Archive for the ‘THE ANCIENT JEWS WERE BLACK!’ Category

“BLACKS ARE IN FACT THE TRUE JEWS OF THE BIBLE PART I “-YOUTUBE VIDEO

June 17, 2009

Blacks are in fact the true jews of the bible watch ! part 1

THE BLACK JESUS OF PORTBELO(COLON,PANAMA)-ANOTHER SIGN OF THE ORIGINAL BLACK IMAGES OF CHRIST AND THE BLACK MADONNAS!-FROM PHOTOGRAPHY BY UNIXRULZ 37 AT FLICKR.COM

June 12, 2009

THE BLACK JESUS OF PORTOBELO IS CELEBRATED EVERY YEAR ON 21 OCTOBER IN COLON

THE BLACK JESUS OF PORTOBELO IS CELEBRATED EVERY YEAR ON 21 OCTOBER IN COLON

FROM flickr.com
unixrulz32

BLACKamerikkkans ARE THE MOST RELIGIOUS PEOPLE IN amerikkka!-REUTERS POLL

June 12, 2009

OBAMA BEFORE HE WAS PRESIDENT AT A NEW ORLEANS CHURCH,AUG.26,2007

OBAMA BEFORE HE WAS PRESIDENT AT A NEW ORLEANS CHURCH,AUG.26,2007

from Reuters Blogs

January 30th, 2009
African Americans top U.S. religious measures-Pew

Posted by: Ed Stoddard

An analysis by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life suggests that Blacks are considerably more religious than the overall U.S. population. You can see the whole report here.

“While the U.S. is generally considered a highly religious nation, African-Americans are markedly more religious on a variety of measures than the U.S. population as a whole, including level of affiliation with a religion, attendance at religious services, frequency of prayer and religion’s importance in life,” the report says.

Its highlights include:

– Nearly eight in 10 blacks (79 percent) say religion is very important in their lives, compared with 56 percent among all U.S. adults.

– Blacks attend religious services and pray more frequently than the general population. While 39 percent of all Americans report attending religious services at least once a week, 53 percent of blacks report the same.

– Similarly, while 58 percent of all Americans report praying at least once a day, 76 percent of blacks report praying daily.

– The vast majority of blacks are Protestant (78 percent), compared with 51 percent of the U.S. adult population as a whole.

The findings, drawn mostly from data within Pew’s Religious Landscape Survey conducted in 2007, have political as well as cultural implications.

President Barack Obama and his Democratic Party made a strong bid in last November’s presidential election to woo voters of faith — a strategy that dovetailed neatly with Obama’s strong appeal to the party’s black base.

The survey also highlights the cultural and social conservatism of U.S. blacks on issues such as gay rights.

According to Pew Research Center surveys conducted in the summer of 2008, nearly two-thirds of blacks said they opposed gay marriage compared to 51 percent among whites.

Some leading groups in the religious right such as the Family Research Council have been tapping this vein by forming alliances with leading black Christian conservatives.

Democrat and Republican strategists will no doubt read this report carefully.

(Photo: Barack Obama at a New Orleans church, Aug. 26, 2007. REUTERS/Lee Celano, USA)

February 13th, 2009
4:42 am GMT sorry ken, i was a none believer now i am a believer,have been for twenty years.my faith sustains me,it makes everything worthwhile ,not only have i only heard about the lord ,he lives within me.he is more tangible to me than any thing you could say.he is with me on this journey that i make through this life ,and some day i will stand before him,WELL DONE GOOD- AND FAITHFUL SERVANT.

– Posted by BRIAN LEE

February 3rd, 2009
7:36 pm GMT oh lonesome me what are hanging about the religious sites for?are you hoping someone will befriend you.the disciples said “Why do you speak to the multitudes in parables and not to us”?he said” because you have been GIVEN the knowledge to understand the mysteries of god “.sorry buddy this is a hand out you missed out on up till now.god bless.

– Posted by brian lee

February 3rd, 2009
5:55 pm GMT It is a shame that so many black people are closed minded. God doesn’t exist, and praying does absolutely nothing more than wishful thinking does.

~black atheist~

– Posted by Oh! Lonesome Me

February 2nd, 2009
8:30 am GMT […] “African Americans top U.S. religious measures-Pew”. […]

– Posted by » “African Americans top U.S. religious m … Talk Islam

February 2nd, 2009
12:26 am GMT being a racist is nothing to do with the color of your skin,it is whats in your heart.i attended a school in northern england, the number of students about 500.there was only one black kid in the school,but he was something else.he the schools prefect(head boy],he was the best scholar,he captained the football team.,and led the counties athletic team as well.every one in the school loved him,teachers as well.he was every one,s friend,and guess what he was an orphan,he was bused in every day from’” dr barnado,s home” an orphanage.many years later, he is still my hero and always will be, and i thank him for the racial balance that i have in my life.

– Posted by brian lee

February 1st, 2009
8:18 pm GMT SO IN ALL BLACKS ARE PREYING TO THE WRONG GOD AND IT TELLS THEM THIS IN THE BIBLE,CAUSE IT WAS WRITTEN ON THE WALLS OF EGYPT BUT BLACKS HAVE BEEN PROGRAMMED TO THINK THE REAL GOD IS THIS WHITE JESUS.VERY DEEP.THE BIBLE HAS BASIC LAWS IN THEIR THAT ARE CORRECT TO FOLLOW BUT AS FAR AS THE STORIES AND OTHER PARTS COMPLETELY TWISTED OR JUST FALSE ALTOGETHER.FOR SOME REASON BLACKS WANT TO THINK EUROPEANS WHO TOOK STOLE BEAT OUR CULTURE OOUT OF US LIKE THEY WILL ACTUALLY GIVE US A BOOK TOREAD THAT WAS GONNA BE REAL. THIS IS THE BIGGEST SCREWUP IN LIFE,BUT IT WILL COME BACK HAUNT THE PERPERTRAITORS FOR A LONG TIME,THE BIBLE IS A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE SPIRITUALITY OF AFRIKAN PEOPLE IN THE US HAD, IN OTHER WORDS BLACKS HAVE BEEN NOT ONLY DUMMIED TO TO EUROPEAN STANDARDS,BUT LOST ALL OUT REAL SPRITUALITY BECAUSE OF THIS IMAGE OF GOD AND THE FALSE BIBLE.A BIBLE LIKE A PIECE OF A THOUSAND WORD PUZZLE A SMALL SECTION OF THE PUZZLE,BUT WE WALK AROUND WITH ONLY THAT BOOK LIKE ONCE YOU HAVE THAT BOOK THATS IT,THIS WAS APART OF THE SLAVERY PROGRAM

posted by Jay

THE FAMOUS BLACK CHRIST OF MEXICO- CRUCIFIXION OF BLACK JESUS,METROP0LITAN CATHEDRAL,MEXICO CITY!-PHOTOGRAPHED BY BIALY

June 12, 2009
CRUCIFIXION OF BLACK JESUS,METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL MEXICO CITY-THE FAMOUS BLACK CHRIST OF MEXICO!

CRUCIFIXION OF BLACK JESUS,METROPOLITAN CATHDRAL MEXICO CITY-THE FAMOUS BLACK CHRIST OF MEXICO!

BLACK JESUS CHRIST BEING BAPTIZED BY BLACK JOHN THE BAPTIST!-RE-ESTABLISHING THE BLACK IMAGES OF TRUE CHRISTIANITY WHICH HAVE ALL BEEN REPLACED WITH FALSE WHITE IMAGES!-FROM THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE SENTINEL,SEPT 26,2005

June 8, 2009
from THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE SENTINEL,SEPT.262005,PAGE22-BLACK JOHN THE BAPTIST BAPTIZES HIS BLACK COUSIN JESUS CHRIST!

from THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE SENTINEL,SEPT.262005,PAGE22-BLACK JOHN THE BAPTIST BAPTIZES HIS BLACK COUSIN JESUS CHRIST!

RACISM IN ISRAEL AGAINST THE BLACK ETHIOPIAN ORIGINAL JEWS!-FROM TSEDAY.WORDPRESS.COM

June 6, 2009

STOP THE RACISM AGAINST THE BLACK ETHIOPIAN JEWS IN ISRAEL!

STOP THE RACISM AGAINST THE BLACK ETHIOPIAN JEWS IN ISRAEL!

FROM TSEDAY.WORDPRESS.COM

An Ethiopian Journal“Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel?” (Amos 9:7)

How a Jew becomes Black in the Promised Land

It’s sad to hear the harsh reality faced by Ethiopian Jews in Israel. The Israeli government has yet to protect the rights and dignity of this neglected community. Racism exists in Israel! And the Black Jews of Ethiopia are one of its victims. Little do we know that they are the true original Jews from Biblical times! Shame on Israel.

-Tseday M

Being a Black Jew in Israel: Identity Politics in the Post-hegemonic Era
Uri Ben-Eliezer – University of Haifa (2007)
http://www.american.edu/israelstudies/whatsnew/Papers/Uri.htm

The Ethiopian immigrants arrived in Israel at a time of great transformation in the country. For decades, Israel followed an ideology consisting of practices and a structure of domination known as mamlakhtiyut (statism). It was based on the nation-state model, in which everything is managed, concentrated, and supervised from above. The attitude toward the many immigrants who arrived in the fledgling state was that they had to adapt themselves to the integrating society. If not, the state mechanisms would do it for them.

Almost inevitably, attempts to assimilate generate dependence. The anthropologist Esther Herzog described how the absorption centers to which the Ethiopian immigrants were sent created and then heightened their dependence on the existing population. An absorption center creates a bifurcated world, in which the officials who mediate between the world inside and the world outside possess great power.
It did not take long before the new immigrants’ problems with the Chief Rabbinate began. The religious establishment questioned the Jewishness of the Ethiopians. The Rabbinate demanded ritual immersion and totally rejected the authority of the kes, the respected religious leaders of the Ethiopian community. The insistence on immersion generated fears among the Ethiopians that the establishment wanted to turn them into second-class citizens by forcing them, and them alone, to undergo a humiliating ceremony.
True, in 1980s Israel the melting pot discourse had been supplanted by a new discourse espousing cultural pluralism, the mixing and fusion of cultures; in practice, however, the newcomers were pressured to adapt to the dominant culture. In the service of this noble ideal, the youngsters were separated from their parents. The authorities effectively cast aside the so-called “generation of the desert” and sought to instill in the children the values of the integrating society, cutting them off from their past and their community’s traditions. No fewer than 90 percent of the Ethiopian children and adolescents were raised in closed boarding schools, most of them in religious institutions. In Ethiopia the family, both nuclear and extended, was at the center of life. In Israel the state exposed the children m to the disciplinary aspects of the educational system. In some institutions, 70 percent of the students were of Ethiopian origin. Warnings about ethnic segregation, however, went unheeded.
Although the absorption agents insisted that they would “not repeat the mistakes of the past” – referring mainly to the failures with the Mizrahim (Jews who immigrated to Israeli from North Africa and the Middle East in the 1950s) – they did just that. As in the past, the officials declared that the young people should be helped to adapt to a modern way of life and become Israelis in every respect. The binary approach made it possible to constitute the attitude toward the Ethiopians in terms simultaneously inclusionary and exclusionary. On the one hand, they were to be transformed into Western-style Jews and then into Israelis fitting into the hegemonic structure, while on the other hand, that very effort of transmutation relegated them to a status of inferiority, as it is incompatible with their culture and outlook.
The immigrants were also frustrated and embittered because of the day-to-day discrimination they endured. Veteran Israelis did not want to sit next to them on the bus and they did not receive an equal opportunity in the job market. Classrooms and schools emptied out when young Ethiopians entered them, and private kindergartens refused to accept Ethiopian toddlers because they were “different.” Indeed, everyday life, exposed the color barrier and brought to the surface racist tendencies in Israel between Jew and Jew. There was no residential integration, no intermarriage, and no integration in education.

All that missing was a cause, which appeared on January 24, 1996, when a newspaper report stated that for the past 12 years the Blood Bank had not been using the blood of Ethiopian Israelis for medical purposes because of its possible contamination by the HIV virus. The report generated protests of a sort rarely seen in the country. Some 10,000 Ethiopian immigrants from all over Israel, held a protest demonstration outside the Prime Minister’s Office in Jerusalem. It was a moment of truth with a significant Durkheimean element, of conferring name and meaning on the feelings of frustration and discrimination. The violent clash went on for hours, and dozens of policemen and demonstrators were injured. The crowd carried placards reading “We are black but our blood is red,” and “We are Jews like you: stop the racist apartheid.” A 17-year-old girl who came to Jerusalem for the demonstration from the Haifa area, where she attended a boarding school, said, “I came to protest against what is being done to the blacks because of the color of their skin. I am ashamed of my nation, of the white Jewish nation.” The Chief of the Jerusalem District Police, Aryeh Amit, labeled the demonstrators “young savages.” Indeed, to everyone’s surprise, the “boy savage” turned out not to be harmless, pleasant, and passive. “They think they know better than we do what’s good for us,” one of the participants summed up.
The huge demonstration, however, did not help much. The Ministry of Health announced that it would continue with its policy of not making use of blood taken from Ethiopians, as they constituted a “risk group.” By invoking this term, the state officials intended to shift the discourse in a direction that would serve their ends. Their bureaucratic medical discourse is based on a division of reality into generalized categories and endeavors, and to justify discriminatory policy by evoking fears, in this case fears of AIDS, following the line that was presented by Ulrich Beck in his “risk society. Thus the Health Ministry frightened the public by revealing that an Ethiopian blood donor was 34 times more likely to be a carrier than anyone else.
More than once, racism appears through the definition of an immigrant group by certain disease and the fear of contamination. As though to illustrate the point, Dr. Ram Yishai, the chairman of the Society of Medical Ethics, explained that the Ethiopians constituted a risk group because single Ethiopian women did not abstain from random sexual contact. Elaborating, the learned physician stated that the Ethiopian women were not afraid of AIDS and that, if infected, they displayed no anger at the man responsible. Again the litany of familiar terms was invoked: ignorance, a different conception of sex and death, sexual permissiveness that differs from the Israeli norm, the good of the public, and so forth. Probably, too, the Ethiopians were angry at not having been given the information or being allowed to share in deciding policy. The integrating society perceived the stranger, the other, the black as a child or a native who lacks sufficient maturity to be told the truth or cope with it.
The Blood Affair became something of a moment of truth for the Ethiopian Jews. The affront sustained by them showed that they could not, and perhaps did not want to discard entirely their traditions and their past. “Blood is the soul,” I was told by interviewees who explained the cause of the violent outburst in the Blood Affair. In Ethiopia, blood served as a symbolic means to distinguish Jews from Christians in three areas: ritual slaughter of animals, the dietary laws, and the categorization of women in their menstrual period as unclean. To the Ethiopians in Israel, discarding blood taken from them was an act of exclusion.

Rumors about suicides of Ethiopians in the army were already circulating by the time of the Blood Affair. The chairman of the committee of Ethiopian immigrants claimed that twenty Ethiopians had committed suicide in the past few years. The army claimed that the figure was far lower. The main point, however, is that the rumors showed a change in the immigrants’ attitude toward the army. At first, the young people wanted nothing more than to excel in the IDF, to do combat duty, preferably in one of the elite units. Excellence in the army was perceived as a rite of passage leading to acceptance in the Israeli society. Gradually, however, they realized that army service, far from resolving their problems, might aggravate them instead. In the second half of the 1990s we find, along with the suicide phenomenon, a decline in the Ethiopian Jews’ motivation to serve and excel in the army. In part, the disappointment was due to the fact that the combat soldiers discovered that they could not translate their service into social mobility. Many of them found it difficult to earn a living.

This behavior in part was a clear manifestation of what James C. Scott calls “everyday forms of resistance,” a desire to overcome a discriminatory, alienating reality, in our case, at the price of escaping military service or even by means of suicide. Similarly, the rising crime rate among young Ethiopians in the late 1990s should be seen as a form of subversion and of criticism of the society. The social welfare agencies, appalled by this trend, viewed it as proof that an identity crisis existed and that the young Ethiopians were drifting toward the margins of the society. In fact, it is the other way around, those involved are looking for meaning and a sense of community. In their way, they are also protesting actively against a reality that had made them and the rest of the community passive and dependent. At the same time, there was an element of the new in this development, a show of differentiation and distinctiveness that shattered the stereotypical view of the community as modest and quiet. As though to prove that the youngsters were rebelling against the image that was foisted on them, 16-18 year-olds, asked how they react to being called kushi, a term that connotes a slave in their culture, replied unequivocally that whereas in the past they had been offended and backed off, now they would lash out at anyone who used the term and “let him have it,” in the word of one of them.
The Ethiopian immigrants displayed further manifestations of subversion in relation to marriage. Not all of them were willing to undergo the Rabbinate’s humiliating rituals and tests – which were earmarked for Ethiopians alone – in order to take out a marriage license. The interviews showed that members of the community had found various ways to solve the problem. Some couples live together without marrying; others are married in the traditional Ethiopian ceremony by a kes, even though this is not recognized by the Rabbinate or the state.

However, this was not enough for the young Ethiopians. Their subversive practices were accompanied by an attempt to construct a new identity by challenging the hegemonic structure while exploiting its widening cracks. The identity politics they practiced involved deconstructing the “one” Israeli identity, exposing its problematic nature, and reconstructing it in terms of their conceptual approach. In Gilroy’s terms, this is a process of deconstruction and contextualization. Identity is reconstructed such that it is context dependent. Fundamentally, since the Blood Affair, Israeliness for young Ethiopians has gradually become an identity one element of which is blackness. The passage of time will make no difference,” I was told by one interviewee, who had a clear grasp of the reality in which she lives. “In Ethiopia we were Jews, here we are blacks,” another said.
Africa, observes Stuart Hall, is often depicted as being a mother for all Africans. The effect is to bestow an imagined cohesiveness and shared identity on Africans’ experience of dispersion and fragmentation, a feeling that there exists a permanent “essence” of the African, of the quintessential black experience. However, as Hall, too, points out, identity development is a far more active process, in which those involved attempt to locate themselves in the space of the presence and adapt to changing reality. Indeed, blackness is not the only distinguishing characteristic of this group. In discotheques, for example, these youngsters do not mix with foreign workers from Africa, who are not Jewish. In fact, quarrels and fights between the two groups have been known to erupt. The process of constructing a new identity intertwines similarity and differentiation. The young Ethiopians differ from other Israelis and resemble blacks in other countries; yet, as Israelis and Jews the resemblance is not complete. As young student told me: I am first of all a Jew, then an Ethiopian, and finally an Israeli… In fact, I am also an Israeli but different from these franjim.

Thus the Israeli experience – “white,” discriminatory, exclusionary – is sending the young generation back to their roots in Africa. Many have begun to study spoken and written Amharic, a language that they have almost forgotten. The members of the young generation are also taking African names. As one student explained, “A few of us friends got together and decided to go back to our original names. Why weren’t the Russians made to change their names when they came to Israel?” They want to visit Ethiopia and they like Amharic music, both traditional and modern, with its romantic themes. The Africa they envisage is of course not the Africa they knew as children; it is an imagined Africa. It is an Africa of rhythm, of special foods and customs, of suffering and hope. An Africa that is both present and vanished, in any event an Africa of blacks only.
By the end of the 1990s, black Jewish Israel defined itself as part of the African diaspora. That is a definition with a cultural and a political meaning that cannot simply be ignored. The cultural practices of the Ethiopian Israelis draw their inspiration largely from the politics and culture of black America, Jamaica, and black Britain. Technological advances in communications bridge geographic distance: consider MTV and the Internet. Cultural commodities, such as CDs, books, and magazines facilitate identification. The young people invent a history of their own. People who in Ethiopia lived on a motif of exile and longing for Zion, meaning Jerusalem, now live in Israel with a sense of exile and a longing for Zion, which is of course Ethiopia, as in the song by Bob Marley. True, they came to Israel of their own volition, and for religious reasons, and from this point of view their history is different from that of the descendants of the slaves who were exiled forcibly from Africa and transported to America. Nevertheless, the youngsters identify with the history of their “brothers”: their suffering, their severance from their past, the discrimination and the poverty they endure, and their yearning for the Black Continent. Africa becomes the lost paradise. The longing to return to lost origins, to beginnings, is of course impractical, though the symbolic, too, is fraught with meaning. This is their narrative and with it they constitute their contemporary identity.

