Egyptians to distinguish the Meriotic Sundanese from themselves. Egyptians and Meroitic Sundanese belonged to the same race. They designated each other by tribal and regional names, never by epithets related to color, as in cases involving contact between a black race and a white race.” Diop also adds: “Not one of the many modern texts is authentic that mentions the term ‘Black’ as if it had ever been used by the Egyptians to distinguish themselves from Negroes. Whenever these texts relate some fact reported by the Egyptians about ‘Blacks’ it is a distortion. They translate Nahasi by ‘Blacks’ in order to serve the cause. Strangely enough, the word Kushite becomes incompatible with the idea of ‘Blacks’ as soon as it refers to the first inhabitants who civilized Arabia before Mohammed; the land of Canaan, prior to the Jews (Phoenicia); Mesopotamia, prior to the Assyrians (Chaldean epoch); Elam; India, before the Aryans. This is one of the many contradictions that betray the specialists’ fear of revealing facts they must have detected.” Now the word Kemit, WHICH DOES MEAN BLACK, was used by the Egyptians to describe themselves; but the same Egyptologists who mistranslate Nahasi as Black claim that Kemit refers not to the people, but to the soil. We reject this nonsense out of hand. You mentioned Sesostris I and III and claim that they hated “the Blacks.” Sherry, not only were these middle Kemit pharaohs of Nubian origin Nubia, but their sculptures depict them as unquestionably Black Africans themselves. Even some of their queens are shown wearing “Afro” hairstyles. What we have here is Black Egyptians at war with Black Nubians. You cannot expect us to believe that these Black Pharaohs referred to the lands south of Egypt as Black lands, when they called their own country, Egypt, “the place of the Black people.” Nahasi does not mean Black. In the midst of all your citations, you also mentioned the pharaoh Ahmose, brother of Ahmose-Nefertari (also his queen) as saying “The Black is helpless. Even Harris and Weeks (no friends to Africentrists), who wrote “X-Ray The Pharaohs,” admit that this pharaoh and his family were “genetically influenced by people of the south.” They go on to say: “Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian…origin for Sequenenre (Ahmose’s grandfather) and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is true, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stands in need of considerable re-examination.” Now here you have two White Egyptologist acknowledging that Ahmose was Nubian, and yet, you insist that he despised “the Blacks.” We reject your reasoning, Sherry, because it is the same preposterous thinking that has led to the illusion of a White (blonde, you claim) Egypt in the middle of Africa. Generally, when the Egyptians painted foreigners, they depicted them true to form; but when they painted themselves, they often depicted themselves as reddish brown-the colors of life, blood and rebirth. This was a conventional color, which they used no matter what the actual color of the individual might have been. When the Egyptians chose to depict the races with which they were familiar, they depicted themselves and the Nubians with BLACK SKIN. They depicted Europeans and Semites as white and tan respectively. If you visit the tomb of Ramesis III (1200 B.C.) you will see this firsthand. Furthermore, the most ancient monument in Egypt, the Sphinx, bears the likeness of a Black African and, during the late period, when Herodetus and other Greeks visited Egypt, they described the people as Black skinned with woolly hair: Hence, from the early date of the Sphinx, through Ramesis III and finally the late period, the Egyptians were clearly “Negroid,” in spite of the gradual mixture with foreigners. As for blue-eyed Egyptians, this is clearly a fluke. As a matter of fact, it may even be fake. Not even the staunchest racist would claim that the Egyptians had blue eyes. Next, the “mummy evidence” that you mention has lost all credibility. In a recent article in KMT magazine, it was pointed out that grave robbers stacked scores of mummies on top of one another, and later Egyptologists picked and chose at random which mummies they wanted to represent which pharaohs. Since most of the Egyptologists are blatantly negrophobic, we, as Blacks, certainly do not trust the validity of the mummies they have selected, especially when these mummies do not bear the characteristics of the corresponding sculptures and monuments. All of the monuments of Ramesis II depict him with a very broad nose and thick lips-White people have pointed noses and thin lips. It is interesting that you would focus on King Tutankhamen (18th dynasty) to draw a distinction between the Egyptians and the Nubians. The 17th dynasty was of almost pure Nubian origin and the 18th dynasty was founded by the same family. All 18 of these pharaohs and queens were either Black, Negroid or of Black origin. Don’t you understand, Sherry, where there was conflict, these were Black people fighting other Black people, just as is happening in parts of Africa today. King Tut’s mother and father were Negroid. If you don’t accept this from us, then, let us give you the names of a few White scholars who agree: John Wilkinson, Gerald Massey, Christian Desroches-Noblecourt and Alexander von Wuthenau. As a matter of fact, Von Wuthenau says the following about King Tut, which should clarify our position for you: “The features of this king, whose mother was of pure black stock, are almost as Negroid as the ones of his captured Nubian enemies.” One of the founders of modern Egyptology was Champollion the younger. He and his Colleagues knew that the ancient Egyptians were not White people. In a letter to his brother, he described the paintings on the tomb of Sesostris I: This is what he said about the White people, who were designated last in the status of human beings: “Finally, the last one is what we call flesh-colored, a white skin of the most delicate shade, a nose straight arched, blue eyes, blond or reddish beard, tall stature and very slender, clad in a hairy ox-skin, a veritable savage tattooed on various parts of his body; he is called Tamhou…finally (and I am ashamed to say so, since our race is the last and the most savage in the series), Europeans who, in those remote epochs, frankly did not cut too fine a figure in the world. In this category we must include all blond and white-skinned people living not only in Europe, but Asia as well, their starting point.” Finally, even with all of the White suppression of evidence and lies, most of the mummies on display have Negroid features; DNA tests show a genetic relationship between the Egyptians and Nubians. Scholars like Diop and Greenberg have demonstrated that the tongue of the Pharaohs was related to other African languages. Furthermore, if the Egyptians were white and blonde, why didn’t the Greeks and Romans say so. They and the Hebrews described the ancient Egyptians as Black skinned with woolly hair. You and your kinsmen may continue to perpetuate white supremacist nonsense; but we as people of African descent are no longer dependent on you for information, thank God. So we will tell our own story, whether you like it or not!!! Legrand H. Clegg II Editor & Publisher, MA’AT news
Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news
USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 22:27:34 (EST)

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For starters Cheik Anta Diop was not an egyptologist he had a Phd. in some sort of science, perhaps physics.In 1990 and 1992 Dr. Shomarka Keita a black bioanthropologist conduted reasearh on Egyptian skulls and found the northern Egyptians had skulls intermediate between north Europeans and Egypts southern neighbors. This study was in the American Journal of American Anthropology or Archeology I forget which one. Secondly, It must be remebered the Ancient Egyptians called their southern neighbors “wretched” Kush or “miserable” Kush which shows the Egyptians thought their southern neighbors were savages. Martin Bernal in his book Black Athena described the northern Egyptians as being a lighter Meditteranian type while the southern Egyptians were dark. Greek writers such as Manilius, Flavius Philistratus, and Arrian all commented on how the Egyptians were lighter than their southern neighbors but the afrocentrists ignore this. Frank Snowden a black classicist from Howard University found those examples of Greek authors. Also Dr.Snowden talks about how Greeks called black people Ethiopian which means “burnt faced”.Look at the famous bust of Nefertiti this is a perfect example of a northern Egyptian. She has a tan complexion and very non negroid facial features. She was the Queen of Akhnaten.Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodsan who are real Egyptologists and experts on mummies because they have seen thousands while studying in Egypt have said that the northern Egyptians were a light tan complexion with straight hair and non negroid features while the southern Egyptians were a dark brown and negroid looking people. The problem is that to qualify as black in most countries you must be pretty dark and the northern Egyptians dont qualify as even fairly dark. In South Africa,the Latin American countries and Arab countries light brown is not a black person. The same applies in White countries unless you have black ancestry and it is visible.in the melanin test Diop simply says that the Egyptians are darker than northern Europeans but that is not good enough for me or the greatest expert on mummies in the world Salima Ikram who is an Egyptologist in Egypt as mentioned before. She has seen thousands of mummies and could kill Diop in a debate.I met her in Washington D.C. and she is incredibly intelligent.She is not white either and she has a dark compiexion so I doubt she is racist.We need a commission of archeologists and egyptologists from around the world to study the remains of the Egyptians and reach a real conclusion about their race once and for all.The Greeks lived on the Meditteranian and had light brown skin,straight brown hair, and non negroid features and the northern Egyptians had these same features. With Diop’s argument I guess they must all be black.All Diop had to do was test southern Egyptians to get Black Egyptians and it appears that some of his testing was done on southern sites and allowed to stand for all of Egypt.I must be cautious of this problem. According to Rosa David a prominent Egyptologist the Egyptians had different blood types and her study did not even talk about race at all.The Egyptians had different comlexions and to claim them as either “black” or “white” reveals much more about the person making the claim than the Egyptians themselves!!!
Bryan Harman
Age: 24, Richmond, VA USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 13:42:32 (EST)

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this message is for tutmose turner in compton california. You are a true revolutionary. I wanted to e-mail you because I am in the Afrikan Student Union in California and I am finding it very hard to organize my comrades behind a central belief. please e-mail me. Your comrade a student in the art of Afrikan Amerikkkan revolution
laila
USA – Tuesday, November 02, 1999 at 00:49:37 (EST)

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Se alafia ne? It is good that we have brothers and sisters aware and conscious. The new millenium is approaching and our efforts as African people should be focused on nationbuilding, i.e. securing land, developing strategetic economic and socializatioin progams, projects and policies, incorporating a sense of national identity and evolving political platforms instead of the age old political Democratic/Republican favoritism. We have the potential to re-surrect like phoenix from flames just as sure as our ancestors build the khu-tis (pyramids), Zimbabwe, Ghana, Benin and other grand testiments. We are the original people, those who are destined for a great new within the old cycle of reciprocity. Let’s network, Let’s connect, Let’s build, Let’s strive. Black People, Black People, beautiful Black People, let no one define your reality except yourself!!!! This includes your past, present and future. Odabo. Ase Ase Ase-O Ire-O!!!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 20:03:20 (EST)

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Should have expected it. This is in regard to an article from ABC News titled “First Americans from Europe?” located at http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/firstamericans991101.html —- Only weeks after skull evidence suggests (even proves) that blacks were first in the Americas, the Europeans try to steal the spotlight and say that their ancestors were first because their spear heads are “sooooo similar.” I think I am more apt to believe the skull and skeletal evidence, than spearheads. Europeans want to claim everything for themselves. It is soooo annoying.
Me again
Age: even older, Smalltown, In USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 17:19:46 (EST)

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Yes by Brothers, as the calcified Pineal Melanin deficient trailer trash white boy (Advocate person) said, the Native Americans have indeed endured so many trajadies. However, notice the Advocate thing did not address the fact that the white boy perpetrating GENOCIDE on the Native American was and is the only trajedy. Who splaughtered all the Indians? ANSWER: white boys! The only thing this savage Advocate white boy is sorry about is that it can’t go out to rape and kill today. Actually, since 100% of the mass murders and serial killers are white males….he just may be out killing as I write this message. SAVAGE BARBARIAN TRAILER TRASH with no upper lip (chicken lips Advocate)!
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 16:39:22 (EST)

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To: Bro. James Esther: Brother, “EVERY DOG HAS ITS DAY”. I’m sure you have heard that saying. The whites have been so-called in charge (to some extent) only a very brief period of time in history. Their oppressive terror has only lasted approximately 400 years. That is all! In the larger scheme of time and space, this is really insignificant, and it would be a grave error (an error the we make frequently) to think this is by any means a permanent condition. We are simply in the midst of a dark period of time and one that we will be able to draw knowledge from to eternity! The whites are only a tine MINORITY (less than 10%) and shrinking fast. Thus the reliance of the white man on so-called technology, brutality, geocide, and lies to stay in so-called control. Power is never relinquished voluntarily! NEVER! No brother, the white boy is not that powerful…..he is however a survivor at all cost. They are simply trying to survive. So then, what does it matter if you lie if it is to survive. The object is to stay in the game to survive at “ALL” cost. When a critical mass of Black people stop the negro mentality of thinking of these genetically recessive people as something special over us, stop trying to pray for the enemy and start to “BATTLE” them, when we start to “WORK TOGETHER AND LOVE ONE ANOTHER…….the worldwide system of racism white supremacy will fall overnight! “Every dog has its day”! Look around at the big picture and you will see the light going out on racism white supremacy. Life is a state of mind……and so is the so-called power of the white man. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 16:24:46 (EST)

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Curtis is absolutely correct. Here is more information on it: http://my.cybersoup.com/bheki/anglo.html This is a webpage Mr. Bheki Ngidi of South Africa who is president of the Alexandra, Johannesburg branch of the Universal Negro Improvements Association (Marcus Garvey’s organisation) in South Africa. He would like to open communication lines with you since I am busy linking up with Afrocentric people and organisations worldwide.
Mackens P. Audena
USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 11:45:30 (EST)

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To “James Esther” You asked a good question. How is it that Europeans and Americans of that descent can still oppress black peoples. The answer is simple actually. Africa and the Carribean are rich in natural resources. Europeans and Americans however, have a strangle hold on extraction, production, manufacturing, export, etc. When black peoples try to cut into the business and manufacture at home what the Europeans usually manufacture using the natural resources of the black peoples (i.e., their land) white businessmen conspire to drive those individuals out of business. They intimidate the locals (for lack of a better word), and put pressure on the governments (by threatening to cut or end trade, investments, etc.). The governments (often corrupted by “western” ideals) would rather appease the European and American officials and businessmen, than do what is right economically and socially for the people. Now I say corruption, but even more so it is intimidation. Many African & Caribbean leaders feel that they must appease the white-owned multi-national corporations, otherwise their economies will be even worse than what it is. So they do not try to compete against them, they do not ask for fair (i.e., American equivalent) wages, they do not ask for any of this. And if they are unable to compete because of unfair trade practices, their economies will collapse. This is a water-downed and over-simplified explanation, but it is the best that I can do in the short time that i have. Travel to Jamaica, and other Caribbean nations. Travel to Africa. See how much of their economy is controlled by foreign whites. That is a primary source of oppression. Please forgive my spelling mistakes, I do not have time to proofread. Curtis
Curtis
Age: 27, BROOKLYN, NY USA – Monday, November 01, 1999 at 11:24:14 (EST)

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“Racial diversity as we think of it today only began approximately 25,000 years ago (Diop, 1991)…in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Before that, all humankind was dark-skinned and Africoid.” I, as well as many of the posters here do not hate white people. Yet it seems that many white people are blinded to the fact that they have proclaimed their culture as the universal culture; thereby, subjugating all other cultures. They have defined beauty (Anything closer to white is beauty; this is why all other people want to be anything but Black), and intelligence by their standards. Our children are born into poverty because when European immigrants were conquering the western frontier and mining gold, Africans and American-Africans were being conditioned to believe that they were inferior. And what white people can’t see is that this process goes on today and everyday, with our children, in one form or another. One example is the one provided for us by Brother Curtis. Heres more, “Snow White,” “Beauty and the Beast” and almost everything on television. Those are reinforced in schools with biased history books and by school teachers who are unconsciously biased and who unconsciously affected the minds of our youth so that they can grow up to fulfil the prophesies of this society. All of the atrocious acts committed by the Europeans for greed and economic reasons. This theft of land and people and exploitation of others to attain goals is viewed as being great by many who would rather be anything but that of the original people. It is not there fault they have been conditioned to believe this way. Well, Black people, we are here to bring out the trueth. History has not ended. Let us continue to spread the word as we are doing. Let us continue to re-Africanize our selves and continue to play our parts in our upliftment. And let us do it without committing the same acts that were committed on us. That way we will show that we, the original people, made in the image of God, truly are great. We were great before European intervention just the way that we are. Greatness is not measured by their standards. Yet, we will prove that the resilient children of Neter can accomplish anything even without “cheating.” Europeans will never be able to erase the wrong that they have done, but since we are, we shall be better. We realize the past, let us now look towards the future. We need to begin networking and working together. We need to think about how to aid Africa to become the great and powerful nation it is destined to become. It doesn’t surprise me that American-Indians will not claim descent from Africa, many Afro-Caribbeans do the same thing. It is because they only wish to relate to what has been taught to them by the Western world as being superior. Well, you know what sometime in the future, I envision an African world, with the spread of the trueth, (Advocate, I hope this bothers you) where all people give will give respect to mother Africa and the original people. So it is written, so let it be done.
Shekem
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Sunday, October 31, 1999 at 22:07:41 (EST)

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Citrus, please provide your sources regarding your claim about black Sumer and Elam, and how the “original people who excavated the sites” said they were Negroid. I cannot find any verification of this. Sumerian sculpture shows people with long noses and long flowing beards; the claim that these people were Negroid is just ludicrous. Another thing – when I was at the library yesterday I happened to stumble upon several books on Chinese art, and saw no evidence whatsoever that the Shang represented themselves in their art as black people. In fact, I think you are pulling my leg on this one. This has to be some kind of silly joke.
Advocate
USA –

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And another thing, and this really gets me! The Advocate savage (white boy) has the nerve to mention “anything” to us about Brother Ivan Van Sertima and /or us robbing the Native American’s culture! This is really amazing and really shows to full light what barbaric savages (calcified Pineal gland and difficiency of the neuro peptide MELANIN) we are dealing with. Why? Because this animal has the nerve to speak about the Naitve American Indian people and claim we are robbing their culture through the factual explanation that the Olmecs were imdeed Black or of Black ancestry. The savage did not mention the fact that there were conservatively 85 – 90 MILLION Indians in this land “BEFORE” the white boy arrived here and began their never ending blood thursty slaughter!!!!!! Thats 85 – 90,000,000! TODAY, THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 3 MILLION LEFT! NOW MR. WHITE boy TRAILER TRASH ADVOCATE….EVEN IF SOMEHOW WE WERE SO-CALLED ROBBING THE NATIVE AMERICAN OF HIS CULTURE, THAT COMES FAR FAR “LIGHT YEARS” SHORT OF THE WHITE BOYS GENOCIDAL SLAUGHTER OF CLOSE TO 90 MILLION NATIVE AMERICANS. IF THE NATIVE AMERICANS WERE GIVEN A CHOICE OF OUR WRITING BOOKS CLAIMING A PERT OF THEIR CULTURE VS. THE WHITE boys GENOCIDE OF THEIR PEOPLE, i’M SURE THEY WOULD HAVE TOLD US TO WRITE AS MANY BOOKS AS WE WANTED. THIS IS A CLEAR EXAMPLE OF THE PSYCHOTIC “UNFEELING” NATURE OF A SAVAGE BARBARIAN (AUSTRALOPITHICUS MENTALITY) CALCIFIED PINEAL MELANIN DEFICIENT WHITE boy. THIS ANIMAL SHOULD BE WORKING IN REPENTENT FASHION ON HIS KNEES TO REPAIR THE GENOCIDAL CARNAGE HIS RELATIVES HAVE INFLICTED ON THE NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANS. THIS IS INSANITY AND IT MUST BE DEALT WITH! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Sunday, October 31, 1999 at 01:36:52 (EDT)

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ALL HAIL THE GREAT BLACK EGYPTIAN!!!
PHAROAH
USA – Saturday, October 30, 1999 at 20:08:22 (EDT)

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Brother Shekem, you have hit it right on the head. May Ialso recommend “MELANIN ON MY MIND” by Charles “Wsir” Johnson. This is a paperback but very insightful. A deficiency of the neuro peptide-Melanin and a calfified Pineal Gland. This is the cause of the killing and slaughter of countless millions/billions through the past 400 years. The production of SAVAGES that do not feel when they kill. The production of the only people on the planet that kill for pure sport…..and/or they just don’t understand a thing. The only people on the planet…..SAVAGES. The Black population of Australia have been slaughtered and butchered down to only 1% of the population by the SAVAGE and BARBARIC whites. Yet they comprise over 55% of the prison population! This is the white boys legacy. Almost the complete lack of spirituality in binding all of everything to MONEY. This is not civilization. As Dr. John Henric Clark said “civilization is the act of being civil”. Instead, we have the white boy system of oppression with superfluous wealth sistering abject poverty. This is not civilization….this is simply the best the white boy can do until he attempts to catch up to the level of our magnificent ancestors. The savages are simply trying to hang on but they are slipping fast. This is one reason for the paranoia in locking up the Black populations in prison, multiculturalism by psychotic neanderthals like Advocate. I know better than to argue with the insane. There are no fruits to be gained from trying to teach the calcified/Melaninless empty KILLER mind of a barbaric savage (Advocate, Sherry thing, Wagdi, etc)! However, each time you brothers/sisters enteres a response to one of the neo nazi white supremists I learn something new. Thank you brothers/sisters. All this said, time spent on hate is wasted time and all white people do not fall into this category. However, lets face it, when it comes down to the chase…..if whites have to choose them or us, they will choose their own (as they should). WE CAN AFFORD TO DO NO LESS! Let us all (Blacks) work together for the day the Black men/women do indeed rule the world again! Hotep…THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Saturday, October 30, 1999 at 02:15:57 (EDT)

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“It would seem that this Eve has even reached the popular press and news media. She lived approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years ago and echoes in ouir blood today. The meaning of this is that the diverse race of colors and variations of today are all unfold from a common human or parent stock, who in all likelihood was a small, dark skinned African…The notion of the DNA “mother of humanity” has gained more and more acceptance in modern scientific and intellectual circles.”(((The African Unconsciousness by Edward Bruce Bynum))) So Mr. Advocate maybe it is you and the rest of the white supremist lead individuals who would rather be anything but black who are out of step. Now that Europeans have separated us into different subgroups for their own benefit, they intend to bend and change the rules whenever it best fits them. You claim that Eurasians are all part of the same race, which of course is not Black. Please explain to by what criteria you are classifying these races. Many people who are admittedly of African descent would not be Eurasian; my niece would now be Eurasian. Oh, but no she’s not, because if you saw her on the street you wouldn’t say she was White or Eurasian you would say she was a light skinned American-African. So please, stop the non-sense if you want to be logical the only the only conclusion that can be reached is that we are all different shades of Black. The less melanin in your body the further you are from the original! You cannot hold the trueth down forever!!!
Shekem
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:39:40 (EDT)

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Melanin gives Black people superior physical, mental & spiritual ability. Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body most rapidly in Black people, the Original People. Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than whites, and demonstarte more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts because of their abundance of Melanin. Carol Barnes writes “…your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (atheltics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!” The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically, mentally and spiritiually. This why all the founders of the world’s great religions are Black. Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called SOUL in Black people. In the same way Blacks excel in athletics, they can excel in all other areas as well (like they did in the past!) once the road blocks are removed! Is God Black? The Original Man was BLACK, “made in the IMAGE of God” his Parent, according to scared books. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.(see pages 7 & 8) Most whites have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, therby limiting their moral capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal & pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradion regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian royalty/crowns. Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally & morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most whites are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians – 15-25%; Europeans -60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural diffences between Blacks and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, ridgid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and therefore cannot get into feelings. Carol Barnes writes “Melanin is responsible for the existence of civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. Individuals (whites) containing low levels of Melanain will behave in a barbaric manner.” Melanin give humans the ability to FEEL because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy. Dr. Welsing wrties “Since melanin is a superior absorber of all energy , it is essential to establish this understanding of God and ‘all energy.’ The fact thaat the albinos (whties) lack melanin may also help to explain …why, in the view of many non-white peooples, they (whit4es) lack ‘spirituality” and the capacity to tune in to, and therby establish harmony and justice…” The scientific evidence of Melanin threatens the ideology of white supremacy. After considering Melain to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western (white) science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to inferiorize the Black race, “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview). The central role Melanin plays in the body has been “suppressed to maintain the mythological inferiority of blacks…and the defensive clinging to whiteness as some token of superiority.” (Dr. Richard King) The “superiority complex” of white people is a defense mechanism and a mas for their deepset inferiority complex which they project onto people of color. Psychologists say insistent denial means readlity in the opposite way. If whites really believed that white skin was “superior,” why is “tanning”so important in white culture despite its known health risks (thousands die annually from skin cancer). Also, curling or permming lifeless,straight hair, and the lastest; lip injections for a fuller look! And it is the white female who tells you that her ideal mate is “tall, DARK, andhandsome!” “Dark” indeed refers to more Melanin! “Messed-up Melanin” is killing Melanated people! In their ongoing effort to destroy people of color, whites create “designer durgs,” structured to chemically bind with and alter the Melanin molecule, causing it to become toxic and even fatal to highly melanated people! Carol Barnes, who documents this subject writes, “MELANIN can become toxic to the Black human because it combines with harmful drugs such as a cocaine, amphtamines, pyscholic, hallucinoge…marijuana…etc.” The molecules of these drugs resemble the Melanin molecule! The body is fooled and its balance is thrown off as it relieson its drug-wrecked Melanin in order to function. Even legal drugs such astetracyclines, neurolepts (tranquilizers), have strong affinity for bind to Melanin. Herbicides (paraquats,’agent orange’ [dioxin]) bind irreversibly with Melanin & remain in the Black human throughout life causing many disorders. Drug abuse by Blacks is more likely to occur because Melanin causes Blacks to become addicted faster and stay addicted longer from thses drugs which are deliberately placed in Black communites. Drugs are destroying the heart of Native American and Black society, causing many deaths. For more information on the wonders of Melanin: Dr. Richard King’s superb African Origin of Biological Psychiatry and Carol Barnes’ information rich Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness (C. Barnes, Box 3009189,Houston Texas, 77230). Also the technical paper Melanin, The Organizing Molecule by Dr. Frank Barr, discoverer of Melanin’s organizing ability & other properties (Institute for Study of consciousness (510) 849-4784 /2924 Benvenue Ave., Berkeley CA 94704).
truth teller
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:26:26 (EDT)

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Subtil evidences of white supremism in American media from ABCNEWS —– http://www.abcnews.go.com/ABC2000/abc2000tech/inventions_102699.html —— This web page talks about the incredibly amazing things modern scientists think that computers will be able to do (and what humans will be able to using these super computers). It talks of engineering humans to eliminate genetic defects, create computers that can think and FEEL, computers that would be smarter than all of the U.S. population combined. But consider this quote “We can be blonder if we want, and seven feet tall, with longer legs, stronger arms, naturally straighter teeth and naturally curly hair We’ll be handsomer, we’ll be healthier, we’ll be just as smart as we can be.” Blonde is yoked together with height, athleticism, good looks, health, and intelligence, i.e., everything that is deemed good or socially valuable. Why blonde? Why doesn’t it say you can be black-skinned if you want to be, or you can have richer fuller lips? To many this is nit picking, but as a whole it evidences the fact that everything we read, see or hear that comes from mainstream america reenforces the white supremacist viewpoint. I will not stop speaking out against it. Unlike some of the speakers here, I don’t wish (or need) to demean people of European descent to establish the fact that all peoples are of worth and value; and that Black peoples have been denied there rightful spot in history.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn , NY USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 15:11:54 (EDT)

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“Advocate,” I’m breaking my own rule (again) of not trying to educate people like you, but here I go. First, I’m not talking about some white people here or there who just write any ole thing about history, anthropology, and archeology. The white people I am referring to (as for Elam and Sumer) were the original people who excavated the sites. The original (European) people who discovered the Grimaldi said they were negroid (or negritos, eseentially the same thing). Everyone seemed to claim the Grimaldi were black until a few years later when the social and historical ramifications of having Europe inhabited originially by blacks was more than what the Eurocentrists could take. As for the Olmecs, so what if hispanics believe we are stealing their culture. Most hispanics consider themselves Caucasians, or at best Indians. Many who clearly have black ancestry either deny ir or downplay it. The issue is this, every attempt to show that blacks were in fact everywhere, and played a dominant role in establishing many of the centers of ancient civilization, is met with resistance by whites who cannot imagine blacks doing anything but boil people and pots and swing from trees. Americans an many Europeans (not all but most) have a Tarzan mentality, i.e., the white man must come to civilize the wretched savages. Give it up. Once again, your own scholars and original excavaters condemn you. The University of Chicago (Oriental Dept.) has concrete proof that the origin of the Egyptian Pharoanic (sp?) system came from (black) Nubia. Nubians were the first to symbolize their kings with the “Upper Egypt” crown, and the “god” Horus. Egyptian civilization came from (African) Nubia, not (white/asian) Eurasia. The Shang Dynasty artwork condems Mr. Wagdi. He would rather address skull size than to address how these people actually represented THEMSELVES in THEIR artwork. It is sad. Mr. Wagdi, an asian of mixed descent, probably considers himself caucasian, how backwards is that? I don’t dislike whites (Europeans, Scandinavians, Middle Easterners, or any other group) but what I dislike (in fact hate) is misinformation that is used to deny the prominant role black people have played throughout history. You “Advocate” may not be a white supremist is the “Aryan Nation/KKK” sense (but then again maybe you are, I don’t know), but you are a white supremist in the general sense, because almost all Americans are. This nation and it’s media and education systems perpetuated the myth that only caucasians (and sometimes Far East Asians) contributed anything of significance to history, the arts, the sciences, discoveries, etc. When you are led by your national institutions to believe that “Europeans” rescued the “poor dumb africans” from lives of savage cannablism and barbarity (a myth still perpetuated today), then you can not help but be a white supremist. Any one who denies the myth is branded a foolish black man who has to “manufacture” hist history and self-esteem. Stop with the lies already. Quit advocating foolishness and advocate historical accuracy. This is all I have to say to you. Will you listen? I wonder.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn , NY USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 14:52:43 (EDT)

