Archive for the ‘BLACK LITERATURE’ Category

YORUBA!-SAVE YORUBA LANGUAGE BY USING IT EVERYWHERE YOU CAN,WRITING IT,READING IT,SPEAKING IT TO YOUR CHILDREN ONLY AT HOME,AND HAVING “BEST YORUBA SPEAKING CONTESTS” AT EVERY EVENT YOU CAN(IGBEYAWO,IPADE ATI GBOGBE!)-FEMI OSOFISAN HAS TRANSLATED THIS PLAY INTO YORUBA FOR GOMINA FASOLA, TUNDE KELANI ATI GBOGBO WON OMO YORUBA!

October 19, 2010

FROM thenationonlineng.net

Old play, new language
Edozie Udeze 17/10/2010 00:00:00

Who is Afraid of Solarin? a play by Professor Femi Osofisan, has always been a symbolic one. It is so because it is a comic treatise on what makes Nigeria and Nigerians unique. In the play, Osofisan uses plenty of comic scenes and statements to portray the story of a society where things work upside down. The name Solarin is used symbolically because of his role in trying to give a better direction to Nigerians and to the Nigerian state. The play chronicles Nigeria’s many socio-political problems in such a way that the audience are made to feel the impact while the play is on stage. You can’t help but laugh and hiss and then wonder the sort of society Nigeria is and why the people are what they are.

This was why it was selected as the independence play this year by the trio of Mufu Onifade, Tunde Kelani and the Lagos State government. However, the play which was translated into the Yoruba language by Dotun Ogundeji as Yeepa! Solaarin Nbo!!, is meant to send home the message to the larger Yoruba theatre audience.

In this new experiment, the message is supposed to sink deeper, so that people who love to see the lighter side of Nigerian myriad of problems dramatized on stage, would have a better view of it. The few days the play was on stage in Lagos last week proved that a lot of people were really eager to laugh away the problems of the society. Not only that the artistes led by Ropo Ewenla were on top of their game on stage, the large turnout of theatre lovers showed that the choice of the play was apt and appropriate.

To make the play appeal more to the audience, the producers introduced an opening glee. This marriage of convenience between opening glee and full-length drama presentation was Mainframe and National Association of Nigerian Theatre Arts Practitioners (NANTAP) Lagos chapter’s synergetic way of joining the Lagos State government in celebrating the 50th independence anniversary of Nigeria. This way, there was no moment of boredom. The artistes were able to appeal to the audience to wake up to the realities of the moment; to make Nigeria great.

Is this Nigeria of our dreams in 1960? That seemed to be the question raised on stage by the actors. Ewenla, the lead character was able to convince the audience that we need to do more; we need to work harder and be more honest to make Nigeria a better place for all and sundry.
Yeepa! Is an exclamation that something hilarious or ominous is about to happen and that people should sit up to welcome it. This situation calls for an acclaim, calling the Nigerian people that there are more than meet the eye. Solarin was an enigma of some sort when he was alive. Although the name is hyperbolic in a way, it goes to portray a visionary leader who saw long before now what the Nigerian society portended. Now the play in his name says it all.

Anywhere this play goes on stage, the euphoric appeal it gives leaves much to be desired. The Yoruba version of it also did much more; the message seeped deeper into the fabric of the audience whose laughter and hisses tore deep into the night. And so, it is kudos to Onifade for his sense of humour and wisdom. The play truly helped to embellish the mood of the moment and bring Nigerians back to that moment of reflection.

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Your name: Your e-mail address: Your website: Add your comments: YORUBA LANGUAGE IS DYING ALONG WITH OTHER NIGERIAN/AFRICAN LANGUAGES SO WE MUST DO AS MUCH OF THIS AS POSSIBLE-USE THE MOTHER TONGUE FOR ALL PLAYS,EVENTS,PUBLICATIONS THAT YOU CAN AND SAVE AFRICAN LANGUAGES! TAKE CARE OF YOUR MOTHER TONGUE LIKE OTHER SELF-RESPECTING PEOPLE IN THE WORLD DO-IT IS YOUR FIRST LANGUAGE, NOT YOUR SECOND AND GOD GAVE IT TO YOU SO CHERISH IT,SPEAK IT ONLY IN YOUR HOME TO YOUR CHILDREN AND LET OUR MOTHER TONGUE LIVE!

>AMIRI BARAKA-KA’BA-A POEM-ONE OF THE BLACKEST POEMS!

July 3, 2010

>FROM
o

  • Publics
Ka ‘Ba by Imamu Amiri Baraka
A closed window looks down
on a dirty courtyard, and black people
call across or scream or walk across
defying physics in the stream of their will

Our world is full of sound
Our world is more lovely than anyone’s
tho we suffer, and kill each other
and sometimes fail to walk the air

We are beautiful people
with african imaginations
full of masks and dances and swelling chants

with african eyes, and noses, and arms,
though we sprawl in grey chains in a place
full of winters, when what we want is sun.

We have been captured,
brothers. And we labor
to make our getaway, into
the ancient image, into a new

correspondence with ourselves
and our black family. We read magic
now we need the spells, to rise up
return, destroy, and create. What will be

the sacred words?

    “ BEAUTIFUL TO BE BLACK”-A POEM BY SISTER CHARA NYASHIA SANJO AND HER PROFILE!

    June 11, 2010

    Author Chara NyAshia Sanjo

    from yeyeolade.wordpress.com

    BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL!
    DEDICATED TO SAVING BLACKNESS WORLDWIDE!

    ——————————————————————————–

    « BROTHER PEACEMAKER INTRODUCES THE TOPIC OF POLYANDRY:MANY HUSBANDS FOR 1 WOMAN?

    ITALIANO # 2 »

    “BEAUTIFUL TO BE BLACK” A POEM BY SISTER CHARA NYASHIA SANJO,SUBMITTED BY KYA TO “BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL”
    By Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade

    “BEAUTIFUL TO BE BLACK”

    “It’s beautiful to be black.”

    It is the color of strength and pride.

    I will say it out loud. I don’t have to hide.

    I love me, and the color that I represent.

    Look at me, there is nothing like it.

    What you see is not an illusion.

    It’s a gift from GOD, don’t ever confuse it.

    “It’s beautiful to be black.”

    It is the color of fame and envy.

    If I wasn’t black, I wouldn’t be me.

    Black is the color of power and authority.

    It is so outstanding, thank you LORD for blessing me.

    I’ll shout it to the world, I’m proud of what I am.

    Those who are in vain will never understand.

    “It’s beautiful to be black”

    It is the color of confidence and style.

    I have been blessed, by my ancestor from the Nile.

    I am scenic from the inside out.

    These verses are true, I don’t have any doubt.

    There is no one who can change my mind.

    Black has been beautiful since the begging of time.

    “It’s beautiful to be black.”

    It is the color of honor and grace.

    This is one thing that cannot be taken away.

    By Chara NyAshia Sanjo

    ——————————————————————————–

    Possibly related posts: (automatically generated)

    Black and Beautiful by Hilesha S. Humphreys
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    the end is nigh
    This entry was posted on August 12, 2007 at 3:06 pm and is filed under AFRICA, BLACK CHILDREN, BLACK CULTURE, BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL!, BLACK MEN, BLACK NATIONALISM, BLACK PEOPLE, BLACK WOMEN, THE BLACK RACE. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. Edit this entry.

    4 Responses to ““BEAUTIFUL TO BE BLACK” A POEM BY SISTER CHARA NYASHIA SANJO,SUBMITTED BY KYA TO “BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL””
    The face of Afrika Says:
    May 4, 2008 at 2:54 am | Reply edit It is beautiful to be black indeed! I hope you don’t mind if I use your poem on my blog, dedicated to celebrate the beauty of African people and of the African continent. Please check the Website http://www.thefaceofafrika.com and contact us at thefaceofafrika@googlemail.com

    jameka little Says:
    March 2, 2009 at 5:52 pm | Reply edit love the poem it describes me and the way that i feel, it’s very intresting to me!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    khadijah Says:
    May 19, 2009 at 12:27 am | Reply edit i love the poem i hope it will inspire many
    can i use your poem for my group “black is beautiful?”

    daijahenry Says:
    January 15, 2010 at 6:22 pm | Reply edit i love the poem and i hope other people do to and i hope they love to be black
    44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

    from mirrors of expression.com
    XHARA NYASHIA SANJO-
    Poet, Song Writer and Screenplay/Stage Play Writer

    Chara NyAshia Sanjo (born August 27, 1965) is an African American author, poet, song writer and screenplay/stage play writer. She is best know for her novel Reclamation of Africa’s Royalty 323 BC and her inspiring poem “It’s Beautiful to be Black.” She began writing at the age of eleven.

    Sanjo was born in Cleveland, OH, as Carla Benita Burton, but decided to reclaim her African name Chara NyAshia Sanjo once she was inspired by the true beauty of African History. Her name translates to (Beautiful African princess of purpose who appreciates her past) Chara, the daughter of Anita Cozzette Moore, a hair dresser and elementary school janitor and Albert Carl Burton whose career is unknown seeing that Chara never established a relationship with her father. Her mother died in 2005 of Lung Cancer.

    Chara attended John Adams High School and later transferred and graduated from West Technical High School in Cleveland OH. After high school, she attended and graduated from Cuyahoga Community College with an Associates of Art Degree (liberal arts-music & theater). She later attended and graduated from Myers University with a Bachelors of Science Degree in Information Processing Systems.

    Chara had every intention on finishing what she started in the arts but had allowed other to discourage her dreams when she became a statistic as a single parent. From this, she took on various jobs working as a secretary, customer service, fitness instructor and she has also worked in various administrative positions in the Medical Industry to support her son.