The anthropologist Malka Shabtai has analyzed the content of the music that the young Ethiopians are fond of: above all, black music of political protest with social messages of equality, brotherhood, and peace. Usually, they dance to reggae or rap. The fact that Rastafarianism originated in Jamaica in 1930, after the coronation of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia, with the belief in him as the “Lion of Judah,” helps explain why young Ethiopian Israelis are attracted also to this music. Shabtai interviewed an Israeli reggae singer named Emanuel, the soloist of the “Roots of Africa” group. “The story of the Jews of Ethiopia is in some ways similar to the story of the blacks in Africa,” he said. “There are a lot of things that are, you know, parallel.”

Written by Tseday

September 7, 2008 at 12:25 am

THE BLACK DAUGHTER ETHIOPIA IN THE BIBLE!-THIS SISTER DRUSILLA DUNJEE HOUSTON IN 1926 WROTE THIS GREAT BOOK ON ETHIOPIAN BLACK HISTORY-CHECK OUT THIS CHAPTER POSTED BY A GREAT SITE:TSEDAY.WORDPRESS.COM

May 9, 2009

race-type-of-the-early-dynastiesan-ancient-cushiterameses-ii-surnamed-the-greatan-ancient-cushiterameses-ii-surnamed-the-greatfrom tseday.wordpress.com

An Ethiopian Journal“Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel?” (Amos 9:7)
OLD ETHIOPIA – ITS PEOPLE
with one comment

SOURCE: http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/we/we05.htm
Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire
by Drusilla Dunjee Houston [1926, no renewal]

CHAPTER II

Because of the great lapse. of time, it seems almost impossible to locate the original seat of the old Ethiopian empire. Bochart thought it was “Happy Araby,” that from this central point the Cushite race spread eastward and westward. Some authorities like Gesenius thought it was Africa. The Greeks looked to old Ethiopia and called the Upper Nile the common cradle of mankind. Toward the rich luxurience of this region they looked for the “Garden of Eden.” From these people of the Upper Nile arose the oldest traditions and rites and from them sprang the first colonies and arts of antiquity. The Greeks also said that Egyptians derived their civilization and religion from Ethiopia. “Egyptian religion was not an original conception, for three thousand years ago she had lost all true sense of its real meaning among even the priesthood.” (Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection–Preface.) Yet Egyptian forms of worship are understood and practiced among the Ethiopians of Nubia today. The common people of Egypt never truly understood their religion, this was why it so easily became debased.

Ptolemaic writers said that Egypt was formed of the mud carried down, from Ethiopia, that Ethiopians were the first men that ever lived, the only truly autochthonous race and the first to institute the worship of the gods and the rites of sacrifice. Egypt itself was a colony of Ethiopia and the laws and script of both lands were naturally the same; but the hieroglyphic script was more widely known to the vulgar in Ethiopia than in Egypt. (Diodorus Siculus, bk. iii, ch. 3.) This knowledge of writing was universal in Ethiopia but was confined to the priestly classes alone in Egypt. This was because the Egyptian priesthood was Ethiopian. The highly developed Merodic inscriptions are not found in Egypt north of the first cataract or in Nubia south of Soba. These are differences we would expect to find between a colony and a parent body. Herodotus (bk. ii, p. 29) says that Meroe was a great city and metropolis, most of its buildings were of red brick. 800 B. C. at Napata, the buildings were of hard stone. (Meroe–Crowfoot, pp. 6, 30.)

The Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, “There is every reason to conclude that the separate colonies of priestcraft spread from Meroe into Egypt; and the primeval monuments in Ethiopia strongly confirm the native traditions, reported by Diodorus Siculus, that the worship of Zeus-Ammon originated in Meroe, also the worship of Osiris. This would render highly probable the opinion that commerce, science and art descended into Egypt from the Upper Nile. Herodotus called the Ethiopians “Wisemen occupying the Upper Nile, men of long life, whose manners and customs pertain to the Golden Age,those virtuous mortals, whose feasts and banquets are honored by Jupiter himself.” In Greek times, the Egyptians depicted Ethiopia as an ideal state. The Puranas, the ancient historical books of India, speak of the civilization of Ethiopia as being older than that of Egypt. These Sanskrit books mention the names of old Cushite kings that were worshipped in India and who were adopted and changed to suit the fancy of the later people of Greece and Rome.

The Hindu Puranas speak of the Cushites going to India before they went to Egypt, proving Hindu civilization coeval with that of Chaldea and the country of the Nile. These ancients record that the Egyptians were a colony drawn out from Cusha-Dwipa and that the Palli, another colony that made the Phoenicians followed them from the land of Cush. In those primitive days, the central seat of Ethiopia was not the Meroe of our day, which is very ancient, but a kingdom that preceeded it by many ages; that was called Meru. Lenormant spoke of the first men of the ancient world as “Men of Meru.” Sanskrit writers called Indra, chief god of the Hindu, king of Meru. He was deified and became the chief representative of the supreme being. Thus was primitive India settled by colonists from Ethiopia. Early writers said there was very little difference in the color or features of the people of the two countries.

Ancient traditions told of the deeds of Deva Nahusha, another sovereign of Meru, who extended his empire over three worlds. The lost literature of Asia Minor dealt with this extension of the Ethiopian domain. An old poem “Phrygia,” was a history of Dionysus, one of the most celebrated of the old Ethiopians. It was written in a very old language and character. He preceeded Menes by many ages. Baldwin says that the authentic books that would have given us the true history concerning him, perished long before the Hellenes. The Greeks of historical times distorted the story of Dionysus and converted him into their drunken god of wine. “They misconstrued and misused the old Cushite mythology, wherever they failed to understand it, and sought to appropriate it entirely to themselves.” One of the poetical versions of the taking of Troy, on the coast of Asia Minor, was entitled “The Æthiops,” because the inhabitants of Troy, as we shall prove later, who fought so valiantly in the Trojan war, were Cushite Ethiopians. This version presented the conflict as an Egyptian war.

In those early ages Egypt was under Ethiopian domination. In proof of this fact, the Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, “Isaiah often mentions Ethiopia and Egypt in close political relations. In fine the name of Ethiopia chiefly stood as the name of the national and royal family of Egypt. In the beginning Egypt was ruled from Ethiopia. Ethiopia was ruined by her wars with Egypt, which she sometimes subdued and sometimes served.” Modern books contain but little information about the country of the Upper Nile, but archaic books were full of the story of the wonderful Ethiopians. The ancients said that they settled Egypt. Is it possible that we could know more about the origin of this nation than they? Reclus says, “The people occupying the plateau of the Blue Nile, are conscious of a glorious past and proudly call themselves Ethiopians.” He calls the whole triangular space between the Nile and the Red Sea, Ethiopia proper. This vast highland constituted a world apart. From it went forth the inspiration and light now bearing its fruit in the life of younger nations.

Heeren thought, that excepting the Egyptians, no aboriginal people of Africa so claim our attention as the Ethiopians. He asks, “To what shall we attribute the renown of this one of the most distant nations of the earth? How did the fame of her name permeate the terrible deserts that surrounded her: and even yet form an insuperable bar to all who approach. A great many nations distant and different from one another are called Ethiopians. Africa contains the greater number of them and a considerable tract in Asia was occupied by this race. The Ethiopians were distinguished from the other races by a very dark or completely black skin. ” (Heeren’s Historical Researches–Ethiopian Nations. Ch. 1, p. 46) Existing monuments confirm the high antiquity of Meroe. In the Persian period Ethiopia was an important and independent state, which Cambyses vainly attempted to subdue. Rosellini thinks that the right of Sabaco and Tirhakah, Ethiopian kings, who sat upon the throne of Egypt in the latter days, must have been more by right of descent than by usurpation or force of arms. “This may be judged,” he says, “by the respect paid to their monuments by their successors.”

The pictures on the Egyptian monuments reveal that Ethiopians were the builders. They, not the Egyptians, were the master-craftsmen of the earlier ages. The first courses of the pyramids were built of Ethiopian stone. The Cushites were a sacerdotal or priestly race. There was a religious and astronomical significance in the position and shape of the pyramids. Dubois points to the fact that in Upper Egypt there were pictured black priests who were conferring upon red Egyptians, the instruments and symbols of priesthood. Ethiopians in very early ages had an original and astounding religion, which included the rite of human sacrifice. It lingered on in the early life of Greece and Home. Dowd explains this rite in this way: “The African offered his nearest and dearest, not from depravity but from a greater love for the supreme being.” The priestly caste was more influencial upon the Upper Nile than in Egypt. With the withdrawal of the Ethiopian priesthood from Egypt to Napata, the people of the Lower Nile lost the sense of the real meaning of their religion, which steadily deteriorated with their language after their separation from Ethiopia.

If we visit Nubia, modern Ethiopia today, we can plainly see in the inhabitants their superiority to the common Egyptian type. The Barabra or Nile Nubians are on a footing of perfect equality in Egypt because that was their plane in ancient days. Baedecker describes them as strong, muscular, agricultural and more warlike and energetic than Egyptians. Keane says the Nubians excel in moral qualities. They are by his description obviously Negroid, very dark with full lips and dreamy eyes. They have the narrow heads which are the cranial formation of Ethiopia. Race may be told by shape of the skull far better than by color or feature, which are modified by climate. The members of the Tartar race have perfectly rounded skulls. The head of the Ethiopian races is very elongated. Europeans have an intermediate skull. The cranial formation of unmixed races never changes. Keane concludes by saying, “All Barbara have wooly hair with scant beards like the figures of Negroes on the walls of the Egyptian temples.” The race of the Old Empire approached closely to this type.

Strabo mentions the Nubians as a great race west of the Nile. They came originally from Kordofan, whence they emigrated two thousand years ago. They have rejected the name Nubas as it has become synonymous with slave. They call themselves Barabra, their ancient race name. Sanskrit historians call the Old Race of the Upper Nile Barabra. These Nubians have become slightly modified but are still plainly Negroid. They look like the Wawa on the Egyptian monuments. The Retu type number one was the ancient Egyptian, the Retu type number two was in feature an intermingling of the Ethiopian and Egyptian types. The Wawa were Cushites and the name occurs in the mural inscriptions five thousands years ago. Both people were much intermingled six thousand years ago. The faces of the Egyptians of the Old Monarchy are Ethiopian but as the ages went on they altered from the constant intermingling with Asiatic types. Also the intense furnace-like heat of Upper Egypt tended to change the features and darken the skin.

In the inscriptions relative to the campaigns of Pepi I, Negroes are represented as immediately adjoining the Egyptian frontier. This seems to perplex some authors. They had always been there. This was the Old Race of predynastic Egypt–the primitive Cushite type. This was the aboriginal race of Abyssinia. It was symbolized by the Great Sphinx and the marvelous face of Cheops. Take any book of Egyptian history containing authentic cuts and examine the faces of the first pharaohs, they are distinctively Ethiopian. The “Agu” of the monuments represented this aboriginal race. They were the ancestors of the Nubians. and were the ruling race of Egypt. Petrie in 1892 exhibited before the British Association, some skulls of the Third and Fourth Dynasties, showing distinct Negroid characteristics. They were dolichocephalic or long skulled. The findings of archaeology more and more reveal that Egypt was Cushite in her beginning and that Ethiopians were not a branch of the Japheth race in the sense that they are so represented in the average ethnological classifications of today.

Egyptians said that they and their religion had come from the land of Punt. Punt is generally accepted today to have been Somaliland south of Nubia. On the pictured plates at Deir-el-Baheri, the huts of the people of Punt were like the Toquls of the modern Sudanese, being built on piles approached by ladders. The birds were like a species common among the Somali. The fishes were not like those of Egypt. The wife of the king of Punt appears with a form like the Bongo women with exaggerated organs of maternity. This was a distinctive Ethiopian form. The king had the Cushite profile. The products carried by the wooly haired porters were ebony, piles of elephant tusks, all African products and trays of massive gold rings. Punt is mentioned in the inscriptions as a land of wonders. We find marvelous ruins in southeastern Africa that substantiate these reports. The inscription in the rocky valley of Hammat tells how 2000 B. C. a force gathered in the Thebaid to go on an expedition to Punt to bring back the products that made the costly incense of the ancients. The Stage Temple at Thebes showed in gorgeous pictures another expedition in 1600 B. C. We now know that Somaliland yielded the frankincense of ancient commerce, which was used in the ceremonials of all ancient kingdoms. Punt was called the “Holy Land” by the Egyptians.

In Egypt today, the most effective battalions are those commanded by black Nubians. In ancient ages the Egyptians followed the lead of the Ethiopian to battle and it is instinctive in them to do so today. Cushites were the backbone of the armies in the earliest ages. The Egyptian has no warlike qualities. It was the Cushite who was the head and brains of the foreign conquests. It was the Cushite element of the Old Empire that extended itself in foreign colonization eastward and westward around the world. Across Arabia and southwestern Asia, even to the central highlands, inscriptions and massive images in stone stand as voiceless witnesses that they were the commanders of the Egyptian armies and that the Ethiopian masses accompanied the soldiers as trusted allies and not as driven slaves. We must remember that in the early ages they were not a subject race but that their power as a great empire was at its zenith.

The Egyptian of today much changed from the ancient whom Herodotus called black, is content to live in a mud hut beside his beloved Nile. He is despised by the prouder Nubian, who saves his earnings to buy a home and piece of ground in his native Ethiopia. Reclus tells us that the dislike between Egyptians and Nubians is carried to such a great extent that the Nubians even in Egypt will not marry an Egyptian woman and that he refuses his daughter in marriage to the Egyptian and Arab. This could have come down alone front an age-old consciousness of superiority. He knows the proud traditions of his race. In books careless of ethnography, we find the Nubian classed with Semitic stock. They have no affinities at all with this race. Nubians are never able to speak the Arabic tongues gramatically. Nubian women are seldom seen in Egypt. They are the most faithful to the manners and customs of the Old Race. The Egyptian of today makes
little showings of ambition or the spirit for great deeds. He squanders his earnings upon trinkets and seems content in the same mud hovel in which the masses of Egyptians primitively lived.

Prichard recognizes two branches of the Nubians, the Nubians of the Nile and those of the Red Sea. In the age of Herodotus, the countries known as Nubia and Senaar were occupied by two different races, one of which he includes under the name Ethiopian; the other was a pastorial race of Semitic decent which led a migratory life. This distinction continues to the present day. The Red Sea nomadic tribes are extremely savage and inhospitable. The Nile Nubas or Barabra are the original Ethiopians. They are agricultural and have the old Hamitic traits. They plant date trees and set up wheels for irrigation. These are the Ethiopians mentioned in chronicles as possessing war chariots. Their allies were the Libyans. Semites at that age of the world had no possession of iron vehicles. Heeren says “that the ancestors of these Ethiopians had long lived in cities and had erected magnificent temples and edifices, that they possessed law and government, and that the fame of their progress in knowledge and the social arts had spread in the earliest ages to a considerable part of the world.”

Maurice, that reliable authority on ancient remains, declares, “The ancient Ethiopians were the architectural giants of the past. When the daring Cushite genius was in the full career of its glory, it was the peculiar delight of this enterprising race to erect stupendous edifices, excavate long subterranean passages in the living rock, form vast lakes and extend over the hollows of adjoining mountains magnificent arches for aqueducts and bridges. It was they who built the tower of Babel or Belus and raised the pyramids or Egypt; it was they who formed the grottoes near the Nile and scooped the caverns of Salsette end Elephante. (These latter are wonders of Hindu architecture.) Their skill in mechanical powers astonishes posterity, who are unable to conceive by what means stones thirty, forty and even sixty feet in length from twelve to twenty in depth could ever be raised to the point of elevation at which they are seen in the ruined temples of Belbec and Thebais. Those comprising the pagodas of India are scarcely less wonderful in point of elevation and magnitude.” (Maurice’s Ancient History of Hindustan.)

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Written by Tseday

September 14, 2008 at 3:41 am
Posted in African History, Ethiopia

Tagged with Ancient Egypt, Ancient Ethiopia, Ancient India, Ethiopia
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The so-called Somalia state versus Somaliland

This piece of work is based upon the mere facts collected elsewhere from South East Asia, Greece, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and indeed the wonderfull Somaliland Republic.

For the failed state of Somalia all you can expect is confrontational rhetoric against everything, even this accredited Scientific research will be unheeded.

The only guts they commonly agree is plunder of the past, present and even their own future. That is why approximately ten years ago they created the so-called Mafia style semi-autonomous province of Puntland.

This dry region whic happens East-western Somalia is the imminent neighbour of Africas best kept secret or The Somaliland and more than that it is stronghold of War Lord president of Somalia`s TFG. The latter was area ruler when he just copied our way of functioning statehood may be positively but wrongly with plunder of the his name selection,because the name Puntland belongs to Somaliland and it is our historical ownership and label rights that can not be internationally endorsed.

East and west Somaliland is best

Ali Mohamoud Noor Ali-Eid
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Ali Mohamoud Noor Ali-Eid

September 14, 2008 at 3:51 pm
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This is great! I want to paste it on my “BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL!” SITE AND GIVE(AND LINK YOU)YOU AS SOURCE!
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Black on !

Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade

May 9, 2009 at 12:09 pm

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“OBAMA’S RABBI”-HIS COUSIN-IN-LAW-HEADS A BLACK JEWISH SYNAGOGUE IN CHICAGO-FROM NEW YORK TIMES -APRIL,2009

May 3, 2009

05rabbi-600FROM newyorktimes.com

Obama’s Rabbi
Alec Soth/Magnum, for The New York Times
Hallelujah, shalom: Rabbi Funnye singing at Shabbat services.

Published: April 2, 2009
Rabbi Capers Funnye celebrated Martin Luther King Day this year in New York City at the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue, a mainstream Reform congregation, in the company of about 700 fellow Jews — many of them black. The organizers of the event had reached out to four of New York’s Black Jewish synagogues in the hope of promoting Jewish diversity, and they weren’t disappointed. African-American Jews, largely from Brooklyn, the Bronx and Queens, many of whom had never been in a predominantly white synagogue, made up about a quarter of the audience. Most of the visiting women wore traditional African garb; the men stood out because, though it was a secular occasion, most kept their heads covered. But even with your eyes closed you could tell who was who: the black Jews and the white Jews clapped to the music on different beats.

Alec Soth/Magnum, for The New York Times
Rabbi Capers Funnye
Funnye, the chief rabbi of the Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation in Chicago, one of the largest black synagogues in America, was a featured speaker that night. The overflowing audience came out in a snowstorm to hear his thoughts about two men: the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Barack Obama. King is Funnye’s hero. Obama, whose inauguration was to take place the following day in Washington, is family — the man who married Funnye’s cousin Michelle.

A compact, serious-looking man in his late 50s, Funnye (pronounced fu-NAY) wore a dark business suit and a large gray knit skullcap. He sat expressionless, collecting his thoughts, as Joshua Nelson and his Kosher Gospel Band steamed through their sanctified rendition of the Hebrew hymn “Adon Olam.” Nelson, a black Jew, was raised in two Jewish worlds — a white Reform temple in New Jersey and a Black Jewish synagogue in Brooklyn — and he borrows from both. The first time the Rev. Al Sharpton heard a recording of Nelson’s “Adon Olam,” he said, “I can hear that’s Mahalia Jackson, but what language is she singing in?”