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The Advocate (white person) fails to let one clear fact sink into his Calcified Pineal brain. The fact that “WE DON’T CARE WHAT ANY WHITE PERSON SAID ABOUT ANYTHING”!!!!!!!!! Not speaking for Curtis (whom you so rudely and SAVAGELY) referred to as Citrus, when we refer to white scholars in response to people like you (white neo nazi white supremists), we are simply aware of your limited capacity to function on the higher mental level of our children let alone our scholars. Therefore, we simply refer you to the references of a white persons level and hope you can assimilate just a portion of what our scholars are trying to teach you. It is sad but so true. Again, the fact is that we as self aware and conscious Black people don’t care what you think. You white people are still going around teaching that Christopher (white boy) Columbus discovered America. And you have the nerve to slam Dr. Van Sertima with that trash “Robbing Native America’s Cultures” book. What is your white supremist Christopher Columbus myth if not robbing everybodies culture? Whay don’t you speak out about that? Surely your (white)calcified Pineal and Melanin deficiency does not obstruct clear thinking on this racist white insanity myth! Get a life! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 12:16:53 (EDT)

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For those who believe the Shang Chinese resembled black Africans, let me recommend a couple of books: ***Skull Shapes and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo.*** by the Harvard anthropologist W. W. Howells, and also ***Who’s Who in Skulls. Ethnic Identification of Crania from Measurements.*** by the same author. Howells analyzes the cranial data in many different ways, and the results show, among other things, that the Shang Chinese were clearly Mongoloid variants and were not close to Africans. This supports dental comparisons which classed the Shang as having either the Sinodont or Sundadont dental complex (I forget which one), which is typical of East Asians but is absent in Africa. These studies also put another nail in the coffin of the “Grimaldi Negro” theory – the Grimaldi race was really quite different from Africans.
Maksat Tohme
USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 09:58:37 (EDT)

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To Mr. Advocate person: Please don’t refer to Black peoples of any distinction wether past or present as a “lost tribe”. In a previous attempt to educate you, a brother pointed out that you can’t be a lost tribe if you are indigenous. This makes no sense and is simply a “white term” (lost tribe) used to advertise Tarzan movies (a white boy raised by the apes of Africa). Unless you believe a white boy could be raised by apes and become the so-called king of the jungle….stop calling Black inhabitants from anywhere a lost tribe. I have never heard of whites calling white inhabitants of anywhere a “LOST TRIBE”. Can’t white people belong to a lost tribe if there was any such thing? If a group of white people crashed in the desert and did not know where they were would other whites refer to them as a lost tribe of white people? The answer is no! More racism white supremacy at work! Do you believe in Tarzan Mr./Ms. white Advocate person? I hope this has been an addition to your education. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 29, 1999 at 03:13:17 (EDT)

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“Advocate,” get your facts right. No one said anything about “lost” black tribes. They were not lost, but they were everywhere. They are the indigenous peoples. They didn’t just get lost one day and wonder to the uttermost parts of the earth. They were the original explorers. Besides, much of what has been said comes from white scholars. The recent connection between Africans &/or Australaboriginals and South American Indians, and the recent connection between the Shang(Chinese) and the Olmec, were all reported by ABC News, which is a non black-owned media. So whats the problem? Likewise, the fact that the original inhabitants of Sumer, Elam, Egypt, Nubia, and Europe (yes Europe, see the Grimaldi people), were black is based on assertions made primarily (i.e., originally) by white scholars. It was a white scholar who excavated elam and sumeria and made the claim that they were originally black peoples, and the excavation took place from the mid 1800’s to the early 1900’s, way before “Afrocentrism” became a popular term. A famous white (Dutch or German) scholar (whose name escapes me at the moment, Von something or another) also made the connection between blacks and Olmecs. Also, ancient Chinese artwork depicts the original chinese as being black-skinned with coarse hair, sorry if reality hurts. Face it, it is your own fellow Europeans (honest ones, that is) that have helped to prove many of these facts. It’s time to wake up now and let go of your white supremist viewpoints, the evidence is everywhere so deal with it. Curtis
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 28, 1999 at 15:18:05 (EDT)

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PRAISE GOD!!! You are needed! Thank you so much for telling the truth. My husband and I loved the tape when black men ruled the world. You are a gift divine. Since, my husband and have taken it upon ourselves, to learn more about our magnificent selves. I can say with certainty, my life has been changed forever. Words will not allow me to express,what I feel and how I feel. Since I’ve been enlightened. Keep chipping away, at the blantant lies, that have been forced upon us all. Much love and sincere respect. Mr. & Mrs. Terence D. Mallett
Mrs. Tasha M. Mallett
Age: 29, Milwaukee, WI USA – Thursday, October 28, 1999 at 14:14:00 (EDT)

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If a man knows precisely what he can do to you or what epithet he can hurl against you in order to make you lose your temper, your equilibrium, then he can always keep you under subjection. It is a man’s reaction to things that determines their ability to exercise power over him. – Dr. Howard Thurman
Rodney Jordan
Age: 34, Norfolk, VA USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 13:46:11 (EDT)

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Trailer trash “SLIME”! We have been “SLIMED” by their mere presence! No…..we don’t want pictures of dead trailer trash white people with blonde wigs posted on this site. This site is not for the trailer trash! Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 12:27:16 (EDT)

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I just want to say I love what you brothers and sisters are doing. You’re making me real proud. Let the fight continue.
Much Love
Age: 18, USA – Wednesday, October 27, 1999 at 00:30:13 (EDT)

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Please visit the following site, the impact is major. Archeologists comparing Olmec writings with Shang Dynasty Chinese found amazing similarities. They also address the recent discovery proving that blacks (whether African or Austral-Aboriginal) were first in the Americas. As many notable black scholars have attested to, the Shang dynasty was a black dynasty. In various depictions of Shang rulers, (though the eyes are similar to asians) the skin color and hair type was clearly black (perhaps pointing back to the Khoisan and other variations of our people). The archeologists would use this as proof that asians were early visiters to the Americas, but it reinforces the fact that it was black peoples. If the Shang = the Olmec, and both are black, then you draw the conclusion. http://www.abcnews.go.com/ABC2000/abc2000science/newworld991019.html ……. The article is posted below without the pictures.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 26, 1999 at 11:17:30 (EDT)

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This is the actual ABCNews story on the Shang-Olmec relationship (but the site contains pictures that are very helpful, so link to it from the post above)……….. It may be a simple matter of historical chance that this story is not written in Chinese…At least two scholars believe Asians traveled by boat to New World long before Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Yet another anthropologist recently said water travel permitted Australian aborigines to reach South America more than 11,000 years ago…..These controversial theories have academics debating and individuals wondering if the Pacific Ocean was a superhighway, instead of a barrier, to the New World…..By Land or By Sea?……… The traditional theory on early migration to the Americas says much of the northern hemisphere was covered in ice sheets until glaciers began to break up and sea levels fell about 12,000 to 13,000 years ago. At this time, a land bridge was thought to have formed over the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. Asian hunters tracking big game crossed the bridge in search of dinner. Some, according to the theory, liked their new environs so much they decided to stay…….. A 1997 study published by the National Academy of Sciences appears to support the fact that the New World’s first migrants came from Asia. Researchers studied Native Americans from the Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead tribes and determined that all three groups possess a unique type of retrovirus gene, JCV, found only in China and Japan…….. After the land bridge migration, current dogma teaches that Asia had no further contact with the Americas until the early 1800s, when shipping records prove a handful of immigrants and visitors began to arrive…… Striking Similarities……..But Michael Xu, assistant professor of Chinese Studies at Texas Christian University, is among those who theorize that China had further contact with the Americas before the early 19th century. This jade celt is among those excavated at La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico in 1955 and attributed to the Olmec. The striking similarities between the Olmec and Chinese Shang Dynasty symbols suggest that Chinese may have traveled to the Americas by boat well before the early 19th century. (Photo: Krantz & Martinez/Journal of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences)……While excavating Mesoamerican sites in the American Southwest and Central America, Xu discovered jade, stone and pottery artifacts attributed to the Olmec, believed to be ancestors of the Maya. Artistic motifs on the objects bear an extraordinary resemblance to Chinese bone inscriptions from the Shang dynasty, about 1600 to 1100 B.C. Symbols for agriculture, astronomy, rain, religion, sacrifice, sky, sun, trees and water are nearly identical, according to a report published in the current issue of the Quarterly Journal of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences……..“When I first brought my artifacts from the Americas to China, scholars there thought that I just had more samples of Shang writing,” Xu says. “The similarities are that striking.”……..Colonization was not a Chinese priority, according to Xu, which could explain why other aspects of Chinese culture did not spread to the Americas — and why North Americans aren’t speaking Chinese……..Pacific Superhighway……..Betty Meggers, a research archaeologist at the Smithsonian Institution, thinks Asian contact goes back even further, to 5,000 years ago. She has identified compelling similarities between pottery found at a site called Valdivia in Ecuador to pottery from the Jomon period in Japan………Both Meggers and Xu say they believe natural Pacific water flows, such as the Kuroshio from Japan and the Black Current from China, transported boats to the New World. Meggers theorizes that Asians have traveled to and from the Americas for thousands of years……..While there is no direct evidence for regular trade or foreign settlements, Meggers points to other signs of contact, such as similarities between Mayan and southeast Asian pyramids. It is unclear when, or if, the contact ended, but she says, “Ancient man saw the ocean as a superhighway and not as a barrier.”……..Aborigines As Well……..A team of Rio anthropologists also believes early water travel to the Americas was possible. As evidence they point to an 11,500-year-old skull, found in Brazil, which they say belonged to a woman of African or Aboriginal descent. Digital computer imaging last month revealed she had round eyes, a large nose and a pronounced chin — features characteristic of ancient Africans and Aborigines………Ventura Santos, a researcher at Rio’s National Museum and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, who led the study, suggests the woman had ancestors related to Australian aborigines who boated across the northern Pacific 15,000 years ago………John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, is skeptical about the Brazilian skull’s history, and he says he doubts boats at that time could withstand long journeys. But, he says, shorter boat trips along the Pacific coastline seem plausible……..Earlier this year, Johnson used radiocarbon dating to determine that the remains of a skeleton, called Arlington Springs Woman, found on Santa Rosa Island, across the Santa Barbara Channel, were 13,000 years old. “The channel was five to six miles wide then, so I doubt she swam across,” Johnson says. “Some sort of water craft must have been used.”……..DNA May Offer Key Despite such tantalizing evidence as the Arlington Woman or Xu’s Mesoamerican artifacts, it is difficult to prove anyone traveled by water thousands of years ago. Early boats were probably made from wood, reeds and other plant materials that decay easily……..DNA analysis, however, may soon provide the concrete evidence many scholars seek. Johnson hopes to perform DNA research on the Arlington Springs Woman within the next several months, and other related studies are sure to follow. One, or more, of these reports could reveal what traffic was like on “the Pacific Ocean superhighway” thousands of years ago.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 26, 1999 at 11:16:23 (EDT)

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Peace to Mr. Clegg and Staff: I truly am priviledged and honored to have “discovered” your website. Thanks also to “Emerge” magazine for advertising your site,because we know the role of “Black Media” is FIRSTLY to inform our people of both “Our-Story” as well as current events. I overstand that while not one individual scholar,historian,or spiritual/religious teacher may not possess all of the answers,it’s vitally important that as a colective we continue to share and grow in,as my Teacher Dr. Malachi Z. York puts it,”right knowledge,right wisdom,and right overstanding” which leads to “sound right reasoning”!! Although this is my first visit to your website,I assure you it won’t be my last! Thanks again Mr. Clegg and your staff for your excellent work and may “THE NETERU” continue to shine and rain blessings upon you. Peace In The Lamb…Is Truly Wonderful!! Your Brother In The Name Of “AL-KULUWM(THE ALL)” -Johnnie L. Smith-EL(Yuhanna-EL)10/25/99
Johnnie L. Smith-EL
Age: 36, Tampa, FL USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 15:28:54 (EDT)

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MAAT NEWS (The Africentric Voice of The Internet) “When Black Men Ruled The World” (Videotape and Booklet) ORDER TODAY! 1-800-788-CLEGG For Back Issues of Ma’at and to Receive MA’AT News via E-Mail SPECIAL BULLETIN October 21, 1999 One of the frequent visitors to our guestbook, Curtis (McWildy 3@hotmail.com), recently posted a reference to an article regarding the discovery, in Brazil, of an ancient woman’s skull with African features. Although unearthed in 1975 from a 43 foot deep cavern in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, it had been packed away in the vast archives of the National Museum of Rio DeJanerio for over twenty years.1 Just over a year ago, scientists named the skull, which they believed to be the earliest known American, “Luiza,” after the famed Lucy, one of the most ancient human ancestors discovered in Ethiopia. Luiza is believed to be 11,500 years old, while Lucy is 3.2 million years old. What is startling about this discovery is not so much the fact that an African skull has been unearthed in prehistoric America, but that the normally negrophobic scientific community acknowledges this. Archaeologists Walter Neves, “one of the few specialists in human paleontology in Brazil,” concluded that Luiza’s eyes, nose and chin structures are similar to those of Australian aborigines and native Africans. From the late 1800’s through the middle of the 20th century, Latin American scholars routinely made reference to the presence of Black people in prehistoric and ancient Mexico, Central and South America. However, by the middle of this century White scholars and scientists began to rewrite and monopolize historical works and, in so doing, completely dismissed the idea that Africans or other Black people had reached the Americas before Columbus. In light of the recent discovery of Luiza, we have shall soon republish an early article that we authored which provides theories for the possible origin of Luiza as well as her near and distant relatives. In the meantime, the following are a few quotations taken from books written by Latin American scholars prior to the censoring of these opinions by the White academic thought police: Jose M. Melgar, the first writer to embark on an in-depth study of Black people in early America, began his work while visiting San Andres Tuxtla in the State of Veracruz, Mexico in 1862. Upon learning of the existence of a huge Olmec stone head in this region, Melgar insisted on visiting the hacienda at which the stone carving was located: “We went, and I was struck with surprise; as a work of art it is without exaggeration a magnificent sculpture…, but what astounded me was the Ethiopic type which it represents. I reflected that there had undoubtedly been Blacks in this country and this had been in the first epoch of the world; that head was not only important for Mexican archaeology but also would be for the world in general……..”2 So impressed was Melgar with this Olmec sculptured head that he wrote two articles concerning the early “Ethiopian” migrants whom he insists the sculpture represents. Another Mexican scholar, Nicholas Leon, was of similar opinion: “The oldest inhabitants of Mexico, according to some were Negroes, and according to others, the Otomies. The existence of Negroes and giants is commonly believed by nearly all the races of our soil and in their various languages they had words to designate them. Several archaeological objects found in various localities demonstrate their existence, the most notable of which is the colossal granite head of Hueyapan, Vera Cruz, and an axe of the same located near the city. In Teotihuscan abound little heads of the Ethiopian type and paintings of Negroes. In Michoacan and Oaxaca the same have also been found….. Memories of then in the most ancient traditions convince us to believe that the Negroes were the first inhabitants of Mexico.”3 Historian Riva Palacio has provided more detail regarding the ancient presenceof Black people in the New World: “But who is that aboriginal man, inhabitant of the Valley of Mexico since the most ancient epoch? No doubt in answering, it was the Otomi people. “Nevertheless, the existence of the Black man in our territory gives us material to hesitate. Did he precede the Otomi people or was he the first invader? On the continent that was united to our westside the man was Black and after the separation of the continents this Black man also existed in Asia: in India, invaded by other peoples, the remainder of the Black race sought refuge in the mountains in the central region called Vindhya. Even today these Black men exist: the Glondos, the Kolas, the Bhillas, the Meras of Aravali mountain, the Chitasy, the Minas and the Pahorias whose conquest has given rise to the name Pariahs. “With regard to our continent, scarcely traces of the Black man remain. Proof of his existence was in a very distant epoch. Was he the first in the world and was this the racer that spread everywhere by virtue of the union of the continents, or when he arrived in our region, were the Otomies already present? His disappearance suggests to us it being the exiled race therefore the former; but there are indications opposing the indigenous character of the Otomi race and traditional fact that in our view is very important: until recent times the priests pained themselves Black as if it was a remembrance of the introducers of the first cult. “But the peremptory test of the ancient existence of the Black race on our continent are the still-encountered remains of him, and the other primitive story-tellers that speak of him. They are: the Caracoles of Haiti, the Califurnams of the Caribe Islands, the Arquahos of Cutara, the Aroras or Yaruras of Orinoco, the Chaymans of Guyana, the Maujipas, Porcigas and Matayas of Brazil, the Nigritas, Chuanas or Gaunas of the Isthmus of Darien, the Manabis of Popayan, the Guavas and Jaras or Zambos of Honduras, the Esteros of New California, the Black Indians encountered by the Spainards of Louisiana and the Ojos de Luna and albinos, some of which were discovered in Panama and others destroyed by the Iroquois. “All of this demonstrates that in a very ancient epoch or before the existence of the Otomies or better yet invading them, the Black race occupied our territory when the continents were joined. This race brought its religious ideas and its own cult. Later they were dislodged and forced to the coasts by the Otomies or perhaps they were obliged to look for warm places to which they were more appropriately accustomed by their nature, and fled the freezing temperatures and other cataclysms that occurred after this continent was separated”.4 J.A. Villacorta, another authority on Mexican history, was so convinced that earliest Mexico was influenced by Africoids that he concluded: “De todos modes la civilization mexicana tuvo su origen in Africa”. [“Any way you view it, Mexican civilization had its origins in Africa”.]5 Carlos C. Marquez also spoke of the widespread presence of Black people in prehistoric and ancient America: …..”The Negroes figure frequently in the most remote tradition of some American people. Certain tribes of Darien say that when their ancestors arrived for the first time in that region it was inhabited by small black men who soon afterwards retired to the forests while the Payas and Tapalisas of the Cuna-Cunas origin goes back to a man and two women, one Indian and the other Negro, who lived on the banks of the Tatarcuna. “The ancient skeletons which are very different from the Red American races, and have been found in various places from Bolivia to Mexico, doubtlessly belong to this race. “It is likely, then, we repeat, that long ago the youthful America was also a Negro continent……”5 Footnotes 1 “Brazil Unveils ‘Luiza’ As Earliest known American,” http://abcnews.go.com/wire/US/reuters 19990922_1496.html. 2 Jose Melgar, “Notable Escultural; Antigua, Antiguedades Mexicanos”, Boletin de Geografia y Estadistica, Secunda Epoca, vol 1, pp. 292-297, 1869. Also see Jose Melgar, “Estudio Sobre la Antiguedad y el Origen de la Cabeza Colosal de Tipo Etiopico que Esiste en Hueyapan”, Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana, Secunda Epoca., vol 3, pp 106-109, 1871. 3 Quoted in J.A,. Rogers, Sex & Race, published by the author, New York, 1943, vol 1, p. 270. 4 Riva Palacio, Mexico a’ Trave’s de los Siglos, Ballesca y Comp., Editores, Mexico, p. 63, 1889. 5 Jose Antonio Villacorta, Argueologia guatemalteca (Guatemala, C.A., Tipografia. nacional, 1930), p. 336. Also see Prehistoria & Historia Antigua de Guatemalteca (Guatemala C.A. Tipografia nacional, 1938), pp 222-239. 6 Carlos C. Marquez, Estudios argueologicas y etnograficos (Mexico: Bogota, D.E. Editorial Kelly, 1956), pp. 179-180. Legrand H. Clegg, Publisher and Editor MAAT Newletter
Legrand H. Clegg II
USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 14:57:48 (EDT)

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Ms. Iskander Wagabi…..you are proably no more from Tanta, Egypt than I am (probably from somewhere in Simi Valley). The Aryan part of Simi Valley!!!!!! Anyway, this Wagdi person totally ignores “ALL” evidence that cannot be refuted and she commences headlong with wacked out theories supporting white supremacy (blonde mummies and European origins), etc. Not only that, but she attacks the nicest people on the net…..me (Thutmos Turner). Nevertheless, the Rahotep and Nofret (the Aryan’s “WAGDI” dream) statues are once again “FORGERIES”! I know of several people that regularly visit this site who have the vital information that exposes the Rahotep and Nofret cheap racist white supremist attempt to re-write our BLACK hisory. Either I or they will be posting the particulars shortly. Call me anything……but DON”T CALL ME WHITE! Also, don’t call my ancestors white (that is the ultimate insult). That is as bad as some people trying to say the face of the Sphinx is that of a white boy (which has been said on this site recently). Thurmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Monday, October 25, 1999 at 01:37:31 (EDT)

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LOL!!!!
X-Dude
USA – Sunday, October 24, 1999 at 22:37:43 (EDT)

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Oh by the way, this information also agrees with the MDS plot, perhaps the MDS plot should be looked at in the reverse situation.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Saturday, October 23, 1999 at 14:20:58 (EDT)

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Iskander, if you were to continue reading you would see that Blackfacts also said that Kemet was “predominately Black.” You would also see that he says “And in many[pictures] the Nubians are portrayed with black skin and very kinky hair. The Egyptians are portrayed with reddish brown skin and VARIOUS hair types–straight and kinky. But, having red-brown skin DOES NOT make the Egyptians non-black or non-African! All Africans DO NOT have jet black skin. In fact, the portrayal of Nubians in this manner is common during a certain New Kingdom period.” So your claim that being able to post pictures is invalid. You keep making reference to genetics. In fact, go to this site: http://sgwww.epfl.ch/berger/First/english/start_egypt.html and you will see a picture of Shekem Tutankhamen and tell me if he Black or White. Mr. Wagdi, did you read the post by Blackfacts on Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:12:23 (EDT). It is obvious that you didn’t. You should refrain from posting until you have completely read it because you are going to have us going around in circles. Mr. Wagdi, are you making reference to dental evidence? Did you go to the webpage that Blackfacts referred you to? Let me give it to you again: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Temple/9845/mummies.htm and go to the links if you are truly someone who is interested in the trueth and not someone who wants to perpetuate the idea of the superior white race. Here is a quote from there: “The cranial shape displayed by the New Kingdom royal mummies is most commonly found among inhabitants of the Nile and the south Sahara. The skull of Thutmose IV shows some peculiarities regarding the sagittal contour and occiput in the lateral view (profile).” Here is another one about your proposed dental evidence(SN mandibular plane:”In the study of Alexander and Hitchcock of Alabama populations, the AA norm for SN-Mand. was 34.4 compared to 32.0 for Caucasians. The average for the Pharaohs is 34.23. If one includes the New Kingdom Queens the mean is 35.83! (Alexander TL, Hitchcock HP. Cephalometric standards for American Negro children. Am J Orthod 1978;74:298-304)” You say that the people are more closely related to West Asia or Southern Europe. Well of course they do, didn’t you know that Arabs and Berbers came to reside in Egypt. Am I correct in saying that you are assuming that the Kamau were white? Please go back and read Mr. Wagdi, because “There is a hell of alot of evidence against you and anyone who looks into the subect more deeply(look beyond” Brace et al) “would have to come to the same conclusion.” Or perhaps you think they are dark whites, Mediterraneans, or Hamites? “In reality the “true African” does not exist as the continent holds a variety of different Black Africoid types who have existed this way without foreign admixture. There are Black Africans with somewhat straight hair, thin lips and elongated noses (a product of dry heat as well as extreme cold). If globally applied many of African descent throughout the Diaspora can be labeled Dark Whites or Eurafricans.” And Furthermore, “Black Africans were well known in the Nile Valley region in early times. Evidence has shown in fact that North Africa was inhabited by Black African types prior to other types (Caucasian Berber and Semitic). What is more, as Gloria Emeagwali states, The Northern regions of Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon as well as Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso and so on fall within the Saharan/Sahelian zone, which is the same latitude with the Nile civilizations of Antiquity. No impassable barrier stood or stands between East and West. Thus it stands to reason that no barrier stood between North and South. Cultural similarities have been found between Egypt and regions as far away as the Great Lakes region. The ancient Egyptians state continually that they originated in the south. According to historian John G. Jackson, The Edfu Text is an important source document on the early history of the Nile Valley. This famous inscription, found in the Temple of Horus at Edfu, gives an account of the origin of Egyptian civilization. According to this record, civilization was brought from the south by a band of invaders under the leadership of King Horus.” http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/egyptians.html So Iskander, you are wrong and has some intelligence would agree.
Mackens Audena
USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 17:11:48 (EDT)

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Rahotep & Nofret, (the Aryans dream) is indeed a forgery. I have seen detailed presentations on it with my own eyes. Why did they pick these two characters anyway? The fact is that “THEY WERE NOT ROYALTY AT ALL”. The savage trailer trash just pulled them our of thin air for parading all over the world. They were not royaly or sat on any ancient throne. Down with the barbarian savages! THUTMOS URNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 03:11:54 (EDT)

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TRUTH never rejects questions or challenges because it is ETERNAL. This statement should be focused on in the context of what has been happening at this website over the past ten days. In spite of the fact that this is an Africentric website, we are so confident of the truth of our stance that we have welcomed the opinions of outsiders. They often insult us, call us racists, ignore our evidence and opinions and then insist that they are right. Yet, we continue to permit them to express themselves while we respond with our viewpoints. Some of us have angrily insulted them in return. This is understandable; however, most of us have patiently read their rantings and ramblings and then, again patiently, responded with counter-evidence. WHAT BLACK PEOPLE MUST UNDERSTAND IS THIS: For nearly three hundred years now, White scientists and scholars have monopolized the writing and teaching of history without challenge. Their overriding theme has been the superiority of Europeans over all others and European preeminence on the world stage from time immemorial. This distorted view of the world has held sway for the following reasons: (1) It has been taught on virtually all university and college campuses; (2) Most major publishing houses have only printed books promoting White supremacy; (3) Magazines, journals newspapers, television and radio have perpetuated the same lies and misrepresentations; (4) Dissenting opinions have been completely rejected to the point where even letters to newspaper and magazines have been excised or censored. Now, fast forward to today: (1) Over the past ten years, every major newspaper and magazine in this country has attacked Africentrism without providing its proponents an opportunity to present their points of view (This is virtually unprecedented in America media forums); (2) White historical websites predominate over the internet and, in virtually all cases, if one introduces a Black perspective on history, he is sure to be barred, purged or dismissed; (3) In spite of the global domination of Eurocentrism in education, the general media and now the Internet, many White people (and Arabs who are attempting to defend their interloper status in Africa) cannot tolerate the fact that we, as people of Africa descent, are determined to tell our story from our perspective. Just think of this: White people control world thought on most issues, but, in spite of this, they cannot bear to believe that we are willing to think for ourselves. If you review the comments that have been entered in this guestbook over the past ten days, you might reasonably conclude that “Well, clearly there are two points of view here, two schools of thought. Reasonable people may differ in their viewpoints.” But, no, White scholars and scientists must have it all and control it all! From their perspective, there is no room for dissent. Why else would they spend so much time venting in our venues, when, because of their blatant insecurities, they will not even allow Black dissent to be expressed in any of their national or international media forums? White authorities have maintained for three centuries that Black people are “small brained, genetically inferior sub-humans with no history.” Now incensed over our independence of thought, they exclaim on these pages: “How dare you fight back!” Well, Sherry, Iskandar, et al, the days of White supremacy and monopoly are over!!! We have presented sufficient facts to support our views, whether you agree or not. White people represent less than 10% of the world’s population and Arabs represent far less than that! There is no reason why your tiny minority opinion, no matter how well funded or widely disseminated, should monopolize the global mind or stifle further inquiry. The only real threat to the revelation of the true history of the human race is Eurocentrism/White supremacy. Why haven’t you fought this bane of the human race? The reason is because your role is to perpetuate it, and that is why our site and countless others will continue to grow-until the last vestige of racist nonsense is uprooted from the earth. In the meantime, we shall return from time to time to offer responses to these irrational racists. In the present posting we present an excerpt from an article entitled, “Kemet: The Place of The Blacks As symbolized In the Medu Netcher (Hieroglyphs) and Related Issues,” that appeared in our MA’AT newsletter in January, 1998. We shall follow this up with postings on the sculptures of Rahotep and his wife, mentioned by Iskander, and the painting from the tomb of Ramesis III, also mentioned by Iskander. Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, one of the greatest scholars of the 20th century, wrote the following in his book, The World and Africa: “We may give up entirely, if we wish, the whole attempt to delimit races, but we cannot, if we are sane, divide the world into whites, yellows, and blacks, and then call blacks white.” White scientists and scholars have had a heyday defining and redefining races according to their own racist predilections, without regard for logic or any other defensible paradigms. Hence, their disciples congregate in this space and offer to us nonsense about blonde mummies and blue eyed Egyptians and scoff at us when we question their sanity. If White science is unscientific, why should we expect its followers to be less so? In any case, as we enter the 21st century, we as people of African descent must return integrity to the study of history. It is our responsibility, as direct descendants of the parents of the human family, to rise above the shortcomings of the White monopolists and, drawing upon all of the resources at our disposal, i.e., astronomy, architecture, art, language, sacred writings, anatomy, archaeology, genetics, etc., present a fair and objective picture of the history of the human race. Since we know that Black people have played a significant part in that history, this site is devoted to telling the story of African people and their descendants. The following, then, is an excerpt from an article that presents the Africentric definition of Kemet. We certainly hope that the brilliant scholar, who identifies himself as Blackfacts, will provide input regarding this, since he has expressed concerns about the definition of this word. “Kemet is what the ancient people of the Nile Valley called what is erroneously known as ‘Ancient Egypt.’ According to European egyptologists Egypt is a Greek word, a corruption of the city name ‘He ka Ptah’ (city of Ptah). The word Egypt was not used until 300 b.c.e., after the conquest of Kemet by Alexander, son of Phillip of Macedonia. In books by European egyptologists, Kemet is translated as “the black land,” in an attempt to state that the people named their country after the soil that resulted from the annual inundation of the Nile River. This is not the translation that the texts themselves show us. Before looking at the correct meaning of the word Kemet, a brief description of the way Medu Netcher operates will be provided. Medu Netcher is a highly complex language that exists on many levels. It is pictorial (ideograms), symbolic (determinatives), and phonetic (phonograms) at the same time. Any symbol could be pictorial (used to represent itself). Determinatives are generally used at the end of words to help clarify meaning. There are three types of phonograms: 1. monoliterals (one sign, one sound), 2. biliterals (one sign, two sounds), and 3. triliterals (one sign, three sounds). Monoliterals are also used as phonetic complements. A phonetic complement is used as a reading aid; it may be placed before or after a bi- or triliteral as a visual reminder or reinforcement of the pronunciation of the word shown. This is the word Kemet [Image]. The first symbol, a piece of charred wood (some say a crocodile’s spine), is the biliteral “km.” The owl symbolizes the monoliteral “m,” used in this instance as a phonetic complement. The third symbol is a loaf of bread, the monoliteral “t.” The last symbol, a determinative, is very important for our discussion of this word. This symbol depicts an aerial view of a circular walled settlement displaying a network of roads. Here the symbol is drawn in abstract which has been reduced to the two principal axes [Image]. These types of cities have been unearthed in excavations in Upper Kemet dating from the oldest epochs of urbanization. Also this symbol has been documented on predynastic palettes. This symbol is very easily distinguished from the symbol for land, [Image]ta, which represents the flat plain of the valley that is often painted black to represent the fertile soil. It invokes the idea of Ancient Kemet, the black flood plain, the gift of the Nile; which is quite different from the concept of Kemet as the civilized Country of the Blacks, which is the literal translation of the word [Image]Kemet in Medu Netcher. One concept represents the land given to the Ancient Africans by God, and the other represents the country as a civilized unit developed by the Africans themselves. As shown in Alan Gardiners’ Egyptian Grammar book, [Image]is a naturally occurring symbol, and is a [Image]man-made symbol. Therefore it is not possible to correctly state that they mean the same thing; undeveloped land is different than developed land. When the people wanted to describe themselves, they used the same symbols, Kmt, but they changed the determinative to a seated man and woman, placed in front of the plural sign (three vertical strokes), indicating a collective nominative, referring to “human beings,” “people,” “ethnic groups,” which taken in total can only be translated as [Image]”Black People.” Most Europeans translate this word as “Egyptians.” It is obvious that anyone who has studied the language of Kemet and continues to translate these words as “Egypt” or “Egyptian,” is purposely attempting to mislead and misinform. The proper translation of classical African languages is part of the work that must be done in order to “construct a body of modern human sciences, in order to renovate African culture.”(7) Footnotes 1. Sir Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1961, pg. 19. 2. Adolf Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, Dover Publications, Inc., 1971, pg. 29. 3. Ibid. pg. 30. 4. Theophile Obenga, “Genetic Linguistic Connections of Ancient Egypt and the Rest of Africa,” in African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources, ed. by Molefi Kete Asante and Abu S. Abarry, Temple University Press, 1996, pg. 266. See also Theophile Obenga, Ancient Egypt and Black Africa: A Student’s Handbook for the Study of Ancient Egypt in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Gender Relations, Kamak House, 1992. 5. Ibid. pg. 281. 6. Ibid. pg. 271. The spiritual system of Kemet laid the foundation for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. See also Who Is This King of Glory?, by Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Kessinger Publishing Co., Christianity Before Christ, John G. Jackson, and The Book Your Church Doesn’t Want You To Read, ed. by Tim Leedom. 7. Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology, Lawrence Hill Books, 1991, pg. 3. copyright 1998 CHEIKH ANTA DIOP INSTITUTE OF EGYPTOLOGY AND AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS To learn more about Medu Netcher, The Cheikh Anta Diop Institute of Egyptology and African Civilization is proud to offer the book, Let the Ancestors Speak: Removing the Veil of Mysticism from Medu Netcher, by Ankh Mi Ra. The price of the book is $19.95, and ordering instructions may be obtained by e-mail from netcher@juno.com. A correspondence course is also available. Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor and Publisher, MA’AT news, The Clegg Series.
Legrand H. Clegg II
USA – Friday, October 22, 1999 at 00:30:43 (EDT)