    Before her mother’s death in 2005, she encouraged Chara to get back into the arts and to write the stories that she so loved. Chara took her mother’s advice and decided that she didn’t want to look back on her life and be a victim of Should of would of could of so she pulled an old novel that she started in 1998 off her book shelf and felt compelled to finish it. Chara dedicated that book to her mother.

    In 2007 Chara made many attempts to get her book published, but all she heard was no or not interested. After being turned down, Chara decided to self publish her story because she was determined for the world to hear it. Today we know this novel/stage play as Reclamation of Africa’s Royalty 323 BC.

    Chara was determined not to let anyone discourage her from making her dreams a reality. In 2008 she launched her own production company called Chara NyAshia Sanjo’s Entertainment Empire. She completed her first poetry book titled Verses of a Black Voice in 2009.

    Website Designed by Mirrors of Expression Publishing (A Finham Enterprise Company) Logo by Tyson Brazille © 2009 at Homestead™ Make a Website for Your Business

    June 9, 2010

    >

    Akinwunmi Isola

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to:navigation, search

    Professor Akinwunmi Isola (b. Ibadan) is a Nigerian playwright, actor, dramatist, culture activist and scholar. He is known for his writing in, and his work in promoting, the Yoruba language.
    Isola wrote his first play, Efunsetan Aniwura, during 1961 and 1962 whilst still a student at the University of Ibadan. This was followed by the novel O Leku. His play proved popular, and one performance in Ibadan was watched by forty thousand people.
    Since then, he has written a number of plays and novels. He also broke into broadcasting, creating a production company that has turned a number of his plays into television dramas and films. Though he claims that ‘my target audience are Yorubas’, Isola has also written in English

    Akinwunmi Isola is also a popular novelist (beginning with O Le Ku, Heart-Rending Incidents, in 1974), playwright, screenwriter, film producer, and professor of Yoruba language. His works include historical dramas and analyses of modern Yoruba novels.

    [edit] Source

    Efunsetan Aniwura: Iyalode Ibadan, and Tinuubu Iyalode Egba (The Yoruba Historical Dramas of Akinwunmi Isola)The modern Yoruba novel: An analysis of the writer’s art

    The development of the Yoruba novel, 1930-1975 

    >FAGUNWA’S GREAT NOVEL-"OGBOJU ODE NINU IGBO IRUNMOLE"-(THE FOREST OF A THOUSAND DAEMONS)-EXAMINED BY A CZECH SCHOLAR

    June 7, 2010

    >

    FROM volnry.cz/alena.rettova/rettova.htm
    Symbolism in D.O.Fagunwa’s The Forest of a Thousand Daemons

    Alena Rettová


    Universität Leipzig, Sommersemester 1999

    Introduction

    In this short paper, we would like to propose an interpretation of the symbolism employed in D.O.Fagunwa’s The Forest of a Thousand Daemons. (D.O.Fagunwa, The Forest of a Thousand Daemons, trans. Wole Soyinka, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., London (et al.) 1968. All the quotations in the essay marked by only the page number in brackets are from this book.) This interpretation takes its parting point in a model of understanding a system of knowledge put forward by Willard Van Orman Quine. We will apply this model to the symbolic realm which Fagunwa develops in The Forest of a Thousand Daemons. This application will show how the narration of The Forest of a Thousand Daemons can carry a symbolic meaning. Being a symbolic representation has, namely, certain presuppositions. These will be explained in the paper. The results of this investigation might provide a key to interpret and to understand the message communicated to us in The Forest of a Thousand Daemons.

    Quine’s Model of a System of Knowledge
    Quine’s article “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” (Willard Van Orman Quine: “Two dogmas of Empiricism”, in: From a Logical Point of View. Nine Logico-Philosophical Essays, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (et al.) 1980 (19531), pp. 20-46. The paper appeared for the first time in the Philosophical Review in January 1951.) is an important contribution to the philosophical discussion about the distinction of synthetic and analytic judgements. In the philosophical tradition, analytic judgements are such as are necessarily true, synthetic judgements are statements about the contingent state of the world. The discussion reaches a peak in the work of Immanuel Kant, who divides synthetic judgements into syntetic judgements a priori and synthetic judgements a posteriori (analytic judgements are always a priori and are the mere explication of a concept). Only the latter are casual statements reflecting the actual state of the world. The former lie at the base of human reason and convey a priori necessity to various deductive sciences (arithmetic, geometry and others). In this century, the discussion continues mostly in the Anglo-Saxon philosophy. Analytic judgements are usually reduced to truths of language, the existence of synthetic judgements a posteriori is rejected.
    Quine is very original in his denial of the very possibility of the distinction on the basis of his understanding of the way a system of beliefs (such as science) refers to reality. Quine considers our knowledge of the world to be a coherent system of mutually interconnected opinions. “The totality of our so-called knowledge or beliefs, from the most casual matters of geography and history to the profoundest laws of atomic physics or even of pure mathematics and logic, is a man-made fabric which impinges on experience only along the edges.” (Quine, p. 42) For this system he offers us the picture of “a field of force whose boundary conditions are experience”. Let us quote at length his development of this picture:
    A conflict with experience at the periphery occasions readjustments in the interior of the field. Truth values have to be redistributed over some of our statements. Reevaluation of some statements entails reevaluation of others, because of their logical interconnections – the logical laws being in turn simply certain further statements of the system, certain further elements of the field. Having reevaluated one statement we must reevaluate some others, which may be statements logically connected with the first or may be the statements of logical connections themselves. But the total field is so underdetermined by its boundary conditions, experience, that there is much latitude of choice as to what statements to reevaluate in the light of any single contrary experience. No particular experiences are linked with any particular statements in the interior of the field, except indirectly through considerations of equilibrium affecting the field as a whole.
    If this view is right, it is misleading to speak of the empirical content of an individual statement – especially if it is a statement at all remote from the experiential periphery of the field. Furthermore it becomes folly to seek a boundary between synthetic statements, which hold contingently on experience, and analytic statements, which hold come what may. Any statement can be held true come what may, if we make drastic enough adjustments elsewhere in the system. Even a statement very close to the periphery can be held true in the face of recalcitrant experience by pleading hallucination or by amending certain statements of the kind called logical laws. Conversely, by the same token, no statement is immune to revision. Revision even of the logical law of the excluded middle has been proposed as a means of simplifying quantum mechanics; and what difference is there in principle between such a shift and the shift whereby Kepler superseded Ptolemy, or Einstein Newton, or Darwin Aristotle? (Quine, p. 42f.)

    An element which we introduce into the system, such as a new rule, a new object etc., effects an adjustment of the entirety of the representation of reality. This element can be literally anything and it is only our conservativism (our “natural tendency”, as Quine rather mysteriously says (Quine, p. 44)) that leads us to try to keep the system stable by holding on to its central axioms and explaining away the experiences that threaten to disturb the equilibrium of the system rather than incorporating them into the system at the cost of far-reaching adjustments of the whole of the structure.
    But such adjustments are in principle not impossible, and if we follow the consideration a little further, we can see the rise of a plurality of interpretations of experience, all consistent in themselves but operating with different objects and following different rules. By reaching thus beyond Quine, we are opening a way to interpret the realm of symbolic representation in Fagunwa’s novel. We will restrict ourselves to Fagunwa’s first novel here, out of our (still) insufficient knowledge of the Yoruba language, but it is evident that a similar interpretation could be provided for his other novels as well, simply by applying the same principle.