Mary Funnye, Capers’s wife, tapped her foot to the music and smiled with apparent equanimity, but her husband knew she was seething inside. “Mary has been a rabbi’s wife for a long time,” he told me a few weeks later. “She has an excellent synagogue poker face. But she really wanted to be in Washington that night” — for the early inauguration festivities — “not New York. And you can’t really blame her.”

The Funnyes were invited to Washington by the Obamas for a full calendar of inaugural events, including a dinner that evening held by the president-elect for his family and close advisers. Mary’s brother, Frank White Jr., a businessman who served as a prominent member of Obama’s national finance committee, was invited. So were three of Funnye’s sisters. It was going to be the family reunion of the year, the social event of the season and a crowning moment in American history. Mary had a formal gown ready. But here she was, singing “Adon Olam,” as she did virtually every Shabbat in Chicago.

Still, to be fair, this night was a historic moment for her husband too. For the first time in a rabbinical career stretching back to 1985, Funnye had been invited to speak at a white, mainstream synagogue in New York. Plenty of black Christian ministers, in a spirit of ecumenism and racial harmony, have addressed Jewish congregations in the city. But a black rabbi? Many American Jews regard the very concept as an oxymoron, or even, given the heterodoxies of much Black Jewish theology, some sort of heresy. Funnye has been trying for years to demonstrate that he and his fellow Black Jews belong in the Jewish mainstream. Mostly he has been ignored.

But it is hard to ignore a man with a cousin in the White House. Tonight was payback for all those years of stupid jokes (“Funnye, you don’t look Jewish”), insulting questions and long, wondering stares. Funnye was finally being given the stage at a high-profile Jewish event. “My Broadway debut,” he said, without evident irony, as he prepared to go on. “Been a long time getting here, but I’m ready.”

Capers C. Funnye Jr. was born in South Carolina in 1952 and raised on the South Side of Chicago. His paternal relatives are Gullahs from the barrier islands off Charleston, S.C. The Gullah community has retained many of its original African customs and much of its ancestral language. On his first visit to Nigeria, in 2001, Funnye was delighted to discover that variations of his family name are common in Africa. On his maternal side, he is a Robinson. His mother, Verdelle, was the sister of Fraser Robinson Jr. — Michelle Obama’s grandfather. That makes Funnye and Michelle Obama first cousins, once removed.

And not that removed, really. “Our families were very close,” Funnye says. “All through my childhood, our families were in and out of each other’s houses, celebrating holidays together, that kind of thing.” As kids, Funnye and Michelle Obama weren’t peers (he was nearly 12 years older), but they connected in earnest years later, in 1992, at her wedding, and a friendship developed. The Obamas, like Funnye, were involved in community organizing in Chicago, and they saw one another often, socially and professionally. It didn’t surprise Funnye, he told me, that when he and Mary went to Washington to attend Obama’s inaugural ceremony after Funnye’s speech in New York, they were in the good seats, near Oprah Winfrey and Steven Spielberg. Family is family.

Funnye was not always Jewish. When he went off to college at Howard University in 1970, he was the conventionally Christian son of upwardly striving parents. But he was moved by the radicalized atmosphere of the day. Black nationalism, Afrocentrism and cultural separatism were in vogue, and Funnye came to see Christianity as an alien religion imposed on blacks by white slave masters. “I was never an atheist,” he told me. “I just wanted to find the right way to worship him.”

During a summer job in Chicago, some friends introduced Funnye to Rabbi Robert Devine, the spiritual leader of the House of Israel Congregation. Devine preached that Africans were the true descendants of the biblical Hebrews, and that Jesus, the Messiah, was a black man. The message appealed to Funnye. Devine baptized him in a public swimming pool, and Funnye entered the complicated world of black American Jewry.

Estimates of how many black Jews there are in the United States range widely. It all depends on who is doing the counting and what criteria are being used. There are Jews who happen to be black: kids adopted by white Jewish families, for example, or the offspring of mixed parents. (Orthodox Judaism recognizes as Jewish the offspring of only Jewish mothers; Reform, the largest American denomination, accepts patrilineal as well as matrilineal descent.) There are also African-Americans who have been converted to various forms of Judaism, as well as Jews of Ethiopian origin who immigrated to Israel and subsequently moved to America. Probably no more than 2 percent of the American Jewish community is made up of black Jews.

There have been African-Americans with blood ties to white Jews since at least the early 19th century. Among them was Julia Ann Isaacs, the daughter of a white Jewish man, David Isaacs, and a free black woman, Nancy Ann West. In 1832 Julia married Eston Hemings, the son of Sally Hemings and — more than likely — Thomas Jefferson. Another was Francis Cardozo, a freeborn black man of Jewish descent (and a distant relative of the Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo), who during Reconstruction served as secretary of state and treasurer of South Carolina. But in almost no such early cases did the offspring of black-Jewish unions identify themselves as Jewish.
Black Judaism as a self-conscious religious identity arrived in America in Lawrence, Kan., in 1896. A charismatic Baptist named William Saunders Crowdy established a black congregation called the Church of God and Saints of Christ, where he preached that Africans were the true descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Didn’t the Bible tell that Moses married a black-skinned woman? he asked. And that King Solomon bestowed on the queen of Sheba, an Ethiopian, “all her desire”?

One implication of Crowdy’s doctrine was that blacks were God’s chosen people. This might have been a hanging offense in Kansas at the time had white people been aware of it, which they mostly weren’t. The denomination practiced an eclectic, “roll your own” brand of religion that combined beliefs and practices of the Old and New Testaments. Crowdy’s tabernacles practiced male infant circumcision, observed Saturday as the Sabbath, celebrated Passover and other Jewish holidays — but venerated Jesus Christ.

In the aftermath of the Civil War, Crowdy’s faith offered freed slaves and their offspring something that mainstream Christianity did not: a grand historical identity and a distinctively black mode of religious expression. This proved to be a potent mix. Since the formation of the Church of God and Saints of Christ, there have been more than 200 congregations in the United States, Africa and the Caribbean. Today the group still has more than 50 affiliated congregations. In addition, a great many other “messianic” Jewish houses of worship have flourished, including Rabbi Robert Devine’s congregation, where Funnye first came to regard himself as a Black Jew.

“When I joined Rabbi Devine’s shul, I felt less like I was converting to Judaism than reverting,” Funnye recalls. “Going back to something.”

For a few years after leaving Howard, as he worked a series of jobs in Chicago, Funnye found Devine’s conception of Judaism to be rewarding. But he eventually became uncomfortable with the hybrid nature of Devine’s theology. As his interest in Judaism deepened, Funnye was increasingly drawn to the more conventional teachings of a black, Brooklyn-based rabbi named Levi Ben Levy, the spiritual leader of the Hebrew Israelite movement. “He taught me that real Judaism isn’t mixed in with Christianity,” Funnye says. He studied with Levy for five years, long distance from Chicago; the curriculum included Biblical Hebrew, liturgy, standard rabbinic texts and Jewish history from the perspective of African originalism. In 1985, Levy ordained Funnye as a rabbi, although no mainstream denomination accepted the title or Levy’s right to confer it.

Very few white rabbis were even aware of the existence of the Hebrew Israelites. The movement was established in the early 20th century by Wentworth Matthew, a charismatic figure who arrived in Harlem at the end of World War I, claiming to be from Africa, although he was more likely born in St. Kitts. Matthew proclaimed himself a rabbi and founded a congregation in New York called the Commandment Keepers. He was influenced by the idea that blacks were the original Hebrews; but unlike William Saunders Crowdy, who lived in rural Kansas, Matthew modeled his congregation on the white Judaism he saw around him in New York. He called his a storefront a shul, introduced a standard Hebrew prayer book and weekly Sabbath Torah readings, discouraged excessive shows of emotion during worship, insisted on separate seating for women and men and instituted a modified version of kosher dietary laws. He also, and crucially, denied the divinity of Jesus and the truth of the New Testament.

As Matthew’s group grew, it became far more “orthodox” in its Jewish ritual and code of conduct than the average Reform temple. Still, Matthew held some highly unorthodox beliefs. Chief among them was the doctrine that many white Jews are descended not from the ancient Israelites but from the Khazars, a tribe of Turkic nomads who, according to legend, converted to Judaism in the eighth or ninth century. Mainstream scholars say there is no historical evidence for such a claim, but it remains an article of faith for many Black Jews. (The claim is also a staple of anti-Israel rhetoric, a fact that Funnye, who like most Black Jews supports Israel, says makes him uneasy.)
Matthew didn’t express animosity toward white Jews. On the contrary, he saw and appreciated them as temporary placeholders, people who kept the faith of Israel going while the Black Jews were lost in bondage. He sought to make common cause with and be included in the wider Jewish community: twice he applied for membership to the mainstream New York Board of Rabbis, but he was turned down. The Orthodox rabbis were flabbergasted that any gentile, black or white, would have the chutzpah to declare himself to be a Jew, let alone a rabbi. Some of the more liberal rabbis were intrigued by the Hebrew Israelites but were not willing to fully embrace them as fellow Jews.

For Matthew and his followers, the disappointment was acute. “Rabbi Matthew concluded that black Jews would never be fully accepted by white Jews, and certainly not if they insisted on maintaining a black identity and independent congregations,” Sholomo Ben Levy, the rabbi of the Black Jewish Beth Elohim Hebrew Congregation in Queens, wrote in an article published by the Hebrew Israelites. “Since his death in 1973, there has been virtually no dialog [sic] between white and black Jews in America.”

It has become the mission of Capers Funnye to start that dialogue. “I believe in building bridges,” he told me as we sat in his office at the Beth Shalom synagogue in Chicago, a week and a half after his Martin Luther King Day speech in New York. “That’s why speaking at the synagogue was so important to me.”

“Has Mary forgiven you?” I asked.

Funnye nodded. “We drove down to D.C. and made one of the balls the next day,” he said. “And she got to snap a picture of Denzel Washington, so everything is more or less cool.”

At the King Day celebration in New York, the musician Joshua Nelson proved a hard act to follow; Funnye came across as stiff and cautious, expressing measured thoughts about Jewish solidarity, the brotherhood of man and the need for peace in the Holy Land. But here in his study, surrounded by books and family pictures, he seemed far more at ease. The Sabbath was only an hour away, and people kept busting into the room — kids who wanted to show off their grades; an assistant rabbi who wanted a word about the youth group; ladies of the Nashe Or (“Women of Light”) Sisterhood who wanted to know what time exactly the communal meal should be served.

Funnye handled it all in good spirits. He is not only the chief rabbi of the congregation, which, in various permutations, has been around 90 years; he is also its C.E.O., spiritual leader, head social director, senior teacher and unofficial cantor. Beth Shalom, which he joined as an assistant rabbi in 1985, has about 200 members, making it the largest of the six American synagogues affiliated with the International Israelite Board of Rabbis (the organization that serves the Hebrew Israelites), and Funnye is the Israelites’ only full-time rabbi. A majority of his congregation are converts to Judaism, although a large number are second- or third-generation Black Jews. (People often confuse Funnye’s congregation with that of Ben Ammi Carter, a fellow black Chicagoan, who established a community of followers in Israel in 1969. Funnye, who says there is no similarity between their theologies, is at pains to differentiate the two.)

Early in his rabbinical career, Funnye says, he realized that his Jewish credentials were too limited and exotic for the kind of outreach efforts that he wanted to do. So he enrolled at the mainstream Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies in Chicago, where he received a bachelor’s degree in Judaic Studies. And in 1985 he underwent a second conversion, this one certified by a Conservative rabbinical court. Before he took this step, he consulted with his earlier mentor, Rabbi Levy; Funnye feared insulting other Black Jews. “I didn’t want anyone to interpret my conversion as meaning I thought they weren’t Jewish enough,” he told me. But he received Levy’s blessing. “I explained that if I was going to do the kind of outreach I wanted, European Jews had to feel that I was their brother,” Funnye said. “But I’m still a Black Israelite. A halakhic conversion” — one in accordance with traditional Jewish law — “wasn’t going to take away any of my blackness.”
After his second conversion, Funnye taught Hebrew and Jewish subjects at Chicago-area congregations and worked for the Jewish Council on Urban Affairs, a group dedicated to fighting poverty, racism and anti-Semitism in the city. He sent his four children to Jewish day schools, quietly built his congregation and got to know the leaders of the white Jewish community. In 1997, he did what his mentors had all failed to do (and no Hebrew Israelite rabbi has since done): he became a member of the local Board of Rabbis. Rabbi Michael Balinsky, the executive vice president of the Chicago Board, says Funnye makes a conscientious effort “to play an active role in the mainstream Jewish community without losing his Black Hebrew tradition. He’s taken a leadership role for the Jewish community on civil rights issues and outreach to Hispanics and Muslims.”
In January, Beth Shalom organized a community celebration with members of the Inner-City Muslim Action Network, a social-justice organization in Chicago headed by a Palestinian-American activist named Rami Nashashibi. Funnye has also worked to improve Chicago’s historically strained relations between its black and Jewish communities. In conversations with white Jews, he has defended the Rev. Jesse Jackson, whom he admires, and he encourages dialogue with Louis Farrakhan, the head of the Nation of Islam, whom he counts as a friend.

“I don’t agree with everything the man says or thinks,” Funnye said of Farrakhan. “I’m a Jew, after all. But you need to talk. Right now I’m trying to put together a group of Chicago rabbis for a meeting with Minister Farrakhan.”

“How’s it going?” I asked.

“Two so far,” he said. “But I’m still working on it.”

Before sundown that night, Funnye joined about 60 congregants in the social hall for Friday-night blessings and a fried-fish-and-spaghetti dinner. In 2004, Beth Shalom bought its current building, on South Kedzie Avenue, on Chicago’s South Side, from a rapidly declining congregation of Lithuanian Jews. It has a tan brick exterior and a layout common to American synagogues circa 1955; it is a virtual twin of the temple in Michigan that I attended growing up.

The money for the building came mostly from tithes and contributions, and raising it was a stretch. “The members here are working people, teachers, city workers, mostly middle class,” Funnye said. “We don’t have any billionaire philanthropists, like the Bronfmans or the Crowns. The only rich black Jew I ever heard about was Sammy Davis Jr., and he’s dead. Besides, he was Reform.”

After the dinner, Funnye chanted the grace and then reassembled his flock in a large classroom for evening prayers and a Torah lesson. The week’s portion happened to be the story of the Exodus, and Funnye used it to illustrate the virtue of interdependence. “Think about it,” he said. “God told Moses to talk to Pharaoh, but Moses stuttered, right? I mean he stuh-stuh-stuh-stuttered. That’s what they called it back then. Nowadays he’d get called a rapper.” This got a laugh. A woman sitting nearby said, “Teach the Torah, rabbi.”

Funnye went on: “Moses stuttered so bad until he had to bring in his brother Aaron, who was a Cohen, a priest, to talk for him. And you know no priest is going to stutter, right?”

This got another laugh, and Funnye closed in on his moral — the importance of people from different backgrounds sharing the benefits of their respective upbringings. “I mean, hey, you grew up in the suburbs, maybe you can help me with something,” he said. “Or if you came up on 59th Street — some of y’all know what I’m talking about — so I know some things that you just don’t know. We can help each other.”

The congregation applauded and called out in agreement. This wasn’t the button-down Funnye who spoke at Stephen Wise in New York; here he was a signifying South Side Chicago rabbi.

A few years ago, before Beth Shalom bought its new synagogue, its members would meet in a small building on a blighted street in Chicago. A Latino gang worked one corner of the block, and a black gang worked the other. “Soon as we got there, somebody marked up the building with graffiti,” Funnye told me. “I went to both gangs and told them: ‘This is a synagogue, with elders and children. I don’t care what business you do during the week, but from Friday sundown until Saturday sundown you need to be respectful.’ I let them know that I am a man of peace but I’m not a pacifist and I had men in the congregation, so if we had a problem we’d deal with it ourselves, not call in the police until later.”

I was surprised to hear that the speech worked. “And the gangs fell into line, just like that?”

Funnye chuckled. “Well, I also had a word with some brothers I met doing prison counseling, and they may have intervened. I put out word when we moved here too. I don’t get in people’s business, but I won’t allow anyone to disrespect our synagogue.”

Because of Funnye’s connection to the Obamas, his community work has occasionally been a source of political interest. Between 1997 and 2002, Funnye served as the executive director of Blue Gargoyle, a nonprofit social-services agency that offers, among other things, adult-literacy and alternative-education programs. Blue Gargoyle was in Barack Obama’s district when he was an Illinois state senator, and during Funnye’s tenure, Obama earmarked a total of $75,000 for the organization. The issue of the earmarks and the family connection was raised by some of Obama’s opponents during the 2008 presidential campaign, but it didn’t gain traction; evidently the disbursements were aboveboard.

Funnye also worked with Michelle Obama in her capacity as executive director for community affairs for the University of Chicago Hospitals, where she focused on health issues affecting young people. Funnye told me that the only money Blue Gargoyle received from the university was a $5,000 grant for a tutoring program, and that the money did not come through Michelle Obama’s office at the hospital.

At the start of the 2008 presidential primary season, Funnye contributed a few hundred dollars to the Obama campaign but didn’t publicly endorse Obama, and he avoided mentioning the family connection. “I was afraid it might do him harm in the Orthodox community,” he told me. “I believe they were the ones putting out stories about Barack being a secret Muslim and so on. They could have made me out to be a friend of Farrakhan’s or a cult leader or who knows what.”

Obama apparently wasn’t worried by the association. During the Democratic primaries, as he came under repeated attack for being insufficiently pro-Israel, Obama reached out to Funnye, by way of Mary’s brother Frank White, the Obama fund-raiser. White told me that Obama encouraged him to “tell Capers to get the word out that I’ve got a rabbi in my family.” Funnye acknowledges getting the message. Before long, The Forward, the Jewish weekly, ran an article on Obama’s rabbi, and the news spread like low-fat cream cheese from Boca Raton to Brooklyn.

Funnye’s association with Obama probably didn’t reassure fervent Zionists — the rabbi is considerably to the left of Obama on Middle East policy — but it didn’t seem to hurt either. The connection to Obama certainly didn’t hurt Funnye. “I got no blowback from the Orthodox at all,” he said. “In fact, I started getting phone calls from a couple Hasidic rabbis in Israel who want to get together.”

There is no black Jewish neighborhood in Chicago. When they congregate on the Sabbath, the Hebrew Israelites come from all areas of the city, and they tend to spend the entire day in shul. The lyrics to the songs they sing are the same as the ones heard in any traditional synagogue, but the music is different. Hebrew prayers are sung in unison in something resembling call and response. A gospel-like band accompanies the choir’s weekly performance of “Lift Every Voice and Sing.” During the Torah procession the congregation sings, “We’re marching to Zion, beautiful, beautiful Zion.”

On one of the days I was there, in early February, I was the only white Jew in the shul, and an old guy in front of me kept turning around and showing me the right page. There’s a nudnik like him in every shul I’ve ever been to.

I forgave him, though, during the Torah service, when a young man faltered over the blessings and looked mortified. “Not your fault, young man,” the nudnik said. “The fire of the Torah burns so hot to where sometimes it just confuses your mind.”

At the end of services, I met a young woman named Tamar, who said her children are the only black Jews enrolled at the Akiba-Schechter Jewish Day School. “Things have been a little tricky for them at school since Obama won,” she told me.

“Why?” I asked. “Aren’t most of the parents at the Day School Democrats?”

“Yes. They voted for Obama, and their kids are glad he won. But they don’t love Obama the way my children do. They aren’t thrilled in the same way.”

“So?”

“My kids are wondering, If their classmates and teachers figure out how personal this is for them, will they be considered more black and less Jewish?”

When I told Funnye the story he chuckled but said he wasn’t surprised. Being a black Jew in America can be a trying experience, even when white Jews are well intentioned. One morning I went with Funnye to a suburban Conservative congregation, where he was to deliver another Martin Luther King speech. We sat at the head table. I ate bagels and lox while Funnye chatted with a convert to Judaism. At the end of the meal the host rabbi stood and began chanting the blessing after food.