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not that ancestor was a memeber of the Khoisan complex of Southwest Africa. There is no race, except the Human race. We are all Black African people in genetic composition.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 20:39:01 (EDT)

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If the Egyptians had soft blond or red hair, why did they wear wigs that look like black african cornrolls. Why are the wigs curly like naps, and not straight like the Aryan stereotype. In fact why do they where the wigs at all, when they look so black African in nature. I wonder……Also check out the profile of the Sphinx, it looks “negroid to me.” This actual image of the Sphinx was posted on a plastic surgery center website. http://www.plasticsurgery4u.com/proceedure_folder/nasal_deformity_sphinx.html#anchor_sphinx
Curtis
USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:48:55 (EDT)

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Check out royal scribe Hesire, and King Zoser (click on the 1/2 image size and notice the profile); some of the others are admittedly ambigous at best. But at least I’m willing to link to everything. All of the images on the “Egyptians are not Black” web page that the “arab” dude keeps linking to, are also found here. Notice the tan on the Nordic Rahotep, not bad for someone who should be 20 shades lighter than that. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00131.html
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:21:29 (EDT)

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Check out royal scribe Hesire, and King Zoser (click on the 1/2 image size and notice the profile); some of the others are admittedly ambigous at best. But at least I’m willing to link to everything. All of the images on the “Egyptians are not Black” web page that the “arab” dude keeps linking to, are also found here. Notice the tan on the Nordic Rahotep, not bad for someone who should be 20 shades lighter than that. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00131.html
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:20:39 (EDT)

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Rahotep & Nofret, the Aryans dream. I’m posting them anyway because even though Rahotep doesn’t look black, he sure is dark for an Aryan. Also, in one of Van Sertima’s books on Egypt, someone wrote a detailed (though preliminary) article on why he thought these images either forgeries. I’m not saying he is right, but we should consider the possiblity. I’ll try to get the name of the book and the pages so that all of you can check it out for yourselves. It is very interesting. Also some archeologists ascribe a much later date to this sculpture, and I’m talking about whites not blacks. But here is the link to the images http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00130.html
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:16:07 (EDT)

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Wow, look at how “Aryan” Amenophis III looks; and i thought Aryans had sharp noses and then lifts. Now I realize that Aryans must be negroes. Thanks to the neo-nazis my eyes have been open. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00128.html —- Also look at the “Portrait of an elegant lady” from the Tomb of Menena in Thebes. I never knew Aryans had black skin.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:10:49 (EDT)

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Look at Semenkhkara & the Princess Meritaten; or Akhenaten. If these are Nordics then all “negroid” peoples are. Click on the link that says “1/2” for the biggest images. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00127.html
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:07:02 (EDT)

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“Goddess” Hathor (won’t tell ya what I think) http://rubens.anu.edu.au/cgi-bin/jreduce.pl/new3/charlotte/0349/034906.JPG/2 —– What about Seti I, he doesn’t look very Nordic to me. —– King Horebheb looks like many of the black men here in New York (admit it) http://rubens.anu.edu.au/cgi-bin/jreduce.pl/new3/charlotte/0351/035107.JPG/2
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:04:41 (EDT)

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All of these image links are from the Australian National University (and no, it is not run by the aboriginals). Look at Akhnaton, looks black to me. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00125.html ——- look at the profile of the Sphinx (looks black to me) http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00124.html
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 16:00:52 (EDT)

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Look at this website containing Egyptian sculptures. It is by no means Afrocentric (it doesn’t even address the issue to my knowledge. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/new3/charlotte/bycountry/display00129.html . Again, notice how even if the bust of nefertiti is real it is more Ethiopic than anything “caucasian.” Also, look at the images of Sesostris I and Mentuhotep I, they look black african to me. Metherthy may not be black, but then again, he is a farmer, not a royal. —-
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 15:56:22 (EDT)

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About the bust (sculpture) of Nefertiti. There are hundreds of images on the walls of various Egyptian archeological sites depicting her purely as black African. On top of that, the well-known (white) historian John Anthony West says this about the bust “The famous bust of Nefertiti, Akhenaton’s wife and one of the most beautiful women ever depicted, is in all likelihood not Nefertiti. This bust was found with other treasures, in the abandoned sculpture studio at Akhenaten. Since Nefertiti disappeared from the inscriptions some seven years prior to the disbanding of Akhenaton’s city, the bust, unfinished at the time and still being worked on, is almost certainly not Nefertiti, but perhaps one of her daughters.” Perhaps one of her daughters, he says. But that in itself is mere (and inaccurate) speculation given all of the other evidences. But lets say the bust in dispute is real, it most definitely isn’t nordic. There is no blond hair, blue eyes, or pale skin. She looks far more like an Ethiopian (Somali, Eritrean, i.e.) variation of black Africans than anything close to be nordic, or any other white racial group. Give it a rest already. This is the same bust Hitler used to make his point. It is so moronic it is sad.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 15:47:17 (EDT)

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I think Ive worked out how the cocked up half baked arab we know as Iskander brian works.You see the arabs are one of the most anti black racist people you will ever meet.In the koran Mohamad said that white people were created by the right hand of allah from pure water and that black folks were created by his left hand and were a mistake.That is is why moslems use their right hand for eating and their left hand for wiping their backsides.I know it seems sick but it is totally true,moslems have thought black people to hate themselves.A good examample of this are the Swahili who are as black as you and me but a large number of them claim to be arabs others even claim to be persians and indians.So any brother who claims islam is the black manns religion should maybe learn a little more about from were and who its coming from.The arabs took the indiginus black people of Kemit(our ancestors not yours mr wagdu)and sold them to the white man who brought to America.So you see Mr Wagdu has his Egypt but Kemit belongs to the black peoples. And Mr wagdu wants to be an Aryan well of coarse he does because as I said before muslems are anti black so for them theyd rather be anything but a nigger.
Osiris
USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 14:27:02 (EDT)

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I can see that the person who posted this IS REALLY FROM EGYPT. He knows as I do the writing is ALL on the WALLS within the pyramids. Half of you black wanna be egyptians never even been to Egypt…yet you make such claims…when in reality, you dont know your black ass from a hole in the ground.READ THE FACTS: Here are some links to interesting pictures,http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/index.html Most of the pictures here are from the old kingdom, they clearly show Nofret daughter of Khufu was fair skinned and had blue eyes, the man seated beside her is her husband Rahotep.The picture at the top of the page of a fairly overweight man is Hemiunu.Heminunu oversaw the building of Khufu’s pyramid, but hang on a minute the ancients were black, why would a Caucasian oversee the building of the pyramids (which you argue were the results of black genius)and why does Khufu’s daughter have such a light complexion? Why?Well ether theres a conspiracy where the evil Egyptians/Arabs(who are apparently are not Egyptian at all but asiatics) and evil devil white men have destroyed all the original artifacts and replaced them with fakes, because they are afraid of the mighty black africans (who also happened to invent everything ever worth inventing in history)rising up from the sorry state their people are in and taking over the world or perhaps due to the society which Afro-Americans live in, which is riddled with racism they/you need to have a feeling of superiority,greatness and a belief you are decended from kings and queens, just because you have a massive chip on your shoulder and no self-confidence.It makes sence for you to blame others for your problems.In fact you lot have alot in commom with the Nazis, just like they blamed the Jews for all Germanys problems and made up a false history of an ancient Aryan race whho throughtout history the Jews were trying to destroy.Just replace the Jews with Arabs and whites,the German race with the black race and the ancient Aryans with the ancient Egyptians and you have a new master race full of brainwashed automaton’s.It is very important that history dosent repeat itself because we all know what happened to the Jews last time around.(this is directed only at people like Thutmos Turner and Osiris who in below posts have used some vulgar and extremely offensive language which I will not repeat.So if your hear for a genuine love and interest in history please do not be offended) The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt). I made it clear the meaning of the Greek word melanchroies so I will not go into that again. Herodotus compared the Egyptians to “Colchians”-were the Colchians black Africans. The Colchians inhabited what is roughly modern-day Georgia in the Caucasus, so the vast majority were most likely — and quite literally — CAUCASIAN.Herodotus’ exlanation that being melanchrroes or oulutrches “indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too” suggests that these adjectives did not apply exclusively to any one “race” of people.The description of Colchians by Herodotus can be contrasted with that of Hippocrates,who wrote of the Colchians in Phasis”have an appearance different from that of other men.As to size,they are large and corpulent in body.Neither joint nor vein is evident.They have a yelloish flesh, as if victims of jaundice”(Hippocrates,Airs,Waters,Places 15).Nothing in Hippocrates, descrition suggests that Colchians look anything like sub-Saharan Africans and this further wekens the Afrocentric argument that Egyptians and Colchians must have looks like “blacks” on the basis of Herodotus’ Words. Also when Herodotus,other classical writer and the Ehtiopians said that Egypt was a colony of Ethiopia thay were not lying.If you remember the 25th dynasty was of Ethiopian origin and only a couple of hundred years before Herodotus visited Egypt ,Egypt was ruled from Napata in the heart of Nubia/Ethiopia(Afrocentrists twisting the truth again). Other ancient quotes cited by Afrocentrists Other ancient quotes that some Afro-Egyptocentrists interpret in such a way as to conflict with other descriptions such as the ones I quoted before.These are marred by basically the same failings as the Herodotus quote described above in interpreting Greek words such as mlanchroes as “negro”, and failing to recognize stereotypes and exaggerations.Using the same faulty techniques, Afrocentrists might as well say Jews in the Middle Ages were “black”(I wouldnt be surprised if they did) because Joeeph ben Nathan in the 13th centuary quoted his father as saying “we Jews come from a pure,white source, and so our faces are black”.Of course to do this would igore the fact that in medieval Europe as in ancient Greece,”black” often meant “swarthy”.Likewise Afrocentrists could insist that 12th centuary Turks were “black” on the basis of their being exaggerated as “blacker than pitch or ink” in the epic Chanson d’Aspremont.But we know on the basis of physical remains and ample pictorial evidence that neither the Jews nor Turks were actually “black” in medieval times. Heres interesting information about the picture (can be seen in in most Afrocentric books)that Afrocentrics say is proof that the Egyptians saw themselves as looking the same as Nubians/Kushites/Ethiopians can be found at http://www.deja.com Subject:Re:photos of “black Egyptians” Date: 1999/05/11 Author:Bernard Ortiz de Montellano Civilization: Dear Paul, Those figures in the Lepsius Erganzungsband,pl.48 are not actually Lepsius’ work, but a re-edition done in 1913, as Ishowed in my article in Egypt in Africa(Bloomington,IM:Indiana University Press, 1997).To make matters worse , the hieroglyph texts between these figures were garbled.The original scenes both in Sety the 1st’s tomb and in Ramesses the 3rd’s tomb showed the Egyptians and the Kushites as distinctly different.Also, the hieroglyphs on the real walls are distributed between each of the four figures depicting each type.You can now view the real photographs of both the Sety the 1st and Ramesses the thirds walls in Hornung’s volumes on the valley of the Kings.I have been inside both tombs myself and have seen these scenes and their texts, and on the basis of this, the depiction in Erganzungsband is not the real depiction of what is on the walls but rather a pastische, arranged from Lepsius’ notes and garbled in the process.It is unfortunate that so many people have depended on this depiction as reality, when a look at the walls in both tombs shows that patently it is not reality. Most sincerly Frank J.Yurco ***** Regards http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/smiting.html Picture of Ramesses the second smiting a Libyan,Nubian/Ethiopian and a Asiatic.Notice how the artist used the same pigment for Ramesses as he did for the Asiatic,think about that!Now compare the facial features of Ramesses to the Nubian and the Asiatic,notice how Ramesses looked almost complestly like the Asiatic apart from the beard.I know its only a picture but I think its fairly obvious that Ramesses was not black, further weakening the Afrocentric arguement. http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/prisoner.html This is a picture of an Nubian/Ethiopian Captive.Take a look closly does he look Egyptian, I dont think so and if dont agree I think you should probably see an optician. P.S.Its a pity pictures cant be posted on this page I could probably end this debat hear and now.And as I said more to come incluning quotes,dental and hair evidence and more genetic tests.
Laughing in Your Face
Black liars world-wide r exposed, USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 11:42:11 (EDT)

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To the (mythological) “Aryans;” not that it ultimately matters, but I am still awaiting the answer to the following question. What did the Nordic peoples (Germanic, Aryan, Scandinavian, etc.) contribute in terms of science, culture, or the arts BEFORE 1000 A.D.. Please don’t tell me what the “Mediterraneans” did or “Hamites,” or the southern Europeans, the Eastern Europeans, the Semitic Peoples, the Sumerians, Elamites, Indians, Romans or Greeks (all of whom are not Nordics according to Hitler & the neo-nazis). Tell me what the berserker nations, the vikings, the “Aryan”/Nordics ever did. Their math and mathematical symbols are not their own, their alphabet is not their own, even their science and arts are not their own. Why did the Romans consider them Barbarians (Me thinks because they were). Why are vikings (Nordics) associated with raping, pillaging, murder, and mayhem. Why do we have images of them in bearskins (from whence the term berserker originates). Why do so many neo-nazi groups continue to this very day, to identify themselves along with the berserkers and the vikings. What did they ever do to “advance civilization.” I suspect that i will never get a valid answer. Also consider the pyramids in the Americas. They rival the Egyptian pyramids in some aspects. Were the American Indians white aryans? You probably think so. — Listen, all people are created equal in God’s eyes, so the question is moot. But from an historical perspective, your own fellow Europeans, as well as the inhabitants of the rest of the world testify against you. “Nordics” have to foster the myth of their superiority because they know that all of history (up until the middle ages or so) indites them as being amongst the most savage and UNcivilized of the peoples of the world. This is all so very sad.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 10:41:34 (EDT)

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Mr. Bridges, may I be so bold as to add this book is only about $17.00 and is in paperback form. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Thursday, October 21, 1999 at 03:22:02 (EDT)

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Hello to all that are interested in expanding their knowledge base. I have recently fell across a book by the name of Ancient and Modern Britons by David MacRitchie. In it he discuses the original inhabitants of Europe and Briton as being Moors (aka black, negroe, african-american.) He also in several passages discusses the fact that these same people founded other civilizations including Egypt. If anyone cares to challenge me on this first obtain a copy of the book read it. Oh, by the way the book was originally written in the 1800’s by a white man from the UK who looked deeply into the history of his own land. Salaam.
Henry Bridges
Age: 25, USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 23:05:14 (EDT)

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Brothers and sisters, I admit I may have exaderated a bit when I referred to the Sherry thing and her fellow neo nazi Black haters as Australopithicus savages. Australopithicus was of course an ape like humanoid who lived more than 5 million years ago and never left Africa and died out about 1 million years ago. This is evidence that they are not Austrolopithicus. The same for Homo habilis in extenction for 1.6 million years. I was in error. I now estimate these people to be of Homo erectus (upright man) with a larger brain capacity and was the first to leave Africa ad thought to be extenct 1.7 million years. Theory has it that a few of them strayed a were caught behind the polar icecaps. Wallah…..the Sherry thing and her neo nazi kinsman polluting this site. Can you imagine the barbarians of Europe building the 65 foot monument of Ramesse II? Again, where are the European monuments? We know of all the “AFRICAN” monuments, cities, libraries, pyramids, etc. etc. WHERE ARE THE EUROPEAN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THIS ERA???????? Where are they? The question will never be answered through all eternity! Did the whites pack them all up and transplant them in Africa? Did all the smart people leave Europe and settle in Africa? Never-mine the monuments….just show us the evidence they even had a system of writing! SAVAGES amongst us! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 22:41:17 (EDT)

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Brother Kwabena, thank you for exposing the so-called Iskander Wagdi. This may translate to “I AM A NEO NAZI WHITE BOY”. One of the site this trailer trash referred to is a site called “The Ancient Egyptians Were Not Black”. This is so weak that it is almost entertaining. Imagine….a site created just for people of this ilk to attempt convincing people that we don’t have a heritage othewr than slavery. Notice the savages can never tell you our origin but they can tell you what our origin is not! To enter this subject would make fools of their crimminally insane ramblings. THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 22:08:33 (EDT)

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Is Mr. Wagdi confused? Mr. Wagdi says—–>”The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt).” He speaks of a Mediterranean race in Southern Europe and Asia, but where are they now? Did he say Portuguese but by definition of local race, linguistic correlation and geographical location, the Portuguese are more Mediterranean than anything else. Yes, the Vandals and the Visigoths did invade Portugal but there was also an indigenous population there. The Portuguese may have been invaded by the Germanic Vandals and Visigoths, who are or were a Nordic type, but studying the phenotypic features of the Portuguese no one would confuse them with Swedish people. Sherry called an Eygptian Black and Mr. Wagdi asserts he is genetically related to the Mediterraneans, but not the Mediterranean Portuguese. It seems like contradictions to me and you got it straight for the mouths of those who said it. Excuse me, Mr. Wadgi, but I didn’t mean to misspell your name. Oh yeah, good written and grammatical correct English for a third language. I commend you for your astounding efforts.
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:29:43 (EDT)

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Yes, Sherry refered to Mr. Wagdu as Black, but he is Egyptian. Why is that? Mr. Wagdu says this—–>”I was born and raised in Egypt and it makes me laugh at you foreingers saying that our ancesters looked like Nordics or Ugandans.” Piece the puzzle with me. “?”
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minnesota, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:15:40 (EDT)

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I hate to start something I see a snake! Sherry posted some time ago——->”One of your black brothers have posted a link right below my large post..his name is ” Iskander Wagdi . It may be very educational for all of you to click on his name/link, to visit the web page he has refered you all to. I did. It is very interesting….” Hmmm… Now watch this!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 21:08:58 (EDT)

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Iskander, I don’t believe you have read anything that Blackfacts wrote. I think you should go back and read. I have just taken a copy of everything Blackfact (I informed Blackfacts that I was doing this)wrote and emailed it to George Sarafis at http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/ and I am awaiting his response.
Mackens P. Audena
Age: 20, USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 20:23:38 (EDT)

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Just out of curiosity! Mr. Iskander Wagdi, do you have fair skin and blue eyes? Also, is your hair blonde? To Sherry, it’s been some time now since our initial discussion so may I refresh your memory because you never provided FACTS that could be scrutinized. The only thing you have supplied were hierogylphic interpretations, which can be used flexibly according to one’s agenda. Oh yeah, I forgot you gave your eyewitness account of blonde pharaohs and queens, which I did see pictures of in the Stormfront’s website. (No pun intended, because this is truth) Besides your assertations can be seen as radical for Western norms and no scholar has come forth to support your blue-eyed and blonde Egyptians (not those Western academically accepted). I have presented, although very brief, a list of African/Egyptian cultural characteristics, but it seems those so obsessed with “blonde pictures” finds this either too trivial or too profound. I, even, provided evidence that your “intriguing” Egyptians did practice excision, which you un-educatedly categorize as an unique African “savage” tradition. Why have you fail to scrutinize my position; is it because you can’t refute my claims or none of the other claims here? Is this why you now proceed to call us “liars” and attack the basic integrity of this website, as well as, African people? What is your motivation? Frustration. Did you not, in attempts to dehumanize African people, present a barrage of stereotypes which you know nothing about? I believe so. This is why you dodge an intellectual confrontation with my words. So convenient! To claim Egyptians weren’t Black, next degrade African people and grossly mis-represent cultural values and concepts, then to condemn those who refute your position as liars, when you haven’t even adequately proven your position. This is a case of the pot calling the kettle black. I have looked at the words of you and your colleagues, analyze them and using the discerning eye of an anthropology student, attempted to figure out your motives. Never once have I in the course of this discussion attacked Europeans based on the cultural ideas, unlike others; to do so would be biased. I had decided to remain quiet, as the foolish is the one who doesn’t listen and weigh things before speech, but proceeds to argue with the vigor of a ox things he does not know. But I can not allow someone, the least interested in African culture, slaughter cultural practices and walked away with questioning! This is to save the fool! Odabo! I have plenty of questions, as I said before, that have never answered or replied to; at best, the majority were only brushed aside as irrelevant or with a catch-all excuses utilize by those who don’t know the answer. You have some explaining to do. If not, then we know who the LIAR is!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 20:06:48 (EDT)

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keep up the good and necessary work!!!!!!!! Let me know if I can be of any help. I have already reccommended the readings to several friends. Tya
Tya Wahington
Age: 27, Houston, Tx USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 19:38:47 (EDT)

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Brother Curtis, you bring a smile to my face with your comments. I answer to your question, I don’t think the Pharoahs would do as I have. Instead, they would nto have time to write for their wconstant and non-stop war waging on the enemy. Not just wars of the words but actual war. As Black men we all need to all ask ourselves daily…”HOW HAVE I WAGED WAR ON THE ENEMIES OF OUR PEOPLE TODAY”. What have I done “TODAY” to stop the cocaine dumped in our communities; what have I done “TODAY” to stop the murder of our women and children (Kyesha Miller, Margaret Mitchell, children by so-called police officers; what have I done “TODAY” to stop the trashing of our image in the white/jewish controlled medias; What have I done “TODAY” to direct and thereby save the life of a Black child? I respect your comments my brother, but the Pharoahs would be out kicking the hell out of our enemies! We are at war my brother….no less than war with the ……. (you know). My comments are not to name call, they are my actual descritions of what I see in them. It is not my fault if it is not pretty! However, once again I admit to taking the non scholarly so called low road in responce to the savages. You take the high road and I take the low and if we are both fighting the enemy we will smash them between us. Our people are indeed in a demolition derby and if we don’t wake up we will be demolished. There is no room and no time left for simply talk without direct action. This is our site as Black people to express ideas about and discuss our heritage…..that must be defended. If I am fighting to defend any ground we have catured (including here) then you should support it. You should just go on making your posts in defense and I will do the same. Damn the so-called bad spirits….lets get it on! I think the Pharoahs would use “ANY” and “ALL” means at their disposal to evict the barbarians. In fact, that is just what they were fighting then and us now. Self indulging and scholarly words have their place, but some times when you get in a dog fight one must use other words to fit the occasion. Compared to the advanced state of our people, the Pharoahs saw nothing but “AUSTROLOPITHICUS (white) SAVAGES” attacking them. Sadly…..SOME OF THEM HAVE NOT CHANGED MUCH–IF AT ALL. Is that my fault? Therefore why should I not called the ones that exhibit characteristic bahavior in accurate terms using accurate descriptive words? I have never yelled fire in movie theatre, but I would if there were a fire. Never stop a brother from fighting (in any way)….it does not inhibit your activities. “WE ARE NOT HYPED UP ENOUGH”! I don’t visit neo nazi sites and attack them but I do come to this site for knowledge and will defend it. Let us work….if not together…lets just work! All the best to you my good brother. Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 15:39:11 (EDT)

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Thut, I think you meant “Osiris,” not “Curtis.” As for your comments, we are in a discussion group not a demolition derby. Let us not get so hyped up that we lose our dignity. Can you really see any of the Pharoahs using sentences like “barbaric racist AUSTROLOPITHICUS savage neo nazi whites Sherry thing..” in any of their discourses. You keep bringing up Sherry, she is a non-issue now that she has been exposed. By responding to her in any manner, especially yours, you are causing the troublesome spirit to hang around even longer. The majority of her responses have been to you. Like an annoying itch, just ignore her, and eventually she will go away. Here is an interesting hypothesis: What if Sherry and Thutmose are really alter egos, and their is some scary Schizophrenic – multiple personality type of thing going on here. Or better yet, maybe they ARE two seperate people but there is a love-hate relationship forming. What was that Spike Lee movie/Stevie Wonder song called again? Somethin’ about a Tropical illness? Oh never mind. Curtis
CurtissitruC
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 14:28:18 (EDT)

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BLACK POWER!
KING NARMER
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 12:48:44 (EDT)

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Don’t calm down brother Curtis! Don’t calm down at all. Why should we not take our rightful place as world leaders. Whites are less than 10% of the population and their birthrates are falling through the floor fast. This is their reason for panic imprisonment and mass killing! They are even pushing multiculturalism in order to mix with our genes. They are in a state of crisis (as we are living in their barbaric society) and they are simply trying to survive! Don’t calm down at all! Anyway, I am proud the way our brothers and sisters have stepped up to the plate and drove the barbaric racist AUSTROLOPITHICUS savage neo nazi whites (Sherry thing and friends) back into hell! We have defended our Black heritage and I declare victory in this round. It was absolutely masterful. I have learned a great deal from my brothers and sisters quotes and references while they answered the savages. I guess in this way the white supremist neo nazi savages have assisted us in achieving our goal…..whiich is the increase of THE KNOWLEDGE OF SELF. I never thought I would say thank you to a savage but……….no no I just can’t do it! The savages just don’t understand that Black peple (not negroes) don’t care what white savages have to say. The day is over when we accept knowledge of self from the oppressor. The next thing these barbaric white savages will be saying is that Christopher Columbus discovered America. Maybe I am stretching a bit….not even the neo nazi savage Sherry thing wold go that far! Brothers you have done me proud and it will take me a month or so just to sift through the sources you provided in this last round with the savages. On with the war to unite our MINDS! The day we achieve this unity is the day racism white supremacy ends and peace and justice brought back to the planet. It has been only 400 years and they are already on their way out. Again, this is why the panic over what we think of ourselves. Hotep my brothers and sisters. Thutmos Turner
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 12:42:32 (EDT)

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Jeez, Osiris, calm down.
Maksat Tohme
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 10:03:56 (EDT)

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Some day the white man will serve the black man and bow before him!!The WAR continues!!!!!
Osiris
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 09:15:02 (EDT)

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Whats the name address for the websight with the inscription of Uni?
Iskander Wagdi
USA – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 07:40:52 (EDT)