    Fagunwa’s Forest of Irunmale
    The basis of our interpretation is the application of Quine’s model to the peculiar world which we encounter in Fagunwa’s novels. The shift to the “Forest of a Thousand Daemons” is itself a symbol for entering this world, to which we shall refer as the “world of Irunmale” in the following, for the sake of brevity. (We would like to use the word “world” in this connection (the “world of Irunmale“) in the meaning of “a consistent whole”, not referring thereby to the totality of all objects, to the planet Earth, to “the reality” etc. A consistent representation of “the world” in this latter meaning is a “world” in the former meaning. We use the word “realm” synonymically with the word “world” to signify this.) This term, however, is intended to comprise other places of this same peculiarity that appear in the novel, such as the city of Mount Langbodo or the Great Forest, which is the place where Kako lives before he joins the main hero’s, Akara-ogun’s, expedition. This world is, as we shall see later, a symbolic representation of human life. On the hero’s journey through the Forest Irunmale, he encounters various characters which are themselves symbols of human qualities and troubles and who incorporate various human patterns of behaviour.
    The first impression we get from reading The Forest of a Thousand Daemons is that we are faced with a world which is incomprehensible and unpredictable. The characters have strange shapes and behave in a way that we fail to understand. So does the hero, although we can feel a certain desorientation in this weird world on his part as well. On a second thought, however, we find the world of the Forest of a Thousand Daemons somehow intuitively comprehensible, although it is still hard for us to explain what message we actually get from reading the novel.
    On a third thought, perhaps, we are able to abstract certain morals from the novel by interpreting its symbolism. This is, according to Bamgbose, also a key to explaining the weirdness of the actions and appearance of some of the characters in the novel: “One important aspect of the weird element in the novels is its use as a representation of a symbolic meaning. This is true of several characters in the novels who superficially appear to be weird fictional characters but are really symbolic representations of certain abstract entities.” (Ayo Bamgbose, The Novels of D.O.Fagunwa, Ethiope Publishing Corporation, Benin City (Nigeria) 1974, p. 90.)
    Concerning the symbolism in the novels, Bamgbose writes: “(…) Fagunwa’s novels are to be interpreted at more than one level. On the superficial level, they are stories of adventure: A hero sets out on a journey to a forest or in quest of an object. At the deeper level, the journey is an allegory of life’s journey with its attendant problems and difficulties. It is only through an understanding of this deeper level that we can attein the full meaning of the novels.” (Bamgbose, p. 91.) He then goes on to distinguish the symbolism of characters, places and objects, and of plot and gives numerous examples from all of Fagunwa’s novels for illustration.
    By applying Quine’s model of understanding a system of beliefs, we would like to show the creation of the “world of Irunmale” as a consistent realm of symbolic representations.
    The first step is to prove that it is a coherent whole comprising, if we make a rough list, 1. ontological conditions, that is, conditions defining the possibility of being; 2. rules and laws governing the existence of objects as well as the behaviour of characters and including laws corresponding (for example, in the “scientific” world view) to physical laws as well as moral laws.
    These both may be very different from the way they are established in our current understanding of the world, yet it will become apparent that the “world of Irunmale” is in no way a haphazard accumulation of accidents and events, but rather that there are fairly strict rules and restrictions which govern its functioning and that even the seemingly most fortuitous incident must in fact fall in form into certain presuppositions and that it, in its turn, has a sequence of effects according to firm rules (a form of “causality”) which are foreseeable and comprehensible as the outcome of the chain of events that has led to it. This holds true even though we may be to some extent ignorant of these rules or rather are in the process of learning about them and learning to “find our way round” in a world governed by them.
    The second step is to try to determine if there are connections between the “world of Irunmale” and our normal world view, and if so, what is the nature of these connections. Symbolically speaking, what are the ways to and back from the Forest of Irunmale which we have to tread each time we desire to transform some of the knowledge acquired in the Forest of Irunmale into knowledge applicable for our “normal” world?
    A third step will be to demonstrate that it is the very nature of the “world of Irunmale” as a systematic whole of orientation and of understanding reality that enables it to carry the symbolic function, that is, that these connections are only possible between two systems, of which each is consistent in itself.
    The Hero
    If we observe the hero, we can see that we are ourselves in a similar situation like himself. His world view, richer than ours perhaps by the belief in magic and witchcraft, is different from the “world of Irunmale“, because on entering it, he is taken by surprise. It is only by a process of experience and of instruction that he gradually learns how to behave in the environment of the Forest Irunmale and how to deal with the weird creatures he encounters there. We can thus join the hero. His task – and now ours as well – is to work out the laws, rules and restrictions of the Forest of Irunmale. The successful accomplishment of this enables in due course the fulfilment of the hero’s mission in Mount Langbodo.
    The hero must rely on the fact that the “world of Irunmale” has certain regularities. Otherwise, no orientation in it would be possible. Let us try to find these regularities as well as the ways the hero (and we with him) learns about them. The heros’s first orientation scheme is naturally that of his everyday experience, that of his society, and reflects the world view of the Yorubas. This world view involves certain thought patterns which differ form ours. The most conspicuous difference is perhaps his belief in magic and witchcraft. Indeed, he knows how to put to good use various charms and spells. These spells fit into the causal chain as its regular components.
    But the hero’s way of understanding the world which he faces in the Forest of Irunmale leaves him at a loss many times and he has to substantially modify his orientation scheme in order to come to terms with it. We will inquire into the ways this takes place in more detail later. We will start by investigating the structure of the world of Irunmale, as it shows to the naive eye of the reader, that is, we will follow the first clues in reading the novel that give us the impression we are not dealing with only a chaotic imagery sprung out of Fagunwa’s profuse imagination.
    First Approach to the World of Irunmale
    At first sight, the world of Irunmale appears to be incomprehensible and disordered. We never know what to expect in it. But this is not quite so. By observing it closely, we can discover elements which show that the world of Irunmale does in fact have its principles and rules.
    The regularity of the functioning of the world of Irunmale is visible in many ways.
    – We see that the behaviour of the inhabitants of the Forest of Irunmale follows rules. The hero usually knows the principles guiding the behaviour of the beings or someone explains them to him. The same holds true for various physical objects as well as for the charms. These laws often digress from the “laws of nature” as defined by today’s physics.
    Thus the hero seems able to classify the creatures he finds in the Forest of Irunmale, he refers to the “usual run of ghommids” (p. 43), for example, and the like.
    – There are very foreseeable moral laws. We often find the moral behaviour of the beings weird, but it nevertheless fits into a scheme of moral actions, good brings good in effect and evil is punished. Kako kills his wife in a very cruel and unintelligible way, but his deed brings misfortune to the whole group, and it must be redressed by the sacrifice of a bird (p. 75ff.).
    – There is a regularity shown in the symbolic usage of numbers. This makes future events foreseeable. The examples are numerous. Symbolic numbers are, for example, the number of three: there are usually three tasks that the hero and his companions have to perform, the third being the most difficult. The number of six is also very important (it is six times that Ajantala abuses his surroundings; the gifts from the king of Mount Langbodo to the king of Akara-ogun’s town are always in six), as is the number of seven (the seven days in the house of Iragbeje).
    – The repetition of actions makes future events foreseeable, too. We find several examples. During the fight with Agbako, Agbako mends the hero’s cutlass, then his arm. Another instance of this is the repetition during the above-mentioned number symbolism.
    – And finally, the inhabitants of Irunmale behave partly like humans. They have human feelings (pride, sorrow etc.), they respect many moral laws that humans have, and their motivation is mostly understandable from the human perspective.
    These are the main sources from which we can deduce the essential structure of the world of Irunmale. Now let us look at the cognitive side of it: how does the hero learn about the regularities in the world of Irunmale?

    The Hero’s Apprenticeship in the Forest of Irunmale
    The hero’s initial state is a state of ignorance. He does not know the appropriate rules and he has to learn them on his way through the Forest of Irunmale. That he does learn is clear from his later reactions. One example is his later fear of Agbako: in the beginning, he boldly faces the monster and nearly perishes during the fight with him. When he meets Agbako later, he is wiser and reacts by taking to his heels. There are many more instances where it is apparent that the behaviour of the hero has changed in accordance with his newly-acquired knowledge of the regularities of the world of Irunmale.
    The acquisition of the knowledge of Irunmale is realized in several ways.
    – One of the most important ones is instruction. The hero is instructed by several characters on what the Forest of Irunmale is like. We find very often women in the role of these instructors. The first instructor to the hero is Helpmeet, who explains her own character to the hero and who instructs him on his further travels (p. 29f.). Later on, the hero calls his own mother to help him out of his precarious situation and the mother eventually comes and teaches her child about what to do next. She also reminds him of his task in life and urges him to “try, try to benefit this world before you die and leave it better than you entered it” (p. 59). The hero is also instructed by his wife and by other characters in the Forest of Irunmale as well.
    – There are many figures in the novel who are in fact allegorical representations of abstract qualities, such as Dirt, Fear or Help. There are also plenty of other personal names which in an abbreviation characterize those who have them. This is unfortunately mostly lost in the English translation and with many characters it is no longer clear that they really represent a feature of human nature, for example, the brother of Olohun-iyo, whose name is Oto (in Yoruba, “difference”), and who resolves to accompany the extremely repulsive character Egbin (“Dirt”) on his ways, that is, something a “normal” person would never do.
    These characterizing names make the orientation in the world of Irunmale easier, because one can often guess what one can expect from the otherwise unknown creatures as soon as one learns their names.
    – The creatures very often describe themselves, as it were in a brief introduction. We find a number instances of this, such as the Crown Prince of Forests (p. 20f.) and others. The introduction provides a key to the behaviour of the beings and enables the hero to adjust his behaviour to the creature in question appropriately.
    – Besides, the hero relies, of course, on his own observation and experience and learns from it.
    The Structure of the World of Irunmale
    We can now attempt a description of the structure of the Forest of Irunmale.
    We will start by defining the ontological preconditions of being. We have seen that the kinds of beings that we can encounter in the Forest of Irunmale are, indeed, different from what we would expect in our everyday life. This difference shows mainly in:
    – the existence of invisible beings and elements (witches, charms). These can fulfil quite regularly functions we normally ascribe only to physical beings, such as being parts in a chain of causal interaction.
    – the possibility of metamorphoses of beings, that is, of the shift from one category of being to another (eg. the changing of Akara-ogun’s mother into antelope or the changing of Akara-ogun’s future wife successively into a tree, into an antelope, into fire, into a bird, into water, and into a snake). The changed being then resumes more or less the characteristics typical of the new category of being while at the same time preserving some of the old ones (mostly the capacity to speak and think like a human).
    – the blending of different categories of being (the king of the City of Birds is an ostrich with a human head, Efoiye grows feathers etc.).
    – the existence of other categories of beings than in our own world (gnoms, dewilds, various monsters etc.).
    In all the strangeness that we perceive in these differences, we still can see that each being that appears in The Forest of a Thousand Daemons must respect some preliminary conditions of being. Without striving at a complete inventory of these prerequisites of being, we can name a few: mortality (if it is a “live” being), morality, identity, capacity to be a part of a causal chain etc. The completion of the list is not possible, because the observations we deduce the conditions from are only fragments of the experience of Irunmale. But it is not our intention to give an exhaustive description of the world of Irunmale. Rather, it is important to demonstrate that such description of its regularities and “logical” structure is possible.
    As far as the principles (rules, laws) are concerned according to which the beings in Irunmale behave, we can give the following generalizations.
    – In all of the ontological transformations, the personal identity remains unharmed. Thus in the two above-mentioned examples, Akara-ogun’s father does not recognize his wife in the form of an antelope, but he kills her all the same, the woman has preserved her identity throughout the transformation; Akara-ogun identifies his fiancée in all of her metamorphoses and clings to her whatever shape she might assume.
    – There are rules and restrictions to the behaviour of all the creatures. Thus the ghommids have their habits (“it is only at night that they [ the ghommids] conduct their business”, p. 15, Akara-ogun’s wife later on abandons her husband, because “[ a] spirit like the ghommid cannot join with human beings to live together, for evil are their thoughts every day of their lives”, p. 66f.). Sometimes these rules are in accordance with the rules we are used to from our life, sometimes they are different, but nonetheless they are firm and provide for the regularity in the Forest Irunmale.
    The Journeys to the Forest of a Thousand Daemons
    The hero travels to the Forest of Irunmale, but the forest is a metapher of a different world. The return from this world to the normal world of the hero’s life happens often by means of the metapher of a house: the hero is mysteriously transported to his room at the end of his first journey to the Forest of Irunmale (p. 34), his second journey is finished by finding a hut (p. 66), where his cousin resides. This hut is the abode of the normal – of the hero’s family, of his connections to the world of humans. Significantly, the house is no longer needed when the hero has acquired such dexterity in travelling to the Forest of Irunmale that he can reach and leave it at will, i.e. during his last expedition.
    The question we would like to pose here is whether there are connections between these two worlds. Or does the hero, on entering the Forest of Irunmale, enter a completely different world that has no connection to the world of his normal life? What is the nature of these connections, provided there are some?
    The connection lies in that the hero in fact finds elements from his normal life even in the Forest of Irunmale. These elements start off his understanding of and orientation in the world of Irunmale which then spreads to its other regions. The hero then moves about in the world of Irunmale, but his experience in the Forest of Irunmale shows regularities that he can transfer back into his normal life in the form of examples of model behaviour and as symbols and allegories. The behaviour of various creatures from the Forest of Irunmale serves in fact as an abstraction, a picture, devoid of further characterization other than that which is part of its constitution as a symbol, which illustrates well diverse aspects of human life. These are the journeys to and from the world of Irunmale, these are the connections between the two. But we still have not found out what it is that makes it possible for one world to bear the symbolic function, for one world to be a representation of another or to enable parts of itself to refer to parts of another world. This is the subject of the following chapter, but first we must mention another connection between the two worlds, in fact, one that is between them without symbolism.
    One very important bridge between the two worlds, which provides an immediate connection and a source of understanding, indeed, the source of all the rules that there are in our world as well as in that of Irunmale, is God and his reason. God is the source of all logical and moral laws and principles, he created all beings and endowed them with inherent principles of their existence. God is the real a priori that all beings must be in accordance with, the law of all laws, the source of laws and beings that might come up in all possible worlds. God is the most immediate connection between the two worlds, and whenever the hero resorts to the contemplation of God, he is able to understand well whatever is happening around him.