When he saw that Funnye wasn’t singing along, the rabbi pointed to the appropriate words. He didn’t realize that Funnye wasn’t praying because he was still eating. Another nudnik.

On Inauguration Day, Capers and Mary Funnye drove down from New York and made it to Washington in time for a quick shower. Then they boarded a bus for Obama-family relatives that drove them from venue to venue throughout the day. Over lunch at the Old Executive Office building, Funnye recounted, he bonded with Obama’s Kenyan grandmother and aunt and exchanged business cards with the president’s Kenyan half-brother. “I get to Africa from time to time,” Funnye said.

That was an understatement. Funnye heads the Pan-African Jewish Alliance, a group established to help Africans join and feel more included in the mainstream Jewish community. For its founders — Gary Tobin, the head of the Institute for Jewish and Community Research in San Francisco, and his wife, Diane — the motivation is in part demographic. Discovering or creating millions of Jewish Africans (as well as opening the community in the United States to African converts and to African-Americans with Jewish roots) would, the Tobins say, greatly strengthen what they see as a stagnant population.

Funnye’s motive is more spiritual. As a Hebrew Israelite rabbi he maintains that many Africans were originally Jewish. Some, like the Lemba of South Africa, claim direct descent from the Jews of the Bible. There is considerable resistance to this notion, but many leading scholars take it seriously. “I have no problem believing that the Lemba of South Africa are descended from Jews,” says Jonathan Schorsch, an assistant professor of Jewish studies at Columbia University. “Jews are ethnically and biologically mixed. It just makes sense that this mixing took place in Africa as well as other places.”

Funnye’s closest connection is to the Ibos, a tribe in Nigeria, some of whose members describe themselves as Jews. Beth Shalom has a sister synagogue there, and Funnye travels back and forth. For all practical purposes, he is the chief rabbi of Nigeria, and he has plans to reunite the Ibos eventually with the worldwide Jewish people through formal conversion.

Before he gets to Africa, though, Funnye has other commitments. A French organization recently flew him to Paris for a Martin Luther King event. He now finds himself flooded with invitations to speak at big Jewish congregations in California, Florida and Long Island. Rabbi Joseph Potasnik, the executive vice president of the New York Board of Rabbis, is planning a meeting for Funnye with his colleagues. I asked Potasnik if the organization would be willing to reconsider membership for the Hebrew Israelite rabbis. “We’d entertain an application,” he said. “I’d love to see the test case.”

Rabbi Eric Yoffie, the head of the Reform Movement, is, like Potasnik, ready to consider new possibilities. “The fact that men and women sit separately in the Israelite congregations might be a problem for us on gender-equality grounds,” he told me. “But race would certainly be no problem for us.”

A few years ago, Funnye considered applying for membership to the Union for Reform Judaism. He shelved the idea when his congregants objected on the grounds that the white congregation was not observant enough. “Some of their rabbis perform intermarriages,” Funnye explains, “so some of our people were uncomfortable. But sometimes I think it would be good to be part of a larger movement. Maybe we’ll revisit the subject.”

Funnye hasn’t built all his bridges yet, let alone crossed them, but the progress he has seen — both as a black Jew and as a black American — has mellowed him. “You know, as a young man I was angry about the way we were laughed at and ignored,” he said. “I sometimes went down to the kosher meat market here in Chicago, put my face right up in the face of one of the Orthodox rabbis and yelled, ‘I ain’t never seen no white Jews before!’ I was so hurt I became obtuse and bitter. But I don’t feel that way anymore.” He paused. “There’s no need to shout. People are ready for a dialogue, to talk and to listen.”

Zev Chafets is a frequent contributor to the magazine. His most recent article was about Rush Limbaugh.

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: April 26, 2009
An article on April 5 about Capers Funnye, a rabbi who is a cousin of Michelle Obama’s, misstated the name of an organization to which he considered applying for membership. It was the Union for Reform Judaism, not the Union of Reform Jews.

TALK ABOUT BLACK EGYPTIANS,THESE ARE BLACKamerikkkans WHO CALL THEMSELVES “AMERICAN PHAROAHS”-CHECK THEM OUT-FROM GROUPS.YAHOO.COM/GROUP/AMERICANPHAROAHS

April 7, 2009

FROM groups.yahoo.com/group/americanpharoahs/

Re: ATTN: Bro. Yao-Heru-Tehuti {ORIGIN OF ANCIENT ISRAEL/PHYSICAL AP

lamar perryman wrote:

Shalom El Hetep and Greetings,
To The Mambos, Queens and Princesses Of Traditional
Black Spirituality, To The Elders, Chiefs and Houngans Of Black Spirituality, To All Group
Members United Here in Our Struggle and Quest For A Common Identity and Union, and
To Bro Yao-Heru-Tehuti.
Contents

1. Semitic
2. The Anthropological and Ethnological Evidence
3. Akan
4. The Habiru/Apiru
5. The Avrahamic Peoples
6. Kana Yisrael As A Pharoanic State
7. Israel’s Ontology
8. The Archaeological Evidence
9. Overview
10. The Conclusion

( foreword : Bro. Yao-Heru-Tehuti, It is my suggestion that you read the evidentiary portions first and
then read Israel’s Ontology last. But Respecting your sagacity that is only a suggestion. The
materials gathered here in our discussions and elsewhere is to be the subject matter of a
larger volume entitled : The Egyptian And Aramaic Origins Of West Africans And Black
Americans. )

In order to faciliate the interests of scholastic aptitude for laypersons and academics alike I
shall set out what I believe to be The Philosophical Doctrine Of The Base in the discussion between You and I seek to help the understanding of all concerned.

I would like to start by addressing your present responses and also some of the ones from
your earlier posts and highlight some issues that are of important consideration even with
the present historical records and cast some light on the questions (s) posed by scholars
as to Who Were The Canaanite/Israelite/Hyksos People instead of just saying that it is not
known who they were. This, among some other things.
To get to the heart of your arguments again. In your first response you state again that
“there is no historical archaeological evidence of an “Israel” that matches up with the mythical writings found in religious text such as the Bible. There is evidence of a people
that the Kemetic peoples called “ysri ri”….though the peoples of Israel don’t have as many
interactions with any other people as they do with the Kemetic peoples.” [Note: To High-
light Something, that is precisely my point in my response And I might also add Sumer/
Chaldea as peoples that Ancient Canaan/Israel interacted with. End Note]……You state
“There is absolutely no historical connection that can be shown between any land or
people known as “Israel” and any people known as “Hebrew” or “Habiru”. [Note: The words
Habiru/Apiru is still in serious contention among scholars and at present simply means a
homeless person, a wanderer, a brigand, a street dweller or a criminal of some sort without
regards to race.!!! It Also Means They Who Have Crossed Over Meaning By Land Or The Rivers And They Who Have Come From A Certain Place To A Certain Place In The Lands And Countries Spoken Of, ( Egypt, Sumeria, Canaan ). It Is Also A ETHNIC DESIGNATION!!! End Note].
2. You hold to the view that all of the names given in the stele and defeated by the Kemetics are foreign city-states ( meaning foreign races to you, I suppose ) and that the
determinative for ‘Israel” is simply a foreign group of people ( also meaning a foreign race
or non-black peoples to you, I suppose ). You mention the punishment of Yanoam in
comparison to Israel being just as severe… [Note: Yanoam and Israel are Virtually Syn-
onomous as Canaanite People. End Note], and……The vast majority of the inscriptions on
the stele is actually about invaders from Libya [ I Note that this is True] ….They were the
most serious threat from the study of the inscriptions…[ Note: With that last statement I
most fully disagree. These campaigns were not conducted at the same time and Canaan’s
rebellion seems to have been put down first and still fresh/recent in the minds of the
Kemetic inscribers from a reading of the inscriptions. End Note].
3&5. I have combined your responses in three and five for relation. You disagree that the
Stele proves conclusively that “Israel” were native indigenous Canaanites and that Israel/
Canaan as shown in the Stele is actually one single group of people representing their
Country. You disagree that we can tell who they actually were or are, to state: ……. we
cannot tell that they are an ethnic group from that one line….we cannot tell if they are
Canaanites from that one line or a people who invaded and assimulated Canaanite culture.
…. we cannot tell if they were black from that one line…..there is not much at all in reality
that can be discerned from that one line as to who those peoples were…… [ Note: All of
Canaan’s Towns and Peoples received a one liner from the Egyptian inscribers of the
Stele. Also it has been noted and inferred by various scholars such as Drs. J.J. Bimson,
M.G. Hasel, Sigmuend Freud, C.G. Jung and Profs. C.A. Diop, Theophile Obenga, J.A.
Rogers, Frances Cress Welsing, Josef ben-Jochanan and others that it takes a long, long
time to assimulate the language, science, art, technology and customs of a foreign
superior culture and then make a appreciable contribution to it in terms of mechanical
usage. End Note].
4. And No. 4, in response to my position about there being no foreign racial groups that
were mentioned in regards to Canaan, period, You stated : “Actually all of the people
mentioned, not only in “Canaan” but also in Libya are mentioned as foreigners. Those
other city-states in Canaan that were mentioned all have the determinative symbol indicating
foreign city-states and “ysri ri” has a determinative indicating a foreign people…” [ Note:
I do believe that YOU ARE CONFUSING FOREIGN BY COUNTRY AND NATIONALITY
WITH FOREIGN BY RACE!!! There were some White/Indo-Oriental Foreigners mentioned
as Allies of Libya But No White/Indo-Oriental Foreigners SHOWN or Mentioned in Canaan
on the Stele And That is Why The Kemetics REFERRED to Two Campaigns in One Stele!
As I have said before, They KNEW who they were looking at and Dealing With!!! More will
be said on this later, though.!!! End Note].

I have subsumed all of your responses and assertions into one so that I may answer them all in toto.
My entire position on this matter is that The Black Peoples of Canaan/Israel/Phoenicia were all One and the Same
and That it is These Black Peoples who were and are none other than The Mysterious Hyksos that
have been called Semitics and Asiatics by Indocentric, Eurocentric and some Afrocentric authors
and scholars.!!!
The first issue that I must address is the word Semitic. Understanding this word and its usages is one
of the KEYS to understanding our subject matter. The Akkaddian Inscriptions calls the Name of
Shem/Sem as Semu or Shu-Mu. it is the name of a Person, a Peoples and a Country, Sumer.
We Have To Be Very Careful When We Use The Word “Semitic” because it originally
applied to Black peoples in Mesopotamia, Sumeria and The Indus-Valley of Asia. See The
Akkaddian Inscriptions, http://www.blackandchristian.com/articles/academy/djones-02-07.shtml;
and http://www.earth-history.com/Babylon/Myth/mba17.htm. This is for your contention in an earlier
post that no historical person named “Shem” ever lived because of the lack of a historical
inscription to that effect outside of the Bible. As to Sumer and Shem, once again, from the
Mesopotamian view we look South. It is certain now that the peoples of Mesopotamia called
themselves Sumerian because they descended from and venerated the Orisha/Irumole/Imole
Person called SHU by the Egyptians. The very word means to derive from, to proceed from,
without regards to politics or religion but RACE. It also means an Act, An Event, A Social
Movement, such as the peopling of The Mesopotamia from Nile Valley and Indus-Valley
populations. Going further as to originality we are told by Prof. Amelineau and Prof. Cheikh
Anta Diop that the Orisha/Irunmole Ausar/Osiris was a True, Living Person as well as the
other Orisha/Imoles and Prof. Diop notes that the “God’s” head and other sacred parts were
found in four canopic jars at Abydos.!!! See The African Origin of Civilization, Myth or Reality.
Among these Nile Valley groups were the Akan/Kanaan peoples whose original home appears
to be Kenya as this Country still bears their ethnic name to this day. The origination of these peoples
must then have been Southern and Western, Nubian and Dravidian, which is to say South Africa
before many African/Asiatic Groups of Black Peoples assumed their own Ethnic/Tribal
Identities, Lands and Regions.
I submit that the first group of Nile Valley and Indus Valley peoples who settled the Mesopotamian
region ( Iraq, Canaan, Arabia ) were venerators of the Irumole, Imole, Neter SHU and so
named the land, its peoples, language and culture after their Patron Orisha. Even to this day
Black Hebrews refer to Black Jews as Shema Israel. The language of Canaan is called Semitic
( meaning Sumerian, Akkaddic, Ugaritic, Hebrew and ARAMAIC ). It is an Afro-Asiatic
language and is NOT Indo-Oriental or Nordic European. The language system of Black Asia
( The Dravidian Indus-Valley ) is conclusively shown to be Dravidian/Tamil/Kali/Dalit. The
Indo-Orientals/Indo-Aryans have no language system but that adopted from the Tamil system
is Vedic, Sanscrit and Hindu. The Dravidian is the Original Indigenous Asiatic Black Man and
Woman ( The South-East Asian Indian and Australian Aboriginal Type! ).
The original language system of Caucasians is the Nordic, Scandinavian, Teutonic, Celtic,
Germanic, Caucus and a corrupted bastardization of these tongues called Slavic! We also
note that Semitic referred to the Blacks of Asia First and Their Language and after that to
Japhetic Indo-Oriental and Caucasian peoples who adopted and spoke the language afterwards
and that is the SOLE origin of the word, land and peoples called Shumitic/Semitic!!!
See Semitic/Semitic Languages, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semitic.
With this one single fact we can clearly begin to explain the times of Canaan, its provincial
state periods under Egypt and Sumer, its Nationalistic periods of Independence and Regional
Rule as Canaan, Israel, and Phoenicia, its rise and fall and the reasons therefor. Also with this
one single fact we can begin to set straight the Confusion of the Torah/Tanakh Records of
The Sumerian Hebrews and The Egyptian Yewes by the Western European and American
State/Church Academic Establishments!

The Anthropological And Ethnological Evidence

For purposes of clarifications throughout this treatise ( and for rebuttals, if any ) I will proceed
first to IDENTIFY the peoples now known to the World’s State and Religious Academia as the
HAMITICS and the SHEMITICS. See Gen. 10: 6-32 ( The Western Torah, miscalled The
Christian Holy Bible ). In the beginnings of Man’s Evolution on the earth as the Human Life Form
we all know that there was only ONE Homogenous race of peoples. A critical fact long over-
looked is that there was two (2) different groups of these peoples. One group was dark-skinned
with Woolly-Hair and called Nubian. The other group was dark-skinned with Straight-Hair and
called Dravidian! See An Authentic Anthropology, by Prof. Cheikh Anta Diop,
http://www.africawithin.com ;and Dravidian India, by Prof. T.R. Sesha Iyengar,
http://www.saxakali.com/southasia/dravidian_india.htm .
Both appear to have originated in Southern Africa. The Nubian is The Biblical
Hamitic and The Dravidian is The Biblical Shemitic as well as The Original Asiatic Black Man and
Woman. Eighty 80% percent of our Human History is the Story of These Two (2) Groups of Black
Peoples with THEIR MANY, MANY ETHNIC, TRIBAL, SUB-TRIBAL DIVISIONS AND
INTERMIXTURES.!!! And now for The Paleontology of Ancient Israel.!!!

The Anthropological and Ethnic evidence will best be considered by giving the four (4) Ethnic-Tribal
Groups and their societies which form the basis, origin, developement and actual peoples called the
Canaanites, Hebrew Israelites and The Black Jews. They are:
1. The Sumerian Hebrews, The Igbo (Ibo)
2. The Egyptian Yewe, The Ewe
3. The Akan of Canaan, and
4. The Colchin of India, The Indus-Valley
Outside of biblical text the evidence shows that the Patriarch Abraham and his Wife the Matriarch
Sarah were of Sumerian Dravidian descent. His Great-Great-Great Grandfather is Eber. Eber is
nothing more or less than an Igbo/Ibo man. Whether Eber was a Nubian Man or a Dravidian I
cannot tell but the record bears out the fact that there was much, much intermixing between these
two black groups in the Middle East, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula for long, long, long periods of
time before, during, and after Abraham’s migration. We ALL, laypersons and scholars alike, appear
to forget sometimes that all of the groups mentioned in Nubia-Egypt and Sumeria-India were ALL
Ethiopian Peoples. In other words and to be more specific, Nubians and Dravidians.!!!
See http://wysinger.homestead.com/chronology.html
( Early Dynastic period, Dynasties I and II; The “Ethiopians”
according to Diodorus Siculus); and a History of The Ancient Black Races Including The Black
Hebrews, by Prof. Rudolph R. Windsor ,
http://www.amazon.com/Babylon-Timbuktu-History-Ancient-Including/dp/0962088110 .
In all of my treatises in this Thesis I have presented the ONE VIEW that the Canaanite Hebrew
Israelites and Black Jews were the product of the Intermixing of The Nubian and Dravidian Black
Peoples, The Biblical Hamitics and Shemitics. As to the antiquity of the four (4) tribes of peoples
in Sumeria, Egypt, Canaan, India and Mesopotamia See Chayah bayith Elowahh,
http://www.freewebs.com/radah/index.htm; and The Archaeology of The Bible Lands, by Magnus
Magnusson, B.C. http://www.earth-history.com/Various/Canaanite-Gods.htm; AND Ephramite
Forum-2, Other Peoples: Canaan, Ghana, Uganda. http://www.britam.org ; AND Igbo People,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_People.
The Egyptian Yewe, Ewe or IU are mentioned in Egyptian historical texts and it is from this tribe
of Peoples that we get the very word JEW. It is well known now by laypersons and scholars that
Hamitic and Shemitic language systems contain no letter “J”. The use of the letter “j” came about
as a translation of hamitic and shemitic tongues into Caucasian alphabet that uses the letter “J” such
as the English language. The word Iu, Iue, Yewe and EWE evolved into the word Jew as a matter
of the translation of languages and That Alone is the Whole Matter of the modern english word
Jew. It STILL MEANS the Yewe/Ewe peoples that the word describes and comes from as these
peoples were and are the Original Jews to start with.!!! I also submit that the very word HEBREW
is from the union of these peoples dialectical tongue from their biological intermixture as a socio-
ethnic group. The word Ibo or Igbo as Eber and the word Iu, Yewe or Ewe being conjoined to
form the Ethnic word : Hebrew as IBRI-EWE or IVRI-YEWE. I believe this very, very, very strongly.
The Ewe/Yewe peoples as a whole describes their Origins as being from the lands of EGYPT and
SAUDI ARABIA. I also Highly Note that Joseph I ( Yuyasof I of On ) was born in PADAN-ARAM
TO HIS FATHER YAA’KOV-HER ( The Supplanter ) AND TO HIS MOTHER RACHEL THE
EWE.!!! He married ASENATH, the daughter of Potipherah, High Priest of the fabled City of On,
later celebrated as the Greek Heliopolis. ON is the Fabled Egyptian City of The Sun. The importance
of this will be seen later as we go on. He was buried in SHECHEM. I believe the word Shechem has
hamitic and shemitic implication and derivation from the reasons described herein. See The Ewe,
http://www.hoasogli.com ; The Africans Who Wrote The Bible, by Dr. Nana Banchie Darwah,
http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/forum8/HTML/000994.html ; Ancient Egyptians Wrote The
Holy Bible, by Dr. Kwame Nantambu, https://yeyeolade.wordpress.com/2007/04/09/black-people-wrote-the-bible ; Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt, The Light of The World, pgs. 474-498.
BUT SEE
http://www.destee.com/forums/showthread.php?t=32821; in which Bro. Keita presents the opposing
view.