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Here are some links to interesting pictures,http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/index.html Most of the pictures here are from the old kingdom, they clearly show Nofret daughter of Khufu was fair skinned and had blue eyes, the man seated beside her is her husband Rahotep.The picture at the top of the page of a fairly overweight man is Hemiunu.Heminunu oversaw the building of Khufu’s pyramid, but hang on a minute the ancients were black, why would a Caucasian oversee the building of the pyramids (which you argue were the results of black genius)and why does Khufu’s daughter have such a light complexion? Why?Well ether theres a conspiracy where the evil Egyptians/Arabs(who are apparently are not Egyptian at all but asiatics) and evil devil white men have destroyed all the original artifacts and replaced them with fakes, because they are afraid of the mighty black africans (who also happened to invent everything ever worth inventing in history)rising up from the sorry state their people are in and taking over the world or perhaps due to the society which Afro-Americans live in, which is riddled with racism they/you need to have a feeling of superiority,greatness and a belief you are decended from kings and queens, just because you have a massive chip on your shoulder and no self-confidence.It makes sence for you to blame others for your problems.In fact you lot have alot in commom with the Nazis, just like they blamed the Jews for all Germanys problems and made up a false history of an ancient Aryan race whho throughtout history the Jews were trying to destroy.Just replace the Jews with Arabs and whites,the German race with the black race and the ancient Aryans with the ancient Egyptians and you have a new master race full of brainwashed automaton’s.It is very important that history dosent repeat itself because we all know what happened to the Jews last time around.(this is directed only at people like Thutmos Turner and Osiris who in below posts have used some vulgar and extremely offensive language which I will not repeat.So if your hear for a genuine love and interest in history please do not be offended) The genetic tests I posted below show that the ancients(my ancestors,and yes I am Egyptian and proud)had much more in common with the mediterranean peoples of Europe and Asia than Ethiopians.Actually the Portugese are more closly related to black africans in genetic terms than us Egyptians(Modern Indians are more closly related to Etiopians and Somalis than the people of Predynastic upper Egypt). I made it clear the meaning of the Greek word melanchroies so I will not go into that again. Herodotus compared the Egyptians to “Colchians”-were the Colchians black Africans. The Colchians inhabited what is roughly modern-day Georgia in the Caucasus, so the vast majority were most likely — and quite literally — CAUCASIAN.Herodotus’ exlanation that being melanchrroes or oulutrches “indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too” suggests that these adjectives did not apply exclusively to any one “race” of people.The description of Colchians by Herodotus can be contrasted with that of Hippocrates,who wrote of the Colchians in Phasis”have an appearance different from that of other men.As to size,they are large and corpulent in body.Neither joint nor vein is evident.They have a yelloish flesh, as if victims of jaundice”(Hippocrates,Airs,Waters,Places 15).Nothing in Hippocrates, descrition suggests that Colchians look anything like sub-Saharan Africans and this further wekens the Afrocentric argument that Egyptians and Colchians must have looks like “blacks” on the basis of Herodotus’ Words. Also when Herodotus,other classical writer and the Ehtiopians said that Egypt was a colony of Ethiopia thay were not lying.If you remember the 25th dynasty was of Ethiopian origin and only a couple of hundred years before Herodotus visited Egypt ,Egypt was ruled from Napata in the heart of Nubia/Ethiopia(Afrocentrists twisting the truth again). Other ancient quotes cited by Afrocentrists Other ancient quotes that some Afro-Egyptocentrists interpret in such a way as to conflict with other descriptions such as the ones I quoted before.These are marred by basically the same failings as the Herodotus quote described above in interpreting Greek words such as mlanchroes as “negro”, and failing to recognize stereotypes and exaggerations.Using the same faulty techniques, Afrocentrists might as well say Jews in the Middle Ages were “black”(I wouldnt be surprised if they did) because Joeeph ben Nathan in the 13th centuary quoted his father as saying “we Jews come from a pure,white source, and so our faces are black”.Of course to do this would igore the fact that in medieval Europe as in ancient Greece,”black” often meant “swarthy”.Likewise Afrocentrists could insist that 12th centuary Turks were “black” on the basis of their being exaggerated as “blacker than pitch or ink” in the epic Chanson d’Aspremont.But we know on the basis of physical remains and ample pictorial evidence that neither the Jews nor Turks were actually “black” in medieval times. Heres interesting information about the picture (can be seen in in most Afrocentric books)that Afrocentrics say is proof that the Egyptians saw themselves as looking the same as Nubians/Kushites/Ethiopians can be found at http://www.deja.com Subject:Re:photos of “black Egyptians” Date: 1999/05/11 Author:Bernard Ortiz de Montellano Civilization: Dear Paul, Those figures in the Lepsius Erganzungsband,pl.48 are not actually Lepsius’ work, but a re-edition done in 1913, as Ishowed in my article in Egypt in Africa(Bloomington,IM:Indiana University Press, 1997).To make matters worse , the hieroglyph texts between these figures were garbled.The original scenes both in Sety the 1st’s tomb and in Ramesses the 3rd’s tomb showed the Egyptians and the Kushites as distinctly different.Also, the hieroglyphs on the real walls are distributed between each of the four figures depicting each type.You can now view the real photographs of both the Sety the 1st and Ramesses the thirds walls in Hornung’s volumes on the valley of the Kings.I have been inside both tombs myself and have seen these scenes and their texts, and on the basis of this, the depiction in Erganzungsband is not the real depiction of what is on the walls but rather a pastische, arranged from Lepsius’ notes and garbled in the process.It is unfortunate that so many people have depended on this depiction as reality, when a look at the walls in both tombs shows that patently it is not reality. Most sincerly Frank J.Yurco ***** Regards http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/smiting.html Picture of Ramesses the second smiting a Libyan,Nubian/Ethiopian and a Asiatic.Notice how the artist used the same pigment for Ramesses as he did for the Asiatic,think about that!Now compare the facial features of Ramesses to the Nubian and the Asiatic,notice how Ramesses looked almost complestly like the Asiatic apart from the beard.I know its only a picture but I think its fairly obvious that Ramesses was not black, further weakening the Afrocentric arguement. http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/images/prisoner.html This is a picture of an Nubian/Ethiopian Captive.Take a look closly does he look Egyptian, I dont think so and if dont agree I think you should probably see an optician. P.S.Its a pity pictures cant be posted on this page I could probably end this debat hear and now.And as I said more to come incluning quotes,dental and hair evidence and more genetic tests.
Iskander Wagdi
Tanta, Egypt – Wednesday, October 20, 1999 at 07:38:41 (EDT)

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Not only are your “idealogies” far from the truth, but just about all of you are nothing more than LIARS. To blackfacts…your mythical facts that you post are absurd. Have you been to Egypt? Really…have you? Evidnetally not. No one here, and specifically not you..can brain-wash me into your desperate attempts to make the world”black”. I have LISTED numerous FACTS here..which no one could dispute. Though many have tried, and when they realized, it wasnt working with me…suddenly Im a racist..suddenly , Im a neo-nazi, a savage…etc etc. Now, from you…I am sopossed to have an “obsession” with blacks, and I go from board to board ..lurking? (laughing) You really are disturbed. I came across this site, one night while I was searching for some additional information related to Egypt. When I entered this site..I was astonished at what I had seen and read. The twisted facts that I read …I had to respond…and I will keep on responding all of these lies. You can read ANY of my posts, there is nothing “racist” within my posts…just FACTS, and it seems as though when “blacks” are confronted with facts, its automatically “racist”. Which is not true. If any of you were sincere in your efforts of study, you wouldnt twist facts to fit your beliefs, resort to name-calling, and call the race card when your confronted with facts that you dont like, and dont want to hear. Go read my posts. See for yourself…its a simple fact of how you and your people twist things and put words in other peoples mouths..afterall, many of you did it here to me…scroll down…read a little. I find it funny that you have the audascity to claim I lurk on “black” boards..can you clarify that ? Where have I been? Who I am , is no “Secret”, and when I post something..it will have my name on it. I encourage you to check the ip#s’ here..do you know how to do that? If so, check and see…then go to these other “black boards” and get the ip#s’…and get back with me. You are very immature. Also, the pallette of narmer…does anyone have a pic of it? I do, I can post it , and show everyone his features. As much as you would like him to be negroid, hes not. Also…no one has still proven the inscription of uni to be a real “fake” or “mistake”. In fact, someone here put a link to the university of chicago egyptology and oriental studies..to refer peopole there for some so called “black” information on egypt. Well, its funny…I used the same website, and encouraged people here to look up the interpretation of the inscription of uni…and suddenly I was a barbaric savage racist..and that website was racist..and the egyptologist breadsted was racist..when I used it…but when your people used it..it wasnt racist. HHHmmmm…thats really going to make people think when they read that. It proves my point of not only the distortion of facts here, but, how anything that doesnt agree with this sites idealogy…is racist. That is hypocritical…and just by that one little mistake(though there have been numerous other contridictions here) of calling me a racist because I used the SAME EXACT SITE THAT YOUR BROTHERS USED AND POSTED A LINK TO…its obvious…what you people really are. In the future, learn history…and dont distort it…and accept history for what it is..because you surely cant change it .In Truth…Sherry
Sherry
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 22:15:28 (EDT)

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I have no interest in disputing the claim that Egypt and not Greece being the seat of western law and I don’t thinbk it really matters, however, in your article you quote a Greek saying: “Ex Africa semper liquid novi” You should be aware that this is Latin and not Greek (and especially not Ancient Greek). You may wish to go back to your sources for the original quote.
Miles
Age: 33, USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:54:03 (EDT)

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I have taken a back seat to read and absorb of the posts. This is a learning experience for me. I have seen my brothers and sisters step to share their wealth of information like true defenders of their heritage and this makes me proud. For sometime, even before reading Diop and others, I have always assumed the indigenous peoples of India to be our kith and kin. There are those early findings of africoid (our as scholars try to cover and say “Negritos”) people in lands far from Mama Africa and I would always wonder. Earlier this year, I conducted a rudimentary study of the Andamanese and now much I have presented and then some have been proven. It is also good to know my people are thinking, in terms, of the global collective of African people. Continue my people to research and write and I will enjoy the fruit of your labor. Bigups to Bros. Nepal, Blackfacts, Curtis, Rodney, Menes and all others who have diligent in their studies and wisdom in their words. As I finish reading, I will provide my perspective! Odabo. One Love!!!
Kwabena Adofo Danquah
Minneapolis, MN USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:24:43 (EDT)

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Brother S.R. Nepal, I couldn’t find a way to contact you on your website. In any case, I am putting your a link to your website on my own.
Mack Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 20:05:29 (EDT)

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Blackfacts, thank you for setting it all straight. Respect and Love for Mother Africa!Egyptians were Black. Here is a quote from http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/ancafristates.html “In fact, quite a few historians have postulated that African civilization follows along a continuous path. …there was no interruption of African history. It is evident that, if starting from Nubia and Egypt, we had followed a continental geographical direction, such as Nubia-Gulf of Benin, Nubia-Congo, Nubia-Mozambique, the course of African history would still have appeared uninterruptied. This is the perspective in which the African past should be viewed. Cheikh Anta Diop, African scholar”
Mack Audena
Age: 20, USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 19:55:46 (EDT)

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Now we’re not supposed to refer to the Kamau as being either “black or white.” Is this where we are to be assaulted with assertions of a “multiracial” Kemet after having discovered that there’s copious documentation and a body of informed African-centered scholars and researchers willing to promote the African presence in the Hapi (Nile) Valley? Given the anti-African tirades posted in the recent weeks one can see that europeans and their colored adjuncts still haven’t given up their Hegelian views and their attempts to commit historicide against African people. Read “THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY” by Georg Hegel.Then again this is “intellectual warfare.” And Curtis, thank you for expanding the discussion to the African/Black presence in western Asia. SOUL! PEACE! AND HAIRGREASE!
Rodney Cash Jr.
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 19:05:48 (EDT)

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From “Europa: The History of the White Race” — “Although Hammurabi himself was then clearly a descendent of one of the Nordic tribes and not one of the “black haired” peoples, as the Law Code reveals, by this time large numbers of the population had become distinctly Semitic, as waves of immigrants swarmed in from the Arabic heartland on the Saudi Arabian peninsula, drawn by the allure of the great Sumerian cities.” —– These “Aryans” are sad. Not one source on the web from any Mesopatamian Departments of any universities, translates “black-headed” as black-haired.” Why do the Aryans twist the translation. All the sources that translate it as black-headed, are from whites. So are the white people in a grand conspiracy with the Afrocentrists? The neo-nazi argument is just plain stupid. Also, no other sources state that Hammurabi was a Nordic. If anything he was a semite. No modern day Assyriologist would be so foolish as to claim that these people were Nordics. It is true that he is called the white king, but he was hardly Scandinavian, germanic, or anything closely resembling these people. The Nordics were still wearing bearskins and calling themselves berserkers at this time. The Viking peoples were some of the most barbaric in Europe, and some of the last to be “civilized.” Before the 1100’s A.D. what did any Nordic (Germanic or Scandinavian) ever do to “advance civilization.” My friends, the nazi’s are jokers, and their fellow Europeans consistently prove it.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 18:11:52 (EDT)

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Thanks for the replies. More about the artwork: on a website referred to previously in this discussion (click my name to get to the page) there is a picture of Ramses II holding captives by the hair. Here we have Egyptian, Nubian, and Asian all in the same picture. While the Egyptian and Asian both are painted using exactly the same “Egyptian red” pigment, the Nubian is clearly differentiated in terms of skin color as he is much darker than the rest of the figures. One other artwork I’d like to point out – which was not on the website – is a famous chest from Tutankhamen’s tomb showing Tut slaying enemy armies. Tut’s army is fighting Nubians on one side of the chest and Asiatics on the other. It is clear that the Egyptians are physically different from both enemies, but in terms of color they appear closer to the Asiatics. By the way, just to make my stance clear, I believe it is inaccurate to call Egyptians either black or white. Take care.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:57:41 (EDT)

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Mr. Tohme. You’ve already proven yourself racist in earlier posts (The Arab rants) with your statements of Africans being underdeveloped and sarcastic tones to black people ever being in positions of power. Incidentally the Arabs had much the same to say about their Berber cousins, some of whom are black but many of whom are some variety of white. But anyway…you stated: “A suggestion for people in this forum: please find pictures of the ancient Faiyum portraits. There are many portraits that are of native Egyptians, and some of these have dark-skin, tightly-curled hair and relatively full lips (as in some but not all Greek descriptions), but at the same time could never be mistaken for a West African or even an Ethiopian.” REALLY? SOUNDS LIKE BLACK FOLKS TO ME?!?! You been to West Africa? You’ve seen ALL West Africans? You seen ALL Ethiopians? Ever been to Ethiopia? And perhaps the ancient Egyptians did not look predominantaly like West Africans. Does that instantly make them non-black? Is West Africa the only habitable place in Africa? Groups like the Fulani claim descent from East Africa. So do the Yoruba of Nigeria. Why did the Egyptians draw the people of Punt so identical to themselves? Why do many Ethiopian medieval paintings draw themselves with very light skin and straight noses? Ever seen a picture of the late Haile Selassie? How bout Menelik II? You also state, “They show many lighter-skinned Egyptians, too.” Come to my family reunion sometime Tohmey—I’ll show ya’ folks that range from chocolate deluxe to mocha to french vanilla. And guess what? They’re ALL BLACK! Classify us as Hamites, Bantus, Negroes or what have you. Try as one might, you cannot wash off Mother Africa. HUMANITY is AFRICAN Tohme. You and Sherry betta stop running. And please, in following in the ways of Egyptians and other Africans—respect your black ancestors. Its the least you could do…
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:47:29 (EDT)

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More on Sumerian Blacks (BTW these were written by the black-headed peoples themselves. Most scholars agree that the “black” refers to skin color not to hair since most of the people in that region were dark-haired). —— The swift runner, a hurricane — the strength of his loins is never ending, who emerges victorious from the race among the settlements; the terrifying one, who is furious in his running, the strongest among those selected from the people, ……. When he stretches his arms out, …… at his sides. Culgi, …… from the horizon. Because of his being most powerful, in his vigour ……. He, the tireless one, …… the road. No king ever cared so much for the black-headed people; he established justice on a grand scale.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:45:09 (EDT)

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Black Sumerians – http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr2412.htm —– In the Gagiccua of the great palace, where she renders verdicts with grandeur, he made the great mother Ninlil glad. Enlil and Ninlil relished it there. In its great dining-hall, the trustworthy hero chosen by Nunamnir made them enjoy a magnificent meal: the E-kur was rejoicing. They looked with approval at the shepherd Ur-Namma, and the Great Mountain decreed a great destiny for Ur-Namma for all time, making him the mightiest among his black-headed people. 12-21In the E-tarsirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, my lady, render verdicts and decree judgements. Bau, in the E-tarsirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, Bau, render verdicts and decree judgements. The …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in the holy city. Bau, the …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in the holy city.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:42:16 (EDT)

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Oh yeah, to Sherry. One of the reasons the Narmer bust was related to Narmer is because it DOES resemble the thick lipped and “bulbous” nosed figure on the celebrated Narmer pallette! I guess we each see what we want to see eh’ STURMfront? Narmer comes from the south, where predynastic kings had set up their own kingdom in Upper Egypt. A visit to modern day Egypt will show Upper Egypt to still very “Africoid” in make up when compared to Lower Egypt. As the Egyptians themselves claim they come from the South, Like Narmer and the Horus kings and Souls of Neken, I suppose then that blond haired whites with white skin migrated from inner Africa eh? Woulda been heck on them when Ra made his ascent…. You’re silly. If you wasn’t such a little Nazi… I’d find you humorous… What happened Sherry? Got tired of haunting the other black boards? For those that don’t know Sherry makes a habit of popping up on black boards and lurks silently in black listservs waiting to pounce. Her obsession with black people and black people’s business is truly disturbing…
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:36:09 (EDT)

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Dark, dusky, swarthy or black—all have been terms used to describe blacks. In the Greek quotes I gave you, Aristotle compares the Egyptians and Ethiopians in having the same skin color. He sees himself, the Greek, as having the medium tone. Replace black with dusky, swarthy, etc. and the comparisons are still there. And as for differentiations between artistic drawings of Nubians and Egyptians, well for one—they weren’t always so. Often times the Egyptians painted Nubians in their same red ochre. In the reliefs of the people of Punt (modern day Somalia or Eritrea) the people are also drawn nearly identical to the Egyptians. Point is, I have seen numerous pictures depicting Egyptians and Nubians. And in many the Nubians are portrayed with black skin and very kinky hair. The Egyptians are portrayed with reddish brown skin and VARIOUS hair types–straight and kinky. But, having red-brown skin DOES NOT make the Egyptians non-black or non-African! All Africans DO NOT have jet black skin. In fact, the portrayal of Nubians in this manner is common during a certain New Kingdom period, and not the entire 3,00 year old dynasty. Why this stereotype of Nubians with very black skin, exceedingly thick lips and blonde wigs during this time period? It is unknown. Point is, it doesn’t make the Egyptians any less Africoid. No more than it makes the Bedja of Somalia, the brown skinned Fulani of West Africa, or the slender thin nosed/lipped Tutsi non-Africoid. New York police sketch detective Frank Domingo (a man who has done numerous race profiles) could not help but be reminded of Puerto Rico as he walked the streets of modern day Cairo and Luxor. The African stamp upon many of the faces was obvious. As I have walked those streets myself, I was reminded of the same thing. It was like walking through the Dominican Republic or Brazil. The Africoid stamp was still evident on MANY of the modern day inhabitants of Egypt. The black skinned Nubians the New Kingdom Egyptians chose to portray are today very brown skinned (take a trip to Aswan sometime) and in fact look very much like the many reddish-brown peoples who can be found on the walls throughout ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt of today is a land of many different peoples who have settled in the region. Hate to break it to you, but black people do not all have “black” skin, very thick lips, kinky hair, etc. We have all the varieties in the world— because in case you didn’t know, we’re the oldest people on the planet. Modern day Egyptians can claim to be WHATEVER they want to be. Its the politics of the world we live in. Better to be anything than black. So everyone from the very intermixed modern day Egyptians to some Somali to some Ethiopians to some black Brazlians to Tiger Woods—don’t want to be black. That’s politics talking. If you’re white you’re alright. If you’re black—jump back! If politics was different, everybody today would be beatin’ down the black door. You, Sherry and Iskander keep on lumping all Afrocentrics together. I do not fully agree with the KMT meaning “black people” statement. Neither do I think that ALL of Egypt was black. All of Egypt was not black just as ALL of Greece was not white. But Egypt was “PREDOMINANTALLY black” is what I contend; and you may take that in all the variants of black that exist in the Western Hemisphere today. You look at the “claimed” bust of Nefertiti and say “white girl.” I look at the bust of a queen who was supposedly of Persian or Mittani and Egyptian heritage and say, “Mariah Carey.” For further explanation look up the term “high yella” in Leroy’s Urbanite Dictionary… Suffice it to say, if there were no black Africans who sat upon the thrones of Egypt—then there are no Africans in the United States, the Caribbean or South America. >>>>>>>>>>>”The way of looking at the world to be found in, say the Hebrew Bible or in Babylonia literature or amongst the Greeks is very different from anything you find in Egypt. And that difference is its Africaness.”—Bruce Williams, Egyptologist/Nubiologist (white)
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:26:06 (EDT)

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Link between black Indians and Sumerians from the following website: http://www.tamilnation.org/forum.htm 1.Tamil people are compared with the Sumerians: ” The people responsible for the first monumental temples and palaces, for the founding of the first city states and most likely for the invention of writing (all in the period of 3100-3000 BCE) are the Sumerians. The first written signs are pictographic, so they can be read in any language and one can’t infer a particular language. …..The Sumerians called their country ken.gi(r) ‘civilised land’, their language eme.gir and themselves sag.gi6.ga ‘the black-headed ones ‘Sumerian’ has no known relation to any other language. There seems to be a remote relationship with Dravidian languages (like spoken by the Tamils, now in the south of India). There is evidence that the Dravidian languages were spoken in the north of India, being displaced by the arrival of the Indo-European invaders around 1500 BCE. Because of the term ‘the black-headed ones’, it is possible (but far from proven) that the Sumerians are an early branch of one of the people now living in southern India.” In my view, if Tamil linguistic experts are involved in research to decode the Sumerian languages, there must be some interesting finding. The western historians, in my view, are handicapped because of their limited knowledge of literary Tamil. Of course, we the Tamils may not be able to understand even the Sangam Tamil… the biggest generation gap in our language! 2. Some of the Sumerian towns had names that resembles Tamil names ..Ur, Nippur and more so the name “Elam (Tamil Elangai) and the Elamites (people of Elam): The ruins of many famous ancient cities, like Eridu, Ur, Nippur and Kish are now far from the river, but were in the past situated at the river banks.Modern Iran is roughly equivalent to Persia and including in its south-western part ancient Elam. The Elamites are the people of Elam. 3. There is a spurious belief in India that Sanskrit is the oldest language and most languages are derivatives. The word ‘Sans’ and ‘Script’ means ‘without’ ‘script’. Historians indicated that when Aryans brought their oral language, the Dravidians had a well developed language (Tamil) with script and that’s why they called the Aryan language as “Sanscript”. 4. There is another research undertaken by Mr Arunachalam of Tirunelveli District (Winner of the Chief Ministers Award and right now a teacher in Government School), on the question whether the languages spoken by Aborigines in Australia have some relationship with Tamil language. (Interested persons may refer to his book on that subject published by St Xaviers College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli Dt, India). He even suggested that the “boomerang’ used by Aborigines was equivalent to “kalari erithal’ in old Tamil literature which most of us thought as a highest imagination but seems to be reality. I am not a historian but I love the history and more so the History of Tamils. Nantri, Vanakkam and Meendum Santhippom.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:15:41 (EDT)

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A suggestion for people in this forum: please find pictures of the ancient Faiyum portraits. There are many portraits that are of native Egyptians, and some of these have dark-skin, tightly-curled hair and relatively full lips (as in some but not all Greek descriptions), but at the same time could never be mistaken for a West African or even an Ethiopian. They show many lighter-skinned Egyptians, too.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 17:11:26 (EDT)

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If you read the body of ancient Egyptian literature it is clear that skin color was of no concern to the Egyptians, yet the Nile and the land surrounding it was of central importance. It is impossible for me to believe they would have made skin color the central point of their identity, rather than the fertile strip of land which was of utmost importance to their civilization and way of life. Like Iskander said, in Egypt there were dichotomous terms kemit (“black land”, fertile Nile valley) and deshret (“red land”, desert). If you take kemit to mean “land of black people”, then the word “deshret” would cease to make sense, unless you believe there were red people running around in the desert. And since the Egyptians had neighbors much darker than themselves, as their art shows, calling themselves “the black people” would have been utterly illogical. It would be useless because the term would not have differentiated them from their darker neighbors. If the Egyptians ever used skin color terms to denote ethnic groups, they would have applied “black” to Nubians, not Egyptians.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:53:32 (EDT)

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Although I hate the biblical references, and I do not like the politics of the writer, I will post this any way for the historical record. This is from http://www.larouchepub.com/lar_go_with_flow_2546.html — The primary sources show Sumer to be a settlement by a non-Semitic, “black-headed people,” of the Dravidian language-group. The internal evidence corresponds to Herodotus’ accounts of a Subcontinent-based (Shatki-Siva) maritime culture of the Dravidian language-group, which Herodotus associates with such locales as Yemen (Aththar), Ishtar (Mesopotamia), and Canaanite (Astarte). The Isis-Osiris cult is recognized as part of the same cultural set, as also the Phrygian Cybele-Dionysos, and Delphi Gaea-Python (Apollo) cult. The gross evidence is, that the Subcontinent-based branch of this Dravidian-language-group culture, associated with Harappa, went into decline during a period corresponding to some time during the Third Millennium B.C., a period corresponding to the growing influx of the Indo-European, Vedic culture, originating proximately from a relatively less arid period in Central Asia. The Semitic cultures of more recent times are by-products of the interaction between Egyptian culture and Dravidian-based influences such as those encountered in the Akkadians, Yemen, Ethiopia, and Canaan. Thus, whereas the original Hebrew, Mosaic faith is associated with Egypt, the Hebrew tradition following the first Babylonian captivity (accounting the Persian as the second Babylonian captivity) is mixed, syncretically, with the imposition of elements of the pagan mythologies of the Akkadians.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:45:36 (EDT)

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An excellent site for ancient Black global history (1) http://orion.it.luc.edu/~cwinter/ — (2)
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:42:16 (EDT)

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Greetings all. I stumbled upon your site. I could not help but notice that the website you sent us by the Egyptian fellow spoke of the ancient Egyptians being related to the Dravidians. How humorous. You know the late great Cheikh Anta Diop said that those who did not favor an African Egypt often found themselves running from one black type (so-called Hammites) to another black type (Dravidian). Well guess what? I’m of Dravidian as well as modern African heritage myself. I guess I bridge both lands. Not suprising at all that Herodotus would state, “There are two Ethiopias—one to the south and the other to the East.” Here’s a page by the ever fighting Dravidian with whom I also share descent. If you are really Egyptian (native) as you say Iskander, then if you’re of Dravidian heritage—you’re certainly NO ARYAN! Being white is NOT always right!!!! This one’s for Sherry as well…since she seems to be so fond of Aryans and their ilk. Visit the site of my people’s resistance. Black People of the WORLD…UNITE AND FIGHT! http://dalitstan.org/journal/ BLACK AMERICANS FIRST AND FOREMOST! GO TO THIS SITE SO WE CAN LEARN OF EACH OTHER AND UNITE!!!
S.R. Nepal
– Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:40:32 (EDT)

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I take issue with the quotes that our friend “blackfacts” supplied. Clearly Iskander pointed out that words Greeks sometimes used to describe Egyptians, such as “melas” and “melanochroes”, should be translated as “dark-complected” (and not “black”) in English, and this is proven by the fact that Homer described the Greek hero Odysseus (Ulysses) using the exact same words but many ancient portrayals exist to show Odysseus was neither black nor negro nor negroid. So if you replace the word “black” in blackfacts’ quotes by the word “dark”, the translations will be more accurate. The Greek writer Manilius clearly said the Egyptians had a “medium” skin tone and differentiated them from the black of Ethiopians. So that’s what the Egyptians were, “medium-toned”, just like they were portrayed themselves in their artwork relative to other peoples.
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:33:05 (EDT)