    The Symbolic Function of the Forest of Irunmale
    Our thesis is that it is the very regularity of the world of Irunmale that enables the interpretation of the world of Irunmale as a symbolic representation. The hero has to find regularity in the world of Irunmale, he must see Irunmale as a consistent whole, because consistence, which in itself is an interconnected regularity, is a precondition of comprehensibility. For individual events only make sense and can be understood on the background of a systematic whole of orientation and of understanding reality. Comprehesibility, in turn, is the essence of symbolic representation: a thing is comprehensible to us not as being another thing, but as a symbol for another thing. But for this to take place, we must be able to intuit both the worlds in order to transform the relations in the one into appropriate relations in the other, that is, we must already have an understanding of the events in the world we consider as symbolical (a slightly different matter is the prima facie allegorical representation: here a character is simply a personification of an abstract quality, and thus an appropriation of the “moral of the story” is possible by means of a simple depersonalization of the entity).
    It is not the hero’s picture of this world that must be consistent, i.e. not his knowledge, but rather the world in itself must consistent: it must make the discovery of regular relations possible. The hero’s knowledge certainly is not perfect, but the world he has knowledge of must be such as enables this knowledge to be perfectible, that is, by learning, an increase and improvement of the hero’s picture of this world need be possible. This does in fact happen.
    The hero works out the rules governing the world of Irunmale in order that he can find his way round in the Forest of Irunmale. He approaches the world of the Forest as a consistent whole which makes learning possible, he learns, he applies the acquired knowledge in his next adventures, and it proves to be working. This means the hero has acquired adequate knowledge of the Forest of Irunmale. This adequate knowledge need not be complete or “correct”, just as we do not know completely or (assuredly) correctly the current world of our everyday experience. Adequate knowledge means here knowledge that works, that helps in the everyday dealing with the world around. So the hero, without posing himself questions concerning the “origin” or the “essence” of what he encounters in the Forest of Irunmale, begins to understand its regularities and learns to deal appropriately with this weird world.
    The ultimate guarantee of the regularity of the world of Irunmale is God. Thus we find the following assurance given to the hero by Helpmeet: “(…) even if it came to pass that the world turned topsy-turvy, that fowls grew teeth and the oil palm grew coconuts, God will not fail to reward every man according to his deeds.” (p. 29)
    The hero has understood the world of Irunmale as a consistent, law-governed whole, and it is this very understanding that makes it possible for him to draw a lesson from his adventures in it and transpose them onto the plane of his everyday life. That this happens is sufficiently clear from the frequent didactic remarks with which the narrator (who speaks in the first person as the hero) intersperses his story. Having discovered the regularities of the bizarre world of the Forest of Irunmale, the hero can understand them as pictorial, i.e. symbolic representations of things in the normal world. The understanding the hero has acquired of the world of Irunmale need not be without gaps. There is still room enough for “wonder” and “amazement”. Sometimes beings behave according to rules that are incomprehensible to the hero and thus appear as chaotic. What matters, however, is that the most of the hero’s experience in the world of Irunmale does make sense and can be subsumed under general rules. In fact, there must be a fairly solid background of regular occurrences for anything to appear “amazing” and calling forth “wonder”. In a world whose structure would be insufficiently consistent, whose chaos would be so great that no systematical subsumption under a set of laws would be possible, all learning or symbolical understanding would be impossible, because such a world simply makes no sense.
    Conclusion
    Here we can recall Quine’s model. We have seen that although the “input” data of the world of Irunmale were different from those we accept in our everyday life, they still led to the creation of a consistent world which consists of beings and laws and which can be made the object of knowledge and the source of learning. The variation of experience (of the “input” data) leads to the adjustment of the general laws that have been abstracted from it. Quine rejects the possibility of separate treatment of individual statements. They cannot be said to be true or false except on the background of the whole system of knowledge. In Quine’s terse formulation: “The unit of empirical significance is the whole of science.” (Quine, p. 42)
    Our suggestion is that the same, mutatis mutandis, holds good for the world of the Forest of Irunmale, that namely the (intuitive or reflexive) cognition of the structure of the whole is a necessary condition for the understanding of individual events.
    The question that remains to be answered is whether the understanding of the whole provides a key to an interpretation of the symbols contained in the book The Forest of a Thousand Daemons. We know that it is a necessary condition for the understanding of the individual to somehow understand the whole; but is it in any way helpful to try to reflect on this world? Could we not do with the fragmentary interpretation of the individual symbols without bringing reflectedly to consciousness
    We would like to leave the question open, at least partly, but the answer lies with all likelihood in the measure of bizarreness we encounter in Fagunwa’s writing. The world he describes is so distinct from the experience of our everyday life that it makes a more comprising, holistic interpretation necessary, provided we do not want to plunge into the superficial flow of scenes for mere amusement at the sight of the picturesque and the fantastic.
    Besides, there is a highly practical side to the interpretation of the world of Irunmale as a systematic representation of reality comparable (or even parallel) to our current world view. Reading Fagunwa’s novels, we are present at the creation of a meaningful “world” and the corresponding “world view”, which differs substantially from ours, yet cannot be called “wrong”, and which, through its genesis and continuous discovery before our eyes, makes observable how world views that are different from ours “work” and function, how they house meaning and how they refer to the reality. This might make us more sensitive to real-life world views that are incomprehensible to us at first sight, such as the systems of beliefs of various religions and the like. For the world of Irunmale is quite simple, yet it is highly demanding for comprehension, thus it can serve as a good model for other alternative systems of explaining the reality than that of our own.
    Besides the ethical dimension of rehabilitating the dignity of these alternative belief systems, a more accurate insight into the functioning of a different system of beliefs would be very useful in today’s study of indigenous African thought systems, where one often has the feeling that the scholars, philosophers trained in the tradition of the analytical philosophy, simply use the wrong tools to explain the belief systems of their respective nations, that they apply wrong rules to operate with the given mental entities. For example, it is hardly more than conceptual acrobatics to analyze whether there is or there is not “free will” in play during the choosing of one’s destiny before birth, as in the Yoruba world view. This is empty application of logical rules from one system on the concepts of another and does not bring us much farther than to acknowledge that there are, indeed, some bizarre ideas in the system whose concepts we are investigating. It is quite obvious that the imported ideas will not fit just so, at first hand, into our own conceptual scheme. Rather, it is much more becoming to investigate the system of beliefs as a whole that has its own inherent regularities and laws, along the Quinean lines, and analyze its appropriation of the physical and cultural reality of its bearers as a meaningful and immanently understandable interconnection of beliefs.
    The description of the world of Irunmale could be made more accurate than it has been sketched in this paper. But we hope that the principal ideas have been made sufficiently clear and that the paper as a first approach has served its purpose.