CANAAN

Because of its importance to our discussion here, the Land and People of Canaan will be dealt with at
length. My point is that it is the Country that all four tribes mentioned came into one as a Socio-Ethnic
Group and Nationality. I begin this by identifying the Geographical Area of Ancient Canaaan from their
historical records and those of Egypt and Sumeria. To state: Modern Day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria and Saudi Arabia. This region was called the Retennu, Sirion and later on the Levant by Egypt and
Sumeria. The importance of this description will become clearer as we move on. See Canaan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan ; http://www.wikinfo.org/wiki.php?title=Canaan ; and http://www.answers.com/topic/canaan?cat=travel ; and http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/CAL_CAR/CANAAN_CANAANITES.html.
Bro.Yao, to elaborate on what I will present in this treatise I submit that the Hurru, Mittani, Hatti etc.,
WERE ALL Black Peoples of The Societies of Nubia, Libya, Egypt, Sumeria and India, The Indus-
Valley. Going further on what Profs. Cheikh A. Diop, Ivan Van Sertima and Josef ben-Jochanan has
said, until we see the societies of Nubia, Egypt, Libya, Canaan, Sumeria, and India as RELATED
Nations and NOT Isolated Societies we will continue to be as CONFUSED abour OUR Origins and
Ancestors as Caucasian and Indo-Oriental scholars are about THEIRS and OURS. This, My Brother is
The Philosophical Doctrine Of The Base in our discussions and Debate. To further illustrate what I am
saying here let us view a map of the Ancient Near East during these times. See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Near_East ; and Maps of The Ancient Near East, http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/aneancientmaps/a/ancneareastmaps.htm ;( Especially Asia, The Indus-Valley Civilization ).
Bro. Yao, in one of my prior treatises in this thesis I told you that the conflict between Canaan, Egypt
and Sumer was not just Political, Religious and Ethnic but also Scientific! I will state a list of Canaan’s
accomplishments and then I will proceed to show just who the Canaanites/Hyksos/Israelites truly were.
The Archaeological record from about 3000 B.C. shows that :
1. The Canaanites were the first mercantile nation in the world, the very first to use coins and paper money
(papyrus) as currency !!!
2. Their Political units were the very first Federated City-States in the world ( Ugarit, Aradus, Tripoli,
Ursalima (Jurusalem), Batrun, Byblos, Beirut, Sidon, Tyre, Raphia ( the first one ) and others ).
3. They recorded much (not all) of their history and system on papyrus (paper) which they also used in
the schools and business system.
4. Among the first to have a Merchant Marines and a Regional Navy with sophisticated warships.
5. Introduced the War Chariot into Egypt, Sumeria, Libya and surrounding Countries. The Canaanite
Chariots were made of Iron and equipped with Shields.
6. The Mortuary Science was sophisticated in both cremation, mummification and burial techniques.
7.Among the first to found a Agricultural based food, textile, chemical, clothing, industrial and medical
system from the land.
8. The first in the Art of Air Travel by way of the Gas Air Ballon which later gave way to our modern
Airships called Derrigables.
EGYPT AND SUMER DID ALL THESE TOO BUT CANAAN HAD PROGRESSED TO THE
FOREFRONT.!!!
9. The first peoples to fuse Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Sumerian Cuneiform into one language to create
a Phonetic Alphabet (Aleph-Beth) and Mathematical system called ARAMAIC on which all other Modern languages have been based upon since then. This language system appears to be much, much
older than 5000 years.!!!

AKAN
The name Amurru, Amorites, Amar, Aamu and Amu is synonomous with Canaanite. According to
biblical archaeology Genesis 10:16 indicates that the “Amorites were descended from Canaan but they
must have intermarried with Semitics at a very early age because they appear as a SEMITIC people in Near
Eastern references to them. Their origin is something of a mystery, but they probably arose not too far
from the Syro-Palestine region, perhaps in the northern euphrates area. We know that Amorite mercen-
aries were used in overthrowing the Akkaddian empire of Sargon I, about 2200 B.C. Thereafter they
invaded Mesopotamia and established themselves there; the Hammurabi Dynasty (1830-1550) was
Amoritic. From certain artistic representations we may conclude that they were entering Egypt as traders
by 1900 b.c. The Amorites occupied an area in Trans-jordan as well as in Canaan. Numbers 21:21
speaks of Sihon, King of the Amorites, and Joshua 10:5 lists the towns of the Amorite league: Jerusalem,
Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon. Probably they occupied the hill country while the Canaanites lived
in the lowlands of Palestine. At one time the Amorites controlled an extensive area in Mesopotamia, Syria
and Palestine”. Genesis and Archaeology, pgs. 88-89, by Dr. Howard Frederic Vos.
Let us view some other matters that Dr. Vos comments on. On Abraham’s Identity, Dr. Vos states that
recently the idea has been advanced that Abraham was not merely a powerful Patriarch but a Merchant
Prince. In this Dr. Vos cites Cyrus Gordon who concludes ” the patriarchal narratives, far from reflecting
Bedouin life, are highly international in their milieu, in a setting where a world order enabled men to travel far and wide for business enterprise…. Abraham comes from beyond the Euphrates, plies his trade in Canaan, visits Egypt, deals with Hittites, makes treaties with Philistines, forms military alliances with Amorites, fights kinglets from as far off as Elam, marries the Egyptian Hagar, etc” and simply admits that
this shows the Patriarch Abraham to be much more than the Bedouin nomad that scholars a generation
ago thought him to be. pgs. 51-54. On the Garden of Eden, The Flood, and their many similarities Dr. Vos states: ” That there was such a place of perfection may be reflected in the Sumerian account of the
land of Dilmun. He cites both Pritchard, who believes Dilmun was the Island of Bahrein in the Persian
Gulf, and Dr. Samuel Noah Kramer who locates Dilmun in the Indus-Valley, p.19, as well as the view
that Sumeria’s Mesopotamia is the original home of the Hebrews”, p.43.
On Genesis 14 Dr. Vos writes : ” the assertion made formerly that travel was not so extensive in the
patriarchal period and that Mesopotamian ( Sumerian ) Kings did not control the area must now be
discarded. The expeditions of Kings of Elam and Babylonia appear in different light when we learn, for
instance, that as early as 2300 b.c. Sargon of Akkad ( near Babylon ) made raids on the Amorites of
Syria and Palestine. Hammurabi himself claimed that his empire extended to the Mediterranean. Of
particular significance for the present study is the fact that prior to Hammurabis’s rule in Babylon, Kudur-
Mabug, an Elamite King of Larsa ( north of Ur ), claimed to be “prince of the land of Amurru” ( Palestine
and Syria ). Furthermore, a wagon contract found at Mari in the Middle Euphrates region and dating to
the patriarchal period gives as one of its conditions of rental that the wagon shall not be driven to the
Mediterranean coastlands, hundreds of miles away. Dr. Vos also comments on the discovery by Albright
of a line of buried cities along the legendary Highway of Kings. These cities dated to the Early Bronze
(3000-2000 B.C.) and Middle Bronze (2000-1500 b.c.) Ages. Also identified was the town of eastern
Gilead, Ham, Ashteroth Karnaim in southern Syria, Kadesh-He ( along with many others ) with Ain el
Qudeirat in the Sinai Peninsula. pgs. 66-73.
On Joseph ( Zaphnath-Paaneah; Yuyasof I of On ) as Prime Minister or Pharoah Vizier of Egypt, Dr. Vos observes : ” First, it is clear that the Egyptians did not consider the Hebrews to be part of the Hyksos
movement. When the Egyptians drove out the foreign overlords in the 16th century b.c., the expulsion did
not involve the Hebrews”. Again : ” Critics used to doubt the possibility of a Palestinian slave’s rising to
such high position in Egypt as scripture says Joseph did but archaeological investigation has provided
several interesting parallels to this occurrence. A Canaanite, Meri-Ra, became armor-bearer to Pharoah;
another Canaanite, Ben-Mat-Ana, was appointed to the high position of interpreter; and a Semitic,
Yankhamu ( Jauhamu ), became deputy to Amonhotep III, with charge over the granaries of the delta,…
In commenting on the position of Jauhamu, who some believe officiated in the region of Goshen, Price
observes ” to him the Egyptian subjects in Canaan-Syria appealed in case of necessity, as he was the
high official of the Egyptian Government for that foreign state. He had all power to respond to the appeals
for grain in exchange for silver, wood, or even the sons and daughters of the buyers. The position of
Joseph as Commissioner of graneries in Goshen ( Gen.47:13 ff ) and his authority to retain the sons of
Jacob ( Yaa’kov ) as hostages remind one of the position of Jauhamu”. pgs. 101-108. Genesis and
Archaeology, by Dr. Howard Frederic Vos, 1963.
Bro. Yao. I have reprinted some of the conclusions in this book to Illustrate again the Truth and the
Modern Confusion on the subject here. Dr. Vos, a Caucasian scholar, was at least truthful to what the
evidence showed and did not show and was sensitive in his comments on race and religion in the book.
He also admitted the confusion of scholars on the Identity of The Canaanites, Hyksos, Semitics and
Habiru!!! Of course Anthropology, Archaeological research and Afrocentric Academia has shown and
proved much since then but to my knowledge has not said who the groups mentioned truly were in a
definitive sense.
The Canaanites are SIMPLY the Akan Peoples of Egypt’s Nile Valley and Sumeria’s Mesopotamia as
the many Tribal/Sub-Tribal groups throughout the region who descended from them along with the Igbo
Colchin and Ewe as a common ethnic group and CALLED THEMSELVES and their land KINAHHU.
The Hyksos and Semitics ( Amu, Aamu, Asiatics ) are SIMPLY The Black Dravidian Peoples of Sumeria, India and Canaan among them The Ibo ( Igbo), Ewe, Akan and Colchin.!!!

THE HABIRU/APIRU

Because the meaning of the word Habiru is “still” in contention among Scholars I will present my own
view of the Ethnicity and Race of the peoples called Hapiru. This will digress from our earlier discussions
on the Hapiru. By all accounts it is certain now that the term hapiru/apiru referred to peoples who were
homeless, outcasts and downtrodden at that time. In other words street peoples. The same goes for
sag’gaz, a robber without regards to race.!!! The promblem is solved in Sumeria and Egypt when we look
at where this underclass dwelt at. They erected large homeless camps near the edges of forests, deserts,
lakes, streams and along the banks of The Rivers. It is certain now that these peoples worshipped the Life
Giving Spirit of The Land, the River God HAPI. They, the lower class of Hyksos, also dwelt at the Deltas and by the Red Sea, being peasants, servants, prisoners and street peoples. This River, The Nile
(Hapi) and its deltas also being the home of Apophys-Set-Typhon, the Crocodile Gods, and Ipi. In
Sumeria the same is Enbil-Ulu. These peoples in the areas were no Indo-Orientals or Caucasian foreigners
but the Egyptians and Sumerians OWN UNDERCLASS being mainly Canaanites with poor Egyptians,
Libyans, Sumerians and Nubians included. It is also a known fact and no secret that Egyptian/Sumerian
peoples and dynasties had many of these peoples as house servants and field slaves. For all of the talk
about “crossing over the Rivers and Red Sea” these are the Hapiru/Habiru so-called from their veneration
or worshipping at that time of the Spirit of The Nile, a favorite of the oppressed and downtrodden, The
River God HAPI.

THE AVRAHAMIC PEOPLES

These are the peoples, the descendants of ABRAHAM, who produced Isaac ( Yitzhak ), Jacob
( Yaa’Kov ), the 15th to 16th dynasties of Ancient Egypt, the Nation-State of Kana Yisra’el, and its
connections to the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. I also note the fact that their native presence was
attested to in Ancient Egypt as early as the 13th Dynasty.!!! In order to explain the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt it is helpful if we look at the 15th to 16th dynasties and the formation of Kana Yisra’el
as a socio-ethnic and political group. The names of the Hyksos Kings are unquestionably Canaanitish.
As the Akan, Igbo, Yewe and Colchin groups began to coalease in the region of Canaan, they all
originating from a common background and bond, along with the minor substrata of other various small
tribal groups ( the mixed multitude of the Torah and Biblical records ) we see the people of Canaan as
Israel finally take shape as a Nation. One of the reasons for this is that the 15th to 16th Dynasties were
THESE CANAANITES themselves. It is important to note that the timeline for Canaan/Egypt’s most
important events concerning Israel is from 1650 to 1150 b.c.e. It is especially important to anaylyze the
time period for the 15-16th dynasties for this is when the Patriarch Jacob ( Yaa’Kov, the Supplanter )
appears. Jacob is called Yaa’kov-Aru, Yaa’kov-Her and Yaa’kov-Baal. The founder of the 15th Dynasty
was Salitis ( also called Shalik, Saites and May-Ebre Sheshi, literally translated as MAH-IBRI-SHE-ISHI.!!!), and the last King of this dynasty was Auserre Apophis I ( Ausar-Re Apophys I ). In other
words these Canaanites were the Self-Styled Pharoahs of the Delta, Canaanite and Arabian Peninsular
regions. It is said that Yaa’kov-Her had 12 sons by the Matriarchs Rachel, Leah and the Matriarch
Mistresses Bilhah and Zilpah. It it also a fact that Canaan had 12 Tribes. The CONFUSION results from
modern scholars giving the family names of Each Son as the Tribal names itself of each group. And these
were the 12 Sons of Yaa’kov that settled in each of the lands and territories of the 12 Canaanite tribes.
The 12 Sons and their Wives were SIMPLY the heads of these 12 Canaanite families, clans, groups and
Tribes of peoples in Canaan. As time went on from the earliest periods, their names and the Canaanite
tribal names became synonomous and identical. That is what happened there. That is all.
On Joseph ( Zaphnath-Paaneah; Yuyasof I of On ) again, I believe that Joseph was a Pharoah Vizier
under his Father Yaa’kov-Baal of the 16th Dynasty. When comparing the historical records from the
ancient texts to modern theoretical interpretaions it is interesting to note the similarities and differences as
told by academia of all schools. They make it so confusing, perplexing and non-common sensical at times.
In my opinion it would seem to me that Joseph was not just “sold” into slavery but was bartered, ransomed, captured and/or taken as a political prisoner-of-war (after all, they were at war with the
southern dynasties and others in that day and time) and his release was effected by BOTH Official
Diplomatic and Spiritual means. I also note that in the Book Joseph And Asenath, Ase-Nath, his wife to
be, already a Queen Princess at this time looked MORE LIKE A DAUGHTER OF THE HEBREW
ISRAELITES ( Read : Canaanite/Hyksos/Israelite ) than any of the other women belonging to the various
socio-ethnic tribes making up the population of Egypt in that day and time. I submit that Joseph was a
Pharoah Vizier of the 16th Dynasty ( called Hyksos ) under his Father Yaa’kov-Her and simply
ascended the throne after the death of the Partriarchal Pharoah. Again, See Joseph and The Hyksos, http://www.freemaninstitute.com/Gallery/joseph.htm, echoeing the same conclusions reached by Dr. Vos
and others that the “expulsion of the foreign overlords” by the Southern Theban Dynasty did not include
the Hebrews. However as Dr. Vos admits, western academic scholars were labouring under the
“assumption” ( Academic Theory ) that the Canaanites/Hyksos/Israelites were different ( non-black,
non-native ) groups of peoples or a foreign race of people altogether which is the view that you presently
hold also Bro. Yao. Again I propound the fact that there is not a shred of anthropological or archaeological evidence to support your theory.!!!
See Joseph In Egyptian Historical Records,
http://www.answers.com/main/ntq-tname-joseph-warton-fts-start-o; and Jacob-Baal,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixteenth_dynasty_of_Egypt ; and also See Genesis, KJV : Chap. 44: 1-34 ; Chp. 45: 1-28 ; Chp. 47: 1-31 ; andChp. 48: 1-22 ( Where The Land of Egypt and Canaan are VIRTUALLY INDISTINGUISHABLE ) !!!
All of the anthropological, archaeological, ethnological and linguistic evidence supports the fact that the four tribes mentioned herein ARE the
peoples known as the Hebrew Israelites and Black Jews. After much intermixing in the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia ( Egypt, Sumer, Canaan )
Canaan is the land where these four groups, already ONE, merged into a Nation as a Socio-Ethnic Group with a NATIONAL, INDEPENDENT,
SOVEREIGN IDENTITY. And that is how a SOCIO-ETHNIC GROUP AND A NATION IS BORN!!! The evidence supports the fact that
these Indigenous Canaanites are indeed the peoples of the book. Using this as our primary ideology here, let us approach the finding and
identification of the Israelites from the Egyptians OWN words in describing them and what they called them in the Middle Kingdom and Early
New Kingdom period and see just how easily we can find Israel in Egypt again and again and at almost every single turn. They called them
SYRIANS and referred to Canaan-Arabia as The RETENNU and LEVANT. This as we can easily see was a RACIAL as well as a Geographical
Classification, Retennu meaning Blacks but not of Egypt but the Akinahhu of The Land of Canaan. To put it plainly the Hyksos peoples was
nothing but these peoples and the Rulers, Chieftains, Nobles and the powers that be of Canaan ( along with the other small groups of Libyan,
Sumerian, Nubian and Indus-Valley populations that were present among them ) as evidenced and described by the SUMERIANS AND EGYPTIANS THEMSELVES. !!! See Joseph, The Alignment of The Chronological Records, http://www.lordbalto.com/neros/ .
They were also referred to as the WEARERS OF THE LOCKS ( you know, as in plaits, braids, sidelocks, Dreadlocks ). The Merneptah
Stela clearly DEMYSTIFIES Ancient Israel rather than MYSTIFY them. ( I myself have always known that the Stele itself is the
Incontrovertible Proof of the Black Canaanites who were denoted as Israel by none other than themselves and their Sister Nations, Ancient
Egypt and Sumer every since laypersons and scholars alike have tried to use the Stele to Prove or Disprove the existence of Israel as a
Canaanite Ethnic Group for quite, quite, quite some time now !!! heh, heh, heh, heh, heh ). See The Merneptah Stela,
http://www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a015.html.
Once again, for what a Native Canaanite looked like in the fifteenth century b.c. to 70 A.D. to present, See Harpers Bible Dictionary, pgs. 151-153, First Edition, 1985 ( Description : Canaanite Dignitary
with arm raised in salute; Bronze Plaque from Hazor, Fifteenth Century B.C. : The Canaanite Official in
this Stele is a very black person, extremely dark-complexioned. He wears undergarments similar to our
modern day clothing over which there is a Robe. In the olden days these Officials often wore a circular
ribbon about their upper body with Aramaic language and Adrinka symbols inscribed thereon denoting the
rank, country, station and function of the dignitary. This clothing is identical to West African Clothing today
called KENTE CLOTH. ), And, to further Drive The Point Home > See Rabbi Mordecai Abi Serour,
History of The Jews of Bilad el-Sudan ( In Fact, Read The Whole Article and The References in it ),
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_the_Bilad_el_Sudan_%28West_Africa%29 ; and this one too, The
Igbo People : http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Igbo_people.; Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, pgs.
174-175, by Margaret Bunson. The Hyksos/Israelites were no “new race and/or new people”. Egypt
called them SIRIONS, Sumerians called them ARAMEANS and Manetho himself called them ARABS
and PHOENICIANS. These Canaanite peoples were indigenous to Canaan, Sumer and Egypt. See
Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt, pgs. 87-89, by Rosalie David ; Ancient Syria, http:ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_syria-ancient.htm ; And Hyksos ; http://www.imninalu.net/Hyksos.htm ;Hyksos,
http://www.messiah.org/hyksos33-1.htm ; http://www.freewebs.com/jwest/Hyksos.html ; And Hyksos,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hyksos.