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In his book “The Destruction of Black Civilization,” Chancellor Williams claimed that the original Sumerians were black. Unfortunately this book contained almost no footnotes, endnotes, or other source references. Until now, I have been unbale to find something that substantiates his statements. But Samuel Noah Kramer (who was Clark Research Professor Emeritus of Assyriology at the University of Pennsylvania and Curator Emeritus of the Tablet Collections at the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.) proves (to my satisfaction) the Mr. Williams assertions were true.—————- DISCLAIMER: The information to follow comes from a (supposedly) Christian website. I have not reviewed their theological material and I am IN NO WAY promoting this site from a religious standpoint. My SOLE purpose is to offer more proof that the original inhabitants of Sumeria were black. Some parts may seem racist, but look beyond it and see what the facts are really saying. BTW, for the neo-Nazis, Mr. Kramer is white and is in now way associated with the Afrocentric movement ————– http://www.custance.org/noah/curse.html —— APPENDIX– WAS CANAAN A TRUE BLACK?– The evidence now seems to indicate the presence in Mesopotamia, in very early times, of three distinct groups of people: the Sumerians, the Elamites, and a very small group referred to as Japhethites, known especially for the fairness of their skin. The two dominant groups were the Elamites, the first settlers who spread northwards, and the Sumerians in the south, who brought with them new civilizing influences leading to considerable cultural advance. The Table of Nations clearly indentifes the first settlers as the children of Elam, a son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). But there is no mention whatsoever of Sumerians. There is this note, however, that there was a “mighty one in the earth” named Nimrod, whose kingdom began in the land of Shinar. (Gen. 10: 8-11). Nimrod, whose name is found in Sumerian tradition, was the son of Cush, as son of Ham, and his uncle would be Canaan. No one has ever suggested, to my knowledge, that the Sumerians were Negroid – nor do any of the reconstructed “Sumerian Life and Times” series such as have appeared in the National Geographic Magazine, or Life, ever so portray them. Yet there is some evidence to suggest that they may have been black-skinned. According to Samuel Kramer they refer to themselves as “the blackheaded people.” Actually the Sumerian original reads “head-of-black people,” the symbol for head (SAG) being a cone-shaped hat hiding all but the neck of the wearer, thus: Hammurabi, in his famous Code of Laws, also refers to the natives of Mesopotamia as A-NA SALMAT GAGGADIM, i.e., “blackheaded ones.” Such descriptive phrases are, I think, usually taken to mean merely “dark-haired.” But it seems likely that 95% or more of all the people who made up the early Middle East cultures were black-haired, whether Semitic or Sumerian, and so this feature was hardly a distinguishing one. But the Semitic population according to A. H. Sayce distinguished themselves (with racial pride) from other peoples by their own light coloured skin, and claimed that Adam too was a white man. They considered themselves direct descendants. Yet they had black hair like the Sumerians and would not be different in this. They might therefore just as well have been termed “blackheaded people.” But they apparently never were. Evidently, then, it would be no mark of distinction to refer to the hair colour, but it would definitely be such to refer to skin colour. And the Sumerians were apparently proud of their black skin. Gadd says they came to equate the term “black-headed people” with the idea of “men” as real people by contrast with other human beings who were not really men at all. It is further to be noted that the founders of the wonderful Indus Valley cultures were black-skinned, and not merely black-haired. The Rig Veda makes frequent reference to the fact that the conquering Aryans triumphed over these black and noseless (!) enemies. And there does seem to be some real connection, if not racial identity, between the Sumerians and these Indus Valley people. It may well be, therefore, that the phrase does really refer to skin colour. Furthermore, in the famous six-sided prism of Sennacherib, the king refers to the conquered Canaanites as “blackness of head people.” From all this, it can be concluded with reasonable assurance that, genetically, Canaan could indeed have been a black child, the homozygous offspring of his mulatto parents, Ham and his wife.
Curtis
Age: 27, Brooklyn, NY USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 16:16:59 (EDT)

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And since the mysterious Egyptian Iskander decided to throw up some Greek quotes…couldn’t help but throw a few in myself. ———————————>>>>>> {“They (the Ethiopians) say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony…And the larger part of the customs of the Egyptians are, they hold, Ethiopian…” (Diodorus Siculus, Book III. 2. 4-3. 3)} {“Those who are too black are cowards, like for instance, the Egyptians and Ethiopians. But those who are excessively white are also cowards as we can see from the example of women, the complexion of courage is between the two.” (?) (Aristotle, _Physiognomy_, 6)} {“Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because of that the body of itself creates, because of disturbance by heat, like loss of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations…” (Aristotle, _Problemata_ 909, 7)} {Lycinus (describing an Egyptian): ‘this boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin…his hair worn in a plait shows that he is not a freeman.’ Timolaus: ‘but that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus. All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood…’ (Lucian, _Navigations_, paras 2-3)} {Dialogue: “Aegyptos conquered the country of the black-footed ones and called it Egypt after himself” (Apollodorus, Book II, paras 3 and 4)} {Dialogue: Danaos (describing the Aegyptiads): ‘I can see the crew with their black limbs and white tunics.’ (Aeschylus, _The Suppliants_, vv. 719-20, 745)}
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 15:40:56 (EDT)

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Sorry Iskander, if that is indeed your REAL name… 🙂 But like genetic frequencies, craniometrics can have a high degree of variable interpretation. Here is another take on the classification of ancient Egyptian craniology. Clicking on the website at the bottom of the post will give you more information. And oh yes, here’s an interesting peice of trivia. Anthropologist Morton in the early 1900s took crainiometric measurements and determined that blacks were supposedly of lesser intelligence. His theory has since been proven bogus though white supremacists love to bring it up from time to time. What is of interest is that for his white sample of skulls he used Nordic, blond haired, blue-eyed types (Sherry’s master race…). For the black “negroid” types he used…yup you guessed it…ancient Egyptian skulls. And that’s a blackfact. _________________________________________________________________________ James Harris and Edward Wente conducted an x-ray analysis of the New Kingdom royal mummies with the results published in their book X-ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1980). Included in the work were cephalograms of Pharaohs of the XVII-XX Dynasties and their queens. The angular measurements presented in tabular form in pp. 358-363 will be used here to compare the Pharaohs in craniofacial terms to tropical African types such as the Nubians. We will analyze all the data of the New Kingdom Pharaohs in terms of ANB (A point-nasion-basion) and SN – Mand. Pl. (sella-nasion/gonion-menton). Also, the three images available on Edward Wente’s website, Who was Who among the Royal Mummies, will be analyzed in more details for their correspondence with Africans to the south. Harris and Wente note the prevalence of dental prognathism among Nubians. Often this is combined with malocclusion. Similar incidence can be found in other African peoples. For example, one study found that a sample taken from the Kenya showed 61.3% of Maasai had diastema; 84% of Kikuyu had overbite and 99% had overjet; and 24% of Kalenjin had anterior open bite. (J. Hassanali, GP Pokhariyal, “Anterior tooth relations in Kenyan Africans, Archives of Oral Biology 38 [Apr 1993] 337-42). Although these dental traits can often be acquired through habits like thumb-sucking, as noted by Harris and Wente, the high frequency in the royal mummies indicates a genetic origin as found in Africans. Studies have shown that persons of African descent tend to have greater projection of the alveolar region as compared to the lower mouth. The difference in projection measured as ANB (A point-nasion-B point) and research on persons of African descent has shown ranges from 5.5 to 4.3. In comparison with Caucasians, the values were from about 1.5 to 2 times greater (see Alexander et al., 1978; Downs,1948; Fonseca et al.,1978; Steiner, 1959). After studying all the data, particularly after analyzing the computerized ethcings, one can certainly see that the royal mummies displayed high frequencies of African traits shared with most Africans. Thus, the royal mummies display a strong southern affinity just like other ancient Egyptians of all classes studied by Cheikh Anta Diop, Larry Angel and Shomarqa Keita. See the links below for the tables of data and results, or click on the detailed analysis of the three images from Who was Who among the Royal Mummies. For diagrams and more see here: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Temple/9845/mummies.htm
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 15:29:39 (EDT)

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Iskander, I believe that Blackfacts explained what I was saying better than I ever could. The genetics research is not in opposition to what we Afrocentrist were saying. The website, like many others (as you can see from Blackfacts posting), twisted the trueth. If you are using our current concept of race then the Egyptians, like the present day Nubians and Ethiopians, were black Africans. However, you can believe as you wish.
Mack Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 14:36:39 (EDT)

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Before Sherry “Stormfront” white supremacist finds a way to pollute this as well…————-> >Genes hint Africa’s Khoisan world’s oldest people > > By Emma Thomasson > > > CAPE TOWN, Sept 23 (Reuters) – Genetic studies of the Khoisan population of > southern Africa suggest the group could be the world’s most ancient people, > > adding weight to the “Out of Africa” theory of human evolution, scientists > said on Thursday. > > “The Africans who were the earliest humans were likely to be more closely > related to modern Khoisan humans than any others,” Professor Trefor Jenkins, > geneticist at the South African Institute for Medical Research, told Reuters > in an interview. > > Jenkins said changes in mitochondrial DNA showed that modern Khoisan people > have retained some of the genes of human ancestors from 100,000 to 120,000 > years ago while the genes of Eurasian people stretch back only 40,000 to > 60,000 years. > > Mitochondrial DNA is a genetic marker only inherited from the mother. > > Jenkins’ colleague, Dr Himla Soodyall, said the discovery provided further > proof of the “Out of Africa” theory that modern humans evolved from a > common ancestor in Africa and spread across the world between 180,000 and > > 90,000 years ago. > > “What we have found is that some of the most ancient genetic signatures are > still carried in the genes of modern Khoisan people,” she said. “The > hypothesis that seems to be the most favoured is that modern humans evolved > in Africa and a subset of these people left Africa to colonise the rest of > the world.” > > KHOISAN ALL BUT WIPED OUT > > The Khoisan people are indigenous to southern Africa, but have been all but > wiped out as a distinct group after centuries of persecution by European > settlers and competition with other tribes who migrated south from central > Africa. > > A small number of Khoisan maintain their traditional hunter-gatherer > lifestyle on reserves. But the majority have been subsumed into South > Africa’s mixed-race or coloured population and have lost their rich language > > and culture. > > Jenkins said his team was also studying part of the male “Y” chromosome > which showed that Khoisan people and some groups in Ethiopia and Sudan had a > more direct genetic relationship with non-human primates than other > populations on the continent. > > Geneticists estimate that human beings evolved from non-human primates five > to six million years ago and homo sapiens, the modern human being, evolved > between 750,000 and 100,000 years ago. > > “Racists will latch onto this to say it proves Africans are more primitive, > but what it shows is we are looking at modern people who are all descended > from a common ancestor who lived 100,000 to 120,000 years ago,” Jenkins > said. > > Fossils of skeletons about 100,000 years old have been excavated in South > Africa. Scientists have also unearthed sets of fossilised footprints on the > > country’s coast from the same period that appear to have been made by modern > humans. >
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 14:28:43 (EDT)

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Brother /sister Blackfacts: You are absolutely correct, these white supremists just coincidentally popped up all at the same time and their writing is all similar. Very interesting indeed. Anyway, much of your writing seems to come from the book “No Color Lines”. Have you read it? NOTE: This question is not directed to the neo nazi caucasoids! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:44:15 (EDT)

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Here’s a post from a physical anthropologist: This post belongs to P.K. Mansansula: Brace et al’s views about the “trivial” nature of tropical variation is not supported by the evidence. The M-W team “expect” traits like “nasal elevation and elongation,” from long-term residents of the East Horn of Africa, and attempt to prove their point by comparing Europeans with Somalis (who live in a dry environment albeit in the tropics). What they don’t mention is that the Badari, early Naqada and Kerma series possess “blurred margin, platyrrhinism (broad nose), and alveolar prognathism,” (Keita, 1990; also Morant 1925, Stoessiger 1927, Anderson 1968, Strouhal 1971, Chamla 1980) and so did the predominant element of the 1st Dynasty Abydos tombs (Keita 1992, 1993). This agrees with the characteristics of the modern Nubian and Sudanese population and also with the ancient Egyptian iconography. These characteristics, combined with the limb proportions, unjustifiably dismissed by Brace et al, confirm the views of Diop and Keita that the predynastic, early dynastic, Nubian and Sudanese populations are/were of relatively recent tropical African provenance. Egypt is not in tropical Africa, neither are Nubia or Sudan anymore tropical than Somalia. On p. 18, Brace et al state: “From the observation that 12,000 years was not a long enough period of time to produce any noticeable variation in pigment by latitude in the New World and tht 50,000 years has been barely long enough to produce the beginnings of gradation in Australia (Brace 1993a), one would have to argue that the inhabitants of the Upper Nile and the East Horn of Africa have been equatorial for many tens of thousands of years.” This statement, of course, makes the assumption that these peoples were originally white and from the North! If Brace et al do believe in an African genesis of modern humans in tropical Africa (i.e., Ethiopia) why would there be an assumption that those of “the Upper Nile and the East Horn of Africa” would require adaptation rather than the lighter-skinned northern coastal peoples? Brace et al also mention a “circum-Mediterranean basin” in which they attempt to relate the peoples of the Northern Mediterranean with those of North Africa. This again contradicts all the evidence which show that the Maghreb, E, Sedment and other N. African series had great variation, to include tropical and “mulatto” forms that are rare, if found at all, in the N. Mediterranean. The evidence does not support a closer relationship between the northern coastal (Saharan) type with southern Europe than with populations immediately to the south, who shared the same trait of high variability. References Brace et al, “Clines and Clusters vs. “Race”” _Yearbook of Physical Anthropology_, vol. 36, 1993. Diop, C.A., “Historie primitive de l’Humanite: Evolution du monde Moir,” Bulletin de l’Institut francaise d’Afrique Noire, 24, 449. 1962. Ruggeri-Giuffrida, V., “Were the pre-Dynastic Egyptians Lybian or Ethiopians?” _Man_ 32 1915. Ruggeri-Giuffrida, V., “A few notes on Neolithic Egyptians and the Ethiopians.” _Man_, 55, 1916. Keita, S.O.Y., “Further Studies of Crania from Ancient Northern Africa: An Analysis of Crania from First Dyansty Egyptian Tombs, Using Multiple Discriminant Functions” _American Journal of Physical Anthropology_ 87:245-254, 1992. ____, “Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa,” _American Journal of Physical Anthropology_, 83: 35-48, 1990. ____, “Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships,” _History in Africa_ 1993. Morant, S.G., “The predynastic Egyptian skulls from Badari and their racial affinities,” IN G. Brunton (ed.) _Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture_ 1937. Robins, G. and Shute C. Predynastic Egyptian stature and physical proportions” _Journal of Human Evolution_ 4:313-324, 1986. Strouhal, E. “Une contribution a la question du caratere de la population prehitorique de la haute-Egypte” _Anthropolgie_, 6, 1968. ____, “Evidence of the early penetration of negroes into prehistoric Egypt,” _Egyptian Journal of African History_, 12: 1-9, 1971. [continued] The Brace et al. article is all too alarming in that it appears in a peer-reviewed journal leveling charges of racism against a scholar who spent his life breaking down theories of racial superiority, and the practice of these theories in institutional racism. J.D. Walker states in “The Misrepresentation of Diop’s Views,” _Journal of Black Studies_, Vol.26, No. 1, Sept. 1995, 77-85: “The charge of racism is alway serious and is interesting in light of Brace et al. calling Rushton a “racialist,” a term rarely seen in American writing or heard on American media, and therefore apt to be confusing. The charge that Diop was an inverted racist is countered by the fact, among others, that he was married to a “White” French woman. (Are there any Ku Klux Klan members married to Nigerians?). Diop was an internationalist who cited and had great respect for works of various European writers. He made it quite clear that culture, not “race,” was his primary interest. Diop never said that “Blacks” were genetically superior, which would be racist, although such sentiments divorced from real power can only be judged morally and not from the economic, psychological, and physical damage that anti-Black racism has actually done. The road to Damascus is long. Diop’s widow deserves an apology.” (p.78) Brace et al., like Cavalli-Sforza and company, have attempted to replace the old phenotype concept with a new one of “clusters and clines.” On the surface, these specialists are made out to be anti-racist as they belong to the “no-race” school. But a deeper examination shows that the “clusters and clines” they propose are often only a resurrection of older ideas of the “Great White Race.” Cavalli-Sforza, for example, has tried to relate his genetic research to verify the Indo-European family proposed by Greenberg, and has even shown some inklings toward the more moderate Nostracists. Basically, these “no-race” scholars have been cementing the old concept of a linguistically, and now, genetically, related group of “Caucasoids” (although Brace sometimes avoids this term) speaking mostly Indo-European (IE). At the same time, the older typological language groups have been broken into numerous units, supposedly unrelated not only linguistically but also genetically. Cavalli-Sforza has tried to relate the North Africans to the Southern Europeans, and Brace et al. do the same: “The latter in turn show ties with the inhabitants of the circum-Mediterranean basin past and present.” In fact, this is only a repetition of older theories of Seligman and others who followed the “Aryan Model” described by Bernal. The problem is, despite denying the existence of race according to phenotype, Brace et al. use a phenogram to show ancient Egyptians, Nubians, Somalis, etc., are not related to those in tropical Africa! They ignore the possibility of relationship despite variance (or with variability) as Walker points out regarding the stereotype concept of the “Negro”: “…Negro, like Nordic, should be understood as denoting one ensemble of traits or anatomical trends in the numerous interconnected populations of Saharo-tropical Africa, or just Africa. The “Negro” physiognomy has no priveleged place in the pantheon of African human variation. It does not define African (see Gabel, 1996; Hiernaux, 1975). Brace et al. have a monotypic a priori definition of biological Africans.” Brace et al. set out to prove what cannot be proven by the methods they use, according to their own stated beliefs. Differences in phenotype, by their own standards, cannot show that tropical Africans are unrelated in any way — genetically, culturally, historically–from the peoples of Egypt and the Horn of Africa. Yet this is what they try and do. If they had understood Diop’s model, they would know that all peoples are related, but that tropical Africans and Egyptians, Nubians, etc., are *coextensive* in a variety of ways. This is, of course largely supported by the geographic facts. The “Nilo-Hamitic” (Cushitic) languages spoken by Egyptians, Nubians, Sudanese, and among populations in Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, and as far south as Tanganyika. These peoples are coextensive with the Semitic speakers and Chadic speakers in a microlinguistic sense, but not at all with the people of southern Europe. Furthermore, the pyramid tombs found from Ethiopia to Egypt through the Sahara are only one point of correspondence between the AfroAsian cultures of Africa. The Nile River has also been a line of communication between cultures to the North and South, not only in the historical period, but in the prehistoric as well. While Brace et al. asserts the Africoid-like qualities in the Horn of Africa are due to climatic adaptation (by whites?!), they don’t consider the possibility that cranial traits among the northern coastal peoples, as Keita calls them (Keita 1990, 1992, 1993) may also be variation from peoples related to tropical Africans. Walker points this out clearly: “For example, the M-W team explains the clustering of certain cranial series with ones from Europe as being the result of gene flow/migration from Europe without discussing the more likely explanation that the biological characters responsible for the similarity are the result of convergence or chance. This is Seligmanish and nonevolutionary.” (p. 79) Indeed, this hearkens back to theories of the physical variability of “Caucasoids” as opposed to the static, fixed “Negroids,” “Mongoloids,” etc. The old “Dark White” theory proposed that whites could adapt dark skins, broad noses, thick lips, etc., while traits like narrow noses, thin lips, fair skins, etc., were evidence, even when found in isolation, of white intermixture or even white provenance! Yet in examining the ancient Egyptians, Brace et al. ignore the fact that the predynastic Egyptian, early dynastic and Nubian crania all show evidence of tropical adaptation such as broad noses and long, gracile limbs. Other traits they shared with typical tropical African types were alveolar prognathism and blurred nasal margin. (Keita 1992) Such traits have been widely acknowledged in non-Afrocentric works, albeit sometimes with the opprobrium that predynastic population were ruled by a “Caucasoid” ruling class. Indeed we are getting a clear picture of the importance the areas to the South may have played in forming the Egyptian civilization. Recent discoveries have revealed the first tool manufacturing society was located in Zaire. Remains showing similarity to some groups found in Nubia and South Egypt have been found at Gamble’s Cave (Kenya) dating back to 11,000 ot 9,000 B.C.E. (Walker 1995) It was at this time that evidence of movement out of Africa into the Near East has been discovered, possibly connected to the spread of the Afro-Asiatic languages (Bar Yosef, 1987). The direct origin of Egyptian dynastic civilization has been traced to the Nubians, who are closer in phenotype to peoples of sub-Saharan Africa than anyone in Europe or even to northern coastal types. Clyde Ahmad Winters states: “The A-Group people were caled Steu “bowmen.” The Steu had the same funeral customs, pottery, musical instruments, and related artifacts as did the Egyptians. Williams (1987, pp.173, 182) believes that the Qustul pharoahs are the Egyptian rulers referred to as the Red Crown rulers in ancient Egyptian documents. Williams (1987) gives six reasons why he believes that the Steu of Qustul founded Kemetic civilization: 1. direct progessin of royal complex designs from Qustul to Hierakonpolis to Abydos; 2. Egyptian objects in Naqada III a-b tombs; 3. no royal tombs in Lower and Upper Egypt; 4. pharoahic monuments that refer to conflict in Upper Egypt; 5. inscriptions ofthe ruler Pe-Hor that are older than Iry-Hor of Abydos; and 6. the 10 rulers of Qustul, 1 at Hierakonpolis, and 3 at Abydos corrspond to the “historical” kings of the late Naqada period. The findings of Williams support the findings of Diop (1991) because we also understand better now why the Egyptian term royalty etymologically means: (the man) who comes from the South=n y swt=who belongs to the South= who is a native of the South=the King of Lower Egypt, and has never meant just King; in other words king of Lower and Upper Egypt, King of all Egypt. (p.108)” References Bar Yosef, O. (1987) Pleistocene connexions between Africa and Southwest Asia. _African Archaeological Review_, 5, 29-38. Seligman, C.G., (1930) _The races of Africa_, Oxford. Winters, Clyde Ahmad (1994) Valid frame of reference, _Journal of Black Studies_, December 1994. (see previous posts for further references) [continued] Brace et al. and the ‘Dark White’ Theory The Brace et al. article (see previous posts) revives in a subtle, and sometimes not so subtle way the old ‘Dark White’ theory of Bernal’s Aryan Model. The idea that modern humans in Africa were originally “Caucasoid” and that they evolved into “blacks,” stems from the old Aryan Model, and it is the same argument used by the anti-Afrocentric side in the UNESCO conference on African history (See _UNESCO General History of Africa_ vol. II). Brace et al. suggest this scenario when they offer a time line for Somalis and other East Africans to “adapt” their skin pigment to the tropical African climate. The history of these ideas is based on a number of fallacies. One example is the classification of Neanderthals as primitive Caucasoids. This despite such non-Caucasoid traits as broad nose, prognathism and short squat stature. Indeed, the platyrrhine noses of Neanderthals suggest tropical adaptation according to the theories set forth by Brace et al. Such classifications were justified on false assumptions that Caucasoids were more highly variable than other races. In a similar fashion, the Austroloid type was also classified as a primitive Caucasoid (and still is by some), and was said to originate in the Mediterranean. However, as Prof. Diop points out in _Civilization or Barbarism_, new evidence shows the Austroloid type was most likely descended from Pithecanthropes of Java through Ngandong man of Java. Also, remains of this type have been found in Australia and Sri Lanka predating similar finds in the Mediterranean. But most important regarding the area around Egypt is the fact that modern humans first appear in Europe as tropically adapted with “super” tropical limb ratios (Trinkhaus, 1981). They do not become fully cold adapted until about the end of the mesolithic (Jacobs 1993). Brace et al. suggest substantial gene flow from Europe as far south as Somalia on a number of occassions: “…the presence of a palpable early German in Late Dynastic Egyptian cemetery exemplifies the contact that the delta region had with the world to the north and west. The contribution that such individuals surely made to the Lower Egyptian gene pool (Bowman, 1986) could well explain why both our dendograms and our discrimination function analysis suggest that the people of Lower Egypt at the end of Dynastic times had more in common with members of our European regional cluster than was true for the inhabitants of Upper Egypt 3,000 years earlier.” (p.21-22) Not only do Brace et al.’s conclusions differ from earlier work by Keita and Hassan, the idea of such significant gene flow is contradicted by other studies. Limb ratios in northern Egypt, Late Stone Age Egypt and predynastic Egypt are all tropically adapted. There is no “northern port of entry” (Walker, 1995) where limb ratios alter due to gene flow from the north. What Brace et al. also ignore is the fact that most of the genetic variation leading to the types described are found in Africa *before* the presence of modern humans in Europe. In fact, examples of possible prototypes can be found in Kenya thousands of years before the predynastic period, and before any evidence of migration from Europe. They also ignore or trivialize the possibility that any similarities between people in N. Africa and Europe may be due to gene flow from South to North rather than vice a versa. Indeed the earliest migrations must have been in this direction as proven by the limb ratios of early modern humans in Europe. Even as late as Phoenician times, the flow seems to have been more South, or Southeast to North/Northwest. Some of the assertions of Brace et al. are simply ridiculous prima facie. For example, their attempt to show Somalis are closer to Europeans than West Africans. (pp. 17-20) Anyone who has seen the images on CNN, etc., from the American fiasco in Somalia will come to the unbiased conclusion that they are pulling our legs. One of the problems with Brace et al. seems to be their excessive reliance of outdated sources from the “Aryan” period: “Blumenbach, however, saw human form as grading without break from one region to another (Blumenbach, 1865). The continuum could be cut however one might choose to suit one’s convenience. The Egyptians who displayed a mixture of “Hindoo” and “Ethiopian” characteristics were not therefore a mixture of separate “primordial” elements but just what would be expected to occur between one region to another. These expectations are precisely what we are defending in our present treatment…” (p.25) The truth is, though, in suggesting substanial gene flow from Europe, and even Germany, they did the exact opposite and betrayed their Aryan Model biases. References Hassan, F. (1988) The predynastic of Egypt. _Journal of World Prehistory_, 2, 135-185. Jacobs, K.H., (1993) Human postcranial variation in the Ukranian mesolithic-neolithic, _Current Anthropology_ 26(4), 512-514. Trinkhaus, E. (1981) Neanderthal limb proportions and cold adaptation, IN C.B. Stringer (ed.) _Aspects of human evolution_, (pp. 187-224), London: Taylor & Francis) Paul Kekai Manansala —————- Sir E.A. Budge “The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and new Stone Ages, was African, and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South.” “There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggest the orignal home of their ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda or Punt.” (Sir E.A. Budge, _Egypt_) “The ancient Egyptians were Africans, and they spoke an African language, and the modern people of Eastern Sudan are Africans, and they speak African languages…” (Sir E.A. Budge, _Ancient Egyptian Hierogyphic Dictionary_) Basil Davidson “That the ancient Egyptians were Black (again, in any variant you may prefer)–or, as I myself think it is more useful to say, were African–is a belief which has been denied in Europe since about 1830, not before. It is a denial, in short, that belongs to the rise of modern European imperialism…” (Basil Davidson, reviewing Martin Bernal’s _Black Athena_) —————- According to Keita (1993): “Paoli (1972) found dynastic mummies to have ABO frequencies most like those of the Northern Haratin, a group believed to be largely descended from the ancient Saharans.” (p.140) Livingstone, in _Abnormal Hemaglobins in Human Populations_, discusses the Haratin in connection with high incidence of hemoglobin S and C in North Africa: “The Haratin, who are the Negroid population in the Saharan oases, are the former slaves of the Touareg and are primarily agriculturalists.” (p. 83) Regarding the Nubians, D. L. Greene and Keita cite Greene, Ruffer and Berry in noting the fourth molar variants, third molar agenesis and in particular the rare sub-maxillary hypocone in suggesting the population stability of the Nile corridor over the period from the Mesolithic to the early historic These traits also show the close relationship between Egyptians and Nubians. The fourth molar variants are traits shared with sub-Saharan Africans.
blackfacts
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:27:37 (EDT)