    Forest of a Thousand Daemons (Pan-Africa Library)Forest of a Thousand Daemons: a Hunter’s SagaExpedition to the Mount of Thought: The third saga : being a free translation of the full text of D.O. Fagunwa’s Yoruba novel Irinkerindo ninu Igbo elegbejeThe novels of D. O. Fagunwahttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0791455416&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr

    >A TRIBUTE TO A GREAT NIGERIAN/AFRICAN-CHIEF N.O. IDOWU BY BAYO ADEBOWALE,AFRICAN WRITER-FROM THE GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER,APRIL 28,2010

    May 23, 2010

    >

    BAYO ADEBOWALE (CENTER) WITH CHIEF AFE BABALOLA

    FROM THE GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER

    This is Google’s cache of http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/letters/article01/190310?pdate=190310&ptitle=The%20N.O.%20Idowu%20that%20I%20know&cpdate=200310. It is a snapshot of the page as it appeared on 28 Apr 2010 01:42:40 GMT. The current page could have changed in the meantime. Learn more

    These search terms are highlighted: bayo adebowale  

    The N.O. Idowu that I know The beauty of Africa
    Is slain upon the high places.
    How are the mighty fallen!

    SIR: The Erin-wo epitaph clearly sums up people’s general opinion of the eventful life and times of Chief (Dr) Nathaniel Olabiyi Idowu (OFR), the Mayeloye and the Okanlomo of Ibadan land. Chief Idowu led a crowded life of progress and specular achievements in virtually all fields of human endeavour Ð as a community leader, philanthropist, pillar of sports, business tycoon, devout Christian, committed family man and a complete Omoluwabi.
    Steadfast, diligent, disciplined, intelligent, honest, firm and forthright, N.O. all though, kept his head while others were losing theirs, in the face of challenges and vicissitudes of life. He was adored by his admirers and venerated even by his detractors, over whom he perched mightily like an eagle bird on the giant Baobab tree. He was in perfect accord with friends and at peace and harmony with all who dug holes round him.
    Chief Nathaniel Olabiyi Idowu had no space in his tender heart to harbour malice, rancour and recriminations. His heart was a level-ground for positive thinking and record-breaking tendencies. No nooks, no crannies. Several times he had summoned us in African Heritage Research Library and Cultural Centre (AHRLC) to Lagos, to discuss confidential matters which touched his heart intimately, and these were matters concerning the progress and development of Eniosa, Adeyipo, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and Africa. At such meetings, N. O. would bubble with hope, optimism and the commitment of a true messiah, on a rescue mission to improve the lot of his people. A great lover of the rural communityÉ When we took the news to him about Chief Afe Babalola’s unprecedented act of philantropism to AHRLC at Adeyipo village, he grabbed his phone and poured encomiums on the legal luminary telling him, “You have done what Napoleon would not do, Afe, turning back the Duke of Wellington. May Almighty God continue to enrich your purse and bless you abundantly as you put smiles on the faces of my people. Congratulations.”
    On Saturday, September 24, 2005, during the official commissioning of AHRLC, Chief N. O. Idowu risked his health to grace the occasion. That day, he met with seven thousand jubilating community people of Olorunda Abaa, Igbo-Elerin and Igbo-Oloyin waiting impatiently to welcome their mentor and leader with traditional dundun and sekere music. Fortified by a sudden gift of good health and strength from above, N.O came that day to Adeyipo smiling, singing and dancing (in company of late Archdeacon Emmanuel Alayande and Chief Mrs. C.A. Idowu, his amiable wife, in front of a vociferous community audience who bestowed on him honour and recognition, never before witnessed in Lagelu Local Government Council of Ibadan, Oyo State. Together with Chief N. O. Idowu (our beloved Grand Patron) we formulated a universal caption for the task ahead of us in AHRLC, it is that: We have great works to do,
    We have been called upon to build a new Africa
    And a new Black World.
    The N.O. Idowu that I know was a patriotic and worthy son of Africa. A man who stretched himself to ensure relief and comfort for the poor and the needy. A man who put others first and himself last; who kept sleepless nights to secure solutions to the problems of the society. A great man who left his footmarks boldly in the sands of time.
    Chief (Dr.) Nathaniel Olabiyi Idowu (OFR) can never die, in the hearts of all of us who love him at home and abroad. He will forever be aliveÉ so, Death be not proud! Because those whom thou thinketh thou slayest, Dieth not, Poor Death!
    Bayo Adebowale.
    Adeyipo Village, Ibadan

    GABOUREY SIDIBE’S MOTHER DEFENDS HER AGAINST WHITE HOWARD STERN’S SKINNY WHITE GIRL LOVING SELF!-IN AFRICA BLACK IS BIG AND BEAUTIFUL WOMEN-GABOUREY SIDIBE IS A BIG BLACK SKINNED BEAUTY!

    May 22, 2010

    from omg.yahoo.com

    CLICK AND CHECK OUT PUBLICATIONS ON HER!

    Sidibe’s Mom Slams Howard Stern for Fat Jab: “Get a Life!”

    Us Magazine – March 16, 2010 4:30 PM PDT

    Story photo: Gabourey Sidibe’s Mom Slams Howard Stern for Fat Jab: Dimitrios Kambouris/WireImage.comUs Magazine

    Gabourey Sidibe’s mom is making a big deal about Howard Stern’s criticism of her daughter.

    “Get a life!” Alice Tan Ridley fumed on Inside Edition Monday of the shock jock, who called the Oscar nominee, 26, the “most enormous fat black chick I’ve ever seen… She should have gotten the Best Actress award because she’s never going to have another shot. What movie is she gonna be in?”

    See which stars love their curves

    Added Ridley, “He can see, you can see, I can see Gabby is a big girl. She’s a big woman, so what’s wrong with that?

    “She’s not like everyone else in the world. I don’t see him giving jobs out to anybody, so why should we care what he says?” Ridley — who performs in the New York City subway for a living — continued. “He might not hire her, but someone else will.”

    Party! See photos of stars hitting up Oscar bashes earlier this month

    The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) also defended the Precious actress Tuesday — one day after weight loss company AcaiSupply.com publicly offered her a one-year supply of their product to “reach your goal of someday winning an Oscar… by being active, fit, and most of all, healthy!”

    Said NAAFA’s spokeswoman Peggy Howell, “You cannot tell by looking at a person if they are healthy. Fat does not equal disease and thin does not equal healthy… Achievements come in all sizes.”

    Sidibe — who will star in the Showtime dark comedy series The Big C beginning this May — recently told Oprah Winfrey that she’d come to terms with her weight.

    29 Pics! See what all the stars wore to the 2010 Oscars

    It’s something I’ve had to work at. My first diet started when I was six years old,” she said. “I’ve never been a small girl. One day I had to sit down with myself and decide that I loved myself no matter what my body looked like and what other people thought about my body.”

    Sidibe will also appear alongside Zoe Kravitz in “Yelling to the Sky,” which hits theaters later this year.

    comments
    comments 1-10 of 91

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    eric
    victoria mary strong is a fat nasty
    report abuseposted March 31, 2010 7:34 PM PDT
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    VICTORIA MARY STONG
    DOWN WITH HOWARD STERN. BOYCOTT HOWARD STERNS SHOW! KEEP AWAY FROM HOWARD STERNS SHOWS IF YOU WANT OUR CHILDREN AND EVERYONE TO GET MORE MORALS,STANDARDS,VALUES&PRINCIPLES.
    report abuseposted March 19, 2010 9:16 PM PDT
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    VICTORIA MARY STONG
    By the way,Stern never had any respect really for ANY woman.This disrespectful statement should NOT surprise anyone.If a person is allowed to disrespect anyone,they just keep going&graduate until they get enough ratings to have their own shows in many circumstances.THANK GOD we have”The Steve Wilkos Show”&”Oprah”etc. that make it through for bein
    report abuseposted March 19, 2010 9:13 PM PDT
    *
    VICTORIA MARY STONG
    With the exception of idiot”0986″,THANKS TO EVERYONE’S SUPPORT SO FAR HERE!God bless you all for educating,enlightening&scolding the other idiots out there that discriminate&are mean-spirited to plus size women.The gorgeous Gabourey Sidibe’s beautiful Mother Alice Tan Ridley is a friend of mine.I thank God she’s my friend because shes(&
    report abuseposted March 19, 2010 9:03 PM PDT
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    paddicakes
    Stern should shut up. His wife may be thin but she looks like a ferret.
    report abuseposted March 18, 2010 2:02 AM PDT
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    Michael
    If Stern goes to Idol, it’s over, only in America can you be paid to be an Ass!!!
    report abuseposted March 17, 2010 6:53 PM PDT
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    Tee
    She is beautiful and talented and secure in herself which is a lot more than the people talking about her can say. God bless her
    report abuseposted March 17, 2010 5:22 PM PDT
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    Liv
    Hey ……DIVERSITY is the sweetness of life….
    report abuseposted March 17, 2010 12:57 PM PDT
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    rainbow
    leave her alone i think she is beautiful with so much talent to offer to all of us. god didn’t make all of us to be the same and look the same . at least she is not jessica simpson who has nothing talent or singing voice. and she needs to look at the mirror when i see her i don’t see a beautiful person / i see a dumb young woman who bleach her hair.
    report abuseposted March 17, 2010 4:42 AM PDT
    *
    keep it real
    leave the woman alone.

    >NIGERIAN LANGUAGES

    April 29, 2010

    >

    FROM wikipedia.org

    Languages of Nigeria
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search

    Linguistic map of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin.Part of a series on the
    Culture of Nigeria
    Languages
    Literature
    List of Nigerian writers
    List of Nigerian poets

    ——————————————————————————–
    Nigeria Portal
    v • d • e

    The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, the former colonial language, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. The major languages spoken in Nigeria are Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Fulfulde, Kanuri, Ibibio. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. English, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country’s urban elite, and is not spoken in rural areas. With approximately 75% of Nigeria’s populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain tribal languages, with the most widely spoken being Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Foreign minorities speak their own languages aside from English and/or major native languages as their second languages.