KANA YISRAEL AS A PHAROANIC STATE
The 15th to 16th Israel dynasties were the basis, origin and developement of the Canaanite State of
Israel as a Independent, Sovereign Pharoanic State. After their expulsion from North Egypt in 1567 by
the Southern Pharoah Ahmose I ( Kamoses ) they withdrew again to Canaan. Still Canaanites continued
to play a large role in the Egyptian dynasties and society. In continuing the socio-political drama this leads
us up to the famous 18th dynasty of Pharoah Akenaton and his Vizier, The Priest-King Osarseph ( The
Tetmoses Osarseph or Tetmosi Osar-Yuyasof II of On ) better known as the biblical King Moses.
Yes, Bro. Yao. What I am saying is that the Chief Dynasties of The Canaanites were the Amurru and
the 15th to 16th Dynasties of Egypt were the Proto-Israelite and Israelite Dynasties who sat on the Thrones of Ancient Egypt as they sat on the Thrones of Mesopotamia also.!!! To understand this better
See The Prophecy To The Avrahamic ( Abrahamic ) Peoples. Western Torah, Gen. Chap. 17: 1-27 ;
Chaps. 16-17 ; and Chap. 25: 1-23.
However we are concerned now with the Administration of Akenaton ( Amonhotep IV ). It seems that
after the Theban southerners drove the Canaanites back into Canaan they oppressed the Hebrews still in
Egypt and made frequent incursions into the Land of Kanaan. But again, a Canaanite family rose to power
in the 18th dynasty of Egypt in the person of Pharoah Tetmoses Osarseph. [ Note: To explain the Pharoah/Pharoah Vizier King Tetmoses Osarseph ( also known as Yuyasof II of On, Damoses and
Tamoses ) the name SEPH or SOF MEANS descendant of Joseph, ( Yuyasof I of On, Zaphnath-Paaneah ), Ephraim, Manesseh, Benjamin and Judah whom the Levites lived among and intermarried with in Goshen, North Egypt. A practice which Pharoah Tetmoses discontinued as he assigned the Levite-Zadoks a special status when he withdrew ALL Hebrew Canaanites back into their own native land within their own national borders, named it Kana Yisrael, and established himself as the First and Founding Pharoah of Kana Yisra’el’s First Dynasty with Joshua as the Pharoah Vizier or Prime Minister. This was The Second Exodus. A voluntary one. The first dynasties were A COLONIZATION OF NORTHERNKEMET/EGYPT BY THE HEBREWS. Now, the first exodus or expulsion of the last Kings of the Israelite 16th Dynasty in North Egypt and the attempt by southern Kemetics to REMOVE ALL TRACES of the CANAANITE presence WAS because that was the first and only time in its native history that KEMET had been COLONIZED, albeit an INTERNAL ONE.!!! Phr. Tetmoses, in founding a Independent Canaanite State, had to deal with native elements loyal to the southern dynasties, Sumeria, and selfish ones out for their own power, resettle the 12 Canaanite Tribes, and write The First Democratic Constitution.The Constitution of Man and Woman, The Torah.!
This is the BASE of the stories about Phr. Tetmoses and Joshua’s wars with the Egyptians and hostile
elements in native Canaan. He and Joshua oversaw all of this along with the High Priest Aaron and Matriarch Queen Miriam. Pharoah Tetmoses also lived for 120 years beginning his work at the age of
40 !!! End Note ]. He made the final break with the southern Theban dynasties after Akenaten’s death,
re-established Canaan as a Independent State as Kana Yisrael and begin Judaism according to the
Patriarchal Command as the Native Culture.This is the Whole Story of the Exodus and The Mosaic-Joshua Dynasty of Ancient Kana Yisra’el in Canaan, more or less. This is ALSO for the unleavened,
half-leavened, half-mixed, half-baked Hebrew Israelites in CERTAIN GROUPS and Individuals with
street level, race-based so-called “Knowledge” who are teaching the Lie that Judaism ( YAHUDAISM )
is a Japheth Russian/Caucasian Ashkenazi “invention”. There are Hebrew Israelites, that just like other
Black peoples, are not prepared to accept and face the Facts of Israel and its True History. Having been
De-Culturized for so long they do not understand the real and true meaning of what it means to be the Hebrew Israelites. That will be addressed in Israel’s Ontology. See The Moses Mystery, The African
Origins Of The Jewish People, by Gary Greenberg ,
http://www.amazon.com/Moses-Mystery-African-Origins-Jewish/dp/customer-reviews/15597223 ( Go To: Look Inside Another Edition Of This Book for an Academic Introduction ); Ahmed Osman, http://ahmedosman.com/home.html ; Moses In History, http://www.ufaqs.com/wiki/en/mo/Moses.htm
Hyksos, http://www.1911encyclopedia.org ; http://www.answers.com/topic/hyksos ; Osarseph http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osarseph ; Breaking News: Man Named Moses Declares “Set My People Free!” Leads Gang Of Hoodlums Into Wilderness, http://www.culturekitchen.com/categories/moses ; The Origin of the Jewish People and the Land of Canaan, by David Storobin,
http://www.globalpolitician.com/articles.asp?ID=1765&print=true ; And, http://pub34.bravenet.com/forum/2860232918/fetch/988322 ; AND Genetic Evidence : West African/SubSaharan Peoples Are The Original Canaanites, Israelites And Arabs,
http://globalpolitician.com/articledes.asp?ID=851&cid=2&sid=71; And The Israelites Were Pharoahs of Egypt, page 1, by Ralph Ellis, http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread165852/pg1 ; And,
http://www.dailygrail.com/node/672 .

Also See
The Original And Only Amorites Were Black Canaanites, The Mount Zion Assembly Of Yah,
http://members.tripod.com/zionofjah/id33.htm ; And,
https://yeyeolade.wordpress.com/2007/08/19/the-original-arabs-were-black-also.

ISRAEL’S ONTOLOGY
To begin with I will give the definition of Ontology : The branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature
of being ; a particular theory about the nature of beings or the kinds of existents. I have heard it said by modern Caucasian Greek scholars, Indo-Arabs and Black Egyptologists the Hebrew Israelites/Black Jews worship a Demiurge. Scholastic conjecture COULD NOT be better than this. Let a layman person
enter the FRAY here. I will give you the old magical Hebrew formula for determining “a God” and THE
GOD. Let us apply this formula Right Here! The first one is Linguistics with its ETYMOLOGY ( Etymology MUST be applied because languages can be corrupted, badly Translated and falsely Transliterated ! ). The other two (2) are FUNCTION and PLACE. YAH/YAA, the Sole and Supreme
Creator God has descended down to us as OM-YAH, AMYN-YAH, and EL YAH from Nubia-Kush
( Nubi-Yah, Nabi-Yah ), Indus-Kish ( Indi-Yah, Indu-Yah ) and Sumeria ( Semeri-Yah, Shemi-Yah )
from Time immemorial. YAH was known in Egypt ( Kemet, Kemi-Yah ) as YHUH, HUHI ( NOT AS
LAH ), in India as OYM/OM, YAA/YOM/YAM, Sumeria as ELYON ELYON EL, meaning The God,
The God, The Great God, in Nubia as AMYN, AYM, AMN and AM, The AMEN, and in Canaan as
EL YAH, The God who is Known but Unknown. This is why YAH was and still is taught by word and
thought only, The Sacred Three/Four Letter Word of The Ancestors!!! YAH is not Interchangeable and
Transliterable with Lah.!!! ( The “Y” is only transliterable as O,A,U,I BUT is equivalent to the First Three
Only as “O”, the SYMBOL of the Cosmos, All in All, The ALL ONE ). The LAH of Egypt directly
descends to us today as identically Lah, meaning the MOON and el-El or al-Al, meaning “a God”,
literally translated as AL-LAH, The Moon God. Also See ALLAH, The Moon God in the form of a
person as DUMUZI, The Sumerian Messiah, Shepherd King and Shepherd of Men equal to the Egyptian
Tehuti ( All the Kings and Priests were called Shepherds of Men by The Ancestral Nations, NOT just
Egyptians and Hebrews ! These Are Facts Without Emotion, Hate or Sacrilege Also. Just THE FACTS ).
http://www.geocities.com/garyweb65/sumgods.html .
No such translation exists for YAH and IAH is a corruption of LAH, NOT YAH !!! If IAH is proposed
or theorized as a corruption of YAH it is a badly disconfigured one.Now, even PTAH is a form of YAH
as PTYH, PTHY, and PTYAH.!!! YAH is the Hebrew Israelite word for Supreme Being and Creator
God. That is All ! ( Compare Meroitic-Egyptian Hieroglyph, Tamil-Sumerian Cuneiform and Aramaic
Ugaritic Hebrew !!! ) .
2. Place : YAH could not be a form of Tehuti or he a form of YAH because YAH is First and Tehuti was
merely a messenger, teacher, guide and initiator into the various Religio-Spiritual systems of that day and
time. Second of all, YAH is the Aramaic Hebrew word for Ideal, Divine, Cosmic, Transcendental, The
Universal One. The same meaning as YAH has Today for YAH changes not. Third of all, YAH can not
be a “Moon God” or “a Tehuti” for YAH has no Images or Representations. It is said and taught that YAH
dwells in the Thick, Thick, Thick Darkness. A Ontological term for The Melanated Essence of the Cosmos
and ALL. Even today Israelites have no artistic representations and images of YAH and no else does either !!!
Fourth of All, YAH was known and worshipped in the Secret Societies by the High Initiates Only and Only
By The 3 Letter and 4 Letter Sacred Secret Word of The Ancient World.!!!
3. Function : The Supremacy of YAH as EL YAH in the Canaanite Pantheon is well illustrated in several,
numerous instances where the Orishas, Neters, Anunaki, the BAALIM of Israel , the “lesser Gods, Lords
Deities or SPIRITS” Have to go to YAH to get permission for to do just about almost anything, whether it
be good, evil, or to bestow a favor, curse, or impreesion upon someone especially if that person ( Man,
Woman, Child ) be loyal and beholden to YAH or be given a destiny by YAH or Not bothered at all.!
I will give 3 instances from the Torah/Tanakh and bring this part to a close about YAH’S Supremacy in
Hebrew and World Ontology !!! See Holy Tanakh/Bible, Book of Job ( Iyyob ), Chap. 1: 1-22 ; Numbers,
Chapters 22, 23 and 24 ; and I Kings, Chap. 22: 1-53.

And Now for the HARD Part. Hard because Indigenous Black Spiritualists and those of Organized
Religions Do Not Want to Accept WHAT IS AND IS A FACT !!! Now, to explain The ROOT AND
BASE of ANCESTRAL JUDAISM. In Israel, the word for Yoruba-Dogon-Kemet and Dravidian Tamil
Indian Orishas, Anunakis, and Loas IS BAALIM AND ELOAS. The basis of Judaism in its origins and
and developements is nothing but Traditional Black Spirituality of Africa and Asia known as VODUN.!!!
And Black Evolutionary Science known as ANIMISM. Our Ancestors Have Always Taught us that
this World Of Nature is Just AS Important, Alive and Diverse as is The World of Spirit. This System of
Culture IS BOTH MATRIARCHAL AND PATRIARCHAL BEING MATRIARCHAL FIRST. !!!
The Teaching of Judaism comes from The School of MELCHIZEDEK, THE ANCESTRAL SPIRIT
OF KANAAN BENE YISRAEL, Just as Osiris is The Ancestral Spirit of Egypt/Kemet and Enlil The
Ancestral Spirit of Sumer, This MELCHIZEDEK, A CANAANITE KING AND PRIEST OF THE
MOST HIGH GOD ( El Yah ; YHVH The El; Elyon Elyon El ) whom Our Patriarchal Father Abraham Met and gave Tithes, Supplication and Ancestral Veneration to. This was before The Patriarchal Father
married his Matriarchal Mistress, Mother Hagar, Our Mother Also. Matriarch Hagar is Agar, A Agaritic or Ugaritic Woman, A CANAANITE! And that is Also why Patriarchal Father Abraham ( ABBA’ HAM ) is ALSO called The Father Of Ham.!!! There also goes out the Door and Window
of Truth “The Lie of The Mythical Curse On Canaan” INSERTED into Our Torah/Tanakh
Records by Roman, English, Indo-Arab and Russian Ashkenazi “White Jews” Academia!!!
To Illustrate on BAALIM again : The Neter SHU in Egypt, The Anunaki SHU in Sumeria, is
to the Canaanite Hebrew Israelites : The BAAL SHEM or BAAL SHU-MU. A word that HEBREWS still use today to refer To Our Origins. He is the Brother of Ham ( Who is OSIRIS ), Anu,
Enki, Enlil and others. The word Baal in Hebrew means a Lord of The Land .
Because This Treatise is to Promote Unity, Love, Peace and Harmony I will set out how Black Hebrewism and its Culture Judaism is to be viewed and defined by. Judaism has No Law of Coercion
whether by Force or Guile!!! The Most Critical Fact, LONG OVERLOKED, is That ALL Black
Spiritual Systems SHARE a Creator-God Concept surrounded by a host of lesser Spirits. Judasim should be seen as ALL African Religions and Spiritualities such as Egyptian Amenism, Sumerian Anuism, Indian
Brahmanism and Buddhism, Orisha-Ifa, Santeria, Candomble, Sectarian Christianity and Sectarian
Theocratic Islam PURIFIED and STRIPPED of The Multiplicities. The multiplicities that causes conflicts
and DIVISIONS. We believe that YAH, through Pharoah Tetmoses, preserved YAH’S name through all
generations.
Hebrew Spirituality and Mystical Judaism should be viewed as a UNITY system. In commenting above on the relation that we all SHARE of a Creator-God and lesser Orishas, Loas, Deities and Spirits Hebraic Spirituality and Mystical Judaism teaches that the SPIRITS, if they be True and Real, are all a part of and function of God (YAH) and not SEPARATE from YAH. Just as one Cannot separate a Ray
of Sunlight from its Source, The Sun. For this reason these functions of God (YAH) are called ELOHEEM. This is the context that Hebrew Spirituality and Mystical Judaism should be viewed in by
Traditional Spirituality and Orthodox Religions.
For Messianic Hebrew Israelites who look to a Messiah, the belief, veneration and practice of a Divine
Virgin Mother who gives Birth to a Son who IS THE MESSIAH coming to SAVE His People for Their
GOD IS JUST AS OLD AS THE CREATOR-GOD CONCEPT among ALL the Afro-Asiatic Peoples in the World to this day. I am a practicing Mosaic Messianic Hebrew Israelite because I KNOW that there is No DIVISION in Our Scriptures and that BOTH Moses and Yashua lead to the same ONE : YAH ! And That Is ISRAEL’S ONTOLOGY !!!
For Hebrew Israelites in this Age of Increased Knowledge, The Scientific Technological Age, when
beset on all sides by psychological and material coercions, made to feel that Hebrewism and its Culture
is borrowed, or made to think that Judaism is a Inferior Spirituality, YOU NEED NOT BE DISMAYED.
Hebrewism and its Judaism is quite the contrary and its Effectiveness has been Time-Tested through our
ANCESTORS and US! In The Darkest And Finest Hour That Is When YAH is There.
And that, My Bro.Yao-Heru-Tehuti, and all others concerned is The Ontology of Israel!
See Biblical Beginnings In Ancient Egypt, ( A Very, Very Good and Interesting Site When One Knows How To Read It, Whether Black Egyptologist, Sumerianist or Hebrew ; Scroll To Jehovah and
Read The Portion About HUHI=IHVH=YAH and then Go To RE HPRW NEB translated as the GOD
OF ALL HEBREWS. The Text Never Gets Away From The ETERNITY and COSMIC BEING OF
HUHI=IHVH=:YAH No Matter how Many Persons, Moon Images and Human Beings That YAH is
Associated With !!! In Fact Hebrews and All Others Should Read This. As For Languages ALL of The
Ancestors LANGUAGES DID NOT COME FROM EGYPT AND HAD THEIR OWN MEANINGS
AS WELL and Their Is MUCH ARAMAIC HEBREW That is UNTRANSLATABLE and UNTRANSLITERABLE TODAY AS IS EGYPTIAN, MEROITIC, SUMERIAN AND DRAVIDIAN
TAMIL SCRIPTS ….. !!!!!!!! . See : http://home.austarnet.com.au/calum/egyptb.html ; And The Names Of God In Judaism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_God_in_Judaism.

Bro. Yao, When You Are Finished With That, NOW SEE : CHILDREN OF YAH : PRESENTING THE Anthro-Archeo-Bioethnic-ONTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE THAT BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES ARE THE FIRST PEOPLES IN THE AMERICAS NORTH AND SOUTH ALONG WITH THE HAMITIC OLMECS AND HEBREWS WERE A MAJOR PART OF THAT
CIVILIZATION TOO AS SHOWN BY DR. CYRUS GORDON, MAJOR MORDECAI MANUAL
NOAH, WHO DIRECTS THAT THE BLACK JEWS OF INDIA AND AFRICA SHALL HAVE AN EQUALITY HERE AS NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANS AND DR WELLS JAKEMAN, WHO,
WHILE TRYING TO PROVE THE BOOK OF MORMON, ACTUALLY PROVED THAT BLACK
AMERICANS OF OUR SAME TYPE HERE TODAY WERE THE PEOPLES HERE FIRST !!!!!!!!
See http://www.childrenofyah.org/name_of_god.htm ; http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/bomworld.htm ;
http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MA/nilesre1.htm ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Stirling ;
http://hope-of-Israel.org/hebinusa.htm ; Then See : Afrocentrism, 4. African as a race,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrocentrism ; I Rest My Case on The Universality of Hebrew Israelites and
YAH.
[

(Message over 64k, truncated.) Mon Jan 7, 2008 3:05 pm

——————————————————————————–

lamar perryman
hebrew32kush

Re: ATTN: Bro. Yao-Heru-Tehuti {ORIGIN OF ANCIENT ISRAEL/PHYSICAL AP
FORWARD TO DRAFT BOX AND RE-EDIT. lamar perryman wrote: Shalom El Hetep and Greetings, To The Mambos, Queens and Princesses Of… lamar perryman
hebrew32kush
Jan 7, 2008
3:05 pm

“AFRICAN WOMEN IN AFRICAN CIVILIZATION!” FROM AFRICANEYE.WORDPRESS.COM

October 30, 2008

from africaneye.wordpress.com

The time has come…

AFRICAN WOMEN IN AFRICAN CIVILIZATION

INTRODUCTION: THE GREAT BLACK MOTHER

Africans were the first to inhabit the earth. Fossil records as well as DNA analysis give scientific evidence to support this fact. Therefore, the first woman to give birth was a Black African woman. It is from us that all humans have come. The other races of humankind all evolved from Black Africans.

Ancient Africans had a deep-seated respect for women. Charles Finch in the book Echoes of the Old Darkland explains that early man did not know the link between sex and birth. Therefore, it was believed that new life was created by the woman, the mother alone. It was perceived that all life in nature emerged from women ALONE. Therefore when the first concept of God was developed, the female served as the model of the Supreme Being. Finch explains how it was under this initial Matriarchal System that the first rules and taboos to govern human behaviour were articulated. Another important contribution of ancient woman can be seen in the fact that as the gatherer of grains, seeds, roots berries and plants to the group, we had the opportunity to observe how seeds sprout when they fall in the ground. This observation led to the practice of organized cultivation. It was the woman who probably developed the practice of purposeful cultivation. This may have happened as early as 15,000 BC. It is the practice of agriculture that made population expansion, food surpluses and community settlement possible.

It is not known exactly when the role of the male in procreation was discovered, but this discovery did not enhance the status of men much until the necessity of men became clear in war and conquest. The vital role of men did not lead to an imposition of the male on the female, rather it served to enhance the principle of duality evident in creation. Males and females were seen as complements to one another and a harmony between the two was necessary for harmony to continue on earth. Therefore, it was seen as prudent and wise to ensure the well being of both men and women if the successful survival of humans was to continue. The respect for women was reflected in society and the seriousness and consideration women were given. In Egypt and Kush the importance of the mother was seen in the facts that the children took their surname from the mother and that the mother controlled both the household and the fields. In Kush, the Queen Mother had the right to choose the next Pharaoh. Prior to Islamic conquest of sub-Saharan Africa in the 12th and 13th centuries, the system of succession to the throne was matrilineal. Cheikh Anta Diop in his book Pre-colonial Black Africa explains that in the African custom of matrilineal succession, very strict rules were observed which stated that the heir of the throne was not the king’s son but the son of the King’s first-born sister (the king’s nephew). This is because, as an African proverb states, ‘ You can never be sure who the father of the child is; but of the mother you can always be sure. The brilliance of this logic cannot be missed. This saying underpinned the rationale many African societies used to ensure that conference of power and titles of leadership were reckoned through the mother’s line. This matriarchal foundation of African society meant that respect for women was woven into the very fabric of society. Women had numerous important roles and functions to carry out, many of which conferred a great deal of power and respect to them. The erosion of the status of women occurred gradually but was significantly exacerbated and hastened by foreign invasions, particularly colonialism.