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How humorous. First we have Sherry, a white supremacist asserting ideas of white Nordic ancient Egyptians. Now we have an actual Egyptian claiming a non-African relation of the ancient Egyptians. Fascinating all these dissenters suddenly “appear” onto this site…all at the same time. Harmonic white convergence I presume? Ah well…let us go on. As for the idea of Mediterranean Egyptians and dark whites……————-> Anthropologist G.A. Dorsey in Race and Civilization stated , “Races do not exist; classifications of mankind do.”7 That is to say, the notion of race is one of invention: an attempt to understand the wide range of human variation. With this in mind it can be said then that the division of race is based heavily on man’s bias. In the controversy regarding ancient Egypt’s origins and predominant culture, the idea of racial classification and the dividing lines between these races is key. For those who do not accept the Semitic origins of ancient Egypt there is yet another racial category in which to place the ancient Egyptians: the Hamite. According to Webster’s New World Dictionary a Hamite can be described as, “a member of any of several usually dark-skinned peoples of N and E Africa, including the Egyptians, Berbers, etc.8” To many this is a general description of a Black African. But to those who perpetuate this Hamitic hypothesis however this is not the case. Rather these Hamites fall conveniently into the category of Caucasian. In his work, Races of Africa, Dr. C.G. Seligman makes the following statement: “…the civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history the record of these peoples and their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushman, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or by such wider pastoralists as are represented at the present day Beja and Somali…The incoming Hamites were pastoral Europeans— arriving wave after wave—better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes. 9” Aside from the obvious racism inherent in this statement, there is a confusing play on words. While Seligman links the “highly civilized Egyptians” with the Beja and Somali, he identifies them as Hamites who themselves are separated from “the Negro and the Bushman.” In fact these Hamites, who may have reached as far as Somalia, are classified as “pastoral Europeans.” A somewhat similar viewpoint is held by Dr. Donald Weidner in his work, A Short History of Africa South of the Sahara: “Caspian types also began to appear in western Kenya. They are known variously as Caspian people, early Cushites or early Hamites…These people, it is believed, migrated northeastward into Arabia and western Asia as well as northwestward into Egypt and North Africa. Recent scholars (notably Joseph H. Greenberg) have suggested that the term Cushite be applied to this parent of the Caucasian race, and that their basic language be Afroasiatic (formerly Hamitic)…Cushites who were developing Caucasian characteristics penetrated Egypt about 5,000 B.C.” Though similar in theme, unlike Seligman, Weidner places these mysterious Hamites as originating in the heart of Africa itself, as far as Kenya., and migrating northward. But in accordance with Seligman he readily identifies them with Caucasians. Thus when these supposed Caucasian cranial traits were found to exist in certain Nile Valley populations, it was assumed that these Africans were either Caucasians or hybrids of Caucasians and Africans. In fact, as seen in the quotes of Seligman and Weidner, it was generally accepted that nearly all African populations had experienced some form of Caucasian admixture.11 These Hamites are also known as members of the Brown race, Mediterranean race, Eurafricans, dark-whites and other contradictory names. In her work, The Myth of the Mediterranean Race Dana Reynolds traces the origins of the Hamitic hypothesis. She begins with the following statement: “The anthropological concept of a Mediterranean Race or Mediterranean Type has long been used to denote long-headed gracile types of men anciently inhabiting the lands around the Mediterranean, and alleged by some of its more extreme proponents to be ancestral to modern Europeans and Caucasoid types in Asia and Africa. It is a concept that has been predicated upon erroneous idea, and sustained by fallacious notions of the processes involved in human biological evolution an morphological variation.” Reynolds asserts in this passage that the concept of Hamites and the like are a fallacy. She attributes this pattern of thought to Orientalist theories regarding the origins of civilization in Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. She begins with a discussion on Guiseppe Sergi, Professor of Anthropology in the University of Rome. It is Sergi she believes who first becomes one of the major proponents of the concept of a Mediterranean Race. Through the usage of craniometric data, Sergi classified the Mediterranean and Eurafrican into three separate subgroupings: the African Hamites, the true Mediterraneans such as Southern Italians, and the Nordic race.13 “In his examination of the Hamite, Sergi found his closest modern relative in East Africa, specifically the Horn of Africa. Reynolds makes the following critique of Sergi’s findings: This so-called Hamite or Abyssinian man was immediately inducted by scholars into the saw no irony in portraying such phenotypically diverse people as the Ba-Himas of Uganda, long-headed Russians, Scandanavians, Italians, and Arabs, as representative of his superfamily of Eurafricans. Phenotypical characteristics like skin coloring and hair form were proclaimed ‘external traits without diagnostic value’ because they were ‘subject to environmental influence.’ At the same time, for Sergi, cranio-facial measurements were not viewed as subject to such influence.” Reynolds attributes much of this erroneous interpretation of data to the fact that scholars believed the form of the human skull was a permanent racial character. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith was the next figure to whom Reynolds attributed the proliferation of the Mediterranean myth. A Professor of Anatomy at Cairo’s Egyptian Museum in the early 1900s, Smith based his findings on his examination of a wide variety of human bodies belonging to predynastic and dynastic Egyptians. His findings revealed what he described as people having an effeminate and frail build, poorly developed eyebrows, small broad noses and slight prognathism.15 Of course it would seem with such words, to many, that Smith is describing an African type. But he classifies these people of predynastic and dynastic times as members of the Brown race and, according to Reynolds, vehemently “rejected the thought of a Negroid or Black affiliation of the type generally called Hamitic or Brown.”16 Reynolds makes the following summary of Smith’s findings: “Smith initially designated this type the Brown race on the basis of the coloring of the ancient Egyptian iconography and, secondly, because of what he considered to be the close osteological and cranial affinities with the mainly Cushitic-speaking peoples of East Africa, now called Bedja, Somali, Beni Amer, and Oroma (Galla) in Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea” In this manner did Smith make the ancient Egyptians non-Africans, placing them in the Caucasian branch of humanity. Of the ancient Egyptians, modern Somali, Bedja and other East African types, he asserted there was only a minor Negroid element . Smith goes further in stating that careful examination of the body of West and Central Africans would reveal a profound gap separating the Negro not only from Egypt, but the rest of mankind. Reynolds takes note that Smith, “harshly criticized William Z. Ripley’s 1899 work— The Races of Europe— for asserting that the entire ancient ‘Mediterranean race’ was descended from ‘African Negroes.'” Carleton S. Coon is the next major advocate of the Mediterranean Race pointed out by Reynolds. Using craniometric analysis he describes this Mediterranean type as, “a man of short stature with a cranial index of 73-75, browridges and bone development weak, short face, variable nasal form, paedomorphic and sexually undifferentiated ‘with a slight negroid tendency.'”20 It is this type he finds to predominate in early Egypt. Reynolds shows that Coon makes an even more grandoise claim of these Mediterranean types. She reveals the following about Coon’s assertion of Mediterranean dominance: “Coon reported that excavations in Kenya and Tanganyika had uncovered the remains of a tall, extremely long-headed Mediterranean type with a tendency to great elongation and narrowness of face. Recognizing the morphometric similarities, with characteristic abandon, Coon pronounced the are of the late stone age sites in East Africa, such as Elmenteita and Naivash, ‘ a second southern periphery of the white racial stock: peripheral in this case to the world of the African Negro.’ He speaks of the East African ‘Hamite’ as being ‘without doubt derived from this Palaeolithic racial type.'” Thus Reynolds shows that Coon made Caucasians not only of the ancient Egyptians and modern East Africans, but early stone age African man as well. Reynolds points out that Coon is not alone in such thought. She documents another specialist in African prehistory, Sonia Cole, in describing the tall dolichocephalic peoples of Gamble’s Cave, Naivasha, and Olduvai, as Caucasoids. It is this manner in which the Hamitic or Mediterranean African is separated from other Africans. And thus by populating Egypt with these Mediterranean-Hamitic types, the culture and people of the region can be designated as non-African. But along with Reynolds, there are a host of scholars who question the validity of this Hamitic hypothesis. Historian Cheikh Anta Diop makes the statement, “Coon’s work contributes nothing new. If all the specimens of races and sub-races described by him lived in New York today, they would reside in Harlem.” In his article The Racial Identity of Ancient Egyptian Populations Based on the Analysis of Physical Remains, Keith Crawford critiques Coon’s findings. In an examination of Coon’s Hamitic hypothesis, Crawford notes the following: “Coon (1965) displays a picture of a Shilluk man with Black skin, ulotrichous (wooly) hair and somewhat thickened lips. Under the photo of this unquestionably “Negroid” person is the caption “A Shilluk with European features…’ To the lay person such a statement is most puzzling. Understand that Coon is referring to features of the cranial anatomy, erroneously thought to have resulted from Caucasoid admixture.” In this passage Crawford reveals the inherent contradictions of Coon’s Hamitic arguments. At the center of this debate is the notion of what many have referred to as the “true Negro.” Diop borrows this term from anthropologists who use this racial classification to differentiate what they term to be Black Africans and Hamites. This “true Negro” has such characteristics as black skin, long arms and legs, tall stature, broad shoulders, narrow hips, black and kinky hair, doliocephalic cranium, considerable prognathism, a flat nose and thick often everted lips.25 This definition holds to the idea that Black Africans share one set morphology which is static and unchanging. Thus one can classify those who do not fit this description precisely enough as Hamites with Caucasian features. But Diop criticizes this monotypic classification of Black Africans in the following statement: “Anthropologists have invented the ingenious, convenient, fictional notion of the ‘true Negro,’ which allows them to consider , if need be, all the real Negroes on earth as fake Negroes, more or less approaching a kind of Platonic archetype, without ever attaining it. Thus African history is full of ‘Negroids,’ Hamites, semi-Hamites, Nilo-Hamitics, Ethiopoids, Sabaeans, even Caucasoids!…If the African anthropologist made a point of examining European races ‘under the magnifying glass,’ he would be able to multiply them ad infinitum by grouping physiognomies into races and sub-races as artificially as his European counterpart does with regard to Africa. He would, in turn, succeed in dissolving collective European reality into a fog of insignificant facts.” Thus Diop holds that the rejection of the idea of the true Negro will do away with the notion of Hamites. Crawford states the following regarding this monotypic classification of Africans: “A critical point to understand when studying the racial makeup of Nile Valley populations is that the full diversity of Africoid variants was not often appreciated by the early anthropologists. What anthropologists called the ‘Negro’ identified only one form of Africoid variant common to the forest zone of West Africa…Other Africoid variants are important to our discussion of Nile Valley populations because their range of distribution overlaps or is in close vicinity with the Nile valley. Their physical traits were likely present in ancient Egyptian populations.” Crawford’s statements reveal one of the fundamental errors in the classification of racial types within Africa and the Nile Valley in particular. Crawford identifies several of these Africoid variants. Two of these he describes as the Elongated African variant and the Nilotic variant.28 He notes that, “the Elongated variant is distinguished by a generalized elongated body, narrow head, face and nose, dark skin and spiralled hair, thick but not everted lips.”29 He identifies these Elongated types with the such groups as the West African-Saharan Fulani, the Great Lakes Region Tutsi and Hima, the Masai of Kenya, the Galla of Southern Ethiopia, Tigreans and Amharas from Ethiopia, Somalis and the Beja of Northern Sudan. Crawford cites Hiernaux as stressing, “there is evidence for the continued presence of Elongated traits since Pleistocene times, with no evidence of gene flow from populations outside of Africa…Elongated traits arose as an adaptation to dry heat.” Crawford also cites Hiernaux in his description of the Nilotic variant who are described, in comparison to the Elongated variant, as taller, more narrow headed, lower and wider nosed, of slender build, long legs and little fat.31 These Nilotic types include the Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk and Anuak who occupy the Nile river basins in the southern Sudanese region.32 In conclusion of these observations Crawford makes the following statement: “The preceding discussion should make it clear that African populations display an entire spectrum of phenotypes including those attributed to being characteristic of other races. This must be the case since all races evolved from an African prototype and it was necessary that this type possess the potential to express multiple traits which could then be modified further by the environment. The so-called ‘true Negro’ does not even represent the majority of African types on the continent.” This passage confirms Crawford’s belief that African populations are “poly” rather than monotypic. In conclusion it can be said that past examinations of Nile Valley remains have yielded faulty conclusions due to erroneous stereotypes of African morphology. Numerous works have shown that Africans do not share one set morphology. Thus deviations of this stereotype are not inherently the products of admixture and thus to be classified as Hamitic, Mediterranean, Eurafrican or Caucasoid.
blackfacts
– Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 13:12:23 (EDT)

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Brothers and sister (BLACK): I leave the attempts to educate the Sherry thing to my brothers like Mack. Actually it increases my knowledge of my people as I read their postings. I however, (not in the least criticism of brother Mack)) believe that youcannot argue with the insane. You cannot argue nor teach a savage barbaric racist neo nazi INBRED neanderthal. A SAVAGE IN A BUSINESS SUIT IS STILL A SAVAGE! Our knowledge of “SELF” is proliferating and the savages inbred savages are panic stricken. The Sherry thing has been busted as a neo nazi! This trailer trash white thing has made a fool of itself by trying to pass itself off as an Egyptologist! Why is there no evedence of civilization in Europe???????? The trailer trash never did answer the site moderators question! No white scholar has ever been able to answer …..Why not. Its because the whites were barbarians without a civilization living in caves and having sex with animals. The white Melanin deficient, calcified Pineal, inbred trailer trash coming to this site trying to influence what we as Black people think of ourselves are irrelevant! The only thing that matters is what we think of ourselves. In responce to being the first one to call the other a savage…..WHO CARES!!!!! First or last….the sub-human that calls itself the Sherry is a racist anti-Black savage! The truth told first or the truth told last ….IS STILL THE TRUTH! It is white and its opinion does not matter! I still believe it to be male! THUTMOS TURNER
Thutmos Turner
Age: 52, Compton, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 12:39:10 (EDT)

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Heres some food for thought,Afrocentists say that Kemit(Kmt) mean land of the black people.It clearly does not the ancients always refered to themselves as “remetch en Kemit”(the people of Kemit).Of course if we are too believe Afrocentrics the people who lived in the desert of been red,the truth is of course they weren’t,in fact the word desert comes from the ancient Egyptian word “deshret”(the red land). My friend below said Mr Saafis’s websight was not in conflict with what Afrocentrics are saying, I think if he looked around the webpage properly I think he would that he is wrong. Here are some quotes from the anthropology and genetics section: Genetics of modern Egyptians: :Cavalli-Sforza et al.(1994)compared populations from throughtout the world using extensive genetic data. The North African populations grouped with West Euraisian (European,Middle East)populations rather than Sub-Saharan African populations(including Ethiopians). :Di Rienzo et al. (1994)studied the relationship of three samples (taken from Egyptians,Sardinians, and sub-Saharan Africans), using mitochodrial DNA and simple sequence repeats.In genetic terthe Egyptian sample was closer to the Sardinian than to the sub-Saharan African sample. :Hammer et al. (1997)used seen diferent methods to compute population trees of world populations, using Y-chromosome data.All seven methods grouped the Egyptians with the non-African populations rather than with the sub-Saharan Africans.Egyptians genetic profile resembles that of South Europeans more than any other regional groups in the study. :Poloni et al. (1997).Egyptians and a few other African populationa (Tunisians,Algerians, and even Ethiopeans)Showed a stronger similarity to non-Africans Mediterraneans Than to the remainder of Africans mostly from south the Sahara. :Bosch et al.(1997),using classical genetic marker, calculated Egyptians to be genetically very close to Mediterranean Asians Europeans. Genetics of Ancient Egyptians: :Borgognini-Tarli annd G. Paoli, 1982. The ABO blood type freguencies of ancient Egyptians showed no signs of differing significantly from that that of present-day Egyptians.According to the autors,”the blood-group distribution obtained for Asyut,Gebelen and Aswan necropoles shows resemblances with the present leucoderm population of Egypt and particulary with its more ‘conservative’ fraction (the Copts, MOURANT et al., 1976).” Test done on Ancient Egypian skulls: (for diagram follow the above link or go to http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/index.html) One of the most common ways of assessing population relationships has been comparative analysis of the skull types. Such a study was carried out by the physical anthropologist C. Loring Brace and five co-reserchers who statistically analyzed a range of 24 cranial measurements from diverse world samples, includin ancient Egypians. The results of the analysis suggest that ancient Egyptian crania had with those from southwest Asia and Neolithic Europe, as well as North and Northeast Africa. However, the Egyptian skulls showed little similariy to African crania from the more distant south and west.The above plot shows, as accurately as is possible in two dimemsians, the relationships between craniofacial configurations of the various regional samples> The predynastic sample from upper Egypt lies very close to the West Eurasian group but shows some tendencies toword Northeast Africans(Nubians,Somalis);(on the chart Indians are actually much closer to Somalis and Nubians than the pre dynastic people of upper Egypt) this should not be surprising given Egypts geographical position at the crossroads of Africa ans Asia.The northern Egyptians deviate even more strongly from the tropical African pattern, and indeed thier closest relatives appear to be west Eurasians.Notice that the pooled group of Sub_Saharan Africans from southern, central and western regions of the continent does not resemble Egyptians at all: this group is plotted very distant from both ancient Egyptian Samples. More to come(dental evidence, hair evidence, more cranial,etc.)http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/index.html Ancient Testimony: According to classical Greca-Roman authors, ancient Egyptian contempories had a “medium tone” and looked like northern Indians. The Ethiopians stain the world and depict a race of men steeped in darkness: less sunburnt are the natives of India: the land of Egypt, flooded by the the Nile, darkens bodies more mildly owing to the inundation of its fields; it is a country nearer to us and its moderate climate imparts a medium tone. -Manilius,Astronomica 4.724 Here the term Ethiopians(=Greek”burnt face”, denoting very dark skin) refers to the inhabitantn south of Egypt and roughly corresponds to what early anthropologist would called “Negro.”Although Ethiopians was a very broad term encompassing most Africans and sometimes part of southern Asia(Sri Lanka,Timor), the ancient Greco-Roman writers clearly distinguished the pre-Arab Egyptians from “Ethiopians”. Philostratus wrote that thhe people living near the Nubian bordr were lighter than Ethiopians, and that Egyptians were in turn lighter than those people. There are cases of Greco-Roman authors likening Egyptians to northern Indians, who generally do not look like black Africans. The appearance of the inhabitants is also not very different in India and Ethiopia: the southern Indians are rather more like Ethiopians as thhey are black to look on, and thier hair is black; only they are not so snub-nosed or wooly-haired as the Ethiopians; the northern Indians are most like the EGyptians physically. Strabo confirms in Geography 15.1.13, in almost identical wording: As for the people of India, those in the south are like the Aethiopians in colour, although they are like the rest in respect to countenance and hair (for on account of the humidity of the air their hair does not curl), whereas those in the noth are like the Egyptians. Arrian and Strabo concur that the Egyptians resembled northern Indians — who are usually straight haired and occasionally as light-skined southern Europeans — rather than the darker Dravidian types of southern India.Furthermore, although Arrian and Strabo diffentiate Ethiopians from south Indians in terms of facial form and hair texture, they cite no such differences between the Egyptians and northern Indians. THe Herodotus quote repeatedly cited by Afrocentrists: In efforts to make the ancient Egyptian “black,” Afro-Egyptocentrists have interpreted certain ancient Greco-roman quotes in a way that supports their own views.Perhaps the most frequently cited of these is a qoute by Herodotus describing Egyptians as well as as Colchians of Caucaus as “dark skinned and wooly-haired”.Part of the misinterpretation of this quote stems from their interpreting the greek word melas and its numerous variants as “black” or “white”.There are numerous examples of this usage in Greek literature — one unequivocal example of this usage decribes a rather aged Odysseus magically regaining his youth(Homer Odyssey 16.172-176 With this, Athena tuoched him (Odysseus) with her golden wand.A well washed cloak and a tunic she first of all cast about his breast, and she increased his stature and his youthful bloom.Once more he grew dark of colour(melenchroies), and his cheaks filledout, and dark grew the beard abuot his chin. In decribing the skin tone of Odysseus, Homer uses the word melenchoies, which is a different spelling of the same word that Herodotus used to decribe the colour of the Egyptians. However it is clear from the above passage that Homer means “of swarthy complexion” rather than racially “black” and is meant to describe Odtsseus regaining his youthful colour. Otherwise we would have to assume that during the process of rejuvenation Odysseus became a black man!This despite the numerousancient artistic portrayals of Odsseus as Greek-looking and plainly not black.In fact if we interpreted other works the same literal way Afrocentrists interpret Herodotus and other writers, we would have to assume that Greek trees truly black-leaved(melamphullos),and that Greeks bled black blood(haima melan, etc). Herodottus decribing the hair of Egyptians as oulotriches(=”wooly haired”) seems to conflict with other writers such as as Strabo,Arrian and the unknown autor of Physiognomonica who mention only the Ethiopians and not the Egyptians as having wooly hair.At first sight it seems unclear whether Herodotus accurately described the whole Egyptian population or simply citing a stereotype reresenting the “extreme” Egyptian type relative to the Greek perspective (much like “the tall,blond blue eyed” stereotype of Swedes).Lukilly in this case we do not have to rely on Herodotus’ description when there ids so much physical evidence available.Numerous mummies with still attached to the skuls show that straight ,wavy, or gently curled hair types were common in ancient Egypt.For an example , in a study (TItlbachova and Titlbach,1977) involing hair samples detailed microscopic investigation of hair samples taken from ancient Egyptian mummies, most were determined to have been naturally straight,wavy, of gently curled, with roundish cross-section typical of modern Eurasian and North African peoples.Only a small minority showed evidence of “negroid” structural charactoristics; even these “negroid” elements were weakly manifested.Nevertheless, in ancient as well as modern Egypt, the hair is on average curlier than that of Greeks — an obsevation which probably accounts for Herodotus’ stereotyping Egyptian hair as oulriches.But Herodotus mentions only “Etiopians” as having the “woolliest hair of all men”(Herodotus Histories 7.70.1) —More to come. http://members.xoom.com/egyptians/index.html
Iskander Wagdi
Tanta, Egypt – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 11:58:41 (EDT)

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I didnt post the muslim/islamic sayings. Check the ip# on it, it wasnt me. Also, is this your scape-goat? Now…when you CANT answer the FACTS with FACTS…suddenly…your not going to post no more? HHmmm, I proved my point, and anyone can see that..all they have to do is scroll down, READ, and compare.Its very childish of you to spam the board by posting your same boring long message 3 times…grow up. Also, in response to your comment of the first one to call another “savage & barbaric” is thr one who is really “uncivilized”…well, again…scroll down, and you can “thank” your brother Turner from Compton, for being the first to show his true self…afterall, he said it first :o) I figured that once you and your people were confronted with the truth, first it would be name calling (which it was), then it would be Anger, (which it was) then the racist name calling would be used, and finally, you “gave-up” because I have confronted you with FACTS that you could not answer , because they are obviously undisputable. You were quite predictable…
Sherry
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 07:16:38 (EDT)

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African leaders: ‘Let us unite’ OAU summit ends in agreement to speed pace toward One Africa by James Muhammad Editor Heads of State join Libya in celebrating 30 years of revolution Gadhafi calls for reparations for African slave trade SIRTE, Libya—In the face of mounting competition from global economic blocs and the threat of neo-colonialism, African leaders meeting here for the 4th Extraordinary Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) determined that Africa would become the world’s largest economic and political bloc, and perhaps the leader of the next millennium. A record 43 heads of state answered the call of Libyan leader Muammar Gadhafi for the urgent Sept. 8-9 sessions to discuss the pace at which Africa is moving in the face of such global challenges. Col. Gadhafi, following the example set by the great revolutionary and Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah, and others, specifically called for the establishment of a United States of Africa, with its own central bank, military and parliament. The extraordinary meeting culminated a 10-day celebration of the September 1st Revolution (The Great Al-Fatah Revolution). The colors of each African nation’s flag decorated cities throughout Libya, African dance troupes performed nightly on the central square in Tripoli and revolutionary slogans and photographs of African presidents draped walls and billboards. A massive parade Sept. 7 in Tripoli witnessed by nearly two dozen heads of state, Palestinian leader Yassar Arafat, Algerian revolutionary Ahmed Ben Bella, a Nation of Islam delegation led by Chief of Staff Leonard F. Muhammad, and others marked the official observation of the Revolution. The parade was delayed until Sept. 7 for the presidents’ arrival. Announced near midnight on their target date of 9-9-99, OAU Secretary General Salim Ahmed Salim told more than 100 journalists that the leaders had agreed to quicken the pace of unity. “As we prepare to enter the 21st century and cognizant of the challenges … we emphasize the imperative need and high sense of urgency to rekindle the aspirations of our peoples for stronger unity, solidarity and cohesion in a larger community of peoples transcending cultural, ideological, ethnic and national differences. “It is our conviction that our Continental Organization needs to be revitalized in order to be able to play a more active role and continue to be relevant to the needs of our peoples and responsive to the demands of the prevailing circumstances,” he said. The OAU determined it would: •Quicken the pace of implementing the 1991 Abuja Treaty which established an African Economic Community •Speed up the process of establishing all of the institutions provided in the Treaty—an African Central Bank, an African Monetary Union, an African Court of Justice and a Pan-African Parliament •Strengthen and consolidate existing regional economic communities •Mandate its Council of Ministers to ensure implementation of those decisions, particularly to prepare the legal text necessary in light of the existing Charter and the Abuja Treaty •Mandate OAU Chairman and Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and South African President Thabo Mbeki to engage African creditors with the goal of securing the total cancellation of Africa’s debt. Mr. Salim said the OAU would establish the Pan-African Parliament by the year 2000 in order to provide a common platform for African peoples and grass roots organizations to be more involved in discussions and decision making on problems and challenges facing Africa. A return to Sirte The Council of Ministers should submit its report on implementation at the next meeting of the OAU scheduled for Lome, Togo, next year, he said, adding that December 2000 is the target date for ratification of the agreements. Then the OAU would return to Sirte in the year 2001 to adopt the document, he said. “This is a very, very serious milestone. Africa for a long time has been underestimated because we have not been united,” Liberian President Charles Taylor told The Final Call shortly after the meeting as the heads of state hurried to their cars after long hours of debate and discussions. “The time for unity is now, the unity will be organized. We are moving toward a parliamentary situation, and then the problems of Africa … can come into focus because we have decided that we are going to unite as a union.” Ghana’s Deputy Foreign Minister Mohamed Ibn Chambass called the deliberations “very profound and very radical. We needed to be taking these steps (toward consolidating Africa) decades ago. We are happy that Africa has now realized we need to take our destiny into our own hands and catch up with the rest of the world.” Throughout the summit meetings, Col. Gadhafi worked with a determination to reemphasize the need for unity. He dressed in his traditional Arab garments for the official meetings and dinners, but journalists and delegates alike were well aware of his focus on aligning himself closer to his African neighbors, particularly following their decision at an OAU summit in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, to defy the UN ban against flights into Libya. That move in 1998, observers feel, was a major dent in the wall of U.S.-led sanctions on Libya, whom the U.S. holds responsible for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Col. Gadhafi had accused Arab leaders of the Middle East of not standing with him in the face of sanctions. “We’ve been waiting for this day with a particular eagerness,” Col. Gadhafi said to foreign ministers Sept. 7, at a preliminary meeting in Tripoli prior to the official opening the summit. He said any union Africa determines must be comprehensive—economics, politics and culture. Mr. Gadhafi invoked the name of Mr. Nkrumah as the catalyst for the meeting. He also said that everything needed for a new charter already exists in the Abuja Treaty. The institutions were there, he said, but they were bodies without souls. “We want something considerable … a new soul to bring life to these institutions and bodies,” he said. The way forward While Africa is still a continent in crisis, all agreed that the mandate of the original OAU Charter—fighting colonialism—has been achieved. The focus now is to bring internal stability to member states—some of whom are involved in civil wars and rebel attacks against their governments—so that the countries can gain control of their mineral and human resources to strengthen their economies. The way forward must be deliberate, yet careful, most observed. In debating his point at the inception of the OAU Charter, Mr. Nkrumah argued that an African “continental union government” would have a two-house legislature: an upper house of two members from each state and a lower house based on the population of each state, with power to formulate a common foreign policy, common continental planning for economic and industrial development, a common currency, monetary zone and a central bank of issue and a common defense system with one military High Command, according to “Inside the OAU: Pan-Africanism in Practice” (1986) by C.O.C. Amate. “Since the conception of the OAU in ’63 we have been advocating unity and solidarity,” said OAU spokesman Ibrahim Daggash. “We used it in the liberation struggle and we succeeded. Why don’t we use it in our economic struggle as well? “We have to refuse marginalization. In the new millennium there’s no place for small entities. It should be viable political and economic groupings,” he said. “If we succeed in an intergrational process (in other areas), we’d succeed also in a common monetary unit. But we still have a long way to go,” said Liberian Foreign Minister Monie Captan, referring to what has happened with the European Union. Among the special guests at the summit were Gamel Nkrumah, son of the late Kwame Nkrumah, and Roland Lumumba, son of the late Congo freedom fighter Patrice Lumumba. At the close of the Summit, after giving Revolution Awards to the heads of state present, Col. Gadhafi, in a symbolic uniting of the past, present and future, awarded both sons the Revolution Award. With a horde of photographers chasing them, Col. Gadhafi walked out of the hall hand-in-hand with Nkrumah and Lumumba. “My father would have been proud of Gadhafi today,” the young Nkrumah told The Final Call in an interview. “I wish he could be around to see that somebody else has taken up his dream very seriously. It would have been a great day for him.” Copyright © 1999 FCN Publishing ” Pooling our resources and doing for self ”
jahreal
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:14:03 (EDT)