    Nigeria’s linguistic diversity is a microcosm of Africa as a whole, encompassing three major African languages families: the Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and the Niger-Congo A branch of the Niger-Congo family. Nigeria also has one unclassifiable language, Cen Tuum, spoken by a few old people among the Cham in Gombe State. This may represent a relic of an even greater diversity prior to the spread of the current language families.

    Contents [hide]
    1 Language families
    1.1 Niger-Congo languages
    1.2 Afroasiatic languages
    2 Wikimedia
    3 References
    4 External links

    [edit] Language families
    [edit] Niger-Congo languages
    Niger-Congo predominates in central and southern Nigeria; the main branches represented in Nigeria are Mande, Atlantic, Gur, Kwa, Benue-Congo and Adamawa-Ubangian. Mande is represented by the Busa cluster and Kyenga in the northwest. Fulfulde is the single Atlantic language, of Senegambian origin but now spoken by cattle pastoralists across the Sahel and largely in the North of Nigeria by the Fulani (sometimes Fulbe) diaspora. The Ijoid languages are spoken across the Niger Delta and include Ịjọ (Ijaw), Kalabari, and the intriguing remnant language Defaka. The Ibibio language is spoken across the coastal southeastern part of Nigeria and includes Efik, Annang, Ibibio proper. The single Gur language spoken is Baatọnun, in the Northwest. The Adamawa-Ubangian languages are spoken between central Nigeria and the Central African Republic. Their westernmost representatives in Nigeria are the Tula-Waja languages. The Kwa languages are represented by the Gun group in the extreme southwest, which is affiliated to the Gbe languages in Benin and Togo.

    The classification of the remaining languages is controversial; Joseph Greenberg classified those without noun-classes, such as Yoruba, Igbo, and Ibibio (Efik, Ibibio, and Annang), as ‘Eastern Kwa’ and those with classes as ‘Benue-Congo’. This was reversed in an influential 1989 publication and reflected on the 1992 map of languages, where all these were considered Benue-Congo. Recent opinion, however, has been to revert to Greenberg’s distinction. The literature must thus be read with care and due regard for the date. It should be noted that there are several small language groupings in the Niger Confluence area, notably Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan and Ọkọ, whose inclusion in these groupings has never been satisfactorily argued.

    Former Eastern Kwa, i.e. West Benue-Congo would then include Yoruboid, i.e. Yoruba, Itsekiri and Igala, Akokoid (eight small languages in Ondo, Edo and Kogi state), Edoid including Edo in Edo State, Igboid, Ibibio-Efik, Idomoid (Idoma) and Nupoid (Nupe) and perhaps include the other languages mentioned above. East Benue-Congo includes Kainji, Plateau (46 languages, notably Eggon), Jukunoid, Dakoid and Cross River. Apart from these, there are numerous Bantoid languages, which are the languages immediately ancestral to Bantu. These include Mambiloid, Ekoid, Bendi, Beboid, Grassfields and Tivoid languages. The geographic distribution of Nigeria’s Niger-Congo languages is not limited to south-central Nigeria, as migration allows their spread to the linguistically Afro-Asiatic northern regions of Nigeria, as well as throughout West Africa and abroad. Yoruba is spoken as a ritual language in cults such as the Santeria in the Caribbean and South-Central America, and the Berbice Dutch language in Surinam is based on an Ijoid language.

    Even the above listed linguistic diversity of the Niger-Congo in Nigeria is deceptively limiting, as these languages may further consist of regional dialects that may not be mutually intelligible. As such some languages, particularly those with a large number of speakers, have been standardized and received a romanized orthography. Nearly all languages appear in a Roman script when written, often with modifications allowing for a language’s particularities. The Yoruba, Igbo and Efik languages are notable examples of this process; Standard Yoruba came into being due to the work Samuel Crowther, the first African bishop of the Anglican Church and owes most of its lexicon to the dialects spoken in Ọyọ and Ibadan. Since Standard Yoruba’s constitution was determined by a single author rather than by a consensual linguistic policy by all speakers, the Standard has been attacked regarding for failing to include other dialects and spurred debate as to what demarcates “genuine Yoruba”. The more historically recent standardization and romanization of Igbo has provoked even more controversy due to its dialectical diversity, but the Central Igbo dialect has gained the widest acceptace as the standard-bearer; however many such as Chinua Achebe have dismissed standardization as colonial and conservative attempts to simplify a complex mosaic of languages. Such controversies typify inter- and intra-ethnic conflict endemic to post-colonial Nigeria.

    Linguistically speaking, all demonstrate the varying phonological features of the Niger-Congo family to which they belong, these include the use of tone, nasality, and particular consonant and vowel systems; more information is available here.

    [edit] Afroasiatic languages

    Afroasiatic speaking peoples in NigeriaThe Afroasiatic languages of Nigeria divide into Chadic, Semitic and Berber. Of these, Chadic languages predominate, with 70+ languages. Semitic is represented by various dialects of Arabic spoken in the Northeast and Berber by the Tuareg-speaking communities in the extreme Northwest.

    The Hausa language is the most well-known Chadic language in Nigeria; though there is a paucity of statistics on native speakers in Nigeria, the language is spoken by 24 million people in West Africa and is the second language of 15 million more. Hausa has therefore emerged as lingua franca throughout much of West Africa and the Sahel in particular. The language is spoken primarily amongst Muslims, and the language is often associated with Islamic culture in Nigeria and West Africa on the whole. Hausa is classified as a West Chadic language of the Chadic grouping, a major subfamily of Afroasiatic. Culturally, the Hausa people have become closely integrated with the Fulani following the jihadist establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fulani Uthman dan Fodio in the 19th century. Hausa is the official language of a number states in Northern Nigeria and the most important dialect is generally regarded as that spoken in Kano,an Eastern Hausa dialect, which is the standard variety used for official purposes. Eastern dialects also include some dialects spoken in Zaria, and Bauchi; Western Hausa dialects include Sakkwatanchi spoken in Sokoto, Katsinanchi in Katsina Arewanchi in both Gobir and Adar,Kebbi, and Zamfara. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawa, while Zaria is a prominent Southern tongue version; Barikanchi is a pidgin formerly used in the military.

    Hausa is a highly atypical Chadic language, with a reduced tonal system and a phonology influenced by Arabic. Other well-known Chadic languages include Ngas, Mwaghavul, Bole, Ngizim, Bade and Bacama. In the East of Nigeria and on into Cameroun are the Central Chadic languages, such as Bura, the Higi cluster and Marghi. These are highly diverse and remain very poorly described. Many Chadic languages are severely threatened; recent searches by Bernard Caron for Southern Bauchi languages show that even some of those recorded in the 1970s have disappeared. However, unknown Chadic languages are still being reported, witness the recent description of Dyarim.Issues in African Languages and Linguistics: Essays in Honour of Kay Williamson (Ninlan book series)

    Hausa, as well as other Afroasiatic languages like Bade (another West Chadic language spoken in Yobe State), have historically been written in a modified Arabic script known as ajami, however, the modern official orthography is now a romanization known as boko first introduced by the British regime in the 1930s.
    Nigerian languages yesterday, today, and tomorrow: Proceedings of the Twentieth Year Commemorative Symposium of the Centre for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University, Kano
    [edit] WikimediaNigerian languages and cultural development: Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Use of Local Languages for Cultural Development and Application, held at Durbar Hotel, Kaduna 22-24 June, 1981
    Systematic graphic of the Niger-Congo languages with numbers of speakers
    [edit] References
    Blench, Roger (2002) Research on Minority Languages in Nigeria in 2001. Ogmios.
    Blench, Roger (1998) ‘The Status of the Languages of Central Nigeria’, in Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Endangered languages in Africa. Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187-206. online version
    Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) An Index of Nigerian Languages (2nd edition). Dallas: SIL.
    [edit] External links
    Ethnologue Listing of Nigerian LanguagesFundamentals of syntax and the study of Nigerian languages
    Blench, Roger (n.d.) Atlas of Nigerian Languages, ed. III (revised and amended edition of Crozier & Blench 1992)A Vocabulary of primary science and mathematics in nine Nigerian languages
    Lamle, Elias Nankap , Coprreality and Dwelling spaces in Tarokland. NBTT Press. Jos Nigeria in “Ngappak” jounrla of the Tarok nation 2005Teaching and learning in Nigerian languages

    [show] Articles Related to Languages of Nigeria Duka sentence, clause and phrase (Studies in Nigerian languages)
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    [show]v • d • eLanguages of Africa

    Africa Cameroon · Liberian · Malawian · Namibian · Nigerian · South African · Ugandan http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=3639239946&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrAPNILAC A Journal of Nigerian Languages and Culture Volume 1 (October 1997) Numbers 1 and 2
    Twelve Nigerian Languageshttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B001GZU4AE&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr
    An Index of Nigerian LanguagesTwelve Nigerian languages: A handbook on their sound systems for teachers of English,The Early Study of Nigerian Languages: Essays and Bibliographies (Modern Revivals in African Studies)The Early Study of Nigerian Languages: Essays and BibliographiesHigi phonology (Studies in Nigerian languages)The development and preservation of Nigerian languages and cultures: The role of the local http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=3639239946&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrgovernment.
    (Linguistics).: An article from: Studia Anglica http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1592211739&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1592211739&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr… international review of http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=9781291737&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrEnglish Studieshttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0415022916&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr

    April 29, 2010

    >FROM wikipedia.org

    African literature
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    African literature refers to literature of and from Africa. As George Joseph notes on the first page of his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, while the European perception of literature generally refers to written letters, the African concept includes oral literature.[1]

    As George Joseph continues, while European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive:

    “Literature” can also imply an artistic use of words for the sake of art alone. Without denying the important role of aesthetics in Africa, we should keep in mind that, traditionally, Africans do not radically separate art from teaching. Rather than write or sing for beauty in itself, African writers, taking their cue from oral literature, use beauty to help communicate important truths and information to society. Indeed, an object is considered beautiful because of the truths it reveals and the communities it helps to build. [2]
    Contents [hide]
    1 Oral literature
    2 Precolonial literature
    3 Colonial African literature
    4 Postcolonial African literature
    5 Noma Award
    6 Major African novels
    7 Major African poets
    8 Secondary literature
    9 See also
    10 References
    11 External links

    [edit] Oral literature
    Oral literature (or orature) may be in prose or verse. The prose is often mythological or historical and can include tales of the trickster character. Storytellers in Africa sometimes use call-and-response techniques to tell their stories. Poetry, often sung, includes: narrative epic, occupational verse, ritual verse, praise poems to rulers and other prominent people. Praise singers, bards sometimes known as “griots”, tell their stories with music. [3] Also recited, often sung, are: love songs, work songs, children’s songs, along with epigrams, proverbs and riddles.[4]

    [edit] Precolonial literature
    Examples of pre-colonial African literature are numerous. Oral literature of west Africa includes the Epic of Sundiata composed in medieval Mali, The older Epic of Dinga from the old Ghana Empire. In Ethiopia, originally written in Ge’ez script is the Kebra Negast or book of kings. One popular form of traditional African folktale is the “trickster” story, where a small animal uses its wits to survive encounters with larger creatures. Examples of animal tricksters include Anansi, a spider in the folklore of the Ashanti people of Ghana; Ijàpá, a tortoise in Yoruba folklore of Nigeria; and Sungura, a hare found in central and East African folklore. [5] Other works in written form are abundant, namely in north Africa, the Sahel regions of west Africa and on the Swahili coast. From Timbuktu alone, there are an estimated 300,000 or more manuscripts tucked away in various libraries and private collections[6], mostly written in Arabic, but some in the native languages (namely Peul and Songhai)[7]. Many were written at the famous University of Timbuktu. The material covers a wide array of topics, including Astronomy, Poetry, Law, History, Faith, Politics, and Philosophy among others.[8] Swahili literature similarly, draws inspiration from Islamic teachings but developed under indigenous circumstances. One of the most renowned and earliest pieces of Swahili literature being Utendi wa Tambuka or “The Story of Tambuka”.

    In Islamic times, North Africans such as ibn Khaldun attained great distinction within Arabic literature. Medieval north Africa boasted Universities such as those of Fez and Cairo, with copious amounts of literature to supplement them.

    [edit] Colonial African literature
    The African works best known in the West from the period of colonization and the slave trade are primarily slave narratives, such as Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789).

    In the colonial period, Africans exposed to Western languages began to write in those tongues. In 1911, Joseph Ephraim Casely-Hayford (also known as Ekra-Agiman) of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) published what is probably the first African novel written in English, Ethiopia Unbound: Studies in Race Emancipation [9] Although the work moves between fiction and political advocacy, its publication and positive reviews in the Western press mark a watershed moment in African literature.

    During this period, African plays began to emerge. Herbert Isaac Ernest Dhlomo of South Africa published the first English-language African play , The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqawuse the Liberator in 1935. In 1962, Ngugi wa Thiong’o of Kenya wrote the first East African drama, The Black Hermit, a cautionary tale about “tribalism” (racism between African tribes).

    African literature in the late colonial period (between the end of World War I and independence) increasingly showed themes of liberation, independence, and (among Africans in French-controlled territories) négritude. One of the leaders of the négritude movement, the poet and eventual President of Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, published the first anthology of French-language poetry written by Africans in 1948, Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française (Anthology of the New Black and Malagasy Poetry in the French Language), featuring a preface by the French existentialist writer Jean-Paul Sartre. [10]

    Nor was the African literary clerisy of this time relatively divorced from the issues that it tackled. Many, indeed, suffered deeply and directly: censured for casting aside his artistic responsibilities in order to participate actively in warfare, Christopher Okigbo was killed in battle for Biafra against the Nigerian movement of the 1960s’ civil war; Mongane Wally Serote was detained under South Africa’s Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 between 1969 and 1970, and subsequently released without ever having stood trial; in London in 1970, his countryman Arthur Norje committed suicide; Malawi’s Jack Mapanje was incarcerated with neither charge nor trial because of an off-hand remark at a university pub; and, in 1995, Ken Saro-Wiwa died by the gallows of the Nigerian junta.

    [edit] Postcolonial African literature
    With liberation and increased literacy since most African nations gained their independence in the 1950s and 1960s, African literature has grown dramatically in quantity and in recognition, with numerous African works appearing in Western academic curricula and on “best of” lists compiled at the end of the 20th century. African writers in this period wrote both in Western languages (notably English, French, and Portuguese) and in traditional African languages.

    Ali A. Mazrui and others mention seven conflicts as themes: the clash between Africa’s past and present, between tradition and modernity, between indigenous and foreign, between individualism and community, between socialism and capitalism, between development and self-reliance and between Africanity and humanity. [11] Other themes in this period include social problems such as corruption, the economic disparities in newly independent countries, and the rights and roles of women. Female writers are today far better represented in published African literature than they were prior to independence.

    In 1986, Wole Soyinka became the first post-independence African writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature. Algerian-born Albert Camus had been awarded the 1957 prize. [[WHAT WE HAVE TO KNOW ]]The first novel in Rwanda.Mes trances a trente ans by Saverio Nayigiziki

    [edit] Noma Award
    The Noma Award for Publishing in Africa, begun in 1980, is presented for the outstanding work of the year in African literatures.

    [edit] Major African novels
    Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (Nigeria)
    Nuruddin Farah, From a Crooked Rib (Somalia)
    Alan Paton, Cry, The Beloved Country (South Africa)
    Gracy Ukala, Dizzy Angel (Nigeria)
    Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa, Ogboju odẹ ninu igbo irunmalẹ (The Forest of a Thousand Demons) (Nigeria)
    Dalene Matthee, Kringe in ‘n bos ([[:Template:Circles in a forest]]) (South Africa)
    Mariama Bâ, Une si longue lettre (So Long a Letter) (Senegal)
    Ousmane Sembène, Xala (Senegal)
    Ngugi wa Thiong’o, A Grain of Wheat (Kenya)
    Benjamin Sehene, Le Feu sous la Soutane (Fire under the Cassock) (Rwanda)
    Thomas Mofolo, Chaka (South Africa/Lesotho)
    Tsitsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions (Zimbabwe)
    Dambudzo Marechera, The House of Hunger (Zimbabwe/Rhodesia)
    Yvonne Vera, Butterfly Burning (Zimbabwe)
    Mia Couto, Terra Sonâmbula (A Sleepwalking Land) (Mozambique)
    Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born (Ghana)
    Ben Okri, The Famished Road (Nigeria)
    J.M. Coetzee, Disgrace (South Africa)
    Bessie Head, “When Rain Clouds Gather” (Botswana)
    Sarah Ladipo Manyika, In Dependence (Nigeria)
    Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Half of a Yellow Sun (Nigeria)
    Charles Mangua, A Tail in the Mouth (Kenya)
    Camara Laye, The Radiance of the King (Guinea)
    Nnedi Okorafor, Zahrah the Windseeker (Nigeria)
    Monenembo Tierno, King of Kahel (Guinea)
    Sefi Atta Everything Good Will Come (Nigeria)
    [edit] Major African poets
    Chinua Achebe (Nigeria)
    Wole Soyinka (Nigeria)
    Christopher Okigbo (Nigeria)
    Lenrie Peters (Gambia)
    Kofi Anyidoho (Ghana)
    Dennis Brutus (South Africa)
    Kofi Awoonor (Ghana)
    Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal)
    Glynn Burridge Seychelles
    [edit] Secondary literature
    Encyclopedia of African Literature, ed Simon Gikandi, London: Routledge, 2003.
    The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature, ed Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi, 2 vls, Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Table of contents
    Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writing by Women of African Descent”, ed Margaret Busby (Random House, 1992).
    General History of Africa vol. VIII, ed. Ali A. Mazrui, UNESCO, 1993, ch. 19 “The development of modern literature since 1935,” Ali A. Mazrui et al.
    Understanding Contemporary Africa, ed. April A. Gordon and Donald L. Gordon, Lynne Rienner, London, 1996, ch. 12 “African Literature”, George Joseph
    [edit] See also
    Literature portal
    List of African writers
    African cinema
    Nigerian literature
    [edit] References
    1.^ George, Joseph, “African Literature” ch. 12 of Understanding Contemporary Africa p. 303
    2.^ ibid p. 304
    3.^ http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0802673.html
    4.^ George Joseph, op. cit. pp. 306-310
    5.^ “African Literature – MSN Encarta”. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwDV5p8Q.
    6.^ http://www.sum.uio.no/research/mali/timbuktu/project/timanus.pdf
    7.^ http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,569560,00.html
    8.^ http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/
    9.^ African Literature.
    10.^ “Leopold Senghor – MSN Encarta”. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwDVhgpr.
    11.^ Ali A. Mazrui et al. “The development of modern literature since 1935” as ch. 19 of UNESCO’s General History of Africa vol. VIII p. 564f Collaborating with Ali A. Mazrui on this chapter were Mario Pinto de Andrade, M’hamed Alaoui Abdalaoui, Daniel P. Kunene and Jan Vansina.
    [edit] External links
    New African Literature resource
    The Africa_(Bookshelf) at Project Gutenberg
    African Languages and Literature at the University of Wisconsin–Madison
    African Literature Association
    [show]v • d • eAfrican Literature