Unfortunately, most people, Africans and non-Africans alike, assume that the current status of women in Africa is reflective of their status in ‘traditional African societies’. This is wrong. The status and power of women in Africa in antiquity and the pre-colonial period was significantly healthier than it is today. Therefore, referring to the second-class citizen status of African women today as ‘traditional’ is erroneous and must be rectified. Africans cannot afford to continue thinking that traditional African societies perceived women as inherently inferior creatures and thus sidelined them from positions of power and influence. In this article we will look at some of the roles, functions and related power that African women had before the onslaught of colonialism. In later articles we will look at how colonialism in particular led to the erosion of the power and status of women in African society. This article is by no means exhaustive but instead seeks to provide a brief overview of the role of women in traditional African society. The article will close with several examples of exceptional African women who transformed their societies and the world.

AFRICAN WOMEN’S ROLE IN SOCIETY AND GOVERNANCE

Economic roles

In traditional Africa, women had recognized and vital roles in the economic development of their communities.

Among the Kikuyu of Kenya, women were the major food producers and thus not only had ready access to land but also had AUTHROITY of how the land was to be used and cultivated. Therefore, the value of women’s productive labour in producing and processing food established and maintained their rights in the domestic and other spheres. Nowadays, although women still are major food producers either directly or through employment, they do not receive the recognition and respect that they used to. Colonialism profoundly negatively affected the role and status of women in African society.

Moreover, in much of pre-colonial Africa, bridewealth gave women a certain amount of economic independence and clout. In the past, African women in some societies retained a measure of control over their bridewealth which economically empowered them to a certain extent. Sadly, with the new financial constraints experienced by males due to colonialism, especially in the form of heavy taxation, bridewealth became a source of income that males sought to control. Thus, once more, women were excluded from a cultural prative that had previously given women some measure of economic independence.

Among the Egba of Nigeria, women were the economic powerhouses of the nation due to the trade and market system they had developed. Among these people from West Africa, women dominated the trade and merchant exchange of goods of their communities. Women were responsible for a number of things including: setting the rules of trade among themselves i.e. market taxes and tariffs; organizing and managing the market system; agreeing on lucrative terms of trade with outsiders; holding meetings to discuss how to improve their trade and marketing system and more. These women had a highly developed business acumen which they used for the economic upliftment of their community. Keep in mind that many of these women were taking over their businesses from mothers or aunties of the same profession. Therefore, the economic knowledge they implemented had been honed for centuries. In short, they knew what they were doing. To this day, women still dominate the local market scenes in Africa but almost none can be found in the ‘formal’ Westernised economic institutions that have developed in Africa since independence. Perhaps the absence of women, and thus the absence of ancient African economic knowledge is contributing to the LACK of economic organization and power in many African nations.

Spiritual Roles

In ancient Africa, women were often the most powerful spiritual figures in the land. Women were often in charge of the spiritual systems in their communities. This group of female spiriual leaders were a select group, and not all women were allowed to join the ranks of spiritual leadership. Nonetheless, women dominated the positions of spiritual and religious power in most African traditional societies. These were responsible for announcing dates and times of ceremonies, rites and rituals. These women were oracles, spirit mediums, knowers, seers and advisors. These women had the power to place and remove curses.

African people are known for their spiritualism and the seriousness with which they take religion. Therefore, we can see how a dominant feminine energy in the spiritual sphere helped to ensure that women were respected in society.

Political Roles

We will begin with a intimate type of governance system used by African women. In parts of pre-colonial Nigeria, newly-married women of a given town would form an organization designed to look out for their interests and those of their families. Among the responsibilities of this body was the governance of their husbands! If one of the members came to the group with a serious and valid complaint about the behaviour of her husband, the group would find this man, confront him with the allegations and keep and eye on him until his behaviour improved. This method was highly effective because it did away with the often destructive and frankly, Western notion, that a marriage (or a serious relationship) if only the business of the two involved. This system of inter-personal governance ensure that BOTH the man and woman were accountable to each other and treated each other with respect and dignity.

In terms of macro-political organization, in the past, most African societies had a dual sex political system which allowed for substantial female representation and involvement in governance and administration. The position of Queen mother seen across Africa in Ghana among the Akan, Egypt, Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda but to name a few, gave women prominent and visible political authority in running the nation.

In most cases the Queen Mother was older than the King and was biologically related to him. She often had her own land, from which she gained revenue through tax and her word was law on the land she owned. She had her own courts complete with courtiers and staff. It is only through her courts that decrees, especially death sentences, made by the King could be annulled. Therefore, although the King had the technical power of the lives of those in his kingdom, the Queen Mother could often give someone back their life.

The Queen Mother among the Akan of Ghana also had very important role in terms of ensuring the well-being of the women and children of the nation. Therefore, she and her staff were responsible for designing and implementing the educational system of the land. As you can see, the nation was entirely comfortable with the Queen Mother and her staff being in control of the structure, organization, some content and day-to day running of the educational system which ALL their children were affected by. We as modern African women should remember that not too long ago the minds of all nation were moulded by the vision women.

Often the Queen mother also in charge of childbirth, coming-of-age and marriage ceremonies.

In some nations, the role that the Queen mother played was also played by the King’s wife. For example among the Baganda of Uganda, the Kings wife had considerable power. But usually, the King’s wife either had as much power as the Queen mother but usually had less.

A very important role that the Queen Mother, and sometimes also the wife of the King, had was that of either selecting or endorsing the King’s successor. In some cases, the Queen was responsible for nominating the King’ successor and it was up to her to convince a panel of advisors to agree with her choice. In other cases, other people nominated the King’s successor and only with the Queen’s consent could the heir-select be allowed to rule.

Women also directly ruled many African nations. We should remember that this was the exception rather than the rule. However, women did rule their nations. At the end of this post you will find a list of women from whom we can draw inspiration, courage and self-confidence. Many of these women were Queens. African Queens had supreme power and authority over all inhabitants of her Queen-dom. Her word was law and no man or woman could defy her. She had supreme military, political, spiritual and economic power.

In the book Black Africa, Cheikh Anta Diop explains bicameralism, a type of governance some of our ancestors used to rule their people. Before Africa was under the dominance of any foreign powers, women had a position of influence in society. In African bicameralism, women participated in the running of public affairs within the framework of a women’s assembly. This assembly sat separately to the man’s assembly but the two shared influence and power. The resistance against foreign invasion and occupation of West African nations such as Dahomey and the Yorubas is said to be a result of the women’s assembly meeting at night. African bicameralism allowed the blossoming of both males and females and allowed the full use of both the feminine and masculine mind. Bicameralism is an ancient example of African democracy that put full to use the human resources of society in a manner that supported and encouraged everyone.

THE LEGACY OF AFRICAN WOMEN

These stories are taken from the book In praise of Black Women by Simone Shwarts- Bart and seek to give us all concrete examples of the power, scope and nature of African women in the past. African women should NEVER accept being told that they have done nothing. We have created religions, resisted invasions, raised kings and more.

Lucy

Humanity was born in Africa, Black Africa to be precise. In 1959 two palaeontologists dug up the skull of a human like being dated to be 1.75 million years old. The place of the discovery was Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. In 1974, at the same location, they discovered Lucy, a 3 ½ million year old fossil of a small woman. This young African woman, Lucy, may be the womb from which all humanity came.

Queen Tiye

Little known today, Queen Tiye is among the women who have most marked history. 3,500 years ago she was the wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Queen Tiye’s beauty was legendary, but her personality was even more powerful. For her pleasure the Pharaoh built a new palace for her in Thebes (now called Malkata). He also dug her a lake in the middle of the desert, just to please her. The revolution in Egyptian art dates back to her rule. Her influence on the Pharaoh was so great that she seemed to the supreme authority in the empire.

When the Pharaoh died, Tiye’s son Akhenaton came into power and it was during his rule that Queen Tiye took action that has most decisively marked history. Up until then Egyptians, like many others, were polytheists, they saw the world around them as governed by several gods. But suddenly, under Queen Tiye’s influence, the Pharaoh proclaimed for the first time in human history, a single God-Aton. This reform may have inspired Moses to establish the monotheism that has since spread all over the globe. So today when people pray to God in a church, mosque or synagogue, they may be, in some way, under the invisible influence of Queen Tiye.

The Candaces

The kingdom of Kush so renowned and honoured in ancient times was headed by Queens know as the Candaces. The Black Kingdom of Kush was born about 3,000 years ago and lasted until 350 AD. In the year 750 BC, the kingdom expanded north along the Nile and conquered Egypt founding the 25th dynasty, the illustrious dynasty of the Black pharaohs.

However in 666BC the Assyrians invaded Egypt and defeated them. The final battle took place in Thebes which the Assyrians burnt to the ground.

Tautaomon is the name of last black pharaoh to rule Egypt, he fled to Napata (Maraw) after the fall of Thebes. Napata was then the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. Of the Queens of Kush, the Candaces, two names stand out. The first is Amanireans, the Queen of Kush when the Romans followed the Nile south after the defeat of the last Pharaoh Cleopatra. She is described as a ‘very masculine woman who had lost an eye in battle’. Masculine probably meant courageous. Remembering her Pharaoh ancestors she went down the Nile to meet the Romans and defeated them at Aswan where her soldiers broke all of statues of Emperor Augustus. Although the Romans formulated a counteroffensive in the form of a strong army that stormed the kingdom of Kush up to Napa, it failed. This army was thoroughly humiliated by Amanireans and her army. The Roman army was withdrawn back to Egypt. Finally giving up the conquest of Kush, the Romans suggested that Candace ask for peace which the Emperor Augustus granted.

The second Candace is mentioned in the Bible in Acts 8. The story explains how the apostle Philip heard a voice telling him to go to Jerusalem from Gaza. On his way he met a eunuch, who was a Minister to Candace ‘Queen of Ethiopia’ (Kush was called Ethiopia by this time). The story goes on to detail how Philip told the eunuch of ‘the good news of Jesus Christ’. The eunuch was baptized and went o back to Kush filled with a desire to share the news he had been told. It appears that Candace was the first in Africa to embrace the faith. As a result Christianity went down the Nile reaching the area we now call Ethiopia. The biblical Candace and Amanrenias, the brave lady with the missing eye, give us a glimpse into our buried African past.

Makeda- Queen of Sheba

The story of the Makeda is recorded in the Bible in the second book of Chronicles and the first book of Kings. Makeda had learnt of the wisdom of Solomon and went to Jerusalem to test it with riddles. The Kebra Negast, a 14th century book of legends of Ethiopia says that the visit of Makeda lasted more than six months. At the first sight of Makeda, Solomon was struck by her miraculous beauty and he said in his heart ‘May God bless me with offspring through her’.

On the day of Makeda’s departure, Solomon had gifts loaded on 6,000 chariots for her alongside a vessel to travel in the air. He begged that if a child should be born of their union that she send him home to Jerusalem and give him a ring so that the child be recognised. So Makeda went back to her country where she gave birth to child and named him Ibn el Hakim: Son of Wisdom. When the child grew up, Makeda gave him the ring and sent him to visit his father. The child was 22 years old. In Jerusalem, crowds gathered in the streets surprised to see someone who looked so much like Solomon. Some people thought he looked even more like his grandfather David. During his stay in Jerusalem, the young man was adorned and consecrated a king in the Temple of Jerusalem. This is how he became Menelik I, the first king of the famous dynasty of the Lions of Judah, the last of whom was Negus Haile Selassie, the last Emperor of Ethiopia.

Sarraounia- The panther queen

In the 1890 a French colonial operation was planned whose mission it was to force the submission of an empire along the bend of the river Niger. Lieutenant Voulet and Captain Chanoine were the colonial officers in charge of this mission. The Voulet-Chanoine mission met with success as they spread death and ravaged the villages they took. It was in 1899 that they would go on their final and fatal expedition to Chad. It was there that they met a woman, Sarraounia, the queen who opposed their bayonets with the strength of her soul and the white man’s tricks with the traditional magic of Africa.

Sarraounia’s father was a warrior who had distinguished himself from the those who were hungry to sell black men. He had become the king of a small territory of the Azna’s. Sarraounia’s mother had died giving birth and it was thought that her child would follow her to the grave. But the little child with her pinched mouth and clenched fists opened her eyes and revealed shining yellow eyes; the people recognized the sign of the panther. The Azna’s always knew that they been born of a panther, and it was this animal which was sculpted in front of their houses, embroidered on their clothes and was their symbol among the other tribes. Panthers are made for the bush and the panther child soon learnt how to use a bow and arrow. She learnt the secrets of ‘hyena’s ear’ a poison that gives arrowheads merciless power over everything that breathes. She was the king’s daughter and she went with men as she pleased, but never wanted a child clinging to her breast. Sometimes she would disappear for weeks at a time and they said that she would talk to the spirits of the Shadow who taught her all the secrets of good and evil, the elixirs of power and wisdom and the plants that kill and those that bring back life. This is how she became Sarraounia, daughter to the king, sorceress, great dame of the Shadow.

She was 20 when was brought to the throne due to her father’s death. At the slightest danger, she would be at the head of her troops, her pales eyes shooting lightening. Her silhouette became legendary. Then a rumour made its way to her: a column of white men were marching east, devastating everything in their path. Sarraounia immediately sent messengers to her Muslim neighbours suggesting that theyunite against their common threat. The Muslims did not even bother to reply: you don’t make alliances with the seeds of slaves. So Sarraounia had a fortress wall built around Lougou, her capital. She smashed open the granaries and sent the women, children and old men to safe places in the bush. The warriors waited while the queen applied an ointment on them that was supposed to stop bullets. Then having hand-picked a group of archers, the silent warriors, she slipped into the tall grass to seek out the enemy. When night fell, a cloud of arrows from nowhere threw the Voulet-Chanoine expedition into a state of chaos for the first time. The next day 150 porters were missing at roll call and a dozen native infantrymen had deserted preferring to wander in a strange land that confront Sarraouina. The troops enter a deserted city. Another arrow flew in sky and shouts rang out, a woman’s laughter was heard: that was the beginning of the end for the French force. Day after day Sarrounia harassed the divided and crippled column until one of her warriors brought now Chaoine with a rifle shot, while Voulet was slain further along. That was the end of their adventure.

The capital kingdom was rebuilt, but new French soldiers followed those who had died and the traditional cunning of the Azna people could not sustain them. Eventually a French flag was raised in the middle of the great court of Lougou and the queen shut herself up in the shadows of her palace. One day at the end of a fiery hot afternoon, a yellow-eyed panther burst out of the throne room and disappeared into the bush. Sarraounia was never seen again.

Ana de Sousa Nzinga

In 1860 the Scottish missionary David Livingstone reached the old Portuguese stronghold of Luanda. Bare stairs, cells and shackles told of the horrifying recent history here. As he reached a courtyard he saw the imprint of a woman’s foot engraved in stone. When he asked whose it was an Angolan man declared it was the imprint of the great Ngola Nzinga who had set foot in this courtyard 300 years ago.

Ana de Sousa Nzinga was born in 1581 in Basa the capital of the kingdom of Ndongo, a land ruled by leaders called ngolas. During this time the Portuguese were advancing towards Ndongo with the aim of converting them as they had the peoples of Kongo. However, the greatest treasure in the minds of the Portuguese were the very people of Angola- the black ivory- slaves.

Ngola Karensi, Ana de Sousa’s father, had thought about the European effect on neighbouring Kongo and decided to bar missionaries from his country. War is waged against him for this decision. This war will last more than 40 years, until his very last breath. On the King’s death, power falls into the hands of his oldest son Ngola Mani a Ngola who raises an army of 30,000 men who he intends to put to fight against the Portuguese. Ana de Sousa Nzinga, the amazon and warrior considered the greatest political mind of her time plans to join them on the battlefield. She realizes that their traditional lances are no match for the Portuguese guns and points this out to the king in a council meeting saying, ‘My dear brother, your warriors are many, but their chests are bare; if you go this course, your defeat will be that of the whole nation’. Furious, the king has the throat of Nzinga’s only son cut and has her sterilized some say using red hot pokers while others claim they used scalding water.

A few months later after having been defeated again, the king begs Nzinga to negotiate a peace agreement with the Portuguese governor of Luanda. Since she speaks Portuguese and has studied their customs, ways of thinking and military strategies, Nzinga agrees to go though she cannot forget her dead son and ruined womb. But the lamentations of her people give her the conviction she needs and so she sets off for Luanda. She enters the white’s fortress accompanied only with a few of her fellow women. At that moment, trying to test her, the governor fires a 21 gun salute. But the princess already knows the sound of the white man’s music and she enters the fortress without blinking an eyelid. She crosses the courtyard where her step leaves an imprint in the stone as she makes her entrance into the main reception room. The room is full of armed men. All the way from the back of the room the governor signals her to step forward, but still wishing to embarrass her, he has not prepared a seat for her. She gestures to one of the women who kneels and Ana de Sousa Nzinga sits upon her human throne. The governor rudely asks her what the conditions of her surrender will be to which she replies, ‘I represent a sovereign people and I am ready to continue this conversation only on that basis.’

A few months later in 1623 a peace treaty is signed between the kingdoms of Angola and Portugal. But Nzinga knows the tricks of the Europeans and is still determined to fight in order to protect her people from the slavers. On her return home she jails her brother and proclaims herself ngala.

The passage of time proves Nzinga was right about the Europeans. The peace treaty lasts the space of only a dream and soon the Portuguese are moving deeper into her kingdom. Though she suffers setback after setback she fights until the very end. For 30 years she will fight to win her homeland. She will return blood for blood and slaughter for slaughter, all to save her people from slavery. She dies at the age of 84 without having been able to rebuild her homeland but she is still remembered as the woman who lost many battles but never lost the war. Ana de Sousa Nzinga lived a queen and died a queen.

Bibliography

1. Shwartz- Bart, Simone. In praise of Black women. Texas, Modus Vivendi Publications, 2001.

2. African Women in history course

3. Diop, Cheikh Anta. Precolonial Black Africa: A comparative study of the political and social systems of Europe and Black Africa, from antiquity to the formation of modern states .New York, Lawrence Hill Books. 1987

4. Mbiti, John. African religions and philosophies. Nairobi, East African Educational Publishers, 1969.

5. Ehret, Christopher. An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History 1000BC to AD 400. Virginia, The University Press of Virginia, 1998.

6. Finch, Charles. Echoes of the Old Darkland: Themes from the African Eden. (Georgia, Khenti Inc. 1999)

Previous comments on this post

ziwani said…

Great respect to the phenomenal women you highlight, it is a great read. In addition another woman ruler occcured in the Shilluk kingdom around the early 18oo’s. She was ruoth Abudhok Bwoch and effectively ruled the Shilluk kingdom in current northern Sudan. The shilluk Kingdom is a branch of the ancient Luo nation, part of which settled in Kenya.

9:44 PM

Ms K said…

Hey great blog you have here.

I just wanted to ask, what’s your reason for spelling Africa with a ‘k’. I’m sure there’s an interesting story behind that.

3:04 PM

AfricanSunset said…

Check out this Book
“For Women and the Nation”-Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti of Nigeria.