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(PART 2) (PART 1 BELOW THIS POST) >The Black List – http://www.theMarcusGarveyBBS.com > >Made a Chattel Slave: > African slaves’ descendants have tended to look at U.S. Slavery > from a >monolithic if not narrow view. When we think of slavery, we are >essentially thinking of chattel slavery. Even, when we are thinking of >chattel slavery, we are actually referring to physical slavery, or we are >combining the two forms in one. As we have seen from the above, slavery >consisted of a series of illegal acts, all in International Law and >Natural Law. Since we are not parties by human mutuality to the U.S. >Constitution, at no point in Real Law or in Hard Law, do our Real Rights >come under U.S. Constitutional Law. All of the illegal acts committed >against us as explained above are International and Natural Law acts. >And as we shall see, nothing else to the present has occurred in Real Law >that has brought our Real Rights into U.S. Constitutional Law, since we >have been under One Continuous Act(s) of enslavement to the present via >unilateral White illegal acts to maintain U.S. Slavery under a myriad of >forms that still spell slave without self-determination and without our >true liberties as human beings. >Chattel refers to personal property as opposed to real property. Real >chattels, as opposed to personal chattels, are such as leasehold estates, >interests issuing out of, or annexed in real estate, such as chattel >interests as devolve after the manner of realty. Upon arrival onto a new >jurisdiction by force into a territory, we were made personal property to >be sold as contraband. Contraband is defined in Black’s Law Dictionary, >6th edition p. 322 as, “…any property which is unlawful to produce or >possess.” The illegality of our being sold as personal chattel property >contraband emerges out of International and Natural Law, a violation of >our Human Rights. We were made a thing to be sold, like a cow or pig, >without a nationality or identity other than as property; in short, an >animal or just a person (later 3/5 of a person). >After being sold and/or resold as personal chattel property contraband, >we were made Physical Slaves, working without pay and without >Reparations. The famous quote from Frederick Douglass, “As long as we are >not the direct beneficiaries of our labors, we are still slaves.” >Douglass’ statement carries a great deal of common sense weight, but >hundreds of years of subjugation and propagandization had made us Mental >Slaves based upon White illegal unilateral acts including forced >illiteracy. A Mental Slave has a great difficult understanding that >he/she is still a slave based upon Douglass’ statement. Based upon our >unpaid wages and the continued profits from those unpaid wages, including >the profits from seized slave scientific inventions and innovations, the >wealth of America is our legal property. The U.S. Black/African slaves’ >descendants population is currently working for money that previous labor >has already purchased. And, after being charged twice for the same wages, >we are spending money on goods and services that we legally already own. >By 1865, what noted Black social psychologist Amos S. Wilson calls “the >most successful human brainwashing enterprise in history,” referring to >U.S. Slavery, we had become Automated Slaves, a slave who will behave as >a slave even without being seized. The 13th and 14th Amendments and The >Civil Rights Act of 1866 made us Legislated Slaves with a legal status >and so-called Civil Rights unilaterally determined by the U.S. Congress >and The U.S. Supreme Court. >The U.S. Congress in 1865 had the clear choice and opportunity to ask >slaves if we wanted to be U.S. Citizens, if we wanted to associate with >the U.S. Government, as were Whites asked on July 4, 1776. This would >have been treating us as human beings. But to treat us as human beings >would have also meant paying us Reparations, which the U.S. Congress >wanted to avoid at all cost. The decision was to make us so-called U.S. >Citizens without asking us. This also was a mammoth of a White propaganda >piece with regard to the International Relations of the U.S., as the >world thought that U.S. Slaves were being freed. How can your slave >become your citizen without self-determination? It can be done because >his/her status is still a slave; because the slave is still in slavery. >The 14th Amendment is quite didactic: > >Amendment XIV [1868] Section 1. “All persons born or naturalized in >the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens >of the United States and of the State wherein they reside…” > > Well, who in the heck are “all persons”? It must be clear that since >White People were already U.S. Citizens by human mutuality, not by >legislated Civil Rights in which they had no choice, The 14th Amendment >could not have been written for them. A discussion of White immigrants is >not germane. We are discussing U.S. Slavery, about U.S. Slaves. > >From the very definition of domicile of origin, a White person born in >the U.S. where his/her parents have domicile is clearly already an U.S. >Citizen. There would be no reason to restate this in an Amendment to the >U.S. Constitution. On the other hand, all African slaves by 1868 were >born in the U.S. as persons, indeed as 3/5 of a person. If we were >naturalized, where are our naturalization papers? >Slaves are captives. It is a slave who is a subject, brought by force >into a new jurisdiction into a territory and unilaterally made residents >in a State with The 14th Amendment, and made a Citizen who had no choice >in his/her Citizenship, i.e. a Legislated Slave. The Law is subject to >you if you are free, consent of the governed. Slaves are subjects to the >Law via forced jurisdictional association. The context in which the U.S. >Population is viewed from a legal standpoint, with regard to status or >standing, is set in Article 1, Section 3: > >”Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several >States which may be included within this Union, according to their >respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole >number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of >Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other >Persons.” > > It is clear from the above that “the whole number of free > Persons” makes >reference to free White People. Here is an admission that there are both >free Persons and subjects. But added to “the whole number of free >Persons” are White indentured servants. So, White indentured servants >were given their liberties in 1776 via U.S. Public Law to which they are >parties. Section 3 ends rather conspicuously, defining the remaining >population for taxation purposes, as “three fifths of all other Persons.” >These are slaves, Africans. > Twenty-four hours prior to making The 14th Amendment law, the U.S. >Congress issued The Expatriation Act of 1868, by which anyone had the >right to expatriate from the U.S. to another jurisdiction. After 246 >years of U.S. Slavery, slaves had 24 hours to expatriate. Very few slaves >had any knowledge of The Expatriation Act of 1868. It was simply another >unilateral illegal act, just as The 13th and 14th Amendments and The >Civil Rights Act of 1866, forced upon slaves without our input, >violations of our Human Rights. >These unilateral White acts were secondly, a manner by which the issue of >Reparations for U.S. Slavery could be eclipsed at an high point in U.S. >and global abolitionism, by presenting the impression to the world >community that slaves had been freed. In legal reality, these unilateral >acts were part of a long strand of White continuous acts of enslavement >of the African. >Stripped of our social systems of mutual trust by U.S. Slavery and the >plantation caste system, U.S. Slaves today are the only ethnic group >without a social system that applies to ourselves. As such, we have no >economic system as do other ethnic groups have beneath the dominant >economic system, since an economic system cannot exist without a social >system of mutual trust among members of a Class. As the world’s largest >slave liquid economy, we still have an economic value per head to White >People. > >MORE TO COME > >Contact Information: Attorney Dr. Robert L. Brock, P.O. Box 15288, >Washington, D.C. 20003. Website: http://www.directblackaction.com > >For a general overview of Black Reparations, visit: >http://ReadingDoctor.com/slavery.htm > >
jahreal
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:10:12 (EDT)

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List – http://www.theMarcusGarveyBBS.com > >Dr. Brock Presents Proof That We Are Still U.S. Slaves in 1999 > >A report on the Atlanta September 1999 Black Reparations Conference >By Oscar L. Beard, Consultant in African Studies >Website: http://ReadingDoctor.com/slavery.htm >Brock Website at: http://www.directblackaction.com > >ªªª > > Attorney Dr. Robert L. Brock, Preseident of the Self Determination >Committee, began his comments on “Status of U.S. Slaves’ Descendants in >Regards to Reparations and Self-Determination Under International Law” by >stating that the greatest obstacle to a clear explanation of our ongoing >legal status as U.S. Slaves is the popular belief by African slaves’ >descendants that “We sold each other into slavery.” The cardinal concern >of Black or African Reparations are those nations whose current economies >are built upon the backbone of African enslavement, including >corporations whose profits can be traced to the enslavement of Africans >and nations trading with the U.S. during chattel slavery. This would >exclude African individuals and nations, since both African individuals >and African nations came under the influence of European aggression and >were not benefactors of the African so-called Slave Trade though caught >up in it. To be sure, the African so-called Slave Trade was a >demand-driven market out of Europe and America, not a supply-driven >market out of Africa. >Furthermore, if there is any in-house cleaning that African slaves’ >descendants need to do regarding Africans used as middle-men in the >capture of African slaves, middle-men who were frequently slaves >themselves, we will do so. Dr. Brock then proceeded to delineate the >unilateral acts, primary and original acts by which Africans continue to >be enslaved by Europeans and/or Whites in the U.S. > >In the European Mind: >An a priori act was the conception and intention in the mind of the >European to travel to Africa to capture bodies into slavery. There were >no African kings or queens in Europe when Europeans decided to invade >Africa for bodies. > >The Invasion of Africa: >Hence, the first unilateral act was the invasion of Africa by Europeans >in order to capture bodies, not gold, not land, but bodies for slavery. >We did not invite Europeans to Africa to capture bodies. They were/are >transgressors. The Portuguese attacked Africa in 1444, killing resisting >Africans, and capturing, seizing and illegally transporting other >Africans to Europe into slavery. There were no Africans among the >attackers or transgressors. With knowledge of their superior military >capability, the gun, the Europeans felt quite confident in attacking >unilaterally. This original act of aggression set the adaptive context by >which all further encounters between Europeans and Africans were to take >place. Trade denotes human mutuality within a context of free will >without force. >The primary act of force against Africans established fear as the news >traveled of the devastating military capability of the Whites. As such, >trade in the usual sense was forever made impossible. The conditions >under which the so-called trade was to be conducted were based upon the >use of an overwhelming deadly force, posturing the use of force and/or >the use of deception and high power intoxicants. These are facts that >African slaves’ descendants need to face if we seek ever to rebuild our >social systems of mutual trust out of the spoils of U.S. Slavery. > >War of Enslavement: >African resistance to European aggression issued forth the War of >Enslavement, an undeclared war, bodies as weapons due to African >resistance; killing the resisting object of captivity, bodies. Add these >killings to the numbers of the Black Atrocity. The West African phase of >the African military resistance to European aggression is most >classically chronicled in Michael Crowder’s West African Resistance, >Africana Publishing Corporation, New York, 1971. The fact of West African >military resistance to slavery, European imperialism and colonialism is >not well known. > >Capture and Seizure: >The third unilateral act of enslavement by Europeans was the capture and >seizure of Africans. Once captured there was a strong African >determination to escape physically (including suicide and continued >self-destructive behaviors). To capture the African was not sufficient. >The African had to be seized, yoked, chained and branded. Currently, the >African slaves’ descendant in the U.S. is seized mentally. Capture and >then seizure securely brought the African under the control and dominion >of the European. Pregnant African women captured and seized were >considered a special catch, two slaves in one, and more to come through >rape and forced breeding. Hence, the unborn Black child in the U.S. of >African slaves’ descendant also has a claim for African Reparations. > >Forcible Expatriation: >After capture and seizure we were detained and forcibly expatriated, >forcibly removed from our Common Law Jurisdiction (s) in Africa. We were >forced away from our legal African domicile(s) of origin. Black’s Law >Dictionary, 6th Edition, defines domicile of origin as, “The home of the >parents…domicile of origin constitutes of an infant, and continues until >abandoned, or until the acquisition of a new domicile in a different >place.” (p. 485) >Forced expatriation to a new territory (the U.S.) was not an acquisition. >It meant the loss of our African citizenship, language, culture and our >Natural and Human Rights. But we did not loose self-preservation, which >can still be exercised, via our real Rights in Natural Law and in >International Law. > >Illegal Transport: > The fifth unilateral act by Europeans was the illegal transport of >Africans across seas into Admiralty Law and International Law. >International waters begin three miles off shore. This is in violation of >our Human Rights in Natural Law and in International Law regardless of >whether from the perspective of European national laws slavery was >considered to be legal or illegal. It is illegal with respect to our >Human Rights. We never agreed to be transported or to be slaves. It is >astonishing how many African slaves’ descendants believe that slavery was >legal. > >Arrival Into Another Jurisdiction By Force: > Brought onto land, into a territory, not into a county or a state or >colony as citizens or as immigrants. Where are our immigration papers? >Where are the papers our ancestors signed agreeing to be U.S. Citizens? >Our status as captives with a place, not a nationality, persons forced >away from our legal domicile of origin(s), Africa, which will remain our >legal domicile of origin until legally abandoned via human mutuality to >transfer jurisdiction to a new domicile, which we have not done. Without >domicile there is no legal jurisdiction, except, in our case forced >jurisdiction, which is illegal in International Law and in Natural Law. >Without jurisdiction, there is no proof of crime. > >Made a Chattel Slave in a Territory: (more to come soon) >_____________________________________________________
jahreal
USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 03:04:59 (EDT)

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To Sherry, I believe your questions have been answered. Egypt was black you don’t except it you can leave. I think the intelligent people here can see that you have lost this battle. Oh, and believe me your remarks about Africa was not getting me upset. I know I sparked something in you when I spoke of the Fall of Western Civilization, so much so you had to pretend to be Pro-Truth. Sherry, you wannabe Egyptologist, I am going to listen to Curtis’ advice. From henceforth, you will be ignored. As for Maskat, you are right about one thing. The premise was wrong because it was Muslims that begin the process of enslaving our people, the Europeans were just more evil. You posted quotes of ignorant, racist, close-minded Muslims who had no appreciation for a difference in culture. They, like the Europeans and your self, could not see that just because Africans didn’t behave in the manner with which they associated with being civilized did not mean that they weren’t civilized. And it is quite interesting because Islam, like Judaism and Christianity was highly influenced by African culture. Here’s and example ” The most profound influences upon Islam by African religions can be seen in the goddesses of ancient Arabia. It is often disputed whether these deities are originally Arabian or African. As ancient Saba included what is today Ethiopia and southern Yemen, we shall designate these deities Afroasiatic just as the Semitic tongue is called. Long before Allah, Arabia was home to an Afoasiatic goddess called All’at. This goddess was popular all throughout Arabia and was worshipped by the Prophet’s family himself. Another goddess was El’Ka’ba. Long before Mohammad, the jet black stone at Mecca was a holy site to the worshippers of El’Ka’ba who came to kneel at her symbol, a jet black stone. It should be again noted that as in the Hebrew Cabala, the Islamic Ka’ba refers to the two parts (Ka and Ba) of the Kemetan soul. Pictured here is the Islamic holy site of the Ka’ba attended by millions yearly. (Photo and Information courtesy of African Origins of Western Religions by Dr. Yosef-ben Jochannan and Man, God and Civilization by John G. Jackson)… Kitab Fakhr As-Sudan ‘Ala Al-Bidan, “The Book of Glory of the Blacks over the Whites.” Al-Jahiz in his work contended that even the Prophet Mohammad’s father may have been of African lineage.”============================= But any way here is some evidence of African civilization in your terms. “When they (European navigators) reached the Bay of Guinea and alighted at Vaida, the captains were astonished to find well-planned streets bordered for several leagues by two rows of trees; for days they traversed a countryside covered by magnificent fields, inhabited by men in colorful attire that they had woven themselves! More to the south, in the Kingdom of the Congo, a teeming crowd clad in silk and velvet, large States, well ordered down to the smallest detail, powerful rulers, prosperous industries. Civilized to the marrow of their bones…This flowering the European conquistadors destroyed as they advanced.” Leo Frobenius, German ethnologist============================ “Under Sundiata and his immediate successors, Mali expanded rapidly west to the Atlantic Ocean, south deep into the forest, east beyond the Niger River, and north to the salt and copper mines of the Sahara. The city of Niani may have been the capital. At its height, Mali was a confederation of 3 independent, freely allied states (Mali, Mema, and Wagadou) and 12 garrisoned provinces. The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa(1312-1337) who expanded Mali influence over the large Niger city-states of Timbuctu, Gao, and Djenné. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim who built magnificent mosques all throughout the Mali sphere of influence. In 1324 Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca with an entourage of 60,000 people and 80 camels carrying more than two tons of gold to be distributed among the poor. Of the 12,000 servants 500 carried a staff of pure gold. It has been said that the gold markets of regions such as Egypt were ruined for months or years after Musa’s visit through their respective kingdoms.” (http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/ancientmali.html).======================================== “At least by 1,000BC Ethiopia, Eritrea and what is southern Yemen were part of a large empire known as the Sabean Kingdoms. The connections of Ethiopia and Arabia should not be surprising as the distance between the East African horn and Southern Arabia is minimal. In fact recent linguistic study indicates that the Semitic languages of Arabia and the Middle East may well be a branch of a larger Ethiopian language group. It is also well known that this Eastern Horn-Arabian route was used for millennia by the earliest homonid migrants who later populated Asia. The people of Sabea were probably a mixture of East Africans and their Southern Arabian descendants who had long populated the region. Saba had a very matrifocal society with a host of female dieties. According to the Kebra Negast, a holy book of Ethiopia, it is said that Makedda herself created a dictate stating “only a woman can rule. Polyandry, the practice of taking more than one husband by a woman, and tracing one’s kinship based upon matrilineal descent was common. The earliest known Arabian temple was at Marib (in Southern Yemen), capital of Saba, and was called Mahram Bilqus, “precincts of the Queen of Saba.” The Arabs called this woman, Bilqus or Balkis; in Ethiopia, Makedda (also Magda, Maqda and Makera), meaning “Greatness.” Years later, the Jewish historian Josephus, referred to her as “Nikaulis, Queen of Ethiopia.” She is the celebrated Queen of Sheba of the Bible who is described as “black and comely.” Located in a strategic location, Saba flourished as a trading community in goods from Asia as well as Africa. Even coffee drinkers trace the original cup to Ethiopia’s Kefa region. Pictured above are the ruins of Marib, built between the 1st and 2nd Millennium BC. (Photo and Information Courtesy of Yemeni website and African Presence in Early Asia ed. by Ivan Van Sertima)”============================ “Located in the south central African nation of Zimbabwe are the ruins of monuments and cities built of stone. These ruins extend a radius of 100 to 200 miles, a diameter almost as great as the entire nation of France. Believed to have been built by southern Africans about 600-1,000 years ago, they are evidence of a thriving culture in the heart of Africa. Up until recent years, the ruins were believed by Western historians to be the remains of a “mysterious white race” in the heart of Africa. Great Zimbabwe has been ravaged by European treasure hunters and amateur archaeologists. Layer after layer of African artifacts were trashed in order to reach the bottom layer which, it was assumed, would prove that whites had exerted early influence in southern Africa. How many artifacts and important pieces of this ancient culture was lost is unknown. It is only in the last several of decades since Zimbabwe became independent in 1980 that archaeologists have begun to take a serious look at ruins of Great Zimbabwe and similar sites representing a dynamic social, economic and political culture in Southern Africa. Pictured above is the great walled enclosure of Great Zimbabwe. (Photo and information courtesy of MCC)”====================================== “Fueled by its economic vitality, the kingdom of Ghana rapidly expanded into an empire. It conquered local minor states, requiring tribute from these subordinate vassals. This tribute, however, was not the main form of Ghana’s wealth. Ancient Ghana boasted a mixed economy of extensive agriculture, iron smelting, stonemasonry, carpentery, pottery, goldsmithing, and cloth manufacturing. A strong trade emerged in goods that passed from western Africa east to Egypt and the Middle East. This trade primarily involved gold, salt, copper,… Pictured above is a gold weight from the Akan people of Ghana. Evidene connects the Akan to the great Kingdom of Ghana. It is seen in names like Danso, shared by the Akans of present day Ghana and the Mandikas of Senegal and Gambia, who have strong links with the medieval kingdom. The matrilineal practice is also shared. The kingdom of Ghana never converted to Islam, even though northern Africa had been dominated by the faith since the eighth century. The Ghanaian court, however, allowed Muslims to settle in the cities and even encouraged Muslim specialists to help the royal court administer the government and advise on legal matters. Unlike the Ghanaians however, their northern neighbors the fervently converted to Islam. In 1076, calling themselves Almoravids, they declared a holy war, or jihad, against the state of Ghana. The Almoravids destroyed the kingdom, converting a great deal of northern Ghanians. After this however Ghana ceases to be a commercial or military power. For a brief time (1180-1230), the Soso people, who were strongly anti-Muslim, controlled a kingdom making up the southern portions of the Ghanaian empire, but the Almoravid conquest effectively halted the growth of kingdoms and empires in the Sahel for almost a century. It was to be Mali who would later pick up the legacy of the Sahelien states.” (http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/ancientghana.html).==== “Due to the enormous length of the Arab Slave Trade, from 700 to 1911AD, it is impossible to be certain of the numbers of Africans sold in this system. Estimates place the numbers somewhere around 14 million: at least 9.6 million African women and 4.4 African men.” (http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/easterntrade.html)=== It is very interesting to find that the most uncivilized and barbaric of people are the quickest to label someone uncivilized. My black people take pride in your history and in your culture and look towards building the future. Hotep.
Mack “DaNo1Narmer” Audena
Age: 20, Pitt, Pa USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 01:45:00 (EDT)

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This comment is directed to the poster who believes Walter Rodney’s premise about “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa”. The truth is that the black countries were underdeveloped well before the advent of European colonialism. Below I have included many racist and disdainful writings from medieval Islamic writings about blacks (Zanj). The Islamic scholars’ intense level of contempt for the barbarism of black cultures, as well as a belief in an inferior black intellect, suggests that the level of civilization in most black countries was extremely primitive even before Europe entered the picture. It’s a far cry from “ruling the world.” ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** Of the neighbors of the Bujja, Maqdisi had heard that “there is no marriage among them; the child does not know his father, and they eat people — but God knows best. As for the Zanj, they are people of black color, flat noses, kinky hair, and little understanding or intelligence.” – Maqdisi (fl. 966 AD), _Kitab al-Bad’_, vol.4 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “We know that the Zanj are the least intelligent and the least discerning of mankind, and the least capable of understanding the consequences of actions.” – Jahiz (d. 868 AD), _Kitab al-Bukhala’_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Like the crow among mankind are the Zanj for they are the worst of men and the most vicious of creatures in character and temperament.” – Jahiz, _Kitab al-Hayawan_, vol. 2 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “They [the Shu`ubiyya] maintain that eloquence is prized by all people at all times — even the Zanj, despite their dimness, their boundless stupidity, their obtuseness, their crude perceptions and their evil dispositions, make long speeches.” – Jahiz, _Al-Bayan wa`l-tabyin_, vol. 3 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “[inhabitants of sub-Saharan African countries] are people distant from the standards of humanity” “Their nature is that of wild animals….” – from the Persian geography _Hudud al-`alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The Zanj are slight-witted (_kam ‘aql_), and God, most high, has created them stupid, ignorant, and foul (_palid_).” from anonymous _Iskandarnamah_, 1343 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Galen says that merriment dominates the black man because of his defective brain, whence also the weakness of his intelligence.” – Mas`udi (d. 956 AD), _Muruj al-dhahab_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “As regards southern countries, all their inhabitants are black on account of the heat of their climate. Most of them go naked. In all their lands and provinces, gold is found. They are people distant from the standards of humanity.” – Persian geography _Hudud al-`Alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** About the Zanj: “Their nature is that of wild animals. They are extremely black.” About the Sudan: “Among themselves there are people who steal each other’s children and sell them to the merchants when the latter arrive.” – _Hudud al-`Alam_, 982 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The Zanj are so uncivilized that they have no notion of a natural death. If a man dies a natural death, they think he was poisoned. Every death is suspicious with them, if a man has not been killed by a weapon.” – Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, _India_, 1030 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar, in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth,–in no other peculiarity or property,–except for what God wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro, and more intelligent.” – Philosopher-theologian Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-74), _Tasawwurat_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “Therefore, the Negro nation are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because [Negroes] have little [that is essentially] human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated.” – Ibn Khaldun, _Muqaddimah_, 14th century AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is no civilization in the proper sense. There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings.” – Ibn Khaldun, _Muqaddimah_ ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq … do not come out with something between blonde, buff, blanched, and leprous coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs and others of similar light complexion; nor are they overdone in the womb until they are burned, so that the child comes out something between black, murky, malodorous, stinking, and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, deficient minds, and depraved passions, such as the Zanj, the Ethiopians, and other blacks who resemble them. The Iraqis are neither half-baked dough nor burned crust but between the two.” – Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani, _Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan_, 903 AD ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “[Blacks] are ugly and misshapen, because they live in a hot country.” – Ibn Qutayba (828-89 A.D.) ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “The geographer al-Idrisi ascribes ‘lack of knowledge and defective minds’ to the black peoples. Their ignorance, he says, is notorious; men of learning and distinction are almost unknown among them, and their kings only acquire what they know about government and justice from the instruction of learned visitors from farther north.” – BernardLewis, _Race and Slavery in the Middle East_, 1990 ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** “In both Arab and Iranian Islamic writings, blacks are accused of being stupid, untruthful, vicious, sexually unbridled, ugly and distorted, excessively merry, and easily affected by food and drink.” – Minoo Southgate, “Negative Images of Blacks in Some Medieval Iranian Writings,” Iranian Studies 17 (1984): p.10
Maksat Tohme
Huntington Beach, CA USA – Tuesday, October 19, 1999 at 01:10:06 (EDT)

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Okay, now you say it doesnt matter when the bust of Narmer was made? Well, your wrong. It does matter that his bust was made during the 25th dynasty, which was 2300 years after Narmer had reigned. The egyptians of the 25th dynasty wouldnt have the slightest clue as to what the real Narmer looked like. There is only one, Ill repeat, only ONE other image of Narmer, and it is VERY clear for all that have eyes to see…that he looks nothing like what the bust made from the 25th dynasty portrays him to be. The only image of Narmer from Narmers TIME of reign, depicts the closest to what he really looked like…and if you ever get a chance to see it..he CLEARLY had no negroid traits that you would like to make him to have. THE INSCRIPTION OF UNI: Well, it seems awefully funny that all of a sudden Breadsted was a “racist egyptologist”, and all of his other discoveries were valued in this site, yet all of a sudden he misinterpreted things, and is racist… Breadsted was (he is no longer living) the PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY AND ORIENTAL STUDIES @THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. I dont know if it was you or one of your people, but one of you linked that website from this page to post facts from, yet when I brought to your attention the insc. uni, all of a sudden it was a mistake and racist.. Its funny how its not racist when you use the SAME EXACT SITE, yet when I posted it for information…suddenly it was from a racist site, and racist egyptologist. You and your people have not only contridicted yourselfs, but you have also made hypocritical statements and accusations. So, if you think Im lying…SCROLL down this page and re-read very carefully…you will see, Im probably the most HONEST one here. To turner: I will not even answer you again…except to let you know…you havent “hurt” my feelings..and if you keep all of that anger inside of you, you will never be a true happy person, at peace with yourself. In regards to the slavery thing..I posted back FACTS in regards to slavery…after someone here threw it up in my face. White-aryan people have done more to help and benefit your people than this so called slavery could ever touch. So, in the future, attacking me with slavery, savage devil, etc etc…is only acting inmature, and taking many from this board off of the true topic here..the race of the ancient egyptians. Again…you may have posted back..but you posted with accusations and opinions…like for example the bust of narmer…you didnt answer me back with FACTS..your quote opinion was “it doesnt matter” Next time post back with fatcs..and intelligence, not hypocritical statements. In truth, Sherry
sherry
USA – Monday, October 18, 1999 at 23:09:11 (EDT)

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Of course ancient Egyptians were Black, this is really an indisputable fact. So let’s move on to another more important topic. Who are the real Jews? In the article that prefaced my comment it was stated that Ham is the father of the Black races. First of all it is impossible to categorize people by skin color. If I have a dog and a cat that are both black does that make them the same species? Of course not. So are all dark skinned people the same just because of their skin color. The answer is no. But this is the racist propaganda that we have been taught. The bible clearly states in several places that the Jews are black. Job states that he is black. So does Solomon. Revelations 1 gives a description of Christ as having skin the color of brass and hair like wool. The bible also says that all of Isreal (the name given to Jacob the son of Abraham)is reckoned by geneology, meaning that you can not convert to being a Jew. It is determined by birth. Deut. 28:68 also states that the Jews would be taken on ships and sold into slavery. This was prophesized after the first captivity in Egypt(A greek name meaning bondage. The original name of Egypt is Mizarim after one of the sons of Ham). Have the white people calling themselves Jews ever been taken into bondage on ships? Or why isn’t their skin dark like the Bible says it is and will always be? The true Jews don’t even know who they are because they have been told that they are Black or African American, or Indians or Mexican or any other name given to people of so-called Negroid or Indian descent. In a book titled From Babylon to Timbuktu the arthur Ruldolph Windsor recounts how the Jews fled into Africa in 70AD to hid among other dark skinned people when the Romans invaded Isreal. They lived there as refugees for about 1200 years before being sold into slavery during the triangular slave trade. The three parties who took part in the trade were the Arabs, the white man, and the Africans. Black people are not of African descent. Africans are descendents of Ham. Black people are descendents of Shem. I know this may sound crazy, but it’s true and it explains the condition of the real Jews today. I encourage everyone to do their research and find out who they really are. The truth of who the true Jews are is the one truth upon which all the lies that control the world are built. Shalom!
Sarai Yahawa
los angeles, ca USA – Monday, October 18, 1999 at 22:40:47 (EDT)

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“ANCIENT BLACK EGYPT 101” BY HOMESTEAD.COM

April 10, 2007

from: homestead.com

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To the ancient Greek and Latin writers contemporary with the ancient Egyptians the physical classification posed no problems with them: the ancient Egyptians were black, snub-nosed, thick lips, with curly hair. [Primary evidence]

Herodotus: “there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country” (The Histories, Book 2:100)

“Colchians are an Egyptian race . . . . the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too.” (The Histories, Book 2:104)

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Professor William Petrie “The Father of Egyptian Pre-history”

Egyptologist Petrie, excavations at Nagada and Ballas in Upper Egypt nearly 100 years ago unearth nearly 2200 ancient graves. He wrote over a thousand books, articles and reviews reporting on his excavations and his finds.

Petrie, W.M. Flinders, The Making of Egypt, Sheldon Press, New York, 1939, p. 105:

Sudanese Dynasties:

“Scorpion king of the Anu [Aunu] culture”.

“A breath of life came from the Sudan. This southern source was likewise the inspiration of . . .” the 1st, 2nd (Anu),

3rd [Sudanese], 4th, 5th, 12th [Sudanese] dynasties. “The 12th dynasty was undoubtedly descended from Amenemhat, the great vizier of the 11th dynasty. It seems, then, that he married the heiress of the Uah-ka family, as stated in the pseudo-prophecy, “A king shall come from the south whose name is Ameny, son a Nubian woman.” She called her son by the family name Senusert, and he was the founder of the 12th dynasty, according to Manetho. The main sources of the 18th dynasty were Nubian and Libyan, depicted black and yellow, but not red of the Egyptians.

Ahmos Nefertari was one of their black queens. Her black strain seems to come through the Tao I and II ancestry. The 19th dynasty was a direct mixture of races.” Petrie states: “Decay continued in a divided kingdom; Egypt seemed hopeless until a fresh Ethiopian invasion stimulated it, as in earlier instances”. This was the beginning of the 25th dynasty.

See photo of kings Menes, Khasekhem and Djoser. Also the Gebel el-Arak Knife.

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The following was taken from Petrie, A History of Egypt – Part One, 1896, pp. 125-129:

“The Galla Penetration. It has long ago been remarked that the black sphinxes, later appropriated by the Hyksos, approximated to the Galla type of Abyssinia”.

“This starts an enquiry how the Galla connection could thus appear on monuments. In the clearance and planning of the rock tombs at Qau, Antaeopolis, the peculiar plan of those tombs, with great halls and small chambers annexed, was observed to be closely parallel to that of later Nubian temples. In both tomb and temple the chief work is in the solid rock, while the forecourt is of masonry constructed in front of it. Another peculiarity was the hammer-work excavation of one tomb, which had evidently been done with stone balls, as in the Aswan granite working, and this implies a southern connection”.

“These people do not appear in any records, and all their monuments have been reappropriated. They left, however, a most striking style of sculpture, in the sphinxes which were later removed to Tanis, but seem originally to have come from El Kab, where a piece of such a sphinx has been found.The type is closely like that of the Galla. The evidence that all the earlier sculptures of Tanis were collected there by Ramessu II seems clear; and that these sphinxes are earlier than the Hyksos is certain by those kings having appropriated them. No period seems so likely for them as the 7th to the 10th dynasties. The type was heavily bearded, with bushy hair”. Petrie

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Nubia is a relatively modern name, introduced a mere 2000 years ago by the Greek geographer and historian Strabo (63 BC-24 AD), who met members of the Noba tribe and decided to call their country Nubia. For millennia before Strabo’s visit, the Egyptians called it Ta-Seti, “Land of the Bow,” because of its famous archers. Strabo visited the lands south of the Nile’s first cataract in 29 B.C., he remarked on the region’s mineral wealth.