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    Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_literature”http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1405112018&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0521398347&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrAfrican Writing
    http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1588264912&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B00004SH5I&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=080328604X&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0195086198&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B0009GJ0WY&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B003NTLD6K&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0415549620&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B001F0RIUO&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrBaobab : South African Journal of New Writinghttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1400095204&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0231130422&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=B003H05IE8&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=025320710X&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=159569031X&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1400067596&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifrhttp://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=BIB-05-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=1603290389&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr Against All Odds: African Languages and Literatures into the 21st Century
    Categories: African culture | African literatureViews

    >LIST OF NIGERIAN WRITERS-FROM WIKIPEDIA.ORG

    April 29, 2010

    >FROM wikipedia.org

    List of Nigerian writers
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    ——————————————————————————–

    1 A
    2 B-E
    3 F-K
    4 L-N
    5 O – P
    6 R-T
    7 U-Z

    [edit] A
    Abimbola Adelakun
    Gbola Adiamoh
    Aderemi Adegbite
    Adam Abdulahi
    Yusufu Adamu
    Carol Azams
    Chris Abani
    Chinua Achebe (1930– )
    Wale Adebanwi
    Bayo Adebowale (1944–)
    Remi Adedeji (1937– )
    Abiola Adegboyega
    Dapo Adeniyi
    Mobolaji Adenubi
    Kole Ade-Odutola
    Kayode Aderinokun
    Pius Adesanmi
    Akin Adesokan
    Nwaizu Charles Chioma(1982-)
    Anne Omolola Famuyiwa
    Sean Adetula
    Toyin Abiodun
    Toyin Adewale-Gabriel
    Dapo Adeleke
    Sola Adeyemi (1965– )
    Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977– )
    Emeka Agbayi
    Rita Aghadiuno
    Tolu Ajayi (1946– )
    Segun Akinlolu
    Segun Akinyode
    Uwem Akpan
    Akilu Aliyu
    Odinaka Anudu
    Isiaka Aliagan
    Olufunmi Aluko
    T.M. Aluko (1918– )
    Elechi Amadi (1934– )
    Ifi Amadiume
    Peter Anny-Nzekwue
    Ike Anya
    G. O. Apata
    Sefi Atta (1964– )
    Babatunde Awoyele
    Anne Axis
    Unoma Nguemo Azuah
    Nnorom Azuonye
    Tunde Akinloye
    Ayotokunbo Ajewole
    ((Rosemary Shimite Erazua-Oniha))
    [edit] B-E
    Babafemi Badejo
    Francoise Balogun
    Biyi Bandele
    A. Igoni Barrett (1979– )
    Olumbe Bassir
    Charles Bodunde
    Qasim Bolaji-Ashogbon
    Tubal Rabbi Cain (1964–)
    Chin Ce (1966– )
    John Pepper Clark (1935– )
    Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1809–1891)
    Folasayo Dele-Ogunrinde
    Umaru Dembo
    David Diai
    David Numshi Musa
    Jude Dibia (1975– )
    Ebereonwu
    Philip Effiong
    Etebom Ekpo
    Michael Echeruo (1937– )
    Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede
    Eyitemi Egwuenu
    Victor Ehikhamenor
    Cyprian Ekwensi (1921–2007)
    Buchi Emecheta (1944– )
    E. Nolue Emenanjo
    Perpetual Emenekwum-Eziefule
    Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745–97)
    Rosemary Esehagu (1981– )
    Femi Euba
    Awal Idris Evuti
    Pedus Chidiebere Eweama
    Chielozona Eze
    Vera Ezimora
    Abitogun Oladipo Ojo
    Itunu-Abitogun Oyinlade Oladipo
    Akinbami Oluseyi Macaulay
    Aderinola Richardson (nee Aderemi)
    [edit] F-K
    Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa
    Adebayo Faleti
    Toyin Falola
    Healson Adedayo Farore, Sr.
    Dan Fulani
    Bilkisu Funtuwa
    Haliru Audu
    Harry Oludare Garuba (1958– )
    Jumoke Giwa
    Helon Habila
    Obo Aba Hisanjani
    Ogaga Ifowodo
    Anita Omoiataman Ihaza
    Rita Ihekwaba
    Senator Ihenyen
    Ikhide R. Ikheloa (Nnamdi)
    Esiaba Irobi
    Akinwunmi Isola
    Uzodinma Iweala
    Obi “Obiwu” Iwuayanwu
    Festus Iyayi
    Abubakar Imam
    Oritsegbemi Emmanuel Jakpa
    John Jea
    Femi Jeboda
    Prince Joshua Olawuyi
    Biodun Jeyifo (1946– )
    Mike Jimoh
    Samuel Johnson
    Kokalu O. Kalu
    Uduma Kalu
    Hamzat Kassim
    Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina
    Olubukola Kwegan
    Chime, Hilary Uchenna
    [edit] L-N
    Lawrence Onuzulike
    Abimbola Lagunju
    Obakanse S. Lakanse
    Akeem Lasisi
    Amina Mama
    Oliver Mbamara
    Ayodele Morocco-Clarke (1973–)
    John Munonye
    Akanji Nasiru
    Uche Nduka
    Austyn Njoku
    Obi Nwakanma
    Martina Awele Nwakoby (1937– )
    Nkem Nwankwo (1936–2001)
    Flora Nwapa (1931–1993)
    Njideka Nwapa-Ibuaka
    Chuma Nwokolo
    Angela Nwosu
    Maik Nwosu
    Nkechi Nwosu-Igbo
    Azuka Nzegwu
    Onuora Nzekwu
    Godwin Ubong Akpan
    [edit] O – P
    Obo Aba Hisanjani
    Olu Obafemi
    Iheoma Obibi
    Obinna Charles Okwelume
    Ogunade Jude Adebosoye (1968–)
    Hyacinth Obunseh
    Sunny E. Ododo
    Taiwo Odubiyi
    Odia Ofeimun
    Chike Ofili
    Sarah O’Gorman
    Olu Oguibe
    Ike Oguine
    Molara Ogundipe
    Samuel Olagunju Ogundipe
    Tolulope Ogunlesi
    Denrele Ogunwa
    Omolola Ijeoma Ogunyemi
    Yemi D. Ogunyemi
    Ijeoma Ogwuegbu
    [[Francis Ohanyido] (1970– )
    Tanure Ojaide
    Steve Nezianya
    Bamiji Ojo
    Akinloye Ojo
    Olatubosun Oladapo
    Gabriel Okara (1921– )
    Oladejo Okedeji
    Wale Okediran
    Chika Okeke
    Remi Okere
    Niran Okewole
    Christopher Okigbo (1932–1967)
    Onookome Okome
    Ike Okonta
    Nnedi Okorafor
    Dike Okoro
    Rudolf Ogoo Okonkwo
    Wole Oguntokun
    Osita Okoroafor
    Ben Okri (1959– )
    Afolabi Olabimtan
    Simbo Olorunfemi
    Taiwo Oloruntoba-Oju
    Esho Oluborode
    Alade E. Oluwadamilola
    Kole Omotosho (1943– )
    Nduka Onwuegbute (1969– )
    Osonye Tess Onwueme (1955– )
    Dillibe Onyeama
    Frank Onyebu
    Nwando Onyeabo
    Alexander Orok
    Nnaemeka Oruh
    Dennis Osadebay
    Femi Osofisan
    Chinye Phiona Osai
    Sanya Osha
    Sola Osofisan
    E.C. Osondu
    Niyi Osundare (1947– )
    Tony Nduka Otiono
    Helen Ovbiagele (1944– )
    Jamin Owhovoriole
    Stella Dia Oyedepo
    Bunmi Oyinsan
    Dupe Olorunjo
    Naan Pocen
    Seni Ogunkola
    Tolulope Popoola
    [edit] R-T
    Remi Raji
    Aderemi Raji-Oyelade
    Ken Saro-Wiwa (1941–95)
    Lola Shoneyin
    Mudi Sipikin
    Ladipo Soetan
    Zulu Sofola (1935–95)
    Ayo Sogunro
    Bode Sowande (1948–)
    J. Sobowole Sowande
    Ugochukwu Ejinkeonye
    Wole Soyinka (1934– ), awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature
    Emmanuel Sule
    Mohammed Sule
    Muritala Sule
    Ogunade Jude Adebosoye (1968–)
    Kola Tubosun
    Adebisi Thompson
    Amos Tutuola (1920-97)
    Morenike Taire
    Odijie Ehis Michael
    [edit] U-Z
    Uche Uzoebo
    Uche Nworah
    Uchechukwu Peter Umezurike
    Ebele Uche-Nwakile
    Françoise Ugochukwu
    Clarius Ugwuoha
    Odili Ujubuonu
    Gracy Ukala (formerly Osifo)
    Adaora Lily Ulasi (1932– )
    Sumaila Isah Umaisha
    Karo Umukoro
    Chika Unigwe
    Emman Usman Shehu
    Ronnie Uzoigwe
    Jumoke Verissimo
    Ugonna Wachuku (1971– )
    Segun Williams
    Ken Wiwa (1968– )
    Molara Wood
    Oladipo Yemitan
    Sa’adu Zungur
    Ubong Alfred
    Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nigerian_writers”
    Categories: Lists of writers by nationality Nigeria-related lists Nigerian writersViews

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