Cheryl Johnson-Odim and Nina Emma Mba Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti was a Nigerian feminist who fought for suffrage and equal rights for her countrywomen long before the second wave of the women’s movement in the United States. She also joined the struggle for Nigerian independence as an activist in the anticolonial movement. For Women and the Nation is the story of this courageous woman, one of a handful of full-length biographies of African women activists. It will be welcomed by students of women’s studies, African history, and biography, as well as by opponents of the Nigerian military regime that has held one of her sons, Dr. Beko Ransome-Kuti, in solitary confinement since August 1995.

3:42 PM

Afrikan Eye said…

Thank you for your comments…
@ms K…Afrika with a ‘K’ because that’s how it is spelt in Kiswahili…also signals a break from the ‘Africa’ that has been created by the West…Westerners have created an idea of ‘Africa’ in our heads that misrepresents our history and tends to belittle our legacy, who we are, our achievements/ contributions and our potential.

4:11 PM

giovanni.dicristofano@tin.it said…

dear Afrikan Eye, we hope you will soon post the second part of ‘African women in civilization’. Some question now..
1) can I republish your posts in my (penniless for now) webzine http://www.strudeltimes.it ?

2) can you upgrade ‘African Women in..” adding tales, stories, so on ?

And last but not least, I have a dream (yep). Even if I am just a white male, my ambition is an international respectable webzine. There is a column ready for you, think on it . Thanks gdc

10:23 AM

Afrikan Eye said…

Will soon post the next spiel…effects of colonialism on women as well as other great examples of Afrikan women
@gdc Thank you for your encouragement Will soon holla at you. in peace!

11:48 AM

AfroFeminista said…

I love this! I’m no fan of historical writing, but this, this was just so inspiring! Proving that there was a time when women and men were held in equal regard by a society not tainted by patriarchy borne of displacement, colonialism and globalization!

Thanks for sharing this!
I’m adding you to my blogroll – fasta fasta:):)

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At Just $244(a) One Way to South Africa, It’s a “November to Remember” on S…
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Posted in Africa, women

14 Responses to “AFRICAN WOMEN IN AFRICAN CIVILIZATION”
A very well-researched essay on the real story of African women in Ancient Times. Very enlightening. However, the grammatical errors were distracting. To learn more about this topic, I intend to read some more essays on this website.

Monique said this on April 12, 2007 at 12:49 am

Thank you for your comment and I’m delighted that you’ll be doing your own research to learn more.Sorry about the typos and stuff…I’ve worked on it abit..hope it helps.

Afrikan Eye said this on April 12, 2007 at 7:48 am

Thanks for this great and inspiring work! More grease to your elbows

Spice said this on August 2, 2007 at 9:26 am

“”Africans were the first to inhabit the earth.””

This statement is nonsensical. Africans were not the first to inhabit the earth. Those who you are erroneously refering to as Africans were actually a different species called Homo Erectus. And they were the only humans (beings of the genus Homo) to EXIST on the earth… anywhere…for a while.

And when you say Africans were the first to inhabit- That means, grammatically, that Africans came…and then later other races. And that the comming of other races was secondary and somehow seperate from the coming of Africans.

But all races of Homo sapiens evolved from Homo Erectus at the same time and so all first began to inhabit the earth simultaneously.

“””Therefore, the first woman to give birth was a Black African woman.”””

Again, nonsensical. A “Black African” woman is a Homo sapiens, evolved from Homo erectus, evolved from Australopithecus.

Homo erectus evolved from Australopithecus in what is now Africa. So at first Homo erectus existed only in Africa. Then later Homo erectus migrated from Africa to Europe and Asia, then beyond. Homo erectus then evolved into Homo sapiens. This evolution occured wherever Homo erectus lived. Not just in Africa but also in all the other places of the earth. So Homo sapiens women gave birth all over the world basically simultaneously. Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens all over the world at about the same time.

“””It is from us that all humans have come. The other races of humankind all evolved from Black Africans.”””

No. I mean no insult, but no they didnt. All races of mankind evolved from Homo erectus. You could say that Homo erectus WAS “Black Africans” but that would be incorrect. A “Black African” is a Homo sapiens with dark skin, as is common to the Homo sapiens that evolved from Homo erectus in Africa.

“Black Africans” and Homo erectus are two completely different species. All races as they are today came from Homo erectus evolving in different climates…and so creating slight variations in the species Homo sapiens.

This is all knowledge gained by fossil records and DNA analysis. As you cited for your statement. Since you used those very things as proof of the correctness of your statement, I dont see how you can argue against it. If you DO argue against it then you will also be arguing against the very validity of your statement in the first place.

~is grinning widely~ I can be a tricky son of a gun cant I? I am beginning to greatly enjoy our mental fencing. Though in this one I think I have you.

I would comment on the rest of your essay but I havent read it yet I’m afraid. I’ve been up all night and I’m very tired. I will read it though and look forward to doing so. I skimmed through it and saw mention of Kush. I remember first reading of Kush, the great ancient civilization south of Egypt and being transfixed. Up until that time I hadnt even known it existed. Anyway I’m particularly looking forward to reading that part.

Plz read and respond to the next section of this as seperate from this first part. Thanks.

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The Concept of a Female God

A lot of men find that concept threatening. I dont at all. The idea of a nurturing-loving mother god smiling down on me is a beautiful and comforting thought.

Though if you acknowledge a female god. Logically, (I repeat..using Logic) you must also acknowledge a male god. For a god would not, nor any living creature, be a female if there was not a male counterpart. If there is no male then there is no need to be female. Living beings that reproduce without a male…or without a female…are called asexual.

So, logically if you believe in a male god you must also believe in a female god. But two thirds of the world (christians) believes that god is male and that there is no female counterpart, in defiance of logic.

And most who believe in a female god refuse to believe in a male god, in defiance of logic. And most likely for the same reasons males deny a female god. Because a single god who is a male only is threatening to women. The idea of a supreme being, the sole divine being, being female is comforting and empowering to women in a world where many women are denied power.

Either way. Its illogical.

My personal opinion…I dont care. I believe in a Supreme Being. But what do I care whether that being is male or female? I believe god is a being of love. That is all that matters to me.

I personally suspect that god has no gender. Why would a divine being such as god need sexual organs, or anything the like?

And why would a being of such great intelligence be hindered by only one personality type- male or female- How can an omnipotent being have only one point of view? By its very nature an omnipotent being would possess ALL points of view.

And if not omnipotent…then why would at least an unfathomably intelligent being adhere to only one point of view?

That is my belief anyway. Please…dont anyone try to argue with me. I wont debate about this. This is only my personal opinion. And as an admited matter of opinion I can not be proven or disproven. Its just opinion.

My only response to any argument to the contrary of what I have said would be, “yeah…yeah thats possible too.”

Chris said this on August 7, 2007 at 2:32 pm

You said: “”Africans were the first to inhabit the earth.””
This statement is nonsensical. Africans were not the first to inhabit the earth. Those who you are erroneously referring to as Africans were actually a different species called Homo Erectus. And they were the only humans (beings of the genus Homo) to EXIST on the earth… anywhere…for a while.

I say: Why is this statement nonsensical? As far as we know so far the first homo sapiens were in Afrika and thus were Afrikans. National Geographic alongside a bunch of institute and universities actually did this research recently to find the ‘original Adam’ if you will, the first homonoid from which all humans evolved and they found that ‘he’ lived in Afrika so he was an Afrikan…they even went as far as constructing what this ‘original Adam’ looked like’ and he looks like a modern day sub Saharan Afrikan. So I don’t really see how that statement is nonsensical…

You said: But all races of Homo sapiens evolved from Homo Erectus at the same time and so all first began to inhabit the earth simultaneously.

I said: Aha but DID all homo sapaiens evolve from homo eructus?!! That’s what folks USED to think…but now there is emerging evidence stating that homo erectus may have been a branch in the homoid tree like homo habilis…that flourished for a while and then died out…this is still a raging debate with many feeling that in order to really get to the root of where modern humans came from. Look here (http://www.articlesbase.com/news-and-society-articles/is-homo-erectus-in-our-family-tree-179891.html and http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/12/1212_021213_journeyofman_2.html)
And even if you’re right that homo erectus was the precursor to humans STILL:
’ Today, there is general agreement that Homo erectus, the precursor to modern humans, evolved in Africa and gradually expanded to Eurasia beginning about 1.7 million years ago.’
So Black Afrikans are STILL the original ones.

You said: ””Therefore, the first woman to give birth was a Black African woman.”””
Again, nonsensical. A “Black African” woman is a Homo sapiens, evolved from Homo erectus, evolved from Australopithecus.

I said: Again, why nonsensical…see my comments above. There is general consensus that the first homo sapiens came from Black Africa…yes you may find some Homo habilis/ erectus, Cro Magnon, Neanderthelis in other continents but OLDERST REMAINS of homo sapiens are in Afrika…so it doesn’t take rocket science to extrapolate that s propagation of the species happened, the first person to give birth was a Black Afrikan woman. If ‘Original Adam’ looks like a Black Afrikan why do you suddenly doubt that ‘Original Eve’ is not a Black Afrikan woman?

Homo erectus evolved from Australopithecus in what is now Africa. So at first Homo erectus existed only in Africa. Then later Homo erectus migrated from Africa to Europe and Asia, then beyond. Homo erectus then evolved into Homo sapiens. This evolution occured wherever Homo erectus lived. Not just in Africa but also in all the other places of the earth. So Homo sapiens women gave birth all over the world basically simultaneously. Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens all over the world at about the same time.
THAT’S SIMPLY INCORRECT. You’re assuming that homo sapiens arose from Homo erectus, this is infact in dispute. Moreover if you track the human genome (you really should read up on the human genome project), the oldest ‘bits of DNA’ are found in Black Afrikans…that’s how thet finally traced the ‘Original Adam’ to East Afrika in Tanzania…a certain community there had the ‘oldest DNA’. You’re still stuck in the ‘multi regional model and in the words of experts(Chris Stringer, director of the Human Origins Program at the Natural History Museum in London):
“The multi-regional model of Homo sapiens evolving globally over a long time scale is certainly dead.”

‘”African populations have the most ancient alleles [gene pairs that code for specific traits] and the greatest genetic diversity, which means they’re the oldest,” Hedges explained. “Our species probably had arisen by 150,000 years ago, with a population of perhaps 10,000 individuals.”

‘By around 100,000 years ago, several species of hominids populated the Earth, including H. sapiens in Africa, H. erectus in Southeast Asia and China, and Neandertals in Europe. By around 30,000 years ago, the only surviving hominid species was H. sapiens. ‘

So ummm you’re wrong… Homo sapien women WERE NOT simultaneously giving birth all over the world. You’re wrong on this one : )

You said: “””It is from us that all humans have come. The other races of humankind all evolved from Black Africans.”””
No. I mean no insult, but no they didnt. All races of mankind evolved from Homo erectus. You could say that Homo erectus WAS “Black Africans” but that would be incorrect. A “Black African” is a Homo sapiens with dark skin, as is common to the Homo sapiens that evolved from Homo erectus in Africa.

I said: Well NO. A Black Afrikan is not a homo sapien with dark skin. There are the Aborigines of Australia whom, although they are dark skinned homo sapiens, they are less closely related to Black Afrikans genetically than white Europeans. Its only due to similar historical struggles and the ‘demonising’ of Blackness, that Black Afrikans and Aboriginal Australians have been lumped together. And on the whole homo erectus tip…PLEASE SEE ABOVE.

You said: “Black Africans” and Homo erectus are two completely different species. All races as they are today came from Homo erectus evolving in different climates…and so creating slight variations in the species Homo sapiens. This is all knowledge gained by fossil records and DNA analysis. As you cited for your statement. Since you used those very things as proof of the correctness of your statement, I dont see how you can argue against it. If you DO argue against it then you will also be arguing against the very validity of your statement in the first place- is grinning widely- I can be a tricky son of a gun cant I? I am beginning to greatly enjoy our mental fencing. Though in this one I think I have you.

I said: Haha! No no I think I have YOU on this one. Homo sapiens did not necessarily come from homo erectus. Your entire argument seems to be pinned on a erroneous assumption that homo sapiens came from homo erectus. And who said I’m arguing against fossil proof…I’m using it in support of my arguments…I think I have YOU on this one:)

Afrikan Eye said this on August 8, 2007 at 9:03 am

One more thing…
It SHOULDN’T matter what sex God is but it DOES matter because males in history as evidenced through the creation of patriarchy which is premised on the glorification of males and the depreciation of all female, seem to think that if God is Man then Man is God. You’re a man so you probably don’t REALLY get how disempowering it is to continually be told that God is a Man. As a woman, I can assure you, it makes a difference, because when God has a male image, the attributes of ‘Godliness’ are associated with ‘manileness’, males are given higher positions in society because ‘they closer to God’ etc etc…So although of course The Divine One has no sex, it does matter that God tends to be portrayed almost exclusively as a man…have you ever seen GOD portrayed as a woman…and I mean GOD not GODESS (because that’s tends to have diminutive connotations itself).
Its like when folk say.. ‘it doesn’t matter that Jesus is always depicted as a white man’ Never mind the fact that depicting Jesus as white is a historical inaccuracy and fallacy, my bone of contention is that when white colonialists came to Afrika they USED the image of a WHITE Jesus and WHITE God and a BLACK devil to entrench racism and the straight LIE that whites are closer to God and that the white God gave the white man the job to ‘civilise’ the Black Native(never mind that one of the Most Holy spiritual pieces of the Catholic church is a BLACK Madonna). So as long as Blacks, Afrikans in particular, still see God as white, there is an extent to which we will fail to relate to God and a subconscious manner in which we will think if God is white then White is God…if Satan is Black then Black is Satan…these subconscious messages affect and guide our thinking and behaviour.

Afrikan Eye said this on August 8, 2007 at 9:47 am

I wasnt saying you were arguing against fossil proof, Only anticipating that you might. However you went another way.

I’m going to have to call this one a draw. What you have said is true but it is all theory. As you have said the issue is still hotly debated. Perhaps in the future the answer will be more certain but for now I think it is simply a matter of point of view.

Do you accept the new evidence as proving the new theory, or do you believe in the older theory which has its own supportive evidence and its own merit against the new?

Maybe in the future you will be proven absolutely correct but for now it is a matter of debate.

And of course some new evidence or argument might arise that discounts either of the two current popular theories.

“””Well NO. A Black Afrikan is not a homo sapien with dark skin. There are the Aborigines of Australia whom, although they are dark skinned homo sapiens, they are less closely related to Black Afrikans genetically than white Europeans.”””

I only said that Black Africans are Homo sapiens with dark skin. Which they are. Other Homo sapiens also having dark skin doesnt matter. I didnt mention others, or say that Black Africans were the only dark skinned homo sapiens. So at least that one sentance of mine was completely correct.

Read the rest of your essay. Enjoyed it.

Chris said this on August 8, 2007 at 10:09 am

“””It SHOULDN’T matter what sex God is but it DOES matter.”””

Well yes of course it matters in the scheme of things. I just said it didnt matter to me, as an individual.

“””You’re a man so you probably don’t REALLY get how disempowering it is to continually be told that God is a Man.”””

Its true, there is no way I could know exactly what thats like. I know that. Wasnt trying to say that I did. Men often feel the same way when they are told god is a woman. So, while I dont and never will understand exactly what that is like, I do have some idea.

“”So although of course The Divine One has no sex,””

Of course? Maybe you and I both agree on that point but most people do not. The idea of a sexless god is rather revolutionary at this time. And as a man, who has the idea of god as a man all around him, I would hope to be commended for my out-of-the-box and open minded thinking. : )

“”have you ever seen GOD portrayed as a woman””

Yes I have actually. When I was a young man I read a graphic novel series called Spawn. It was very popular. Awhile into the story god is portrayed to the main character as an elderly african woman. And yes god, not goddess. This portrayel continues throughout the the series.

“”if Satan is Black then Black is Satan””

I have never in my life seen satan portrayed as black. Or even being black in color. Usually satan is portrayed as Red, with cloven hooves, horns and a spikey tail. Also I have seen satan as an attractive woman, a man, various monsters, a beautiful angel, and a demonic avatar. These in cartoons, movies, and paintings.

Satan is portrayed as black in africa then? Not so here. Thats interesting. I had no idea.

Chris said this on August 8, 2007 at 10:35 am

Enjoyed both your article AND the banter with “Chris” — you both have some valid observations. My question for you Afrikan Eye is basically “who are you?” Don’t mean to sound disrespectful, it’s just that I might want to use some of your essay in a paper that I am writing myself for a doctoral history class–especially since you have some excellent references. I need a real name for the Bibliography. (:

Christine

Christine S Brown said this on September 18, 2007 at 8:34 pm

I love it all, my mind is wirling now.And i cherish the images,i am looking for moore.

Aviah said this on September 25, 2007 at 9:08 pm

THANK YOU for this enlightening article!
Delighted to learn that just like Native American societies in the traditional pre-colonial form, African tradition includes systems of Matriarchy and matrilineal kingship/chiefdom. This knowledge should be advanced in mainstream education!

Anita said this on September 30, 2007 at 9:44 pm

i love this i like to learn about my people it makes me happy to learn that women are the main roots of this world

Roshan said this on December 14, 2007 at 7:10 pm

Greetings, how are you feeling this good day? What a joy it is to come across this blog. At last the black women is given what is due to her; RESPECT and HONOR. In’I as a nation of black kings and queens wouldn’t be here if it wasn’t for In’I mothers,aunts, grandmothers and sisters. When their husbands, brothers, uncles and fathers were lost for a solution to a particular problem they knew that the wo(mb)man was (hu)man enough to come up with a perfect solution to that problem. So big up to all Afrikan Empresses(wo[mb]men) who are proud of that sun-burnt face and dread crown. This Afrikan son is proud to be an offspring of such an honorable soul. Big Up Afrikan eye for uplifting our sisters and educating our some what ignorrant brothers on the power their sisters have as equal partners in life. Keep up the good work because if Afrikans are to reclaim our former glory we must first uplift the wo(mb)men of Afrika then In’I would see a way forward in eradicating the poverty, wars and diseases on Gracious Mama Afrika; In’I birth ground…. once more again Big Up to Afrikan Eye, In’I need more people like you; to rejuvinate the Afrikan spirit once and for all

Signing off wid seven words of love;

JAH(God) is Love so let Us Love

TuffRoc said this on December 18, 2007 at 11:50 am

Hello!
I don’t have a link to the info that I want to share with you, but I will get it from my coworker. It is a piece on Lucy! It appears that the people have pulled the wool over the eyes of the world again. When I first heard of Lucy, I thought of the first Black African Woman, the first woman in the world. Then my coworker showed me the link with the pictures of Lucy! It was basically a primate. All of the bones were never found and the people, AKA THE MAN, mixed human bones of hands and feet and other parts to complete Lucy in the image of man/woman. It was and ape. But when everyone looks at it, men, women, and kids alike, they all say, “Look at the APE WOMAN!” The people are trying to put the image of MAN coming from APE into the brains of everyone. There were others who studied Lucy and saw that the bone parts added were human and the original bones were APE bones. They even had an APE pelvis and it was broken. They showed the original peoples notes and noted that when the original people were putting Lucy together, that they thought it was strange that Lucy’s broken pelvis looked like and APE pelvis. The Pelvis was shattered into many jagged unrecognizable pieces. The original people said that Lucy’s pelvis was stepped on by a deer. They showed the shattered APE pelvis and then magically, they showed the pieced together pelvis that had been manipulated to resemble a human pelvis. We did not come from primates! Lucy was a Primate. I will get the link for you at another time.

meuw said this on February 12, 2008 at 12:04 am

This is a truly great BLACK article. We will give you the credit note and reprint it at our blog BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL!(yeyeolade.wordpress.com)to enable more people to see it! Black on Brother from Kenya!

Your Blackamerikkkan Sister who 30 years ago went BACK TO AFRICA-Yorubaland,Nigeria,to raise 4 of my 5 children as culturally based Yoruba children,
Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade

Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade said this on Your comment is awaiting moderation. October 30, 2008 at 4:08 pm


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