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X-raying the Pharaohs:

The authors of X-raying the Pharaohs (1978) are James E. Harris director of the expedition to x-ray the pharaohs, professor of dentistry and chairman of the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Michigan; Kent R. Weeks, an American Egyptologist and member of the expedition, is associate professor and chairman of the Department of Anthropology at The American University in Cairo wrote:

Seqenenra Tao: “His entire lower facial complex, in fact, is so different from other pharaohs that he could be fitted more easily into the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian–that is, non-Egyptian–origin for Seqenenra and his family, and his facial features suggest this might indeed be true. If it is, the history of the family that reputedly drove the Hyksos from Egypt, and the history of the Seventeenth Dynasty, stand in need of considerable re-examination”.

Written in the book X-raying the Pharaohs states that Donald Redford, a modern Canadian Egyptologist. . . . “believes Hatshepsut’s attainment of the throne represents the final attempt in the Eighteenth Dynasty to establish a strong matrairchate in Egypt. He cites the unusual importance of earlier queens in this period –Tetisheri, Ahhotep I, Ahmose-Nefertari–as evidence of such a tendency, and here suggest that the influences for such a matriarchally determined order of succession might have come from Nubia. The possibility that the rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty were themselves at least part Nubian”.

James E. Harris, Kent R. Weeks, X-raying the Pharaohs, 1973, p. 135; 17th & 18th dynasty family tree.

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1980 Discovery in Upper Egypt:

35,000-30,000 years ago: “Oldest human skeleton found in Egypt”. Nazlet Khater man was the earliest modern human skeleton found near Luxor, in 1980. The remains was dated from between 35,000 and 30,000 years ago. The report regarding the racial affinity of this skeleton concludes: “Strong alveolar prognathism combined with fossa praenasalis in an African skull is suggestive of Negroid morphology [form & structure]. The radio-humeral index of Nazlet Khater is practically the same as the mean of Taforalt (76.6). According to Ferembach (1965) this value is near to the Negroid average.” The burial was of a young man of 17-20 years old, whose skeleton lay in a 160cm- long narrow ditch aligned from east to west. A flint tool, which was laid carefully on the bottom of the grave, dates the burial as contemporaneous with a nearby flint quarry. The morphological features of the Nazlet Khater skeleton were analysed by Thoma (1984). The 35,000 year old skeleton was examined using multivariate statistical procedures. In the first part, principal components analysis is performed on a dataset of mandible dimensions of 220 fossils, sub-fossils and modern specimens, ranging in time from the Late Pleistocene to recent and restricted in space to the African continent and Southern Levant.

Thoma A., Morphology and Affinities of the Nazlet Khater Man; Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 13, 1984.

Nazlet Khater falls closer to the Late Palaeolithic Nubian samples . . . If an ancestral descendant relationship existed between Nazlet Khater and the Late Palaeolithic Nubian specimens, then regional continuity persisted among the Upper/Late Pleistocene populations of the Upper Nile region. The Nazlet Khater specimen is part of a relict population which is a descendant of a larger sub-Saharan stock, which extended as far north as present day upper Egypt sometime during the Last Interglacial period, or the early part of the Last Glacial period. In such a scenario, the Nazlet Khater belongs to a relict population which retained some of the morphological features [form & structure] that were present among Middle Stone Age populations, but no longer present in other contemporaneous sub-Saharan and North African populations.

The Position of the Nazlet Khater Specimen Among Prehistoric and Modern African and Levantine Populations, Ron Pinhasi, Departent of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, U.K., Patrick Semal, Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium; Journal of Human Evolution (2000) vol. 39, 269–288.

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Ancient Text Source (Primary):

It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments, and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days’ absence, serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes, and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon. “I think,” says Heeren, after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship, “that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. The sacred ship of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment, and is towed along by another boat. It is therefore on its voyage. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals, since, even according to the interpretation of antiquity, Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter’s visit to the Ethiopians, and his twelve days’ absence.”–Long, “Egyptian

Antiquities” vol. 1 p. 96. Eustathius, vol. 1 p. 98, sq. (ed. Basil) (quoting from the the Iliad, written by Homer in 800 B.C.E )

Greek historian Diodorus Siculus. From his own statements we learn that he traveled in Egypt around 60 BC. His travels in Egypt probably took him as far south as the first Cataract.

“They (the Ethiopians) say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris [“King of Kings and God of Gods] having been the leader of the colony . . . they add that the Egyptians have received from them, as from authors and their ancestors, the greater part of their laws.” Diodorus’s declared intention to trace the origins of the cult of Osiris, alias the Greek Dionysus also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus. The Homeric Hymn “To Dionysus” locates the birth of Dionysus in a mysterious city of Nysa “near the streams of Aegyptus” (Hesiod 287). Diodorus cites this reference as well as the ancient belief that Dionysus was the son of Ammon, king of Libya (3.68.1), and much of Book 3 of the Bibliotheka Historica is devoted to the intertwined histories of Dionysus and the god-favored Ethiopians whom he believed to be the originators of Egyptian civilization. [emphasis added]

(1st century B.C., Diodorus Siculus of Sicily, Greek historian and contemporary of Caesar Augustus, Universal History Book III. 2. 4-3. 3)

Dionysus is Orisis reinvented. The mysteries were neither of Cretan origin nor a part of the original Greek religion is well established by the fact that the initiatory rites as practiced among these islanders were open to everyone, in contrast to the secret rituals of Byblus, Cyprus, Thrace, Samothrace, and Eleusis (Diodorus, Book V, 77). The mystery, which originated in Egypt, was imported into Greece long after Zeus and his family had migrated from Mt. Ida to Mt. Olympus.

Diodorus devoted an entire chapter of his world history, the Bibliotheke Historica, or Library of History (Book 3), to the Kushites [“Aithiopians”] of Meroe. Here he repeats the story of their great piety, their high favor with the gods, and adds the fascinating legend that they were the first of all men created by the gods and were the founders of Egyptian civilization, invented writing, and given the Egyptians their religion and culture. (3.3.2).

“Now they relate that of all people the Aithiopians [Ethiopians] were the earliest, and say that the proofs of this are clear. That they did not arrive as immigrants but are the natives of the country and therefore rightly are called authochthonous is almost universally accepted. That those who live in the South are likely to be the first engendered by the earth is obvious to all. For as it was the heat of the sun that dried up the earth while it was still moist, at the time when everything came into being, and caused life, they say it is probable that it was the region closest to the sun that first bore animate beings”.

[160,000-year-old fossilized skulls uncovered in Ethiopia are oldest anatomically modern humans.]

Diodorus continues:

“They further write that it was among them that people were first taught to honor the gods and offer sacrifices and arrange processions and festivals and perform other things by which people honor the divine. For this reason their piety is famous among all men, and the sacrifices among the Aithiopians are believed to be particularly pleasing to the divinity,”

“The Aithiopians [Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement.The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Aithiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Aithiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Aithiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them.”

“There are also numerous other Aithiopian tribes [i.e. besides those centered at Meroe]; some live along both sides of the river Nile and on the islands in the river, others dwell in the regions that border on Arabia [i.e. to the east], others again have settled in the interior of Libya [i.e. to the west]. The majority of these tribes, in particular those who live along the river, have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair”.

(Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. Translated by Tomas Hagg, in Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. II: From the Mid-Fifth to the First Century BC (Bergen, Norway, 1996))

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Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher, scientist, and tutor to Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises.

“Too black a hue marks the coward as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians and so does also too white a complexion as you may see from women, the complexion of courage is between the two.”

(Physiognomics, Vol. VI, 812a)

Aristotle makes reference to the hair form of Egyptians and Ethiopians: “Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair.”

(Physiognomics, Book XIV, p. 317)

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The evidence of Lucian (Greek writer, 125 B.C.) is as explicit as that of the previous writers. He introduces two Greeks, Lycinus and Timolaus, who start a conversation:

Lycinus (describing a young Egyptian): “This boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin . . . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman.”

Timolaus: “But that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt, Lycinus, All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. It is the exact opposite of the custom of our ancestors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to keep it in place.”

(Lucian, Navigations, paras 2-3)

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Herodotus (490-425 B.C.E.) The first Greek historian. Called the Father of History.

He reports faithfully what the Egyptian priests communicated to him as the history of their country, when he visited Egypt about 460 to 450 BC.

“I went as far as Elephantine [Aswan] to see what I could with my own eyes, but for the country still further south I had to be content with what I was told in answer to my questions. South of Elephantine the country is inhabited by Ethiopians. . . Beyond the island is a great lake, and round its shores live nomadic tribes of Ethiopians. After crossing the lake one comes again to the stream of the Nile, which flows into it . . . After forty days journey on land along the river, one takes another boat and in twelve days reaches a big city named Meroë, said to be the capital city of the Ethiopians. The inhabitants worship Zeus and Dionysus alone of the Gods, holding them in great honor”.

“The Ethiopians to whom this embassy was sent are said to be the tallest and handsomest men in the whole world. In their customs they differ greatly from the rest of mankind, and particularly in the way they choose their kings; for they find out the man who is the tallest of all the citizens, and of strength equal to his height, and appoint him to rule over them . . . The spies were told that most of them lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even went beyond that age — they ate boiled flesh, and had for their drink nothing but milk. Among these Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable. Also, last of all, they were allowed to behold the coffins of the Ethiopians, which are made (according to report) of crystal, after the following fashion: When the dead body has been dried, either in the Egyptian, or in some other manner, they cover the whole with gypsum, and adorn it with painting until it is as like the living man as possible. Then they place the body in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive it, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies; and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly; yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare. The next of kin keep the crystal pillar in their houses for a full year from the time of the death, and give it the first fruits continually, and honor it with sacrifice. After the year is out they bear the pillar forth, and set it up near the town. . .”

“Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony; and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else. The Ethiopians were clothed in the skins of leopards and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they laid short arrows made of reed, and armed at the tip, not with iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, of the kind used in engraving seals. They carried likewise spears, the head of which was the sharpened horn of an antelope; and in addition they had knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their bodies, half with chalk, and half with vermilion. . .”

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II); Herodotus, The History, trans. George Rawlinson (New York: Dutton & Co., 1862)

Herodotus on the pharaohs: “So far, all I have said is the record of my own autopsy and judgment and inquiry. Henceforth I will record Egyptian chronicles, according to what I have heard, adding something of what I myself have seen” . . . . “The priests told me that Min was the first king of Egypt, and that first he separated Memphis from the Nile by a dam” . . . “After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men” . . . “The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery”.

(Herodotus: The Histories, c 430 BCE, Book II, chap. 100

Herodotus also asserted that “the names of nearly all the gods came to Greece from Egypt . . . for the names of all the gods have been known in Egypt from the beginning of time . . . It was the Egyptians too who originated, and taught the Greeks . . . ceremonial meeting, processions and liturgies . . . The Egyptians were also the first to assign each month and each day to a particular deity, and to foretell the date of a man’s birth, his character, his fortunes, and the day of his death . . . The Egyptians, too have made more use of omens and prognostics than any other nation. . .”

(Herodotus, The Histories, 149-150; 152; 159).

There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others, I had remarked it myself. After the thought had struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the Egyptians had of them. Still the Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too. But further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learned the custom of the Egyptians. And the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbors the Macronians, say that they have recently adopted it from the Colchians. Now these are the only nations who use circumcision, and it is plain that they all imitate herein the Egyptians. With respect to the Ethiopians, indeed, I cannot decide whether they learned the practice of the Egyptians, or the Egyptians of them (it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in Ethiopia). But that the others derived their knowledge of it from Egypt is clear to me, from the fact that the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised. (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 2:104)

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The Greek writer Herodotus repeatedly referred to the Egyptians as being dark-skinned people with woolly hair. “They,” he says, “have the same tint of skin which approaches that of the Ethiopians.” The opinion of the ancient writers on the Egyptians is more or less summed up by French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero The Dawn of Civilization (1894), when he says, “By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historians, they [the Egyptians] belong to an African race which first settled in Ethiopia on the Middle Nile: following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.” The German scholar, Eugen Georg, in his book The Adventure of Mankind (1931) p. 121, tells us about the “. . . world-wide dominance of Ethiopian representatives of the black race. They were supreme in Africa and Asia. In upper Egypt and India they erected mighty religious centers and mastered a perfect technique in the molding of bronze — and they even infiltrated through Southern Europe for a thousand years.”

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Stephanus of Byzantium, who is said to represent the opinions of the most ancient Greeks, says:

“Ethiopia was the first established country on the earth, and the Ethiopians were the first who introduced the worship of the Gods and who established laws.”

Quoted by John D. Baldwin, Prehistoric Nations, p. 62.

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According to Professor Emeritus Frank M. Snowden Jr., (AB, AM, Ph.D.) Howard University Classicist Department — reading of the sources, the Ethiopians “pioneered” religion, and were key to the origin and propagation of many of the customs which existed in Egypt. The Egyptians, it was argued, were descendants of the Ethiopians. Snowden states that the term Kushites, Nubians, or Ethiopians is to used in much the same way as the modern term “colored”, “black, or Negro”. “The experiences of those Africans who reached the alien shores of Greece and Italy constituted an important chapter in the history of classical antiquity,” he writes. “Using evidence from terra cotta figures, paintings, and classical sources like Herodotus and Pliny the Elder, Snowden proves, contrary to our modern assumptions, that Greco-Romans did not view Africans with racial contempt. Many Africans worked in the Roman Empire as musicians, artisans, scholars, and generals as well as slaves, and they were noted as much for their virtue as for their appearance of having a “burnt face” (from which came the Greek name Ethiopian).”

(Snowden Jr., Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,1970; Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983).)

Side Note: President Bush announced one of the 2003 Humanities medal to Frank M. Snowden Jr. (Washington, D.C.), one of the foremost scholars on blacks in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Italy, is Professor Emeritus of Classics at Howard University in Washington, D.C. A graduate of Harvard, Snowden has served as a member of the U.S. delegation to UNESCO in Paris and as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Rome. As a U.S. specialist lecturer for the Department of State, Snowden delivered lectures in Africa, Egypt, Italy, Austria, Greece, India, and Brazil. His many books on blacks in the ancient Mediterranean world include Blacks in Antiquity (1970), The Image of the Black in Western Art I: From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire, which he co-authored (1976), and Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (1983). Snowden’s nominator writes, “Howard students will remember him for his dramatic classroom recitations in ancient Greek and Latin from memory and his plea for the beauty and universality of great literature.”

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Basil Davidson, born on November 9, 1914 in Bristol, England, well-known English scholar of African history. Combining archeological evidence and scholarly research Davidson traces the exciting development of the rich kingdoms of the lost cities of Africa, fifteen hundred years before European ships first came to African shores. “East Africa has developed from a completely primitive country, . . . more backward than the Stone Age . . .” Yet the Stone Age blacks of Khartoum (in Sudan) manufactured pots before the inhabitants of Jericho, the world’s earliest known

city. The Khartoum Mesolithic culture is dated about 7000 B.C. Prehistoric Egyptian artifacts dated a thousand years later would reflect a Khartoum influence. Between 5th century B.C. and 3rd century A.D., Meroe in Sudan was an iron-smelting center. 12th century Arab writer Edrisi reported numerous iron mines in Malindi and Sofala. Edrisi rated Sofala iron better than India iron. At that time, southeastern Africa exported smelted iron to India. (Malindi and Sofala are in modern Kenya and Mozambique respectively.)

(Davidson, Basil, The Lost Cities of Africa, Back Bay Books; Revised edition (1959)). Davidson has written more than 30 books on Africa since 1952.

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The Senegalese Physicist and African Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986) tells us in his book The African Origin of Civilization Myth or Reality (1974) that the Greek writer, Herodotus, may be mistaken, when he reports the customs of a people. “But one must grant that he was at least capable of recognizing the skin color of the inhabitants of countries he visited.” His descriptions of the Egyptians were the descriptions of a Black people. At this point the reader needs to be reminded of the fact that at the time of Herodotus’s visit to Egypt and other parts of Africa (between 480 and 425 B.C.) Egypt’s Golden Age was over. Egypt had suffered from several invasions, mainly the Kushite invasions, coming from within Africa, and starting in 751 B.C., and the Assyrians’ invasions from Western Asia (called the Middle East), starting in 671 B.C. If Egypt, after years of invasions by other people and nations was a distinct Black African nation at the time of Herodotus, shouldn’t we at least assume that it was more so before these invasions occurred?

Until the publication of James G. Spady’s article, “Negritude, Pan-Benegritude and the Diopian Philsophy of African History,” in A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, volume 5, number 1, January, 1972, and an interview by Harun Kofi Wangara, published in Black World magazine, February, 1974, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop was known to only a small group of Black writers and teachers in the United States. His major works includes The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, Lawrence Hill & Co; (1983) (The book presents the historical, archaeological and anthropological evidence that supports the theory that the civilization of ancient Egypt, the first that history records, was actually Negroid in origin); The Peopling of Ancient Egypt & the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script, Karnak House, (1997) (A concise report of the 1974 Cairo conference and contains the arguments concerning the ethnic, linguistic and cultural composition of the ancient Egyptians as well as the deciphering of the merotic script). All of his books were originally published by Presence Africaine, the Paris-based publication arm of the International Society of African Culture.

The Legacy of a Genius: Cheikh Anta Diop (New York Amsterdam News; 10/8/2003; by Boyd, Herb) [Excerpts]:

“Two words – “union” and “intellectual” – were integral to Professor Diop and his dream to create a united Africa, as well as a singular pursuit of knowledge that made him one of the most versatile thinkers the world has ever seen. During an interview with Dr. Charles Finch, Diop recounted some of the early motivations that influenced his quest for knowledge and identity. “My desire to know my history, my culture, my personal problem – that is, my desire to become fulfilled as a person – led me to history.” My efforts were geared towards the restoration of the linguistic and historical personality of Black Africans,” Diop declared. In 1966, the first World Black Festival of Arts and Culture, held in Dakar, Senegal, honored Dr. Diop and Dr. W.E.B. DuBois as the scholars who exerted the greatest influence on African thought in the 20th century. For many aspiring Black thinkers, they represented the twin towers of African achievement.”

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The Western Dilemma:

If Egypt is a dilemma in Western historiography, it is a created dilemma. The Western historians, in most cases, have rested the foundation of what is called “Western Civilization” on the false assumptions, or claim, that the ancient Egyptians were white people. To do this they had to ignore great masterpieces on Egyptian history written by other white historians who did not support this point of view, such as Gerald Massey’s great classic, Ancient Egypt, The Light of the World, (1907) and his other works, A Book of the Beginnings and The Natural Genesis. Other neglected works by white writers are Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, by A.H.L. Heeren (1833), and Ruins of Empires, by Count Volney (1787).

In the first chapter of his book, Dr. Diop refers to the Southern African origins of the people later known as Egyptians. Here he is on sound ground with a lot of support coming from another group of neglected white writers. In his book Egypt, British scholar Sir E.A. Wallis Budge says: “The prehistoric native of Egypt, both in the old and in the new Stone Ages, was African and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South.” He further states: “There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggests that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda and Punt.” (Some historians believe that the biblical land of Punt was in the area known on modern maps as Somalia.)

European interest in “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” dates from the early part of the nineteenth century and is best reflected in a little known, though important, paper in German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius’ Incomparable Survey of the Monumental Ruins in the Ethiopian Nile Valley in 1842-1844. The records found by Lepsius tend to show how Ethiopia was once able to sustain an ancient population that was numerous and powerful enough not only to challenge but, on a number of occasions, to conquer completely the populous land of Egypt. Further, these records show that the antiquity of Ethiopian civilization had a direct link with civilization of ancient Egypt.

Many of the leading antiquarians of the time, based largely on the strength of what the classical authors, particularly Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1st century B.C.) and Stephanus of Byzantium, had to say on the matter, were exponents of the view that the ancient Ethiopians, or at any rate, the Black people of remote antiquity were the earliest of all civilized peoples and that the first civilized inhabitants of ancient Egypt were members of what is referred to as the Black race who entered the country as emigrants from Ethiopia. A number of Europe’s leading writers on the civilizations of remote antiquity have written brilliant defenses of this point of view. Some of these writers are Brice, Count Volney, Fabre, d’Oliver, and Heeren. In spite of the fact that these writers defended this thesis with all the learning at their command and documented their defense, most of the present-day writers of African history continue to ignore their findings.

In 1825, German backwardness in this respect came definitely to an end. In that year, Arnold Hermann Heeren (1760-1842), Professor of History and Politics in the University of Gottengen and one of the ablest of the early exponents of the economic interpretation of history, published, in the fourth and revised edition of his great work Ideen Uber Die Politik, Den Verkehr Und Den Handel Der Vornehmsten Volker Der Alten Weld, a lengthy essay on the history, culture, and commerce of the ancient Ethiopians, which had profound influence on contemporary writers in the conclusion that it was among these ancient Black people of Africa and Asia that international trade was first developed. He thinks that as a by-product of these international contacts there was an exchange of ideas and cultural practices that laid the foundations of the earliest civilizations of the ancient world. Heeren in his researches says: “From the remotest times to the present, the Ethiopians have been one of the most celebrated, and yet the most mysterious of nations. In the earliest traditions of nearly all the more civilized nations of antiquity, the name of this distant people is found. The annals of the Egyptian priests are full of them, and the nations of inner Asia, on the Euphrates and Tigris, have interwoven the fictions of the Ethiopians with their traditions of the wars and conquests of their heroes; and, at a period equally remote, they glimmer in Greek mythology. When the Greeks scarcely knew Italy and Sicily by name, the Ethiopians were celebrated in the verses of their poets, and when the faint gleam of tradition and fable gives way to the clear light of history, the lustre of the Ethiopians is not diminished.”

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The French writer Constantin-François Volney (1757-1820), in his important work, The Ruins of Empires, extends this point of view by saying that the Egyptians were the first people to “attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.” In referring to the basis of this achievement he states further that, “It was, then, on the borders of the Upper Nile, among a Black race of men, that was organized the complicated system of worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture; and this first worship, characterized by their adoration under their own forms and national attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind.”

Volney’s Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires, Boston, J. Mendum, 1869.

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English traveller Thomas Legh, member of the British Parliament, visited Egypt & Nubia in 1812-1814, was one of the first Europeans to visit the archaeological sites above the First Cataract and to publish plates of ruins that no longer exist today. Legh writes: “There has been considerable dispute about the colour of the ancient Egyptians, some authors asserting that they were Negroes, while others maintain that the present Copts are their descendants, and attempt to prove their supposition by the appearance of mummies, which exhibit complexions of dusky brown, lips occasionally thick, but the nose frequently aquiline. The opinion that the former inhabitants of the country were Negroes is founded chiefly on the expressions used by Herodotus, who calls them ‘dark-coloured and woolly haired’, and on the character of the head of the Sphinx, which has the Negro features, and may be justly supposed to offer a correct representation of the countenance of the Egyptians. On the other hand, with respect to the present Copts, it cannot be denied, that the dark hue of their hair and eyes, the former of which is frequently not more curled than is occasionally seen among Europeans, their dusky brown complexions and aquiline noses, all correspond pretty exactly with the paintings to be found in the tombs of Thebes. It is remarkable, however, that the inhabitants of the island of Elephantine (i.e. at the border of Nubia) are nearly black. But notwithstanding their colour, the females of Elephantine are conspicuous for their elegant shapes, and are, upon the whole, the finest women we saw in Upper Egypt.”

(Thomas Legh, Narrative of a Journey in Egypt and the Country beyond the Cataracts, Second Edition London, John Murray, 1817).

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Over a generation ago African American historians such as Carter G. Woodson, W.E.B. Du Bois, Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Willis N. Huggins, J. A. Rogers, and Charles C. Seifort read the works of these radical writer historians and began to expand on their findings. This tradition continued and is reflected in the works of present day Black historians such as John G. Jackson’s Introduction to African Civilizations (1970), Yosef ben-Jochannan’s Black Man of the Nile (1972), Chancellor Williams’s The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race From 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. (1971), and Ivan Van Sertima, Egypt Revisited. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA) & London (U.K.), 1999.

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Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that Egypt was literally taken out of Africa, academically. Historian Basil Davidson also states that throughout history “the land of Ancient Egypt appears to have detached itself from the delta of the Nile, some five and a half thousand years ago, and sailed off into the Mediterranean on a course veering broadly towards the coasts of Syria”. (Basil Davidson, The Ancient World and Africa: Whose Roots? Race & Class (Vol. 29, no. 2, 1987).

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Races of Africa, according to Edith Sanders, went through several editions and was reprinted until 1966 virtually unchanged. Much of the more vulgar scholarship on the ‘racial’ ancestry of the ancient Nile valley Africans can be traced to the intensity of racism in Europe from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Its decline after the second world war.

(Edith R. Sanders, ‘The Hamitic hypothesis: its origin and functions in time perspective’, Journal of African History

(Vol. 10, no. 4, 1969), pp. 521-32).

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Flora Shaw’s (alias Lady Flora Lugard) book is an extraordinary look at the history of Africa, which she gathered from countless sources, and one would imagine a great deal of it came from the British Library and from the archives of The Times of London, for whom she had for many years been the Foreign Political Correspondent. She had always been known to be an intensive researcher into her subject matter, and one wonders at the months and probably years she put into this undertaking, which became the reference work for so many future books on Africa. This book was first publish 100 years ago showing the detail and descriptive power, and the greatness that Africa once was. Lady Lugard argues that:

“When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of Sudan (classical home of Ancient Ethiopians) were the home of races who inspired, rather than of races who received, the tradition of civilization associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt. For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and civilized world be forced to recognize in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come.”

“The fame of the ancient Ethiopians (ancient Kushites) was widespread in ancient history. Herodotus described them as the tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races, and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as the most just of men, the favorites of the gods. The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as Black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn than that remote period of history, the leading race of the Western World was a Black race.”

Lady Lugard/Flora Shaw Lugard, Asa G. Hilliard, III, A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of the Western Sudan With an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria, Black Classic Press (1996)

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A Shift in the Perception of Ancient Egypt:

Further archaeological discoveries continue to legitimize the southern origin of Egyptian civilization. Archaeologist Bruce Williams’s discovery of the Qustul incense burner and of a city at Kerma dating back to 4,500 BCE. (Bruce Williams, ‘The Lost Pharaohs of Nubia’, in Ivan van Sertima (ed.), Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction, 1993). Williams also claims that there were southern predecessors of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, one of the latest results of archaeological explorations in the northern Sahara should be noted:

“The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at 4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in pre-dynastic Upper Egypt.

(J. McKim Malville, Fred Wendorf, Ali A Mazar and Romauld Schild, Megaliths and Neolithic Astronomy in Southern Egypt, Nature (Vol. 392, no. 2, April 1998).)

The Mystery of the Black Mummy

This programme explores the enigmatic central Saharan society which once spanned the entire north African continent. We unravel their tale through the story of the discovery of the black mummy, Uan Muhuggiag. It soon becomes obvious that these people were responsible for an extraordinary array of innovations which later became famous under the Egyptians. Their presence re-writes the history of Egypt and of the entire continent of Africa.

Professor Fabrizio Mori discovered the black mummy at the Uan Muhuggiag rockshelter.

Evidence of the Badarians into Prehistoric Egypt (4500-3800 BC)

Conclusion:

In many ways Egypt is the key to ancient African history. African history is out of kilter until ancient Egypt is looked upon as a distinct African nation. The Nile River played a major role in the relationship to Egypt to the nations in Southeast Africa. During the early history of Africa, the Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa.

John D. Baldwin’s Pre-History Nations or Inquiries Concerning Some of the Great Peoples and Civilizations of Antiquity and Their Probable Relation to a Still Older Civilization of the Ethiopians or Cushites of Arabia (1869). Baldwin, commenting on the greatness of the Cushite people, says that early in the period of its colonizing enterprise, commercial greatness, and extensive empire, it established colonies in the valleys of the Nile and the Euphrates, which in later ages became Barbary, Egypt, and Chaldea. The ancient Cushite nation occupied Arabia and other extensive regions of Africa, India, and Western Asia to the Mediterranean. He concludes that “The old notion that Africa is chiefly a land of black savages arose from ignorance of the country, which could not be removed, but, on the contrary, was heightened by slave-trading communication . . . They could not describe truthfully what came under their observation, but they sought to excuse their own frightful savagery by describing Africa as a land of Negroes in the darkest and most hopeless condition of debasement. When this had been repeated many times, they ventured to represent their kidnapping villains as missionary agencies, intent on transferring savages to Christian countries for their own good.”

American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race” (May 17, 1998):

“How people have been accepted and treated within the context of a given society or culture has a direct impact on how they perform in that society. The “racial” worldview was invented to assign some groups to perpetual low status, while others were permitted access to privilege, power, and wealth. The tragedy in the United States has been that the policies and practices stemming from this worldview succeeded all too well in constructing unequal populations among Europeans, Native Americans, and peoples of African descent. Given what we know about the capacity of normal humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that present-day inequalities between so-called “racial” groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances.”

(To read the complete statement go to AAA Statement on “Race”).

Turning to the major falsification of the history of mankind, as he puts it, Cheikh Anta Diop underlines that the time has come to bring justice to the Negro race, to give black people their due credit for leading the march, and blazing a trail for humanity to follow.
Ancient Black Egypt 101
Afrocentric Book Recommendations

“Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest.”

Diodorus of Sicily

(Universal History, Book III: 2)
12th Dynasty Family Tree

18th Dynasty Family Tree

25th Dynasty Family Tree

“THE ORIGINAL EGYPTIANS WERE JUST LIKE ANY TROPICAL AFRICAN TODAY. WATCH THE FAMOUS BLACK FACES OF EGYPT.ALSO DEBUNKING ALL THE EUROCENTRIC MYTHS…”FROM BLACKHAZE 21

April 10, 2007

FROM: homestead.com
at homestead go to Videos on that page and click on BLACK EGYPT to get the youtube video.
CLICK ON TO THIS BADD BROTHER’S VISUAL JOURNEY THRU BLACK EGYPT!


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